The study was carried out to investigate the Utilization of TETFUND in Federal college of education, Ehamufu Enugu state, Nigeria and GETFUND in Accra College Education Accra Ghana. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Relevant literature related to the study was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. From the review of empirical studies, the researcher found that no known study has been carried out on the Utilization of TETFUND in Federal college of education, Ehamufu Enugu state, Nigeria and GETFUND in Accra College Education Accra Ghana .Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample consisted of 1073 Staff of Ghana College of education and Ehamufu college of Education respectively. A 42-item- structured questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection. The research questions were answered using mean scores and percentages while the null hypotheses were tested using t-test and Chi-square statistics. The findings of the study include; there is a significance difference in the ratings of Staff of FCE, Ehamufu, Nigeria and Accra College of education, Accra, Ghana in terms of procurement of educational facilities as a result of fund made available by the Tax Fund in favour of Ghana. There is also a significant difference in the mean ratings of staff of FCE, Ehamufu, Nigeria and Accra College of education, Accra, Ghana Staff in terms of how fund made available by the Tax Fund are utilized towards effective personnel management in favour of Ghana.There is significance difference in the ratings of Staff of FCE, Ehamufu, Nigeria and Accra College of education, Accra, Ghana in terms of development of programmes as a result of Tax fund generated revenue in favour of Ghana .There is significance difference in the ratings of Staff of FCE, Ehamufu, Nigeria and Accra College of education, Accra, Ghana terms procurement of physical facilities as a result of fund made available by the tax fund in favour of Ghana. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended among others that government should sometimes have interaction with other countries that have similar agency and seek for in-house knowledge exchange. Such countries as Ghana, that has “GETFUND” to see how they operate their own intervention funds.



Background to the Study

Education is regarded as the best tool needed to reform man and the society in general. In so doing, colleges of education are the factory or the breeding ground for future teachers of a nation. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) defines colleges of education as institutions specially designed to provide the needed human resources for the overall turnaround of a nation. Colleges of education are expected to equip students with skills and competencies that they require to work at the end of their study. The goals of colleges of education according to the FRN shall be to:

  • Contribute to national development through high level manpower training;
  • Develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the
    individual and society;
  • Develop the intellectual capacity of individuals to understand and appreciate their local external environment;
  • Acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will
    enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful member of the
  • Promote and encourage scholarship and community service
  • Forge and cement national unity and; Promote national and international understanding and interaction (FRE, p6, 2004).

One of the ways by which colleges of education shall pursue their goals is by having access to intervention funds such as those provided by the Tax fund. It is against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on a comparative assessment of assess the level of intervention funds given to tertiary education trust fund (defund) for the development of colleges of education in Nigeria and that of Ghana.

Tax Fund is an alternative source for funds, Ozochi (2009) defined Tax fund as alternative source of fund explored by the government to ensure that companies and institutions undertake their respective infrastructural development programmes. It is explored by the government to ensure the procurement of facilities and other necessary resources needed for the management of companies and institutions.

The development of educational discipline, its activities and management depends on the availability of fund for its operation and survival. Funds are money that are collected and kept for a particular purpose. It is money provided for an activity or organization event for the purpose of executing the organizational task (Odukunle, 2001). Funding colleges of education is a prerequisite for the procurement of facilities and other essential resources needed for the attainment of their stated goals and objectives. Funding and management of colleges of education in Nigeria has become an issue of public concern as a result of recent economic meltdown and worldwide inflation. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2006) must have reflected on the importance of colleges of education before they brought to conclusion that funds allocated to colleges of education should not merely be considered as an expense but a long term investment, of benefit to society as a whole. These benefits are reflected on a societal level in terms of lower unemployment rates, better health, lower crime rates, more involvement in societal activities, higher tax returns and other trickle down effects.

Given the public value of colleges of education in view of the acknowledged contribution of knowledge to economic growth and societal development in the age we live in, a strong case must be made for government responsibility in ensuring that colleges of education have adequate resources to fulfill their basic obligations. Ezeocha (1990) lamented that in some of the colleges of education in Nigeria, procurement of education facilities, staffing and other related aspects of education input variables are adversely affected as a result of poor funding and this affect the quality of its products. This is because when the facilities needed for teaching and learning are not adequately provided; teachers and learners are forced to manage the little available facilities which have adverse effect on quality of products. Mgbekem (2004) submitted that existing situation with funding of federal colleges of education in Nigeria is such that they are solely dependent on the federal government.

One of the major problems facing Federal Colleges of Education in Nigeria is under funding. This greatly hampers them to pursue their expected goals. Ibukun (1997) lamented that government which statutorily bears the costs of higher education in these countries now faces tight budget constraints due to the present economic bleak and the need to meet heavy and rising debt service obligations.  This is not surprising considering the fact that in the recent times, government revenues have reduced sharply. Funding is a precondition for the procurement of facilities and other necessary resources needed for the management of colleges of education. Poor funding has been the bane confronting Federal Colleges of Education in Nigeria.

Ogbonnaya (2000) maintained that funds provided to federal colleges of education through the Tax Fund are not enough to procure facilities and instructional materials and equipments. Similarly, Akindutire (2004) had it that budgetary allocation for education has never reached 10% of the national budget as was reduced steadily since 1999 and are much lower than average in the last five years when compared with the increasing enrolment rate. The author further stated that as the nation’s economy is in shambles, she had to drastically reduce the amount allocated to her education institutions and this as a result, calls for urgent intervention.

Intervention is a deliberate action taken in order to influence or prevent any undesirable consequences. Okebukola (2003) defined intervention as a deliberate entrance into a situation in order to influence events or prevent undesirable consequences. Ukeje (1998) submitted that government priority to education is now very low while funding of federal colleges of education is fast declining and this calls for urgent intervention. As strategies for economic recovery, Nigerian government started exploring alternative sources of fund as a way of intervention. The structural adjustment programme (SAP), which is part of the conditionality of the international monetary fund (IMF), came into operation in 1986 and Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETfund) in 1993, mainly as strategies for economic recovery and intervention.

TETfund was established as an intervention agency under the Education Tax Act No 7 of 1993, and amended by Education tax Act No 40 of 1998, with project management to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. It is one of the alternative sources of fund explored by the government. TETfund allocates 12.5% of the fund generated to federal colleges of education; it ensures that companies with more than 100 employees contribute 2% of their pre-tax earnings to the fund. Primary education receives 40% of this fund; secondary education receives 10% and higher education receives 50%. This is an attempt to meet the basic needs of education that has been the cause of unending crisis in Nigerian education system.

TETfund is an intervention agency explored by the government to ensure that tertiary institutions meet their desired goals. According to the (African Independent Television (AIT, 2012), the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) disbursed twelve billion naira to TETfund in the year 2012. Similarly, Emejo (2013) reported in the Thisday newspaper that the Federal Government of Nigeria had so far disbursed about 109 .4 billion naira to TETfund to boost human resource development and enhance quality of education. Furthermore, Emejo disclosed that the sum of 15 billion naira had been spent on Federal and state colleges of education for the construction of micro teaching laboratories. Funding colleges of education all over the world is a crucial challenge for the governments, policy makers, and university administrators. In Nigeria and other developing countries such as Ghana, the management and control of universities and other tertiary institutions remains the core of government except for private investors.

In Ghana, the financing of higher education has been the responsibility of the government since colonial times. Akintayo (2004) submitted that colleges of education in Ghana have witnessed a multitude of challenges such as accessibility, affordability, financial austerity, faculty recruitment and retention, and the lack of improvement of physical facilities. Poor funding has introduced numerous challenges in the cost of managing colleges of education in Ghana. UNESCO (1998) submitted that effectiveness and efficiency of colleges of education in Ghana have suffered over  the years especially during the 1990s, as they become inhibited by numerous challenges perhaps among the most serious challenges colleges of education faced is inadequate funding arising from students populations with the commensurate increase in infrastructure. Psacharopoulos (1998) recorded that colleges of education in Ghana are bedeviled by some challenges which have great impact on the outcome of its products. Cognizant of these and realizing the importance of higher education to national development, Ghanaian parliament passed a bill that established the Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETFund).

GETFund was established by the Ghana Act of Parliament in 2000 (Act 581) with the object of providing finance to supplement the provision of Education at all levels by Government. It levies a 2.5% Value Added Tax (VAT) on goods and services to supplement government budgetary, allocations to education, The purpose of GETFund is to provide financial resources, to support all educational institutions and offer financial assistance to genuinely needy and academically talented students. Ghana higher institutions and colleges of education are attraction worldwide attention because their educational trust fund is catering efficiently and effectively for educational needs of her students, lecturers, and non-lecturers in the college of education in Accra. Accra College of education is located in the heart of Accra the capital of Ghana. It is a college of education that is owned by the federal government of Ghana

It is an incontrovertible fact that no educational institution can achieve its objectives without a good core of competent and dedicated school administrators as well as efficient non academic staff. Ogbonnaya (2004) defined school administrator as a personnel who performs important roles in the enhancement of the teaching and learning process.

In colleges of education, the provost is regarded as the executive school administrator. As the executive school administrator; the provost works in relation with other school administrators such as the deputy provost, the director of academic programmes, the director of works, the chief Liberian, the dean of student affairs and chief medical officer of the college. According to Ogbonnaya (2004), it is the school administrators who procure and manage funds, provide and maintain equipments and physical facilities as well as staff including academic and non- academic staff.

Non-academic staff are personnel who perform numerous administrative roles in the college. Collins (2012) defined non academic staff as employees within an academic or vocational environment whose jobs do not involve teaching. They keep different types of records for the college such as staff records, school finances, school supplies, school books, register of admission among others.

In Ghana, GETFund was established to provide financial resources to support all educational institutions and offer financial assistance to talented students similar to that of TETfund of Nigeria. The above justification showed that Nigeria and Ghana shared almost the same ideology and experience in terms of funding. This therefore, calls for comparative assessment of TETFUND in federal college of Education, Ehamufu Enugu State Nigeria and GETFUND in Accra College of Education Accra Ghana.


Comparative assessment is the systematic comparison of two or more comparable alternatives. Akintayo (2004) defined comparative assessment as item-by-item evaluation of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, and sets of data, systems, or the like. It is the systematic, ongoing process of gathering and interpreting evidence of events to determine if a program is meeting up with its stated goals. The purpose of comparative assessment is to ascertain whether a program is meeting up with its specified goals or objectives for the purpose of using the information to improve the program. Comparative assessment in this work is aimed at gathering and interpreting evidence of events of tax fund intervention in colleges of education in Nigeria and Ghana for the purpose of determining whether the programs are meeting up with its stated goals and objectives.

In any tertiary institution such as college of education, the ability to effectively and efficiently achieve its goals, utilize both the human and non-human resources such as teaching and non-teaching staff, instructional materials, educational facilities and equipment relies on the availability and access to fund. Resource utilization is the effective and efficient use of input of human and non- human resources to achieve goals and objectives of an organization or industry. Ezeani and Nwankwo (2002) viewed resource utilization as decisions and actions taken to effectively use human and non-human resources of an organization to achieve its goals and objectives. Similarly, Adebayo (2008) defined resource utilization as the fitting of individuals and materials which they are most suited for use.

Proper resource utilization is a yardstick towards achieving the goals and objectives of colleges of education. As such, if Federal colleges of education must achieve its laudable goals and objectives such as contributing to national development through high level relevant man power training and acquiring both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliance and useful member of the society, government, private sector priorities and participation such as funding and resource utilization must have to be addressed.

Colleges of education ate expected to create needed human capital with enhanced skills that can lead to technological innovation, productivity and growth within the economy (Olaniyonu, 2001). Yet, the amount of fund, quality of human capital and resource utilization has direct impact on the development or otherwise of a system, nation building inclusive (Ibukun, 1997).

In Nigeria and Ghana, one of the major problems seriously fronting federal colleges of education is under funding (UNESCO, 1998). This extremely impedes them to pursue their anticipated goals whereas; Tax Fund was established as an intervention agency to meet the basic needs of education that has been the cause of unending crisis. This therefore, aroused the interest of the researcher to compare the assessment of TETfund intervention in Federal College of Education, Eha-Mufu Enugu state, Nigeria and Accra College of education, Ghana.



Background of the Study

Open University is a means of providing access to quality and equitable educational opportunities for those who wish to improve and upgrade their knowledge. It is a social evolution which has brought real educational transformation that will bring about the desired changes and development at the speed educationists have never imagined before (Okoronkwo, 2010). Its uniqueness lies on its flexibility, easy access, immediate application and the use of combination of media to provide mass education. It uses varieties of digital technologies to liberalize education, turning homes and offices into learning environment as rich as that of schools, colleges and universities (Delvaline, 2005).

The rapid growth of the concepts of open and distance education are possible because of continuing increase in the demand for education, encouraged by the convergence of digital technology. Though they are sometimes used as one but distinct concepts, Open Learning refers to situations where learners use resources in a flexible way to achieve their learning goal. These resources may be print, audio- or computer-based; used at home, at a study centre or in the workplace; with or without the guidance of a tutor or mentor (Commonwealth of Learning, 2003). Distance education on other hand refers to situations where learners are physically separated from the educational provider, communicating in writing, (using letter mail, email, fax, or computer conferencing); verbally (by telephone, audio conferencing, video conferencing); or in face-to-face tutorial sessions (Okoronkwo, 2010). Hence, open learning allows access to study without academic restrictions. Distance education programmes may follow the same approach of open learning, that enables as much independence and self-determination as possible. Therefore open and distance education is a flexible form of adult education, providing help to learners in many kinds of learning environments. It has also become a legitimized mode of education and has globally been embraced as a cost effective model for providing higher education to a large segment of the population (Krishnan, 2012).

In Nigeria, the history of open and distance learning dates back to the earliest and pioneering efforts by institutions such as City Correspondence College Lagos and University of Ibadan Extra-Mural Studies Department. These correspondence colleges were all engaged in correspondence education and registered students for London General Certificate Examination (GCE) Ordinary and Advanced levels. In 1974 the University of Lagos established a Correspondence programme to provide educational access to adult distance learners and today known as Distance Learning Institution (DLI) of University of Lagos. The Federal Government of Nigeria also established the National Open University (NOU) in 1983 which experience several set back by different Military Governments. In the 1990’s also several universities established satellite campuses and study centres which also suffered a lot of criticisms especially in providing substandard open and distance learning and were shut down by the National University Commission (NUC). The National Teacher Institute (NTI), Kaduna is another phenomenal establishment in the history of Nigerian open and distance learning. It was established to provide quality teachers for Nigerian schools.

The National Open University was initially established on 22nd July 1983 as springboard for open and distance learning in Nigeria. It was suspended by the government on 25th April 1984. The Federal Ministry of Education in collaboration with the UNESCO and Commonwealth of Learning (COL) held several conferences that led to formulation of new National Policy on open and distance education. However, its tremendous and unassailable role in tackling the country’s educational problems including access, equity, and education for all became so evident and consequently its resuscitation was begun on the 12th of April 2001. In 2002, the National Open University Act of 1983 was reactivated and this paved way for the resuscitation of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as we have it today (NOUN, 2014).

It operates from its Administrative Headquarters located in Lagos, with study centres throughout the country. Currently the student enrolment stands at over 120,000. NOUN currently offers over 50 programmes and 750 courses, stair casing through from certificate to diploma and degree level, and maintain a strong commitment to internationalisation. NOUN was established with mission to provide functional, cost-effective, flexible learning, which adds life-long value to quality education for all who seek knowledge. The learner support service of the institution is therefore designed to assist in accomplishing this mission.

National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) has a directorate that is responsible for the learner support services called the Directorate of Learner Support Service established in 2003. The major goal of the directorate is to help learners maximize the gains and the purpose of their studentship in all ramifications NOUN (2014). The directorate is headed by a Director with sixty one (61) study centre managers, students’ counsellors, instructors and tutorial facilitators, a number of ICT staff and knowledge management technologists across the country. The directorate also provides face-to-face tutorial, library services, laboratory work for science students and computer practical at all the study centres. A well-equipped e-learning has been established too at the Headquarters linked up to 16 centres and conduct interactive video conferencing and tutorial on line across all these centre from just one base (Ipaye, 2007).  All these are to help the learners go through their education with the most minimal difficulties. The Directorate is comprehensive but its ability to help the students of the university effectively achieve their educational pursuit is still a puzzle. This is a very vital issue because distance learners are mostly adult learners and are most often very busy and prefer flexible learning system like open and distance learning which will allow them learn and work as well as learn and engage in other life activities. Thus they are faced with enormous challenges like family, career, political, economical, health even cultural issues that may inflict some level of learning difficulties (Patrick & Ihejirika, 2012). These challenges can be reduced through effective institutional support, and a meaningful support system that will contribute to overall student success and completion of course programme by recognising the needs of the students, assisting them to become  more competent and self-confident in their learning, social interactions and self evaluation (Rae, 1986). Therefore, it requires that any distance and Open University should design, implement and apply effective functional learners support services for the success of distance learner.

Learner support services are all aspects of the institution’s provision from the enquiry desk, through quality of learning activities and all aspects of interpersonal relations between the institution’s staff and its learners. These include provision of personal guide, counselling, library services, media resources centre/service, feedback, study kits, tutoring and administrative guidance prepared and designed to assist the open and distance learner successfully achieve academic goals. Learners support service enhances and contributes to successful completion of distance learner’s educational needs. Babatude (2010) noted that learner support service ensures that distance learners go up to the educational ladder putting forth their best, they assist learners to cultivate a sense of direction and become motivated in their academic work. It also develops in them a sense of belongingness to the institution as well as to help them graduate at the shortest possible time.

Achieving effectiveness in open and distance learning institutions requires a range of quality services for learners to complement the varieties of course material offered uniformly for all learners (Delvaline, 2005). The importance of quality learners support services cannot be under estimated, especially because of the fact that in distance education, learners are physically removed from the teacher and also isolated from other learners. They are faced with some unique needs and challenges from family, social, career, business including their academics. These challenges may pave way to frustration and dropping out of the programme if not addressed properly. Thus, quality learning experience becomes difficult without adequate learner support services in open and distance education. There should be an interactive relationship between the institution and the students to ensure that distance is removed or reduced from education. Learner support services are very crucial to NOUN, it is the learner support services that distinguishes open and distance education from private study, teach yourself programme and even correspondence education (Kegan, 1990). According to Nunan (1993), it is an all pervasive component of open and distance educational process which ensures that learning and teaching are approached from a learner-centred perspective. Learners support services encompasses provision of counselling, library services, media resources centre, feedback, orientation, study guide/kits, and face-to-face tutoring prepared and designed to assist the open and distance learner to achieve his/her school pursuit easily and at shortest possible time.

Counselling is an integral part of learner support in open and distance education (ODE) which is based on interpersonal or group communication and interaction between the counsellor and learners (Okopi, 2008). The counselling services are useful to build confidence and motivate the distance learner, reassure them that they are heading towards the right direction, as well as to clarify doubts and problems pertaining to the course programme (Rickwood & Godwin, 1997). Counselling support services can be academic and administrative. Academic support includes information about scheduling of face-to-face tutorials, advice on course choice and lots more. While administrative support provides general enquiries regarding admission, registration, advice on course exemptions, course amendments, change of address/examination centre, financial services and issuing of study material.

Library services are also important element of learner support in open and distance learning. The library services include provision of studying materials to enhance understanding of the course material and assignments; this can be online or hard copy at study centre. On the other hand, feedback and comments on assignments are essential component of learner support services in open and distance learning. They are useful and very important teaching and learning device. The nature of the tutor’s feedback or comments on assignments determines the learner progress in a course programme. Thus it should be constructive and relevant to learners work.

Another significant component of learner support service is face-to-face tutorial employ to abridge the separation between the central design and production of instructional materials as well as comprehension of the course material by the distance learners. Face-to-face tutorial utilizes a variety of teaching methods and visual aids to make the course interesting, easy to follow and rewarding. It also encourages questions, dialogue with the students to share their experiences and knowledge. Study kit also help in ameliorating the challenges of separation between the between the tutors and learners. Good study kit entails providing learners with relevant course information, identification of tutor support available, familiarization with the programme and the institution, developing a sense of belonging with the institution and identification with personal tutors, (Ryan & Dowling, 2006). Study kits are provided at the early stages of the programme to enable the distance learners effectively participate and get complete satisfaction from their programme of study.

Finally, media resources can be very resourceful support services for both academic and administrative support. These media resources and technologies are reconfiguring the ways in which students learn, and provide new approaches to networked learning (UNESCO, 2002). The development of a range of technologies has accelerated exponentially, mainly due to the invention of digital electronics. This is clearly seen in the emergence of the Internet, mobile devices, other multi-media and technologies. They are meant to improve students-teacher and students-students interaction, to provide suitable supports designed to overcome the negative effects of isolation and lack of regular contact between the distance learner and teacher.

As a pervasive component of the open and distance education, learners support services are prepared and designed to assist the open and distance learner to achieve his/her school pursuit easily and at shortest possible time. Learner support services are services provided to be utilized by distance learners but studies have shown that most students are unaware of the different types of support services and that student use these resources at a low level at National Open university, Lagos and Ibadan study centers (Omoike, 2013). Ajadi, Salawu and Adoye, (2008) reported that inequality of access to the support services by NOUN students is one of the challenges facing the use of the support services. Ajadi et al went on to say that most of the students are reluctant to take responsibility for their learning but preferred to be spoon-fed at all times which could affect their performance. Also adult distance learners are faced with enormous challenges like family, career, political, economical, health and even cultural issues that may inflict some level of learning difficulties (Patrick & Ihejirika, 2012). This is even more difficult for married distance learners especially the women who have additional responsibility to keep their job/ business, taking care of the family daily activities, etc. According to Burns & Gabrich (2001) as cited in Patrick & Ihejirika (2012) observed that when women enter colleges their role demand expands. They face pressure from their family, spouse, home, and employers. These challenges may restrain distance learners from entering formal school and even when they enrol without experiencing reasonable support services, may equally drop out and it is even more prevalent among the women. Also the epileptic nature of electricity power, poor ICT and poor electronic media penetration in Nigeria may cause a major impediment to effective interaction in distance learning (Okopi, 2008). Moreover, the flexible nature of open and distance learning makes learning an independent and self-directed putting the learning burden more on the learner. Thus the learner has to develop a coping strategy to overcome isolation, lack of regular peer group interaction, and absence direction by the tutor. This separation could result in a serious disconnect without learner support services to solve the diverse learning difficulties (Patrick & Ihejirika, 2012). All these are the reasons the researcher sought to examine the level of utilization of various learner support services provided to distance learners at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), so as determine how they have contributed to the progress of learning at NOUN and the problems associated with its utilization.




The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the effect of large class size on the teaching/learning of summary writing in senor secondary schools especially in Niger State. The large class size places a major barrier to the effective teaching and learning of summary writing in English language as a core subject in these senior secondary schools. The study was also done to determine the effect of school location and gender on the student’s performance in summary writing. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the studies. The instrument used for data collection was  test items drawn on comprehension and summary passages and face validation of the instrument was done by three expert in  Language Education and Measurement and Evaluation from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. A split- half method for single administration of instruments was used and the result of the test was analyzd using Crombanch Alpha to measure the consistency and reliability of the test. The sample for the test consisted of 400 senior secondary school students drawn from the selected schools in Suleja Education Zone which was the focus area for the study. Two hundred students were drawn from urban school location and two hundred students from rural school locations. The major findings of this study were that, the students taught summary writing in small class setting performed better than those taught in large class setting. Location was also a significant factor, the findings revealed that students taught summary writing in urban school locations had a better performance than the ones taught in rural school locations. Gender as well played a major role, in that, the female students scored higher in summary writing taught them than their male counterparts. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made to senior secondary school teachers in the state to engage students in frequent writing exercise, not only in English Language subject but in other subjects as well so as to help develop in them adequate writing skill. The text book writers and the curriculum planners are expected to make writing exercise feature often in the syllabus developed for senior secondary schools. The government should pay attention to solve the problems militating against the effectiveness of school programmes in general. The limitations of the study were outlined and suggestions for further research were proposed.



Background of the Study

The influx of the missionary to Nigeria in 1842, followed by the British colonization later bequeathed to the nation English as a second language. .Tomori ( Azikiwe 1995: 24) and Kangas (2000:4) state that, one higher reason for the spread of English is legacy of colonialism and the history of European expansion that went along with it, while the highest reason is the sustained economic power. English is a language with great reach and influence, the language is the most internationalized in the distribution of any language in the world. Graddo (1997:3) affirms, “the only people who think that one can conduct all of one’s affairs in this world through the medium of a single language are speakers of English. The necessities of the language are surrounded with being the machinery for cultivating the minds and training of staff for effective communications with the colonial masters, thus, the English language was officially institutionalized in 1861 in Lagos Nigeria by the British government (Azikiwe 1995:24).  With time, English language became a course of study at all levels of learning, consequently, the number of Nigerians who enroll for learning of the language can be said to be on the increase on daily basis, either at the state or federal institutions of learning. Specifically, English language has taken the place of a second language in Nigeria; it is the nation’s lingua franca which has now solved the problem of communication barriers throughout the country. Obanya (1982:3) states that “English language fills a huge communication gap, it helps to facilitate contact between Nigerians of diverse language backgrounds; it is also the language of the country, the language of document and official communication. Bamgbose (1995:13) emphasizes that “English language is socio-linguistically the language of social and official transactions, the media, science and technology, it is the language of legislature and judiciary respectively. Educationally, English language plays a top role as a tool for transmitting knowledge”. The National Policy on Education (2004:16) states

The medium of instruction in the Primary school shall be the language of the environment for the first three (3) years. During this period, English shall be taught as a subject; but from the fourth year, the language shall progressively be used as a medium of instruction and the language of immediate environment and shall be taught as a subject. 

Evidently, the language has been accepted in education for teaching and learning, and for subsequent services in Nigeria. Mgbodile (1996:106) postulates that “English language is the key to the world’s pool of knowledge, universal culture to average Nigerian.” The foregoing confirms that English occupies a prominent and enviable position in Nigeria; it could be seen as the life wire of the survival growth and unity of the nation.

However, the four language skills which comprise of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are to be properly taught, but this is not so in Nigerian schools. The introduction of free schooling programme for all in 1976, which was called Universal Primary Education (UPE) led to population explosion which extended to secondary schools in Nigeria. As the enrolment into schools increases daily and beyond the capacity of the available resources, merging of classrooms also began, which resulted into large class size. The problems that beset the effective teaching and learning of English are many such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of teaching materials, teachers’ incessant strike but large class places a higher constraint. Hayes (1997:4) posits, “there can be no quantitative definition of what constitute a large class, as perception of this will vary from context to context”. Edoabasi (2007:19) describes, “large classes as over populated class-rooms or as some times presented, streams of a segmented class, running from (a) to (m) for one secondary school teacher”. The researcher further describes “large class as, one that depicts national underdevelopment, inadequate educational infrastructure and teachers for the teaming population in all of Nigerian school life”. Tinto (1987:5) posits that large classes leads to a decline in intrinsic motivation for studying and increases in attrition. The National policy on Education (2004:14) suggests, “for effective teaching and learning, the teacher versus learners ratio shall be 1:35”. In the same vein, All Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS 2007:14) recommends a maximum of forty (40) students per class for effective management and control. Allen (1992:3) affirms that American class-size placement ratio is a ratio of 1.25 (i.e. one teacher to twenty-five students),”. The outlined policy of the National Policy on Education (NPE) on class size is violated by the Nigerian government itself, as classes are designated with students’ population ranging between sixty (60) and one hundred and twenty (120). Effective teaching/learning is only possible where the climate is conducive and not otherwise.

In Niger state, enrolment exceeds the available resources provided for secondary school education and the result is that students perform poorly in summary writing especially in external examination. The WAEC chief examiner’s report 2006, 2007 express a general dismay over the poor performance of students in summary writing, he emphasizes that the poor performance of students in summary writing has has been a problem, and it is unimaginable how a student who has spent six years in secondary school will not be able to summarize a given text. The society places much value on writing as a social tool and if not developed and used, can form a permanent mental disorder because writing is believed to be a bridge for transferring ideas. Azikiwe (1998:5) opines that a developing nation like Nigeria needs a literate and enlightened populace rather than functional illiterates; that is people who are only able to read with ordinary comprehension, materials designed for unselected lay people. The process that helps learners develop skill for summary writing can be connected to the knowledge of essay writing and exercise in comprehension passages. Writing involves the active participation of the teachers/students in composition/essay writing as they work through the interactive and recursive stages of pre-writing, writing and re-writing.Christine (1982:249) postulates, “You teach students to write more effectively by encouraging them to make full use of the many activities that comprise the act of writing not by focusing only on the final written products and its strength and weaknesses”. An excerpt from Literacy Education Online (LEO) www.wikipedia.org/wiki/summary subscribes that writing an effective summary requires the following

  • Reading with the writer’s purpose in mind
  • Underlining with summarizing in mind
  • Write revise and edit to ensure the accuracy and correctness of your summary”

Michael (1992:89) affirms that “Summarizing is a more comprehensive form of taking notes which is the process of rewriting a passage to make it shorter while still retaining its essential message”

Furthermore summary is the presentation of the substance of a body of material in a condensed form or by reducing it   to its main point, an abstract or a short account of something that gives only the most important information and not all the details. Summary writing is a peculiar writing skill that requires being learnt and taught meticulously so as to provide skillful workers for the labour world. Susan (2003:1) stresses that, “the only way a busy administrator can deal with the flood of information is to rely on effective summaries that can efficiently present the most important information.” It is obvious that the Nigerian government is playing a leading role in the decline observed in secondary education. The underfunding of the educational sector in the country in general and the neglect of the maintenance of the physical facilities, instructional and living conditions of teachers have plagued effectiveness in teaching learning system. Classrooms, libraries and laboratories are nothing to talk about, all-leading to decline in academic standards. The experience in Nigeria secondary schools is that of classroom congestion and low classroom utilization rates, all these put the effective teaching and learning of summary writing at a very low pace.

One of the considerable factors that underlines the poor performance of students in summary writing is the school location. Teaching and learning is influenced by school location. Andrew (2008:38) emphasizes, “we cannot rule out the possibility that location profiles may actually constitute a better criterion of school effectiveness than many measures that already have entered the field of educational administration. Ekpunobi (1985) holds that there is a remarkable difference in the performance of students from urban and the rural school locations. Urban location is characterized with obvious modern development; teaching and learning outcome in urban areas cannot be compared with teaching and learning outcome in schools in rural locations. Rural locations are of rural setting with less modern facilities, thus the discrepancies between rural and urban areas can be widely measured. One other notable factor that influences the learning of English language, whether written or oral is gender. Some researchers have dealt extensively on the factor of gender as one that is capable of influencing students’ learning. Nash (1979:279) states, “females tend to do better in tests of verbal ability including such components as fluency, reading comprehension analogies and creative writing” but on the contrary, Ekpunobi (1985:35) in his own findings posits that assessment on written composition of Group Assessment Learning Technique (GALT) shows that the female students in the experimental schools did not achieve significantly higher than the male students in the senior secondary schools. The difference between the female and male students has no definite proof, thus, it is regarded as  a mere description out of proportion. Gass and Varonis (1986:46) Pica, Holliday, Lewis and Morgenthaler (1989:46) carry out an investigation into gender-based differences in the structure of social interaction and to shed light on gender-related differences in areas such as learning strategies for second language comprehension, their modification of inter-language and negotiated interaction. The discoveries from the investigation raise the possibility that language learning opportunities and experiences might not be quite the same for male and female students.

Statement of the Problem

The problem of poor performance of senior secondary school students in summary writing in English Language is concerned with poor infrastructures (conducive sizeable classroom) which constitutes the problem of large classes. Salle (2000:1) emphasizes that “it does not take a rocket scientist or poet laureate to know that teaching a large class is a very different set of challenges that we typically face in our classes”.

The government of Nigeria be it federal or state as stakeholders in education contribute to the problems of schools and make the schools what they are today. The poor funding of the education sector has reduced the teaching/learning programme into a mere struggle for survival between the teachers and their students. The insufficient dilapidated school buildings are used to compress large number of students for learning activities. The meager salary paid to teachers and incessant strike actions have always disrupted adequate concentration of teaching/learning programme.

The frequent visit of the officials from the Ministry of Education into various schools in the nation to verify certificate and ghost workers does not include investigation of the teaching/learning progress, which are most relevant. The loss of relevant issues is spelt in the unrealized stated objectives of the learning outcome. Edoabasi (2007:19) emphasizes, “the teaching of basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, cannot be developed in crowded class rooms”. His stated opinion supports that effective teaching/learning is only possible in a conducive environment where students/teachers are at ease. The dismay expressed over the poor performance of students in senior secondary schools in Nigeria over the years by the chief WAEC examiner are evident in the release of senior secondary school examination (SSCE) results. The chief WAEC examiner  counsel the teachers to diversify methods and give more attention to the teaching of English language to students so as to reduce the level of poor performance for good ones, by engaging the students in writing activities in other subjects.

The poor performance of students in summary writing is a big concern to not only the teachers but the principals of schools and even the parents of these students, because poor performance in summary writing eventually leads to poor performance in English Language and at the end hinders students ambition for higher studies and placements in good jobs in the society. What effect would therefore class size play on student’s achievement in summary writing? The problem of this study put in  question form is “what is the effect of class size on the effective teaching and learning of summary writing in senior secondary school particularly in Niger State?




The main purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the teachers in the teaching of social studies at junior secondary school level in Kogi state. Specifically, the study was guided by eight purposes, eight research questions and eight null hypotheses. The design of the study wasa descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out in Kogi State, Nigeria. The population of the study wascomprised of 11,657 JSSII students in Kogi. The sample for the study was 370 respondents. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire developed by the researcher titled; “Teacher Effectiveness Scale (TES)”. The TES was made up of two parts – A and B. Part A was concerned with demographic data of the respondents which comprised of location (Urban or Rural), Gender (male or female) and Experience. Part B consisted of five (5) clusters. In order to ascertain the validity of instrument (TES), it was validated by three experts: two from Department of Arts Education and one in Measurement and Evaluation, science education department, all from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The experts were requested to ascertain the adequacy and appropriateness of the instrument in eliciting responses from the respondents in answering the research questions and in testing the hypotheses. Their comments and suggestions were used to modify and restructure the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through trial- testing to determine the internal consistency of the items and anoverall reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach’s Alpha. This shows that the instrument was reliable and was used for the study. The researcher adopted the direct approach in administering the questionnaire to the respondents. This face-to-face and on the spot administration and collection of the instrument was adopted inorder to avoid wastage or loss of the instrument as much as possible. Data collected from the respondents was analyzed using Mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while the null hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study among others showed that to a high extent, social studies teachers’ master social studies content. It was also found that to a high extent, use of appropriate learning resources by social studies teachers contribute to their effectiveness in the teaching of social studies. Result also showed that to a high extent, teachers’ instructional method influenced their effectiveness in the teaching of social studies at junior secondary schools. The implications of the above findings were examined and it was recommended among other things that teachers should try to understand better the factors that influenced their effectiveness as this will make them better teachers of the subject and will inturn influence students’ performance in the subject. The assumption is that greater effectiveness will have concomitant positive influence on students’ achievement in social studies.The limitations of this study were highlighted and suggestions were made for further studies.



Background of the Study

The future growth of any nation, even the most advanced nations of the world depends quite considerably on the quality of education it provides for its citizens. The quality of education depends upon inspired, satisfied and truly dedicated teachers. This in turn can only be achieved through an effective teacher. Education is the gateway to national development in Nigeria. If it is to be developed to meet her social, political, economic and technological needs, there must exist effective social studies teachers to teach their respective subjects. Therefore, the quest for an effective teacher in teaching social studies is borne out of the desired need to attain the laudable goals of high educational standards coupled with the much needed moral rectitude in our society today (Korve, 2008).

The attainment of the Education Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All Goals (EFA) which is geared towards ensuring that by the year 2015 all children particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality depend to a large extent on teachers’ effectiveness and other students or learners related factors. Education is an instrument for national development but if it is to achieve that objective, emphasis must be placed on the quality of educational programmes undertaken as well as the quality of teachers who implement them. This is because a quality or effective social studies teacher produces qualitative education which in turn leads to rapid national development (Barth, 2013).

The process of evaluating the effectiveness of teachers has changed over time along with the definition of what effective teaching is, due in part to increasing state and federal attention to school-level and classroom-level accountability for student learning. Effective teaching has been defined in many ways throughout the years (Muijs, 2006; Cruickshank andHaefele, 2011; Cheng andTsui, 2012), and methods for measuring teachers’ effectiveness have changed as definitions and beliefs about what is important to measure have evolved. Although there is a general consensus that good teaching matters and that it may be the single most important school-based factor in improving student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2012; Wright, Horn, and Sanders, 2010), measuring teacher effectiveness has remained elusive in part because of ongoing debate about what an effective teacher is and does. In a discussion of research-based indicators of effective teaching, Cruickshank and Haefele (2011) stated that “an enormous underlying problem with teacher evaluation relates to lack of agreement about what constitutes good or effective teaching”.Besides a lack of clear consensus on what an effective teacher is and does—or perhaps because of it—there is not a generally agreed-upon method for evaluating teacher effectiveness. Muijs (2006) further stated that commonly used methods of evaluating teachers’ effectiveness include classroom observations designed to measure teacher practices against some standard of effective teaching and value-added models that set out to measure the contribution of individual teachers to their students’ achievement gains.

Teachers have been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe, 2012). Both teaching and learning of social studies depends on teachers: no wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher (Uchefuna, 2012). Considering governments’ huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students have been observed to be unequal with government expenditure. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of secondary school students in public secondary schools, one wonders if the high failure rates and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools. In other words the ineffectiveness of teachers in classroom interaction with the students could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students and the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Afe, 2012).

Teaching effectiveness has been accepted as a multidimensional construct since it measures a variety of different aspects of teaching such as; subject mastery, effective communication, lesson preparation and presentation (Onyeachu,2013). The influence of teachers’ teaching effectiveness on the learning outcome of students as measured by students’ academic performance especially in social studies has been the subject of several studies (AdediwuraandTayo, 2011; AduandOlatundun, 2010; SchacterandThum, 2014; Starr, 2012). The above studies suggest that effective teaching is a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement. Therefore effective teachers should produce students of higher academic performance. Poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been linked to poor teachers’ performance in terms of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitude to work and poor teaching habits which have been attributed to poor motivation (Ofoegbu, 2004). It has also been observed that conditions that would make for effective teaching such as resources available to teachers, general conditions of infrastructure as well as instructional materials in public secondary schools in Nigeria are poor (Oredein, 2000). These prevailing conditions would definitely show a negative influence on the instructional quality in public schools, which may translate to poor academic performance, attitude and values of secondary school students.

Although social studies teachers’ instructional effectiveness would significantly influence students’ academic achievement, other factors such as socio-economic background, family support, intellectual aptitude of student, personality of student, self-confidence, and previous instructional quality have been found to also influence students’ examination score either positively or negatively (Starr, 2012). Recent examinations of the factors that influence students’ scores have identified variables associated with teachers’ effectiveness. The existence of this factor is not surprising since a major function of schools is to put in place contexts in which students can learn, and the more successfully they manage these interactions, the more effective the teacher is likely to be. To this end, Blankstein (2012) had stated that students’ grades and test scores are not good indicators of the quality of teachers’ instruction.

In support of the above view, a study carried out by Joshua (2011) showed that Nigerian teachers condemn the use of student achievement scores as indicators of teachers’ competence, performance or effectiveness. Since students’ academic scores are not the only predictors of teachers’ effectiveness, researchers have sought other fairer ways of evaluating teachers’ effectiveness. Students, administrators, colleagues and the teachers’ self-evaluation have been used to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness. Students’ competence in the evaluation of the effectiveness of their teachers has been of great concern to researchers in education. However, studies have shown that students’ ratings are valuable indicators of teachers’ effectiveness (ImhanlahiniandAguele, 2006; Pozo-Munzo, 2009). Despite the fact that there are research reports in support of students’ rating of their teachers’ effectiveness, Nuhfer (2004) and Pozo-munzo(2009) warned that students rating should be one of a comprehensiveevaluation system and should never be the only measure of teachers’ effectiveness. The school administrators’ evaluation has also been used to evaluate teachers’ effectiveness.

The teaching of social studies has been accepted in many societies as one of the most critical pivot of educational practices which is essentially charged with the responsibility of aiding thechild in his interpretation of the social frameworks including the associated problems in which he operates as a human individual, (Akintola, 2011). Akintola also defined social studies as the integrated study of man as he battles for survival in the environment both physical and social. It promotes awareness, appreciation, and understanding of the reciprocal relationship between man and the environment. The nature and objectives of social studies in Nigerian secondary schools emphasizes students’ familiarity with their physical and social environment; improved social relationships and interactions, skills and ability to think relatively, critically, creatively and independently all of which are relevant to problem solving as a totality of man’s experiences in the society and a problem-approach discipline. It becomes imperatives for student’s active participation in the learning process (Akintola, 2011). Various authorities in social studies shared similar view of what social studies is. In 2011, the board of Directors of National Council for social studies held that social studies is the integrated study of social science and humanities to promote civic competence within the school program. Social studies provides coordinated and systematic study, drawing disciplines such as Economics, Geography, History, Philosophy, Law, Political Science, Psychology, Religion, Sociology as well as appreciate content from humanities and natural science.

In line with the above, Mkpa (1998), explained that social studies consist of knowledge, skills, process and values to which learners are exposed to, in order for them to successfully achieve stated educational purpose. Furthermore, Kissock (2012), maintained that social studies content is primarily made up of facts and statements which can be proved true.Gurney (2007) held that apart from social science, other subjects like Literature, Art, Music can contribute valuable insight for children in their study of human groups. The students themselves are still another source of content for social studies.Akintola, (2011) at the Nigeria Educational Research council conference held at Jos spelt out the definition of social studies as the learning of man’s interactions with his social and physical environment, that it is not only study, but the way of life, since man is influenced by his physical, social, political, economic, psychological and cultural environments.

It is important that social studies teachers understand the role social studies is expected to play in the society in order to achieve the desired result of exposing students to social studies learning and teaching. The teacher should have sense of direction; this implies that there is need for goals and objectives of social studies.The most important thing is that, social studies is a ready tool used to sharpen the society. Social studies was found to be very effective means of bringing together all the diverse and heterogeneous groups that made up Nigeria. Teachers’ effectiveness in the teaching of this subject therefore cannot be overemphasized.Also, studies have shown that gender has implication on instructional effectiveness. For example, Kissock (2012)stated that males teachers are more effective in teaching social studies than their female counterparts. This means that gender may also affect teachers’ instructional effectiveness in teaching social studies. Similarly, the school location or environment may have impact on the effectiveness of teachers in teaching social studies. For example, studies have shown that teachers in urban areas are more effective than their counterparts in rural areas (Eze and Nnennaya, 2013). It is therefore important that this study is carried out in Kogi state where the performance of students in social studies has been very poor which in part may be caused by teachers’ ineffectiveness in teaching the subject. It is against this background that the researcher is interested in finding out how effective the secondary school teachers are in the teaching of social studies at the junior secondary schools in Kogi State, Nigeria.





Title Page                                                                                                    i

Approval                                                                                                   ii

Certification                                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                           v

Table of Contents                                                                                              viii

List of Tables                                                                                            xi

Abstract                                                                                                   xii


Background of the Study                                                                            1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                   14

Purpose of the Study                                                                                15

Significance of the Study                                                                                    16

Scope of the Study                                                                                             18

Research Questions                                                                                   18

Hypotheses                                                                                               18


Conceptual Framework                                                                                   20

Concept of Continuous Assessment                                                        21

Rationale for Continuous Assessment                                                               26

Characteristics of Continuous Assessment                                              27

Techniques of Continuous Assessment                                                    28

Concept of Essay Writing                                                                        31

Types of Essay                                                                                        33

Assessment of Essay                                                                               34

Relevance of Continuous Assessment in Essay Writing                                    36

Concept of Gender                                                                                            39

Concept of Location                                                                                39

Theoretical Framework                                                                                     40

Behavioural Theory                                                                                  41

Constructivist Theory                                                                               41

Review of Empirical Studies                                                                  43

Studies on students’ performance                                                            43

Studies on Essay Writing                                                                                  44

Studies on Continuous Assessment                                                          51 

Summary of Literature Review                                                          57

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                  61

Design of the Study                                                                          61

Area of the Study                                                                              61

Population of the Study                                                                    62

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                      62

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                   62

Validation of the Instrument                                                             63

Reliability of the Instrument                                                             64

Method of Data Collection                                                                64

Method of Data Analysis                                                                             64 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                                                       65

Research Question 1                                                                         65

Research Question 2                                                                         66

Research Question 3                                                                         68

Research Question 4                                                                           70

Hypothesis 1                                                                                       71

Hypothesis 2                                                                                       71

Summary of Major Findings                                                            75


Discussion of Results                                                                        77

Conclusion                                                                                        82

Implications of the Findings                                                             82

Recommendations                                                                                      83

Limitations of the Study                                                                             83

Suggestions for Further Research                                                     84

Summary of the Study                                                                      85 

REFERENCES                                                                                86      


Appendix A: Population Distribution of the Study                                   93

Appendix B: Questionnaire                                                              95

Appendix C: Reliability of the Instrument                                      101

Appendix D: Result of Analyzed Data                                   107


Table 1: Mean rating of respondents on continuous assessment practices of senior secondary school English language teachers in essay writing.        65

Table 2:Mean Rating of respondents on the extent of teachers’ assessment of senior secondary students in essay writing.                                              66

Table 3: Mean Rating of respondents on the factors militating against teachers’effective assessment of students in essay writing                                          68 

Table 4: Mean Rating of respondents on the measures for improving teachers’ continuous assessment practices in essay writing.                 70

Table 5: t-test analysis of the significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers as regards continuous assessment practices in essay writing.       71

Table 6: t-test statistics summary table                                                                    72

Table 7: t-test statistics analysis of the significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers as regards continuous assessment practices in essay writing 3 

Table 8: t-test statistics summary table                                                                       74 

Table 9: Mean and Standard deviation of English Language teachers on the observation check list on teachers’ continuous assessment practices in essay writing.                                                 74


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the continuous assessment practices of senior secondary school English language teachers in essay writing in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. Three Local Government Areas make the zone for the study; Igboetiti, Nsukka and Uzo-Uwani. The population comprised all the male and female English teachers in senior secondary classes. Two instruments developed by the researcher were used for data collection are questionnaire and observation checklist titled;” Teachers’ Continuous Assessment Practices in Essay Writing’’ respectively. Instruments were face validated by three experts from Language Education and Measurement and Evaluation all from University of Nigeria Nsukka. The questionnaire was trial tested on twenty (20) teachers in Onitsha North Local Government Area and its reliability was established using Cronbach Co-efficient Alpha Formula. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. Four (4) research questions were posed to guide the study and two hypotheses on gender and location were formulated for the study. The findings of the study revealed that teachers rarely assess students on vital assessment practices in essay writing such as; giving my students class tests (p. 74). The findings further showed that gender and location are significant factors in the continuous assessment practices of English language teachers in essay writing. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that teachers should intensify efforts in adequate use of continuous assessment practices to diagnose students’ needs and adopt the practices for effective evaluation of students to improve students’ performance. Also, the ministry of education should ensure that teachers are well equipped with relevant instructional materials and other assessment tools for effective assessment of learners.





The study was undertaken to determine the competency needs of teachers in the multidisciplinary approach to implementation of environmental education curriculum in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study sought to find out whether teachers possess content knowledge of EE curriculum and also determine whether teachers` factors such as gender, subject specialization, qualification, experience and their location significantly influence their basic knowledge and competency needs in the implementation of environmental education. Seven research questions were posed out of which six hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 737 teachers proportionally sampled from 67 public secondary schools in the three education zones of Cross River State. The teacher competency needs questionnaire in the implementation of environmental education curriculum containing competency needs and content knowledge items was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using means, standard deviation, t-test, chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regressions. The data analyzed showed that majority of the teachers possessed adequate knowledge of environmental education concepts in the four broad areas: ecological foundation, human environment, environment change and impact and sustainable development. The result revealed that teachers however do not have adequate knowledge in components of the solar system and sources of earth’s energy. The results showed that the teachers need competency in 8 areas out of 37. The results revealed that teachers possessed the input capability needed to implement EE curriculum. The results revealed that teachers’ years of teaching experience, educational qualification and school environment significantly influence their competency needs. The results revealed that teachers with 6-15years are better prepared to implement EE curriculum. The results also revealed that teachers’ subject area and gender have no significant influence on their competency needs in the implementation of environmental education curriculum. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the multidisciplinary approach should be adopted in the implementation of EE curriculum. Teachers’ qualification and experience must continue to receive constant attention through training, retraining and incentives so as to have competent teachers who will implement the EE curriculum. In-service training programmes should be organized on the basis of teachers’ competency needs.



Background to the Study

There is an increasingly global consciousness on the quality of the environment and this has reached an all-time high priority drawing international attention. For instance, the United Nations (UN) Earth Summit in 1992; the 1994 UN convention to combat desertification; Kyoto protocol in 1997 and the 2003 UN decade for sustainable development are concerted efforts by the international community to save the environment. In the face of all these efforts, there has been a global tidal wave of environmental degradation occurring in a most consistent and most often irreversible manner.  Humans are confronted daily with several environmental misdemeanours ranging from local to global problems. The United Nation Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) reported that the world’s biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate requiring important efforts and new thinking on conservation.

The vision 2010 committee (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1997) catalogued Nigeria’s environmental problems to include erosion (sheet, gully, coastal), flooding (coastal, river, urban), drought and desertification, oil pollution, urban decay, industrial pollution and waste, municipal solid waste and loss of biodiversity. These problems have also been identified by some researchers (Asthana &Asthana, 2003). United Nation Education Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) (1983 &1985) has also listed famine, soil erosion, diseases and poor sanitation as problems confronting the less developed countries, like Nigeria.

Human activities are largely responsible for environmental change and degradation. The degradation of the environment in part has its antecedent from the human frontier mentality based on two assumptions. First is that the earth has an unlimited supply of resources for human use to which Miller (1975) advocated full exploitation to advance human civilization. Based on this assumption, people have employed advanced and sophisticated technology for the intensification of the exploitation of resources within the environment. According to Emeh (1997), there is a gradual but painful realization of the falsehood of this assumption evidenced from the myriads of environmental problems. The second assumption is that humans see themselves as separate from the environment rather than being a part of it. This anthropocentric view of humans has led to a seemingly biological terrorism; an attempt to overcoming nature to fulfill their needs with little regard for the consequences (Omoogun, 2004).

It is generally recognized that though immense attention is being paid to the environment (United Nations conferences\ summits), the quest for a better environment seem far from being proportionately satisfactory. Many ways of curbing environmental problems have been proffered and various reforms suggested.  Many actions have been taken to halt degradation of the environment. For instance, there are  remedial approaches through improved technology that should reduce emission and conserve energy use. There are also the industrial approach through auditing, monitoring and information;  the scientific approach which provide quality guidelines e.g. water quality, rate of emissions etc; and then public approach through the activities of Non-governmental organizations, legislation and green consumerism (Ryding,1998  ). However, all these approaches have not been able to halt environmental degradation. Newson (1992:81) citing Caldwell observed that “Environmental crisis is an outward manifestation of a crisis of the mind, the kind of creatures we are and what we must become in order to survive.” Timmerman and Burton (1990) similarly noted that our attitude towards the environment does predict a variety of our behaviour towards the environment.

It is common knowledge that schools are the custodians of society’s culture, and they perform a variety of functions in a given society. Johnson, Dupuis, Musial and Hall (1994) have enumerated these school functions as follows:

  1. Reproduction: Schools act to preserve tradition and heritage, and they carry out decisions about what to teach based on the customs and traditions of the past.

ii          Readjustment: Schools alter programmes in response to social change.

iii.        Reconstruction: Schools are agents of change in the society.

Citing the colonial reliance on education to transform the natives, Emeh (2002) affirmed that the educational system and its institutions have always functioned as revolutionary, reformationary, and conservationary. This perhaps informed the world wide conviction that environmental education is vital for achieving success in the domain of environmental conservation and sustainability (Michaelis,1980;Duguet,1992;Emeh,2002;UNESCO,2003). Environmental education also emerged as a cultural response to international awareness that human beings were having negative impact on their environments and causing ecological and social crises.

The intergovernmental conference on Environmental Education convened by UNESCO in cooperation with United Nation Environmental Programme [UNEP] in Tbilisi, in 1977 recommended the development of school curriculum in Environmental Education with the following three goals:

  1. foster clear awareness of and concern about economic, social, political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;
  2. provide every person with opportunities, to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, to improve the environment; and
  3. create new patterns of behaviour of individuals, groups and societies as a whole towards the environment (Eguabor, 1999).

Environmental Education (EE) is concerned with teaching conceptual knowledge and skills for monitoring and measuring environmental quality, and also with the development of the values and attitudes which will motivate and empower individuals and groups to work and promote the sustainability of natural and social environments. Thus, the important attributes of Environmental Education include the creation of environmental awareness, strong concern for the environment and active participation in promoting environmental conservation.  It is a subject necessary for every individual in the society, since every member of the society has something to do with the environment. This is perhaps why Gifford, Hay and Boros (1982) opined that a well-educated populace is the best insurance for  preservation of  the environment. Similarly, Ezeanya (1999) asserted that environmental education is essential to change the destructive relationship between human and the rest of nature. Ukpong (1993) emphasized the importance of environmental education in achieving the goals of environmental protection and management. He stressed various educational strategies such as analysis, sensitization, information and education among others that can provoke knowledge that would change the attitude and values towards the environment.

To prepare students with positive attitude towards the environment underscores the advocacy for Environmental Education. Environmental Education is seen as a viable means of solving environmental problems. Jacobson (1985) summed up the aim of Environmental Education to include: helping individuals to acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and to develop a basic understanding, skills, values of the total environment and the interrelationship between man and the environment

The development of Environmental Education Curriculum appears cogent and realistic at this time, since ignorance has been identified among the major problems hindering popular participation in environmental conservation. In furtherance of the UNESCO/UNEP (1977) recommendation, the Nigerian Education Research and Development Council (NERDC, 1998) developed the Environmental Education Curriculum for all the tiers of the education system-  primary , junior secondary , and senior secondary schools and the non-formal education. The curriculum has three major objectives:

  1. acquiring knowledge and understanding of the environment.
  2. developing skills for solving environmental problems.
  3. developing attitudes and values for the environment.

global consciousness on the quality of the environmen



The major purpose of this study was to find out the strategies for teaching and learning of French language at the junior secondary school level. The influence of gender and school location was also explored. To carry out this survey research, twelve research questions and eight hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Population of the study consisted of 39 teachers and 1030 student from six government owned secondary schools ( 3 in urban and 3 in rural areas) in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. Questionnaire and Observational Rating Scale were used for data collection. The instrument was face validated by experts and it’s reliability index was 0.64. The instrument was administered to the teachers and students and collected at the spot. The analysis was done using mean and standard deviations. Major findings of the study are: Most of the metacognitive strategies  are in use by the learners of French language, French language teachers used cognitive learning strategies, students of French used cognitive learning strategies, students made use of some socio-affective learning strategies, there was slight influence  of gender on teachers’ use of cognitive learning strategies it was not significant, there was no significant difference in the mean rating of learning strategies used by male and female French language students, school location had significant influence on cognitive strategies used by the French teachers and there was a significant difference between the mean ratings of urban and rural French students on the usage of learning strategies. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that French language teachers in the rural schools, should be trained and encouraged to employ different teaching and learning strategies in order to enhance teaching and learning of French language.




Background of the Study

Teaching could be seen as a process of inculcating worthwhile knowledge by the teacher into the learner. This is to train the learner so that he or she can stand on his or her foot in the society. In teaching, three aspects are involved; they are the teacher, the learners and the learning materials. Theodore (2014) refers to it as the process of impacting knowledge and skills from a teacher to a learner. To him it encompasses the activities of educating or instructing. It is an act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. Ugwu and Eze (1999) are of the same opinion as they saw teaching as the act of educating, training and molding of   the character and attitude of an individual towards a desired goal.

Teaching cannot   take place without the participation of the different persons, the teacher who is a mature and experienced person that is capable of combining different skills, techniques, and strategies to impact knowledge to the immature individual who is at the help of the mature one to learn. In the light of this Aguokogbuo (2000) opines that teaching is a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge and skills to an immature person. The act of teaching is a highly skilled professional activity which involves curriculum design, exposition of information and knowledge through diversified teaching strategies and using of variety of instructional materials to get the message across to the learner. An acceptable teaching brings about learning.

Learning has been variously defined by various authors. It could be seen as acquiring information, knowledge and skills that will bring about a change in behaviour. The learner learns from a more experienced person. Kirkpatrick (1985) saw it as a knowledge gained from teaching. Nsude (1998) argued that learning is much more than that.  To her learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of experience or some level of practice. It is worthy of note here that any learning that does not bring about a change in behaviour is not learning. This is because if any learning has taken place it is expected that it will influence the behaviour of the learner either positively or negatively. It is the outwardness of what is learnt that will help anybody around to know that learning has taken place. In our schools today learners learn different subjects taught by the teachers such as English language, mathematics, music etc which French language is one of them.

The teaching and learning of French language in English speaking Africa was not wide spread until 1960 when most African countries got their independence. It was not until around 1960 that Nigeria began to feel a great need for a change in the language teaching policy. Nigeria like other new independent African nations realized that they are surrounded by fellow Africans with whom they could not communicate due to language barrier.

It was during the colonial era that most of the communications between French speaking and English – speaking countries of Africa were channeled to the respective European capitals, thus creating a state of isolation between the two linguistic groups. Therefore a cultivation of the languages used by the groups in their interactions is necessary and French language is one of them.

Nigeria is an Anglophone country surrounded  by French speaking  nations such as; Niger in the north, Chad in the north-east,  Cameroon in east, Republique  du Benin in the West and then the Atlantic  ocean in the south. “So Nigeria can be described as a “Linguistic Island” surrounded by “French sees” (Offorma, 2009:13. To her there is need for neighbours to live harmonious with one another and this will be effective if the parties have a common    medium of communication. She opines that “the co-existence of Nigeria and these countries revolves around economic, political, social and cultural exchanges “ (Offorma, 2009:!3).

Ogah (1984) opined that after the independence, the new African nations reacted swiftly against this state of isolation of African Nations   from their neighbours because of the differences in their languages. The West African countries led the movement of technical co-operation African nations, the objective of which was to break the language barrier and within a few years, they were joined by the East African countries. In 1963, the Organization of African Unity (UAU) now African Union (AU) officially approved a policy in Addis Ababa which advocated French-English bilingualism for all African Countries.

Offorma (2009) expatiated on this by saying that “the  Addis-Ababa conference on Education and the Yaounde Conference of 1961 recommended that Anglophone African introduced  French language as a mandatory subject in her school system and Francophone African introduced  English as the second  European language as a means  of communication and understanding between the people of these two linguistics sectors”. That was important for African countries more so as no African language was developed to meet the purpose. The two most developed African languages are Hausa and  Swahili which are still regional language in west African and East   African respectively” (Offorma, 2009;14). It is based on this that Nigerian government declared in the National policy on Education (2004:10)

For smooth interaction with our neighbours, it is desirable for every Nigerian to speak French. Accordingly, French shall be the second official language in Nigeria and shall be compulsory in primary and junior secondary schools but non vocational elective at the senior secondary school.

Mbuko (2001) noted that there were about 4000 secondary schools in Nigeria that allowed the teaching and learning of French language in their schools including those of the private schools who even taught it at the primary school level.

In Enugu state French is taught to primary 4, 5 and 6 pupils as it is compulsory. This is important as one cannot engage in inter-regional and intra-African affaires without the knowledge of French. People complain that this language is difficult but notwithstanding the difficulty involved, it has numerous advantages.

There are many French establishment in Nigeria such as Peugeot Assembly of Nigeria (PAN), Michelin, Total, la Belief saving Nigeria  limited, banks like la Societe Generale, le Credit Lyonnais and (ECOBANK) Nigeria Public Limited  Company, a subsidiary  of ECO-Transitional incorporated. To be employed in one of these establishments, the knowledge of French language is required. French language is a diplomatic language. The air and marine transporters make use of it.

So Nigeria needs French language not only to communicate with her Francophone neighbours but also to communicate with other nations of the world. It is also seen as a language used in business and working places. It is a living and modern language. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) records that French language is one of the principal world language used for communication. This is why after independence in Nigeria,  efforts were made and are still being made to train French  language teachers to teach the language in primary and secondary schools and other schools of higher education.

Some colleges of education admit even students who have no pre-knowledge of French language to train as future French language teachers to see if there will be enough teachers of French to help educate the people in the language. It is because of the importance of this language, that undergraduate French language students are made to undergo compulsory one year abroad programme in order to improve on their proficiency. Of course, it is not possible for all Nigerians to learn to speak French but it is necessary that as many Nigerians as possible should know how to speak and write sound French language.




This study was designed to identify the strategies that can be used to improve listening comprehension among junior secondary school students in Nsukka Education Zone. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. To carry out the study, a review of literature was done in order to determine the extent of work already done and to know the area to focus attention on. Three research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at alpha level of 0.05 level of significance. A sample of 108 English language teachers was drawn from 35 public schools in Nsukka Education Zone. Three (3) sets of carefully structured fifty seven (57) item questionnaires were developed by the researcher and validated by research experts in Education. These sets of questionnaires were used in collecting relevant data from the respondents. Mean score and standard deviation were used to collate and analyze the data. At the end of the study, it was found out that most of the identified strategies and skills enhance listening comprehension in students. The hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female English language teachers in the strategies they use for improving listening comprehension in students was accepted. The study also shows that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of N.C.E. and Degree English language teachers in the teaching strategies they use for improving listening comprehension in students. It was also found out that listening skill is the most neglected of all the language skills. It is not even well taught in schools. The researcher therefore recommends that teachers should be trained on this language skill so that they can help the students. The curriculum planners, the government and the students should play their parts effectively so as to enhance listening comprehension among students.



Background of the study
          Language is one of the most powerful endowments of man by the creator and listening is embedded in language and enhances it. Based on this fact, it seems necessary to begin by looking at the concept of language according to some writers.

Ezeude (2007:202) sees language as,“…a fathomless and intangible asset for effective communication to humanity right from the time of creation.” As a matter of fact, without language, the existence of man on this earth would have been so boring and uninteresting. Naldman in Azikiwe (1998) is of the opinion that language is a system of articulated sounds organized by human thoughts and used by a group of humans for the purposes of communication. Similarly, for Richards and Rodgers (1995), “Language is a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages.” Hornby (2000) sees language as, “…human and non- instinctive method of communicating ideas, feelings and desires by means of a system of sounds and symbols”. According to Corder (1975) :

We do not teach language for its own sweet sake… we teach language so that our pupils can communicate and be communicated with, so that they may convey meanings and understand meaning, so that they may enter into satisfactory mutual relations with native speakers or writers of the language.

Mgbodile (1999) states that, “Language development proceeds more or less in four sequential stages, namely: listening, speaking, reading and writing.” Each of these stages is necessary for the total language development of the learner. This study focuses on one of the four major skills in language development, which is listening.

For students to improve in their listening skill, there must be certain strategies to be adopted.

Kirkpatrick (1982:521) defines strategy as, “…the art of guiding, forming or carrying out a plan.” Hornby  A. S; Cowie, A. P; Gimson, A, C. (2000) defines strategy as, “…skills in managing any affair.” With reference to this topic, these definitions all point to the skills, actions, plans and approaches for improving listening comprehension in our students.

Listening has a vital role to play in language learning and acquisition. It is the first and very important stage in language development. When a child is born into a language environment, he or she is incapable of speaking any other language. Being incapable at this stage to communicate linguistically, the child engages in a very active listening to sounds he or she hears around. It is in the process of this active listening that the structure of his language – phonology and grammar form a pattern in his language acquisition device. The child begins to understand that sounds are related to words, and consequently, they become meaningful to him. As the active listening stage is consolidated and the sounds and expressions of the language make cumulative impact on the child, he or she begins to try out his mental memory of language system in actual speech. He now begins to show greater zeal to join his speech community.

It should be noted that the problem of listening comprehension does not end at pre-primary school level but also extends through primary to secondary school level, especially in the junior classes where it is even worse. This is because the learner has acquired basic knowledge of his mother tongue and combining both languages now becomes very difficult. In view of this problem, Orias (1986:6) advises  that,  “It is useful for him to be explicitly taught the phoneme inventory of the language and to be guided on how to produce each sound.”

Listening has long been the neglected skill in second language (L2) teaching, learning and assessment. Nunan (`1998) states that, “Second language listening comprehension is a complex process and crucial in the development of second language (L2) competence; yet, the importance of listening in language learning has only been recognized relatively recently.” According to the writers, “Since the role of listening comprehension in language learning was overlooked, it merited little research and pedagogical attention in the past.” According to Otagburuagu, Obah, Onuigbo and Okorji (2007:1), “Although listening is an important skill used and needed at every moment of daily living by all and sundry, it is the most neglected in the teaching of language arts, especially in Nigeria.” Azikiwe (1998:110) states that, “Some people feel that since all teaching and learning situations involve a great deal of listening, the skills are being taught simultaneously with other language skills.” This assumption is wrong and shows how listening is taken for granted. It is important to note that in the classroom situation, most of the time, listening occurs while the teacher or others speak. Listening is therefore compulsory for learning and so help should be given to students for efficient listening, since the purpose of listening in class is to acquire and retain information for future use. Neville (1985) found that, “Good listeners made good readers, while poor listeners are most often poor readers too.” Some other research results have proved this statement right. For example Garrod (1986) and Cole and Jakimik (1980). Nooteboom (1983) also has suggested that, “Speech production is affected by speech perception; the hearer has become an important factor in communication discourse.” This illustrates the need to integrate pronunciation with communicative activities; to give the students situations to develop their pronunciation by listening and speaking. De Boer, kaufers and Miller (1951) cited in Azikiwe (1998) lament that, “Thousands of studies have been conducted in the other three components of communication while that on how listening can be improved is still extra-ordinarily scarce.” As a result of this neglect by teachers, students, researchers, school administrators and curriculum planners, students performance has been adversely affected not only in English language as a subject but also in other subjects because all other subjects are taught using the English language which is the official language. This has been attributed to lack of comprehension of spoken utterance. A close examination of senior secondary school certificate examination (SSCE) November /December 2002, 2005 and 2007 chief examiners’ report on English Language reveals that, “Generally the performances of the candidates were not impressive.”

According to the chief examiners, represented by Ndow, O. A. (2002- 2005) and Djangmah (2007), “The main weakness of the candidates has to do with insufficient exposure to the language skills, especially the listening and speaking skills.” They went further to advise  teachers at the secondary school level to always try and expose the candidates to speech and vocabulary development in order to remedy these problems.





For education to survive in Nigeria there is need to reward and motivate teachers because an unmotivated teacher is incapable of motivating students to learn. To this end therefore, this paper focuses on rewarding and motivating Nigerian Languages Teachers for greater effectiveness in the classroom. Highlighting the negative consequences of poor motivation of teachers in the classroom, The paper further presents a perspective on the level of motivation in the teaching profession in the past and at the present. It also reviews the concepts of reward and motivation pointing out the need to ensure adequate reward for Nigerian languages teachers as a strategy for the effective teaching of Nigerian languages in schools. Finally, the paper proffered some recommendations.


The challenging situation to implement the curriculum of education in the classroom makes teachers exhausted, which prevents the success of the objectives of education. Being intrinsically and extrinsically motivated increases the satisfaction of a teacher which will make teachers to put in their best to actualize the goal of education. So, teacher motivation has an important role to play in the job of teaching. The economic situations prevailing at any point in time affects teachers’ motivation and their level of inputs. A teacher who is certain of his monthly salary, incentives and other benefits puts in his best and ensures that his pupils get the best out of him. On the other hand, when the prospect of a continued payment of teachers’ salary and other incentives are gloomy, there will be lack of enthusiasm to teach. Furthermore, Maduewesi (1990) asserts that an unhappy teacher is incapable of relating favourably with children and therefore will be unable to provide the desired level of interaction necessary for adequate learning to take place in the classroom.


Teacher motivation is an internal force which pushes a teacher to put more effort in order to achieve the stated objectives. It is the eagerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it. Mbakwem (2001) asserts that motivation deals with the processes of arousal, expectancy and incentives. In the same vain, Eke (1992) views motivation as an umbrella term that is used to explain the circumstances which enhances the initiation, maintenance, and direction of human behaviour in the pursuit of a goal.

For teachers to perform their best in the classroom, series of rewards must be given to teachers. In this paper, teacher motivation is classified into two:

  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation: This refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual than relying on any external pressure. This type of motivation is gotten mainly from students. It is not in the form of concrete reward, but in the form of gratitude and commendations. Ellis (1984:1) defines intrinsic motivation as self- respect of accomplishment and personal growth. That is, the emotional and personal benefits of the job itself are known as intrinsic rewards. In the same way, Lathan (1998:83) emphasizes that intrinsic reward takes an important role in teachers’ lives. These gestures by students to their teachers motivate them to perform creditably in the future. These expressions help to boost the moral of the teacher and motivate him to work harder. Intrinsic motivation is likely to be increased by a sense of relatedness. Raffini (1996:8) defines relatedness as “the degree of emotional security” that teachers feel. A sense of belonging and acceptance is developed by conforming to the social and academic expectations of their colleagues and administrator.

Extrinsic motivation: It comes from outside of the individual. It deals with those rewards that are concrete, which are in the form of salaries, fringe benefits and incentives given to a teacher to motivate him to do more. Prompt payment of salary or a teacher who gets a book, money, or a certificate of honour for being the best teacher in any subject is an example of extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, Lathan (1998:82) asserts that salary, fringe benefits and job security are known as extrinsic motivation. In addition, Herzberg (1993:49) also identified physical conditions, the amount of work and facilities available for doing the work as extrinsic rewards.In his categorization, Herzberg included competition as extrinsic motivation because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.

According to several authorities, the proper approach to work motivation lies in a careful distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Herzberg (1964) distinguishes between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. He goes further to define extrinsic reward as salaries, fringe benefits, and job security and intrinsic reward of the job itself such as self-respect, sense of accomplishment and personal growth.


Teaching is concerned with giving directives to an individual who will result in a change in behaviour of the individual. Achinine (1997) asserts that teaching in school is a formal action geared towards providing opportunities for the pupils to positively change behaviour. Teaching is both an art and a science that use methods to shape behaviour.

Here in Nigeria, this noble profession has been bastardized by unaccomplished promises and educational policies. Let us trace the certification of Nigerian teacher from independence. The 1960s teachers were next to the white colonial masters in order of ranking. They were respected and valued. A community of old always consults him before taking any decision because his input is crucial to the decision of the elders. The olden days teachers were robust and well fed. They never suffered anything. Their accommodation and food were taken care of by the community. They represented the community at government and other meetings. These satisfactions made them to produce graduates of higher quality. Noble Nigerians like Tafawa Belewa, Alhaji Shehu Shagari and late Samuel Akintola were teachers before they joined politics.

But a modern time teacher is not recognized and valued in any where. He goes with tattered cloths and worn-out shoes. He never introduces himself before important people as a teacher, if he want to be recognized. He is always hungry and hence, always angry. Because his salary is too meager to sustain his family, he resorts to farming and other businesses to make the end meet. Because of these distractions, universities and other institutions of higher learning began to produce half baked graduate which destroyed the standard of education in Nigeria.

Former minister of Education, Fafunwa in his contribution to education in Nigeria on Punch News Paper of 1st October,2010 to commemorate the fiftieth National Anniversary which he tagged “Education: Large in quantity, poor in quality. He assessed the quality and state of Nigerian education before independence, at independence and what obtains now. He said “You should be mindful of this fact that when you are dealing with a small number of students with surplus facilities and well-motivated cum quality teachers, quality will be guaranteed and so there will be a big gap in quality when doing the same with a huge number of students in a crowded classroom, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusioned teachers. Before and shortly after independence, facilities were superb, we had fewer number of students, teachers welfare was adequate and the general environment was good” In his view, compared to the quality of education before independence, at independence and what obtains now. He was of the view that why education excelled before independence was because there was adequate facilities and teachers were motivated.

He goes further to complain about the present Language policy, which he asserts “For education, our language policy must change. We must use our mother tongue to teach our children if we must experience growth in our search for technological advancement. Nations like China, Japan, Spain, Germany and India are examples of nations that have experienced development as a result of this”.





The main purpose of this study was to identify the reading difficulties students’ encounter while studying English as a second language in junior secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone. The design for this study was Ex-post facto design. The study was carried out in three Local Government areas that made up Nsukka education zone in Enugu state.  The local governments are Nsukka, Igbo-Etiti, and Uzo-Uwani local government areas. The population was made up of all the JSS1 students in Nsukka Education zone. Two hundred (200) students were purposively sampled. Two schools from urban and two schools from rural areas, two male schools and two female schools were used. The instrument for the study was an extract taken from the students’ recommended text. The students read the text while the researcher ticked the column in the rating scale that has the variable identified. Four research questions and two hypotheses were used for the research. The results were analyzed using mean, frequencies, standard deviation and t-test. The results were that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the students in the urban and those in the rural areas in the reading ability rating scale used. Based on the findings it was recommended that English teachers should as much as possible teach reading comprehension with teaching materials such as audio- visual aids, audio tapes, pattern repetition and the use of flannel boards. Government should provide teaching aids such as audio visual aids and language laboratories. This will enable students understand what they are taught.



Background of the study

The history of English language in Nigeria and how it came to be Nigeria’s second language is not without our knowledge. Nigeria with over four hundred (400) multi- lingual communities and dialects use

English as her lingua franca and language of commerce and industry. Anyanwu and Otagburagu (2002) observed that English language came to Nigeria between 1781 and 1861. They explained that the teaching of English dated back to the early days of the European trading expeditions. According to Ogbuehi (2002) English language first came to Nigeria through European trade and later through the imposition of colonialism that the Portuguese and some English traders established Pidgin English with the native along the coast of Niger delta for the trading.

Many factors contributed to the acceptance of the English language as Nigeria’s national language, one of them being that Nigeria has many languages and different cultures. Anyanwu and Otagburagu (2002) observed that the colonization of Nigeria led to the adoption of the language of the colonial masters. They further explained that the attitude of the colonial masters towards the use of the indigenous language for official purposes was negative. This kind of attitude prevented the colonial masters to use one of the local languages for official functions. These made way for the acceptance of English language as the best and Nigeria’s national language and lingua franca.

Today English language is the chief medium of instruction in Nigerian schools. Mgbodile (1999) agreed that the English language is one of the most important subjects both in internal and external communications and for gaining admission into institutions of higher learning. He observed that parents encourage the use of English language and wanted their children to learn and speak the white man’s language. This is why the teaching of English language should be given adequate encouragement to make the future Nigerians fluent in both spoken and written English.

English language is a core subject in all the levels of Nigeria educational system, and every learner is expected to have at least a pass in it. The English language is made up of four skills: listening, reading and writing. Reading is a complex skill which is expressive in nature; it plays a very vital role in the educational life of an individual. Thus Ekpunobi (1991) stated that the ability to read is necessary for success in life and it is a sign of literacy. It follows then that as student who cannot read efficiently has failed to acquire the skill that will enable him/her to become a literate person in the society. Therefore, reading is an important activity in a child’s education because it is a major process towards success in his/her educational pursuit. After the child has acquired his first language, he must learn to read the second language under the guidance of the school or other external body. He must learn to develop skills in reading; such as intensive/extensive, critical/pleasure reading. Otagburuagu and Igbokwe (2001) agreed that reading is the key to the most advanced stages. In other words, reading is very crucial to learning because reading exposes a child to a wide range of information and knowledge. Yankson (1985) defines reading as an active attempt on the part of the reader to understand a writer’s message. He states further that a more demanding type of reading is the ability to critically analyze and judge a text.

Reading, therefore, is an act of decoding printed matter. According to Anukam (1999) reading involves the association of sounds and symbols. Nwadike (2001) suggested that reading is an act of deciphering what is written. It is a receptive form of communication and differs from speaking and writing in being a comprehensive activity. It is a thinking process, which involves making sounds and interpreting symbols. Acquiring reading skills implies not only the ability to recognize and say aloud the printed words on a page but also what they mean. Reading involves a combination of activities of the eye, which is perceives and explores the verbal symbols and sounds, which discovers and interprets the thought that lie beneath them. It is also clear that reading means far more than visual exploration of printed or written words, it is in fact a very important aspect of the art of the psychology of learning. Reading is thinking and as such a reader has to understand the author’s thought and not merely his words. The process of reading is very complex and many phases or aspects are involved in the completion of this process. The first process in reading is the sensory impression which, maybe either visual or tactile. The auditory sense is also very important to the reading process, since a beginning stage in reading is the association of the printed symbol with spoken language. Reading is seen as an associational process because learning to read depends on a number of the types of associations. The child starts learning to associate objects and ideas with spoken words. This shows that reading is an art depending on visual letter recognition.

The reading background provided at home is a powerful factor in finding out how well the child will excel in school. Parents, who show interest in the reading of their children at home, build strong foundation in the reading habit of their children. A happy home and the presence of variety of attractive and colorful books for children enhance better chances of reading at school. Parents at home exert great influence on a child’s life. This means that if parents are interested in their children’s performance in reading and thus show appreciation of their success; the child will be motivated. It is also evident that there is a link between the development of reading ability and the socio- economic background of the child. Azikiwe (1988) suggested that if the home and its environment did not provide a child with the opportunity to use materials that are familiar with the English language, the child’s reading abilities will be retarded. In other words the socio- economic background of a child determines to a large extent the success or problem a child encounters in reading.

Another contributing factor to the success or failure in reading of the child is poor home environment/background. Most secondary school students especially those from rural areas come from poor homes and as such lack reading materials because they could not afford the relevant texts. Illiteracy of some parents also contribute to poor reading abilities of students because those parents who are rich but are illiterates do not know the value of reading and as such cannot encourage their children to have necessary reading materials. Therefore, a child’s home and background determines to a large extent whether the child will be good or bad reader.

Nevertheless, some reading difficulties have been identified as; inability to decode printed materials, low retention as a result of regression, nervousness, mother tongue interference, lack of retention among others. Regression is moving backwards on already read lines or sentences. Azikiwe (1988) observed that pupils in the primary schools were often forced to move backwards to the beginning of a sentence or phrase because of a strange word which they may come across, thereby losing the meaning of the already read words. Learners encounter considerable difficulties when learning a second language especially the English language which is a foreign language in Nigeria this is because the sound system/ the grammar of the first language (L1) or the mother tongue impose difficulties on the new language or second language (L2) which leads to foreign language pronunciation and grammatical errors. Nervousness affects the reading of some students especially those from rural areas who may not be privileged to have been taught mainly with English. They may be nervous when expressing themselves in the English language, because they feel that others are laughing at their expressions and pronunciations.

The need for good foundation in reading cannot be over emphasized as there is a widespread complaint about low level of achievements in the English language among students in secondary schools. The West African examination council O’ level results has continued to show that English language has one of the least numbers of passes.  The West African examination council chief Examiners report (1998-2001) has confirmed this report. Past researchers have commented on the concern of the parents to the low achievements of the students in English language in both junior certificate (JCE), and senior certificate examinations (SSCE). The federal government of Nigeria, in support of the need to improve on the achievement of English stated on the national policy on education (1998) stated that the goals of primary education is to inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effectively and to eradicate mass literacy where every Nigerian will be in the position to read and write.



The study examined the effects of PowerPoint Presentation modes on the achievement and retention of junior Secondary School three (JSS3) students in Basic science. Basic science students exposed to Text- picture mode of PowerPoint presentation were compared with their counterparts exposed to the Text- animation mode to ascertain whether significant differences exist in their mean achievement and retention scores. The study also investigated the influence of gender on academic achievement and retention of JSS3 students in Basic science. Four research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. The researcher reviewed related literature. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group research design involving two intact classes were used. The accessible population comprised of 1359 JSS3 basic science students in the 11 co-educational public secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area. A sample of eighty (80) students from two co-educational schools were drawn from two intact classes. Purposive sampling technique was used to sample Nsukka Central Development Council and the two schools that were used for the study. Random sampling techniques were used to draw two intact classes in the two schools. The classes were assigned to the two treatment groups, Text-picture and Text-animation modes of PPT by balloting. The regular Basic science teachers of the selected schools were trained and used for the study. The instrument for data collection was the Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT). The BSAT with a temporal stability of 0.78 and internal consistency of 0.63was found to be adequate. Four BSAT items were adopted from (JSSCE) past questions while 22 were adapted. The instrument was validated by three experts, one in Measurement and Evaluation, one in Science Education and one in Arts Education. The data was analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation and Analysis of Covariance. The result of the analysis showed that Text-animation group performed better than Text-picture group in achievement and retention in Basic science, though not significant. Gender was not a significant factor in students’ achievement and retention in Basic science. The interactive effects of modes of PowerPoint presentation and gender on students’ achievement in Basic science was not significant. It was then recommended that teachers should embrace the use of Text-animation mode of PowerPoint presentation in the instructional process. Training, Orientation courses, workshops and seminars on how to design learning content using good presentation software like PowerPoint presentation should be conducted for basic science teachers. It was also suggested that Professional organizations like the National Association of Educational Media and Technology (NAEMT), Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and all other stakeholders in Education should undertake the production of text-animation mode of PowerPoint presentation packages for instructional use in schools. Both male and female students should be given equal opportunity in exploring text-animation mode of PowerPoint presentation and other innovative techniques in teaching and learning Basic science. It was concluded that Text-animation mode of PPT is an operationally plausible strategy for the enhancement of students’ achievement and retention in Basic science at the secondary school level in Nigeria.



Background of study

Education is the key that enable the public to move with time and attain excellence in science and technology. This is why the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) stated clearly in the National Policy on Education, that education as an instrument could be used to meet the needs of people and determine the kind of society which would evolve. However, there are many levels of education in Nigeria they include; Nursery/pre-primary education, Primary education, Secondary education and Tertiary education. One of the aims and objectives of secondary education is to provide trained manpower in the applied science and raise a generation of people who can think and contribute to the development of the society (FRN, 2004).An important aspect of secondary education is science education. Science education enables people to use scientific principles and processes in making personal decision and to participate in discussion of scientific issues that affect the society. (National Science Education Standard, 1996).
However, science education is the bedrock of a realistic national development. There are two basic fields of science. They include: Natural science, the study of the natural world and Social science; the systematic study of human behaviour. Natural and Social science runs across the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth science etc., all embedded in a given subject known as Basic Science. Basic Science is one of the subjects taught/offered in the Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Basic science is formally called integrated science. It is an integrated science course that generally deals with the study of living things and non-living things. Basic science, is the first form of science a child comes across at the Secondary school level. It prepares students at the Junior Secondary School level for the study of core science subjects (physics, chemistry, biology) at the Senior Secondary School level (Olarewaju,1994). This by implication, means that for a student to be able to study single science subjects at the Senior Secondary School level successfully, such student had to be well grounded in basic science at the Junior Secondary School level. Teachers, School administrators, Curriculum experts and Society at large believe that basic science prepares and grooms the students to do well in science subjects in their senior classes and in university education.Basic Science Curriculum was reviewed in the year 2007 by Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), where some new topics like: desertification, drug abuse, depletion of ozone layer and their effects among others were added to the existing one to create awareness on the high rate of climate change in the world today. Depletion of Ozone layer as one of the new topics in JSS3 is a very important topic to be taught with a concerted effort. This is because the rate at which Ozone layer depletes and its effect on human being is increasing with time. However, having taught junior secondary school three students for five years, the researcher observed that there are some topics in the basic science curriculum that are difficult to teach and learn as well. Depletion of ozone layer is one of them. Ozone layer can be depleted by production and emission of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), which accounts for about 80% of the total depletion of ozone, hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) and Volatile organic compound (VOCs). These gases are often emitted by vehicles, as a bi-product of industrial process, refrigerants and aerosols (Chandramita, 2012). As the ozone depletes in the stratosphere, it forms a ‘hole’ in the layer. This hole enables harmful ultraviolet rays to enter the earth’s atmosphere. This brings about many health’s related issues like skin cancer, eye damage, cataracts, immune system damage, difficulty in breathing, chest pain, throat irritation, as well as earth disasters and climate change across the globe.
Many reports and researches have shown series of earth disasters and other effects of ozone layer depletion in Nigeria and in the world at large. For instance, it was reported by the state of Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Agency that the flooding in Kano in August 2013 destroyed about 408 houses. Over one thousand, two hundred (1,200) houses were destroyed and seven thousand (7,000) people displaced in Abare and Toni – Angiama in Patani area of Delta state as a result of flood in October 5th2012.Atawa (2012) reported that there has been high amount of rainfall which has been attributed to climate change and global warming as a result of depletion of Ozone layer.
It is quite alarming that the public seems not to be aware of Ozone layer depletion and how to prevent or reduce its effect on the earth and its inhabitants. Tosin (2013) pointed out that despite the spirited sensitisation programme and advocacy by different environmental right group and intercontinental bodies; it appears that many people still do not have idea of what climate change is and the attendant environmental issues that face them as individuals or as a nation. This may be attributed to ignorance or lack of information.
Ignorance of the people thereby affects students in Junior Secondary Schools. Therefore, it is important to give adequate information on climate change to the young Nigerian students, especially those in the junior secondary schools. Such new topic as ozone layer depletion is introduced in their curriculum to sensitise and educate them on how to be conscious of their environment and to be able to prevent those earth disasters and their effects. Failure to teach and learn these topics well may lead to poor academic achievement.
Achievement is what someone has done successfully, especially using his own effort and skill (Ishiwu, 2014). In the same line, Igbo (2014) in Anekwe (2006) defined achievement as the capability to operate efficiently, react quickly or perfectly to a given task. In his words he stated that to achieve is to accomplish, acquire or gain by effort or do something successfully with an effort or skill. Academic achievement on the other hand is an outcome of teaching and learning encountered. (Anekwe 2006). It reflects the extent to which students have attained their educational stated objectives as well as students’ cognitive attainment in the core subjects at school level. In line with the above Iwundu, in Ernest-Ehibudu and Opurum (2013) defined academic achievement as the degree or level of success attained at the end of an endeavour. The yardstick for measuring ones level of academic achievement is by assessing the academic performance of an individual through test and observation. Students’ achievement tests are used to describe student’s strength and difficulties as at the time the test was given. It is mostly used in determining the relative position or rank of students with respect to their performance in various fields of learning, for instance sciences. Anekwe (2006) defined science achievement as a test for measurement and comparison of skills among science students. This shows rate of knowledge demonstrated by an individual after learning has taken place. Operationally, Science achievement can be defined as how well a learner accomplishes work in science setting and changes in behaviour after learning has taken place. Students’ poor achievement in basic science has been observed over the years, with special reference to secondary school students in Nsukka local government of Enugu State. The result of Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) conducted by state Ministry of Education, Enugu in 2012, 2013, and 2014 indicates students’ poor achievement and difficulty in crediting Basic science. Specifically, schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, in the above mentioned years, 22.5% of students scored credit or above credit grade while about 74.5% had ordinary pass in Basic science (Appendix 1).The rate of achievement may be dependent on the ability of the learner to retain what has been learnt.
Retention is referred to as the ability to remember or utilize already acquired knowledge and skill. It is also seen as the skill or knowledge or competencies a learner acquire and internalizes from a learning situation after forgetting has taken place, (Ezugwu, 2013).However, Momoh, in Abd-El-Aziz (2013) defined retention as the repeat performance by a learner, of behaviour earlier acquired, elicited after an interval of time. A student is said to have retained something when he/she has the capacity to remember something, knowledge, skill, habits, attitude or other responses initially acquired. This implies that high retention may lead to high achievement.
Some research studies showed that inadequate coverage of syllabus, ineffective method of teaching and instructional media used, can make or mar the retention and achievement rate of a particular concept taught. The manner in which science subjects are taught by teachers in the classrooms had been highlighted as an important factor affecting students’ achievement and retention in science. Udeji (2007) and Udousoro (2002) in their studies identified that method of teaching adopted by a teacher affects the level of student’ retention and achievement in school. Supporting this, Omeje (2001) stated that the extent to which a teaching method is effective can be judged from the effect of the teaching method on student’s achievement in class test and examination (both external and internal). In line with the above, Ezugwu (2013) noted that effective teaching as a result of the use of appropriate method and instructional media might facilitate learning and make it more meaningful. Effective teaching helps the learner to learn better while poor teaching would naturally lead to poor learning and consequently poor achievement and retention.




This study attempts to find out the phonological problems of Edem Secondary School students in the English language. In achieving this goal, 61 students out of a total of 242 students were sampled using descriptive survey design, because it is aimed at collecting data on features and facts about a given population and describing it in a systematic manner.

A self-made competence test (Phonological reading passage) was used as instrument for data collection.

The findings reveal that Edem students have phonological problem of using /t/ sound for // sound, /d / sound in place of /ð/ sound and /n/ sound for /l / sound. Hence London is pronounced Nondon. In Edem dialect of Igbo it has been discovered that both /l/ and /n/ are found in their dialect but they cannot make the distinction between the two.

Again, they insert vowel sounds in between consonants, and each word with consonant ending they put a final vowel.

Finally, the irregularity in English pronunciation affect Edem students greatly.



Background of the Study

          Language is the major tool of communication in human society and speech occupies a major position in most discussions of language as a communicative medium. One of the major characteristics of man, according to Mgbodile (1999), is his ability to use language to send messages about objects, events and situations around him. Speech is what distinguishes man from other animals. Speech is paramount to any language and knowledge of the English Language cannot be appreciably good without effective manipulation of the speech sounds, for linguistics competence, according to  Chukwuma,H and Otagburuagu,E(1997), is based mainly on oracy. So, the mastery of English is highly connected to the mastery of the spoken form of it.

From the early age, a normal child responds to the sounds which his elders use to communicate with him. In his bid to communicate and get his needs identified and satisfied, the child begins to imitate the sounds which he has heard from his elders. His dire need to communicate with the adult community and his constant hearing and imitation of the language make it possible for him to acquire his mother tongue or his first language. Ogbuehi (2003) asserts that every normal child acquires the sound system and the speech patterns of his mother tongue in a normal way through imitation of sounds from adult group.

On the other hand, learning to speak a second language or foreign language usually involves some rigours and challenges because the learner has to learn the sound systems and the prosodic features of the second language against the already firmly consolidated first language in the mind of the learner. The problem is partly that some languages are tonal and syllable-timed and others are stress-timed and various speech sounds have distinctive acoustic properties. The adjustment to these differences may lead to a mismatch and therefore the learner may produce sounds that cannot be understood by other users of the same language. Onuigbo (1990) asserts that learning to speak a second language is psychologically demanding because the learner already feels comfortable towards the phonological systems of his native language. Mackey (1965) agrees that a person who has been using only one language since early childhood has habits and thoughts which are closely tied to his habits of language, and that language is a part of his experience. He concludes that in learning a second language, the learner has to adjust his speech habits to accommodate those of the target language. This according to Otagburuagu and Okorji (2002) is because languages have their individual peculiar phonological and phonemic features which must be mastered and used by the learner for mutual intelligibility with the native speakers and other users of the language.

Many learners of a second language cannot make this adjustment successfully. They approximate the phonological features of the second or target language with those of their mother tongue.   Put in another way, they allow the speech habits of their mother tongue or their first language to interfere with the speech habits of the target language. This phenomenon, according to Akindele and Adegbite (1999), is known in the language register as phonological interference.

Phonological interference is a term which refers to a linguistic occurrence in which two different languages over lap and the linguistic system of one of the languages is transferred into the other in a process of producing the latter which is the second or target language. Interference, according to Baldeh (1990) is the major obstacle in the teaching of the English language and it constitutes a great problem to the learning of a second language for it can hinder mutual understanding and intelligibility and consequently affects performance in target language. This has resulted in the variety of English language in Nigeria called “Nigerian English”. Mgbodile (1999) is of the view that mother tongue interference is a great problem to second language learners of English. The Nigerian child should be taught to perceive and produce correct pronunciation, stress and intonation in the target language, which in Nigeria is English.





Ntọala Nchọcha
Ọgụgụ bụ otu n’ime nka onye na-amụ akwụkwọ kwesiri inweta n’ogo praịmarị. Nke a bụ ihe dị oke mkpa n’ebe ihe ọmụmụ ndị ọzọ dị bụ nke ọ ga-ahụta onwe ya n’agụmakwụkwọ praịmarị ya niile. Ihe bụ oke ọrụ nke onye nkuzi bụ ime ka ụmụ akwụkwọ nwee ezi ntọala n’ebe ọgụgụ dị. Nka mmụta ọgụgụ dị mkpa niihi na ọ na-eweta ọganihu na ngalaba mmụta niile. Ọ kachasị mkpa maka na ọ na-akwalite ọgụgụ isi na nka mmụta nke mmadụ (Dechant, 1980). Onye nchọcha na-eche na o nwere ihe jikọtara ọgụgụ na echiche. Ọ na-eche echiche ma chemie ya nke ọma bụ onye ahụ nke na-agụ ihe ọgụgụ nke ọma kwa mgbe (Ogenyi, 2006).
Ọgụgụ bụ nka. Dị ka nka ndị ọzọ, mmadụ ga-enweriri nka ọgụgụ ka o wee nwee ike isonye n’ụwa ọ nọ na ya. E nwere usoro dị iche iche onye nkuzi asụsụ na-agbaso iji wee kuziri ụmụ akwụkwọ nka ọgụgụ dị ka usoro Abịdịị, usoro Ahụ-Ekwue, Usoro Akụkọ na usoro Ncheta/Nkwagide.

N’usoro Abịdịị, onye nkuzi asụsụ na-akụziri ụmụ akwụkwọ etu e si agụpụta abịdịị site na – A B CH D. Ọ na-aka mma ibu ụzọ mụa abịdịị ndị nnukwu tupu abịdịị ndị obere.
N’usoro Ahụ – Ekwue, onye nkuzi na-edepụta okwu ndị nwere mkpụrụedide atọ maọbụ anọ ka ụmụ akwụkwọ supee ma gụa. Iji maatụ: oke, aka, anya, akwa, akpa.
N’usoro Akụkọ, ụmụ akwụkwọ na-amụ ọgụgụ site n’ịkọ akụkọ. Nke a na-eme n’ụzọ dị iche iche. O nwere ike ịbụ akụkọ n’ọnụ nwekwa ike bụrụ na tepu. Ụmụ akwụkwọ ga-akọ akụkọ a ugboro ugboro wee rue mgbe ha buru ya n’isi.

N’usoro Ncheta/Nkwagide ụmụ akwụkwọ na amụ ọgụgụ site n’ige ntị na-ikwugarị ihe ha nụrụ, ụmụ akwụkwọ na-ege ntị n’ihe ọgụgụ kwa mgbe na-eto n’ịbụ ezigbo ndị ọgụụ.
Ndị ọrụ aka dị ka ndị ọkpụ blọkụ, ndị ọkpụ ụzụ, ndị kapịnta, ndị na-agbaihe ọkụ, ndị ọchụ nta, ndị nka na ndị ọrụ ugbo bụ ndị nwere ọrụ nka n’ụdị dị n’akụkụ nke ha. Site n’onyinye na nka ha nwere ka ha ji egbo mkpa. N’otu aka ahụ, onye nwere mmụta site n’ọgụgụ na-enwe ọnọdụ n’ebe ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ na ndị nwere nghọta nọ n’obodo.
N’usoro echiche a, ọgụụ anaghị agba mbọ ịghọta mbunuche odee. Ọtụtụ ihe bụ mbunuche e ji na-agụ ihe ọgụgụ. A na-agụ iji wee nwee ọgụgụ isi, ozi gbasara ihe, mmadụ maọbụ isiokwu. N’ogo praịmarị, mbunuche ime nchọcha na nghọta echiche ndị mmadụ na-abụ na klasị dị elu. Na klasị nta, ihe ha na-emekarị bụ ịmata mkpụrụ edide, ịgụpụta mkpụrụ okwu na ahịrịokwu. N’oge a na-ezu ike, a na-agụ ihe ọgụgụ iji wee nweta obi ụtọ.
Ihe ndị a ka a na-eme iji nwee izu ike. Ịmụ ihe bụ ụzọ e si enweta ezi ọgụgụ. N’ọmụmụ ihe, a na-agụmi ma na-agụsi ihe ọgụgụ ike iji wee gafee n’ule akwụkwọ. Ịji ezigbo nka ọgụgụ na-eweta ọganihu n’ọmụmụ na nkuzi asụsụ. Dị ka Alo (2001) si wee kwuo, ọgụgụ bụ ngwa dị oke mkpa mmadụ ji amụ ma na-esonye n’akụnaụba ọgbara ọhụrụ. N’agbanyeghi nke a, ọgụgụ na-akwado mmadụ n’ọrụ nwadiala. Ọ na-eme nke a site n’inye ya ike ịnara na ịyọchapụta ihe ndị niile e deturu n’akwụkwọ iji wee nye aka chepkwaba ahịrị, ụda na njimara ndụ ọha obodo. Baldeh (1990) dere iji kwado ihe ndị ọkammụta ndị ọzọ kwuru gbasara ọgụgụ. N’arụmarụ ụka ya, ọ kọwara na ọgụgụ na odide na-enyere ụmụ mmadụ aka inweta ihe. Enyemaka a na-eweta mgbamume nke na-akwalite isonye n’ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya n’obodo a haziri ahazi. Ndị ọka mmụta niile n’agbanyeghi ebe onye tozuru etozu kwekọrịtara na ọgụgụ bụ isi ntughe n’usoro agụmakwụkwọ (Mgbodile, 1991). Ọtụtụ na ndị ọkachamara n’usoro agụmakwụkwọ ebidwo na-eti mkpu n’ihe gbasara ọdịda n’agụmakwụkwọ dị n’obodo ọkachasị Naịjịrịa.
Ọtagburuagụ (2001) na-egosi na ebe e nwere ọtụtụ asụsụ dị ka Naịjịrịa, ịgụ akwụkwọ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-adabere karịa na mbọ ụlọ akwụkwọ. Ma ụlọ akwụkwọ enweghị ngwa ọrụ ha ga-eji wee mejupụta ihe ndị nne na nna n’ụlọ ebe ụmụ akwụkwọ si wee pụta tụrụ anya a n’aka ha, n’agbanyeghi na ụmụ akwụkwọ bịara n’aka ha ka ha nweta mmụta.
Ụfọdụ ntọala na-emetụta ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-esite n’inye ụmụ akwụkwọ ohere ọgụgụ site n’aka ndị nne na nna na ndị nkuzi nakwa usoro agụmakwụkwọ enwere bụ nke enweghi ike ịkpalite mmụọ ha n’inye ha nkwado. Ntọala akụnaụba nne na nna na ntọala agụmakwụkwụ ha na-enwe nnukwu mmetụta n’ ọgụgụ na mmụta akwụkwọ ha. Ụmụ akwụkwọ si n’ezinaụlọ a gụrụ akwụkwọ nwekwa ego na-agụ ọgụgụ nke ọma karịa ụmụ akwụkwọ sị n’ezinaụlọ agụghị akwụkwọ ma ha enweghi ego. Ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ na-azụtara ụmụ akwụkwọ ha akwụkwọ ya na-ngwa ọgụgụ ndị ọzọ bụ nke na-akpalite mmọọ ha ịmụ ka e si agụ mgbe ha ka dị obere. N’otu aka ahụ, nwata akwụkwọ si n’ezinaụlọ akụnaụba dị na-enwe ezigbo ngwa ọgụgụ na akwụkwọ nke na-eme ka o nwee ezigbo agwa na mmasị n’ ọgụgụ. N’otu aka ahụ, ụmụ ndị ọka mmụta, ndị nkụzi na ndị ọrụ bekee na-eme nke ọma n’ule karịa ụmụ ndị na-azụ ahịa na ndị ọrụ aka dị iche iche.

Ubahakwe (1973) kwuru na nka ọnụnụ ihe na okwukwu okwu ụmụ akwụkwọ na-adabe n’ahụmihe ha. Ọ na-ahịa ahụ ịghọta ọgụgụ ma ọ bụrụ na ahụmihe eyitaghị nghọta ọgụgụ. Iji maatụ, ọ bụrụ na ụmụ akwụkwọ si n’ime obodo a gụa akụkọ gbasara ndụ ndị nọ n’obodo mepere emepe, aghọtaazaa akụkọ ha ga-adị iche na nke ụmụ akwụkwọ nweelara nghọta ndụ ndị nọ n’obodo mepere emepe site n’ahụmihe. Ntọala ahụmimihe nwata akwụkwọ Naịjịrịa na-apụta ihe n’ụdị dị iche na nke si na ngwa ọmụmụ n’akwụkwọ egwuregwu ọ gụrụ.
Unoh (1968) depụtara ihe ndị a dị ka ihe dị mkpa n’asụsụ nwata akwụkwọ ga-amata ka o wee nwee ike meta nke ọma na òtu mkpụrụ okwu, ndọkọ ahịrịokwu, ngwaa, akara edide, na usoro mmebe okwu. O kwuru na naanị ma nwata akwụkwọ nwere ezigbo nghọta ihe ndị a niile, ọgụgụ edemede na mmekọrịta ya ga-ajọ njọ.
Itsuokor (1991) chọpụtara na gburugburu mmadụ nke nwere ike ịmetụta ọgụgụ aghọtaazaa na ngosi gụnyere ụdịrị ụlọ akwụkwọ nwata akwụkwọ gụrụ na ya, ụdịrị ndị nkụzi kụziiri ya, ntọala ezinaụlọ, mgbanwe ụlọ akwụkwọ maọbụ nkwụsị maka mkpatara dị iche iche. Ihe ndị a niile ga-emetụta nka agụmakwụkwọ nwata akwụkwọ, mmasị ọgụgụ n’emume ngosi nchemi echiche ya.
Okwor na Enyiobi (1986) kwuru na mgbado anya ndị nne na nna na-enye ụmụ ha na ụdị mgbado anya ha na-enye ha na-emetụta nka ngosi ụmụ akwụkwọ n’ụlọ akwụkwọ. Ndị nne na nna ga-enye ụmụ ha n’ọrụ skuul ha oge, nke a ga-arụ ọrụ dị ka ihe mkpalite mmụọ nke ga-eweta mgbakwunye na mmasị ọgụgụ n’emume ngosi nchemi echiche ụmụ ha. Ha gara n’ihu na-ekwu na mbọ ndị nne na nna na-emetuta emume ngosi ụmụaka n’asụsụ ha. Mgbe nne na nna enweghị ike ịnọrụ ala, nke a na-emetụta emume ngosi ụmụaka niihi na ụmụaka anaghị atụkwasi obi n’ihe ha na-amụ maka obere nlekwasa anya nke a na-enye ha. Ha gara n’ihu na-ekwu na ọbụrụ na ngwa nke na-eme ka nwata akwụkwọ na-aga n’ihu n’ọmụmụ adịghị, nwata ahụ agaghị enweta ọkpụrụkpụ ihe mgbakwasa ụkwụ. E nyeghi nwata akwụkwọ ọkpụrụkpụ ihe mkpalite mmụọ ga-eme ka ọ ghara ịmeta nke ọma.

Ma mgbe ụfọdụ, nke a anaghị adịcha ire n’aka ụmụ akwụkwọ si n’ezinaụlọ akụnaụba dị. Ahụmihe ndị ọmụmụ nkụzi nwetara n’ebe ngosipụta ihe ọmụmụ ha na-egosi na ụmụ akwụkwọ enweghi akwụkwọ na-ebu ụzọ eme ihe omume ọgụgụ ha karịa ndị nwere akwụkwọ. Ihe nlere anya a bụ ihe ịtụnanya niihi na ihe a na-ahụbu atụgharịzịa n’akụkụ nke a. Ike kwa, enweghi ngwa ọgụgụ bụ ihe na-akpalite mmụọ ụmụ akwụkwọ ndị a ịgụ mgbe ọbụla ha nwere ohere ibite akwụkwọ n’aka ụmụ akwụkwọ ibe ha maọbụ n’ọba akwụkwọ. E nwere ndị nne na nna agụghị akwụkwọ, ha enweghi ego ịzụta ezigbo ngwa ọgụgụ ma ha amakwaghi uru ngwa ọgụgụ bara. Ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ ndị Naijịrịa sonyere na ndị dị etu a. Akwụkwọ ọgụgụ ha na-ahụ anya izizi bụ n’ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị praịmarị ebe akwụkwọ a ga-agụ na klaasị bụ naanị akwụkwọ ọgụgụ ha ga-enwe.
Ntọala ndị ọzọ nwere mmetụta na mbọ na ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ gụnyekwara agbụrụ na-eziputa ụdị omeme mmadụ site n’aka fere aka. Mgbe ụfọdụ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-eñomi inwe isi akwụkwọ maọbụ enweghi isi akwụkwọ site n’aka ndị bu ha ụzọ n’ezinaụlọ. N’aka nke ọzọ, ịhụnanya na akpọmasị ụmụ akwụkwọ na ngwa ọgụgụ dị ka akwụkwọ ọgụgụ ha, usoro ọgụgụ na ndị nkuzi na-enwekwa mmetụta n’ ọgụgụ.
Echiche izugbe n’aka ndị nkwado mmụta na ndị ọha obodo bụ na ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị dara ada. Ihe a na-ahụ ụbọchi niile na-egosi na ọgụgụ kanọ n’agba mbụ n’obodo a bụ Naịjịrịa.
Mbunuche nchọcha nke ọha bụ ịchọpụta ntọala onye na nka ọgụgụ igbo: ka o si metuta ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị. Nchọcha a na-agbado ụkwụ n’ịchọpụta ma: ntọala akụnaụba ụmụ akwụkwọ o nwere mmetụta na nka ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị; etu nkwado ndị nne na nna si emetụta nka ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị; etu ntọala ọgụgụ akwụkwọ nne na nna si-emetụta nka ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị; na etu inwe mmasị ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ si n’ezinaụlọ ndị a gụrụ akwụkwọ si di iche na nke ndị si n’ezinaddụlọ agụghị akwụkwọ. Ndị klaasị nke ise ka a ga-eji mee nchọcha a niihi na a tụụ anya na ndị klaasị nke ise ga-agụta ihe ọgụgụ nke ọma.
Ọgụgụ bụ ngwa dị oke mkpa iji wee nweta nka dị iche iche na ihe mmadụ tosiri ịmata ka o wee tozuo na ndụ ya. Ọ bụ ihe dị oke mkpa na ụmụ akwụkwọ ga-enwe ezigo mmasị n’ịgụ akwụkwọ ma sikwa etu a kwalite usoro agụọazaa. Ọ bụ site n’ihe dị etu a ka e ji wee malite ọmụmụ a iji wee chọpụta ntọala ónyē na nka ọgụgụ Igbo, ka osi metuta ụmụ akwụkwọ ọkachasị ndị nọ n’ụlọ akwụkwọ nke ogo praịmarị.

Nsogbu Nchọcha
Echiche izugbe n’aka ndị nkwado mmụta na ndị ọha obodo bụ na ọgụgụ ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị dara ada. Ihe a na-ahụ ụbụchi niile na-egosi na ọgụgụ n’obodo a bụ Naịjịrịa kanọ n’agba mbụ. Ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ si n’ụlọ akwụkwọ praịmarị ejighi ezigbo ntọala ọgụgụ banye sekọndịrị nke nta. Nke a na-egbochi ịghọta akwụkwọ ọgụgụ na ihe omume a na-enye ha. Ụdị ọnọdụ dị etu a na-ebute emeghi nke ọma n’ule ha ji apụta na praịmarị. Nwaogu (1973) na-egosi na e wezuga nka inwe ike ọgụgụ, mmadụ ga-abụ ogbi n’ụzọ nghọta, ịmata ihe, ahụmihe nke ndụ ma bụrụ onye nnọrọmele karịa isonye n’iketa oke n’amamihe nke ụwa.
Nsogbu ụmụ akwụkwọ na-enwe n’ọgụgụ na-esitekarị n’enweghị nghọta mpụtara mkpụrụ okwu. Ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-ewere nghọta ọbụla ha chepụtara nye okwu ha amaghị nghọta ya, ma site etu a, ha anaghị enwe nghọta ederede ha na-agụ. Naanị ma ụmụ akwụkwọ nwere nghọta mpụtara mkpụrụ okwu, ha agaghị enwe ike kọwaa mpụtara mkpụrụ okwu a na-ekwu maka ya.
Nsogbu nchọcha a wee bụrụ kedu ka ntọala onye si emetuta nka ọgụgụ Igbo nke ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị n’okpuru ọchịchị Nsụka n’Enugu Steeti.




Background of the study

The use of language for verbal communication is what basically differentiates man from the lower animals. In most speech communities, language acquisition begins with the mother tongue. The mother tongue is often conceived as the first language of the child’s parents. Thus, the child usually acquires the mother tongue before being introduced to the learning of a second language.

The learning of any language usually takes cognizance of the phonetic system of the language. This is often identified as the segmental phonemes, made up of the vowel and consonant sound segments. The composition and distribution of the segmental phonemes may however differ from language to language. Studies have revealed that the acquisition of the mother tongue by the child is very crucial because often times it is used as a resource for the learning of a second language. Since the phonological systems of any two languages are never the same, however, the second language learner may take to substituting some elements of the phonological system of the second language (L2) with those of his first language (L1). This phenomenon may impede meaning because in the face of such phonological conflicts, the native speaker may find certain utterances made by the second language learner unintelligible. Language transfer theorists believe that the lexis, grammar and phonology of the learner’s first language impose themselves on the second language habit, thereby resulting in interference problems. Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech and Svartvik (1974:26) observe that “we tend to impose our native phonological pattern on any foreign language we learn.” Based on this linguistic principle, the researcher is convinced that the possibility of Idoma learners of English being phonologically influenced by the Idoma language cannot be disputed.

Obviously, in designing the oral English curriculum for secondary schools in Nigeria, the belief that mother tongue interference negatively affects students’ speaking skills, appears to be the fundamental consideration that informs the content of the senior school certificate oral English syllabus. In acknowledgement of this fact, the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) syllabus (2004-2008:191) clearly states, among other things, that the examination sets out to examine candidates’ ability to “use an acceptable pronunciation that can be comprehended by others.” This statement of objective underscores the need for adequate attention to be given to the teaching and learning of the English segmental phonemes.

Ironically, however, oral English as a language skill has suffered systematic neglect in our schools over the years. This development, to a large extent, has impacted negatively on the verbal accuracy and fluency of majority of our students, to the chagrin of parents, teachers, the government and other stake-holders in the nation’s education sector. This is because of the pivotal role played by the English language in the socio-economic and political life of our nation, Nigeria. For instance, in the words of Mazrui (1971) in Uzo (1999:2), the English language is “the medium of intellectual transformation, occupational and social mobility, and the crystallization of national consciousness”. Consequently, the researcher views the degenerating trend in the spoken English of our students as a negative development that portends negative consequences for our educational system.

Apparently, the factors responsible for the dwindling performance of students in oral English in particular, could be blamed on a number of indices, among which are poor attitudes towards the second language, low investment in education, poor training of teachers, non­-availability of teaching aids, poor teaching methods, government take-over of schools resulting in poor supervision and lowering of standards, poor social environment, poor motivation among the learners and the teachers, lack of commitment among the teachers, the explosion in in-take and student population, with consequent pressure and collapse of facilities, and of course mother tongue interference (Akwanya, 2007). While researches have tried to address these problems by offering practical solutions as it were, records have it that students’ deteriorating performance in English in external examinations like WASSCE and NECO (National Examinations Commission) has continued unabated. For instance the WAEC Chief Examiner’s report on English for the May/June (2007:7) states that:

Contrary to expectation, the performance of the candidates was awfully poor. Some of the candidates scored zero in the whole paper, having failed to write an answer that can earn a single mark in any section of the paper. It appears that a good number of schools registered illiterate and unqualified candidates for this test.

In reaction to the content of this report, the researcher has therefore decided to investigate into a crucial aspect of language concept which he thinks could have a fundamental impact on students’ performance in oral English; i.e the incidence of mother tongue interference as it affects the teaching and learning of the English segmental phonemes. In addressing the topic under investigation, the researcher feels that a comparison of the segmental phonemes of English and the indigenous language (Idoma) and an analysis of the similarities and dissimilarities in the phonemic inventory of the two languages would provide a road map for solution to students’ pronunciation problems. Thus, the principles of contrastive and error analysis will be used as parameters to guide the theoretical focus of the work.

In a world that has been reduced to a mere global village by ICT and its related technologies like GSM phones and a huge net work of internet services, communication in modern times should be accepted as increasingly interactive. It is therefore being suggested that, modern language teaching and learning should leave no stone unturned in ensuring that fluency and accuracy are not compromised by whatever techniques and strategies which are blended in any approach that is designed for the teaching of the English segmental phonemes in our secondary schools.

Statement of the problem

Over the years, the dwindling performance of students in oral English has been a source of concern to various stakeholders in the nation’s education sector. Investigations into this phenomenon have variously revealed that most of the spelling errors and misuse of words in candidates’ scripts in external examinations like WASSCE and NECO are actually deficiencies transferred or carried over from the spoken medium to the written medium. Experts are equally of the view that the first step towards accurate pronunciation in any foreign language being learnt starts with the learning of the phonetic system of the language. This will ensure, to a large extent, that the foreign or second language learner overcomes most of his pronunciation deficiencies. Based on this premise, the statement of the problem of this study can be posed thus: to what extent does the mother tongue interfere with the teaching and learning of the English segmental phonemes in secondary schools in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State? 

Purpose of the Study

The study is specifically designed to achieve the following objectives:-

  1. To identify the set of phonemes that pose articulatory problems to Idoma learners of English.
  2. To identify and categorize the pronunciation problems associated with Idoma learners of English.
  3. To identify some instructional approaches that can be used to minimize mother tongue interference in student’s pronunciation of the English segmental phonemes.

Significance of the Study

If this study is successfully carried out, its findings will be significant in a number of ways to students, teachers and curriculum designers of English as a second language.

For language teachers, the findings of this study will help to create awareness on the common pronunciation errors committed by majority of second language learners in the articulation of the English segmental phonemes. This awareness will help the teacher to organize his materials and strategize his teaching techniques to enhance students’ pronunciation.

Secondly, the findings of this study will also benefit the students of English as a second language. When the students are equipped with adequate knowledge of the similarities and differences in the in the phonetic systems of English and Idoma, it would go a long way in enhancing their communicative competence and therefore help to achieve the objective of the oral English curriculum in our secondary schools.

Thirdly, the findings of this study are also expected to help curriculum planners in formulating, revising and updating the Oral English curriculum based on the latest findings relating to language transfer at the phonological level.

Finally, the findings of this study are expected to ignite further investigation into the influence of mother tongue in the teaching and learning of English as a second language.

The Scope of the Study

The scope of the study actually took cognizance of language transfer at one linguistic level – phonetics. The study was therefore intended to make a contrastive analysis of the segmental phonemes of English and Idoma; analyze the phonemic differences and similarities in the two languages, with a view to identifying the set of phonemes that pose pronunciation problems to Idoma learners of English. The study was further expected to determine the extent to which mother tongue can affect gender achievement in the teaching and learning of the English segmental phonemes and of course examine some instructional approaches that can enhance students’ performance in oral English. 

Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated to guide the study:

  1. What category of phonemes do Idoma learners of English find difficult to articulate?
  2. How effective is the sentence drilling approach in the teaching and learning of the English segmental phonemes?
  3. To what extent does the Idoma language influence gender achievement in Oral English?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses (H0) were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

H01 Mother tongue influence has no significant effect on students’ perception of the English segmental phonemes.

H02 The sentence drilling approach has no significant effect on students’ achievement in oral English.

H03 Mother tongue has no significant effect on gender achievement in oral English.




Mbunuche nchqcha a bx inyochq mmetxta usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx n’ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo n’Okpuru Qch[ch[ Nsxka. O bukwuaz[ n’obi [mata ka jenda na mpaghara ebe xlqakwxkwq d[, na ka mmekqr[ta usoro nkuzi na jenda na usoro nkuzi na ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ si emetxta xmxakwxkwq n’qmxmx edemede Igbo. Ajxjx nchqcha ise na xmaokwu ise bx ihe duziri nchqcha a. Xd[ nchqcha ‘non-randomized control-group, pretest, posttest quasi-experimental design’ ka e ji mee ya. Xmxakwxkwq SSII d[ nar[ atq na anq (304), bx nd[ na-agx akwxkwq n’xlqakwxkwwq nd[ nwoke na nd[ nwaany[ na-agxkq qnx ka e seere maka nchqcha a. E ji usoro nsere ‘purposive’ sere xlqakwxkwq abxq d[ n’obodo mepere emepe ma jiri usoro nsere nhatanha (randomization) sere xlqakwxkwq abxq n’[me iri abxq nd[ d[ n’ime obodo. Usoro nsere nhatanha ka a gbasoro wee nweta klaas[ abxq abxq n’xlqakwxkwq anq nd[ a, ma jirikwa otu usoro ahx nweta nd[ otu ‘experiment’ n and[ otu ‘control’. Ngwa nchqcha bx nnwale ajxjx edemede asxsx Igbo (NAEAI) ka nd[ qkachamara mmadx atq n’amxmamx Asxsx n’Edukeshqn na Mahadum ala Naijir[a d[ na Nsxka nyochara. A nwalekwara ya n’isi xmxakwxkwq iri abxq sitere na Community Secondary School, Enugu-Ezike. E ji ‘Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance’ (W) nweta mkpebi maka maak[ xmxakwxkwq ahx nwetara. Ngwa nchqcha gosiri ntxkwas[obi n’ogo 0.842. E jiz[ ngwa nchqcha ahx nye nd[ e ji mee nchqcha nnwale mmalite na nnwale mmechi, na ngwxcha izuxka anq e mere nchqcha. Ihe e nwetara na nnwale nd[ a ka e ji zaa ajxjx nchqcha ma nwalee xmaokwu. Miin na nd[px n’izugbe ka e ji txchaa ajxjx nchqcha ma jiri ‘analysis of covariance’ (ANCOVA) nwalee xmaokwu n’ogo akara mpxtara nd[miiche 0.05. Isi ihe a chqpxtara bx na usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx nwere mmetxta pxtara ihe n’ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq n’qmxmx edemede Igbo, mana jenda na mpaghara ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ enwegh[ mmetxta pxtara ihe n’ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq n’qmxmx edemede Igbo. Site n’ihe a chqpxtara, alo a txrx gxnyere nd[ a: ka nd[ na-akuzi asxsx Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq sekqnd[r[ na-eji usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx wee na-akuzi edemede Igbo, ka iji usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx akuzi ihe soro n’ihe a na-akuzi nd[ a na-azxpxta maka nkuzi asxsx Igbo, na ka nd[ nhazi kqr[kulum tinye usoro nkuzi a maka nkuzi asxsx Igbo, oge ha ga-ahazighar[ kqr[kulum nd[ sekqnd[r[; tinyekwara [chqpxta ihe nd[ qzq e nwere ike iji usoro nkuzi a wee kuzie. A rxtxkwara aka na nsogbu xfqdx a gabigara oge a na-eme nchqcha a na kwa ebe nd[ qzq e nwere ike imekwu nchqcha.



Ntqala Nchqcha

    Otu ihe pxtara ihe mmadx nwere nke q gagh[ ewezuganwu na ndx ya bx asxsx, niihi na asxsx bx ihe na-eweta mmekqr[ta n’etiti mmadx na ibe ya. Mmekqr[ta a na-apxtakar[ ihe na mkpar[taxka na-ad[ n’etiti nd[ ji asxsx arx qrx. Nke a ka Robin (2013) ji kqwaa asxsx d[ka ukwu qd[mara nke nd[ mmadx ji akpar[taxka  ma na-ezipxta echiche ha n’xd[ ekwurunqqnx mabx edereede. Mgbodile (1999) n’echiche nke ya kqwara na asxsx bx akqrqngwa kachas[ d[ mkpa na ndx mmadx maka ibiko qnx, iche echiche, ime omume na [txlekqr[ta uche. Echiche Anukam (1999) yitekwara nke Mgbodile niihi na q kqwara na asxsx na-enyere mmadx aka [rx qrx d[ iche iche d[ka izikqr[ta ozi, inwe mmekqr[ta, [mx ihe, ichekwaba ihe na kwa iji mee ka omenaala nd[ bxrx nke na-esi n’otu qgbq  fere n’qzq.

Asxsx mere ka mmadx d[ iche n’etiti xmxanxmanx nd[ qzq. Iji kwado nke a, Farinde (2005) na Azikiwe (2007) mere ka a mata na asxsx bx otu ihe njirimara mere ka mmadx d[ elu kar[a xmx obere anxmanx nd[ qzq. Q bx eziokwu na xmxanxmanx nd[ qzq nwere ike izir[ta onwe ha ozi n’xd[ imeghar[ ahx ha n’xzq d[ iche iche, mana usoro nzikqr[ta ozi ha ahx etozugh[ [kpq asxsx niihi na o nweghi njirimara asxsx d[ka ito eto na [mxba amxba. Q bx njirimara asxsx nd[ a ka Anagbogu, Mba na Eme (2002) jiri kqwaa na asxsx bx xzq mmadx na-esite  n’xda olemaole mebe okwu nd[ e nweghi ike [gxta qnx; bx nke anx nd[ qzq enweghi ike ime n’usoro nzikqr[ta ozi nke ha. Ihe nke a na-egosi bx na asxsx bx nke mmadx.

N’agbanyegh[ na mmadx dum nq n’xwa ji asxsx arx qrx, agbxrx qbxla nwere asxsx ha na-asx. Asxsx Igbo bx asxsx nd[ Igbo, bx nd[ bi n’qwxwa anyanwx Naijir[a na-asx. Steeti nd[ e ji asxsx Igbo mara gxnyere Enugwu, Anambra, Imo, Ab[a na Ebqny[. Ezema (2011) kqwara na ihe kar[r[ pasenti iri asatq (80) bx nd[ bi na Rivers Steeti na kwa pasenti iri anq (40) na Delta Steeti na-asx Igbo. Mpaghara xfqdx na Cross River, Edo, Kogi, Akwa-Ibom na Bayelsa Steeti na-asxkwa asxsx Igbo. Niihi nke a ka Ohiri-Aniche (2008) jiri kwuo na nd[ na-asx Igbo na Naijir[a kar[r[ nde mmadx iri abxq (20 million). Williamson na Blench (2000) na Ezema (2011) gara n’ihu mee ka a mata na Igbo so n’asxsx atq nke nd[ na-asx ha kacha baa xba n’qnxqgx n’ala Naijir[a. Ikekwa, nke a so n’ihe kpatara gqvxment[ etiti Naijir[a jiri kwado ka asxsx Igbo soro n’asxsx ala Naijir[a atq (Hausa, Igbo na Yoruba) a hqtara a ga na-amx n’xlq akwxkwq. Ihe butere [hqrq asxsx ahqqrq bx na agbxrx na asxsx e nwere na Naijir[a bara xba, ma q gagh[ ad[ mfe itinye ha dum n’ihe a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq. Kaosila d[, qmxmx xfodx asxsx obodo a n’xlqakwxkwq d[ mkpa maka agbxrx d[ iche iche a [ghqta onwe ha.  Q bx nke a ka iwu na-ach[kwa mmxta n’ala Naijir[a (National Policy on Education NPE, 2004) jiri s[ na “Gqvxment[ nabatara uru asxsx bara d[ka xzq isi kwalite mmekqr[ta mmadx na ibe ya, nkwudosiike nke ala any[ na kwa xzq isi chekwaba omenaala. Ya mere, nwatak[r[ qbxla ga-amx asxsx a na-asx na gburugburu ya. N’[ga n’ihu, maka [d[ n’otu ala any[, a txrx anya na nwatak[r[ qbxla ga-amxkwuaz[ otu n’ime asxsx ala Naijir[a atq: Hausa, Igbo na Yoruba (p.10).” Etu a ka asxsx Igbo siri soro n’asxsx ala Naijir[a nd[ a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq malite n’ogo mmxta qtaakara. Q bxgh[ naan[ nke a, asxsx Igbo bxkwuaz[ otu n’asxsx nd[ ahx bx iwu na nwa amaala Naijir[a ga-amxr[r[ ma lee ya n’ule ngxcha akwxkwq sekqnd[r[ bx ‘Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE)’. Qmxmx na ule n’asxsx Igbo nwere ngalaba atq gxnyere omenaala, agxmagx na xtqasxsx. Omenaala d[ka Nwadike (2008) siri kqwaa ya bx ka nd[ si eme na be ha, nke metxtara asxsx, nka, okpukpere, usoro alxmalx, nkwenye na nhxrxxwa nd[. Nd[ Igbo nwere omenaala ha, bx nke na-ezipxta usoro obibi ndx ha. N’aka nke qzq, Akwanya (1999) hxtara agxmagx d[ka qrx nka nke odee na-esite na ya egosi echiche ya maqbx ihe bx eziokwu gbasatara xd[d[ ihe, mkpqrqmiihe na usoro obibi ndx nd[ mmadx na gburugburu ha. Agxmagx nwere ike [d[ n’xd[ ejije, abx maqbx iduuaz[. Xtqasxsx n’akxkx nke ya bx ihe qmxmx na-akqwa xd[ na ole xda asxsx nwere, tinyere iwu na usoro mmebe okwu na ah[r[okwu n’asxsx. Echiche Ikekonwu, Ezikeojiaku, Ubani na Ugoji (1999:44) dabara na nkqwa nke a d[ n’elu niihi na ha kqwara xtqasxsx d[ka iwu na-ach[kwa  ndqkq, nkqwa, njikwa, mkpqpxta na nghqta mkpxrxokwu na ndokwa ha n’ebe ha dabara n’usoro nd[ nwe asxsx ahx si eji asxsx ha eme ihe. Q bx n’xtqasxsx ka a na-akuzi nka asxsx anq bx nka ogige, nka okwukwu, nka qgxgx na nka odide. Nka ogige na nka qgxgx bx nka nnabata ebe nka okwukwu na nka odide bx nka mmepxta. Ma d[ka asxsx Igbo bx asxsx epum/aranne n’ebe qtxtx xmxaka nd[ na-amx asxsx Igbo na mpaghara ebe a na-eme nchqcha a nq, imirikiti n’ime ha na-enweta nka ogige na nka okwukwu n’xlq tupu ha ab[a n’xlqakwxkwq. Nka qgxgx na nka odide na-abxkar[ n’xlqakwxkwq ka ha na-anq enweta ha. Kaosila d[, ebe qrx a gbadoro xkwx bx na nka odide.

Ide ihe bx xzq mmadx na-esi n’xzq qd[mara asxsx nabatara egosi mmetxta na echiche ya n’ebe qgxx nq. Q bxkwa nka a na-enweta n’xlqakwxkwq site n’[mx ka e si ede ihe.Turk na Kirkman (1991) kwadoro nke a wee kwuo na nka odide bx nka mmadx na-enweta site n’omume (practice). Nke a na-egosi na q bxgh[ nka a na-enweta site n’ige onye nkuzi nt[, d[ka e nwere ike ime na nnweta nka ogige na nka okwukwu. Q bx ya ka Azikiwe (2007) jiri kwuo na nka odide bx nka asxsx kachas[ sie ike. Ihe Azikiwe jiri kwuo nke a bx na nka a hiwere isi na mmadx iche echiche, hazie echiche ya ma were nka na usoro odide asxsx ahx nabatara dee ya n’xzq d[ mma. Ike ide ihe bx otu qkpxrxkpx ihe na-ebute nd[iche n’etiti nd[ gxrx akwxkwq na  nd[ agxgh[. Q bxkwa otu xzq pxtara ihe e si achqpxta ihe xmxakwxkwq ma, na kwa xzq isi nwalee ha n’ule. Nke a na-egosi na nnweta nka odide ga-enyere xmxakwxkwq aka n’izipxta echiche ha n’xzq doro anya. Q bxkwanx ya mere e ji akuzi nka odide ruo n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu. Xzq pxtawagara ihe e si akuzi nka odide n’ogo mmxta sekqnd[r[ txmad[ sekqnd[r[ ukwu bx site n’edemede.

Edemede d[ka Nwadike (1993) siri kqwaa ya bx edereede nke na-gosipxta xzq mmadx siri were asxsx kwara ngwaqrx iji kqwapxta ihe o bu n’uche nke qma.




Ana m enye Chukwu Nna, Chukwu Nwa na Chukwu Mụọ Nsọ ekele maka otu ha si duo m ruo na ngwụcha ihe ọmụmụ a, tụmadị mgbe ekwensụ kwadoro ịnara m ndụ n’ike site n’ihe mberede nke okporo ụzọ. Chineke ekweghị ka ajọ izu ya mezue. Ekele dịrị Jesu, Amen.

Ana m ekele ezigbo di m bụ Maazị Adolphus Chukwuma Ewelum na ụmụaka m bụ Obinna, Kosisọchukwu, Chinwekene, Ifeanyịchukwu, Chisom, Chukwuma na Chidalụ bụ ndị ọ na-asọ ụsọ ịhụ na m nwetara nzere Masters ma gụrụ gaba n’ihu. Ka Chineke gozie ha, Amen.

Ana m ekele n’ụzọ pụrụ iche onye ntuzi aka m n’ederede a bụ Ọkm Uju Ụmọ maka ntuzi aka, nkwado nakwa enyemaka n’ụzọ ọbụla n’oge edemede a na-aga n’ihu. Ndị nkuzi m ọzọ m chọrọ ka ekele m gara bụ Ọkm P.N. Ụzọegwu,  Ọkm. J.U Akabọgụ na Ọkm Monica Omeje. Ka Chineke gozie unu. Ndị ọzọ bụ ụmụ akwụkwọ ibe m bụ Maazị Cajetan Egbe na Cletus Ugbor, ka Chineke nọnyere unu, Amen.

Ndị ọzọ ekele m na-agara bụ Ọkm Onyemaechi Mba na Ọkn. Innọ Ụzọma Nwadike bụ ndị nkụzi m na ngalaba Lingwuistiks, Igbo na Asụsụ Naijirịa.           Ngọzị dịrị Ọkm Onyemaechi Mba. Ya bụ onye gbara m ume ka m dee ederede a n’Igbo.

Echefughị m ụmụnne m bụ ndị na-agba m ume n’ụzọ ọbụla ịhụ na m na-aga n’ihu. Ha bụ Rose, Francis, Josephine, Tonia, Ejima m bụ Patrick, Chikwendu, Chinasa, Sunday an Chịdị. Ka Chineke gọzie ma na-echekwaba unu niile, Amen.


Ebunuche nchọcha a bụ ịmata mmeta nke ọma n’ụtọasụsụ Igbo n’ule sekọndịrị skuul n’okpuru ọchịchị Nsụka Edukeshọn Zoonu. Ebunuche ihe ọmụmụ a bụ ịchọpụta nsogbu dịrị ụmụ akwụkwọ sekọndịrị skuul mmeta nke ọma n’ụtọasụsụ Igbo n’ule akwụkwọ ha. Ihe onye nchọcha chọpụtara ga-enye aka ime ka ndị nkuzi na ụmụ akwụkwọ nwee mmasị n’ikụzị na ọmụmụ asụsụ Igbo na sekọndịrị skuul na Nsụka Edukeshọn Zoonu tụmadụ na mmeta nke ọma n’ụtọasụsụ n’ule sekọndịrị skuulu. Usoro nchọcha bụ ụlọ akwụkwọ dị n’ime obodo na obodo mepere emepe dị n’okpuru ọchịchị Nsụka. Ọnụ ọgụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ dị iri ise na itoolu. N’ime ụlọ akwụkwọ onye nchọcha weere ụlọ akwụkwọ itoolu ọnụọgụ ha dị narị anọ, iri ise na asatọ wee mee nchọcha. Ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ na-agụ sịnịọ sekọndịrị skuulu II. Usoro nchọcha ihe ọmụmụ a bụ ntụcha nke e ji pesenteeji wee mee. Rizọọlt na-egosi na:

  • ụmụ akwụkwọ enweghị mmasị n’asụsụ epum ha.
  • e nweghị ndị nkụzi azụrụ nke ọma n’akụzi asụsụ Igbo n’ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndịrị skuul

 (ch)   ndị nkụzi gụrụ maka asụsụ Igbo ji Bekee akọwa Igbo.

 (d)    ndị nkụzi anaghị aga ọgbakọ, nchọcha, njem nlere anya mara ngbanwo dị n’asụsụ Igbo ma kuziere ha ya ụmụ akwụkwọ

Onye nchọcha nyere atụmatụ ọma ga-enye aka ime ka asụsụ Igbo bụrụ akwaa akwụrụ n’ebe ụmụ akwụkwọ Igbo nọ. Ọ sị na a ga-ebido n’akwụkwọ ọtaakara kuzibere ụmụ akwụkwọ asụsụ Igbo na Bekee ga na-abịa mgbe ọ bụ Bekee ka a ga-akụzi. Onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ga-amapụta atụmatụ maka ọgbakọ, nchọcha, nlere anya maka ndị nkụzi na ụmụ akwụkwọ. Nke a ga-enye ha obi siri ike na o nweghị asụsụ ka ibe ya. Ndị nne na nna ga-enye aka sụbara ụmụaka ha asụsụ Igbo n’ụlọ. Mgbe a gbasoro usoro ndị a, a mara na asụsụ Igbo ga-abụ akwaa akwụrụ.





The study was carried out to find out the interference of Igbo tense and aspect patterns in English Language usage among secondary schools students in Abuja. Gender and school exposure or experience was used to find the level of interference. Six research questions were formulated and four null hypotheses were stated to guide the study. Then, a review of related literature which was followed by ex-post-facto design was determined by Inter-Rater Reliability or Scorer Reliability. The population of the study was made up of JS I and SS II Igbo students that were 2520 and 1720 respectively in 138 schools. Simple random sampling was adopted where 150 students were randomly selected from 10 schools – 76 male students and 74 female students. Essay question was given as instrument for data collection. The instrument was face validatedby four experts. Mean and standard deviation for research questions were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The Kendals W method was used to determine the entire reliability and the result showed that the reliability value for tense was .022 and reliability value for aspect was 0.17. The major findings of this study were:

  • There are more past tense errors than other tense errors.
  • Gender played an important role on the types of tense errors committed in favour of the male students who committed less error.
  • Also, gender was so significant on aspect errors committed in favour of the male students.
  • School experience was of great help to the performance of the students. Despite the fact that so many did not write the essay in JS I, they still committed so much errors both in tense and aspect.

(5) It was observed also that both languages have the same rules of sequence of tense and aspect. The educational implications were discussed. The limitations of the study were also exposed and some recommendations made which include that students should be encouraged not to master only rules of tense and aspect patterns but also to master how to use them. Again, homes should also help students by not speaking pidgin. Trained teachers in the subject alone should teach the subject. And, teaching of this subject matter should start from the lower classes. Periodic refresher courses should be organized for English language teachers, etc.



Background of the Study

English language came to play an important role in Nigeria in the nineteenth century.  “It is the period the white men began to come into the country in steadily increasing numbers as missionaries and traders and, in the latter part of the century, as soldiers and Government Officials” (Jowitt, 1991:15).

Jowitt continues to say that: 

The majority of white people who have resided in Nigeria for many length of time over the past century and a half have been of British origin, and a large proportion of those who occupied government posts during the colonial era came from the upper and middle strata of British Society.  Their Presence helped to ensure that Standard British English (SBE1)1 combined with Received Pronunciation (RP)2 had the same predominance and prestige in Nigeria as in Britain.  This was the model held up in schools and in the civil service for Nigerian learners to emulate….

SBE1. – Is the form of English, Spellingand Pronunciation etc that most people in Britain use, and that is not limited to one area or group of people (which is generally accepted by all that use English).

RP2– Is the general accepted way of pronunciation.

English has occupied a dominant position in Nigeria as a medium of communication and an official language.  It is a very important language in many parts of the world.  The fact is shown as English is spoken by more than a quarter of a billion people and is becoming increasingly popular as a second language for non-English Speaking people.Burns (1971) is of the opinion that Nigerians should learn it and learn it properly.According to Azikiwe (1998:1), they should learn it well so that they will be able to:

  • Communicate with non-native speakers of English;
  • Learn and understand the culture of the owners of the language;
  • Be able to politically fit into the wide comity of nations; and
  • Impart or acquire a particular knowledge or skill for future life i.e. Education of the individual.

Ubahakwe (1974) says that English is the language for specialized education, language for the elitist and lastly, language for assimilation.  He further states that those who cannot speak or understand English have less opportunity to participate in the social activities of the society.  Also, Ndahi (1977) postulates that:

The ability to speak intelligible and write Standard English is thus seen as the yardstick of educational standards.  Ability and competence in the medium of instruction affects the quality of performance in other subjects.  Since many of our pupils leave the secondary school without being able to construct simple sentences in English, and since English is used as the medium of instruction, the place of grammar in the teaching of English deserves special attention.  Effective handling of the conventional syntactic structures of the language is pre-requisite to effective communication. (p. 18) 

Going further, as English language is a second language (L2), there is no doubt that in the course of learning there will be errors which at times might be caused by mother tongue interferences. Eze (2005) posits that “it is necessary for linguists and teachers of the language and all educationists to put heads together and formulate a means of eradicating errors or bringing them to their minimal level”.  Oluikpe (1997) says “there is therefore, the need to teach it at school to enable the ignorant majority learn how to use this powerful language and handle it effectively in the varied situations in which its use is appropriate.  The effective use of English is what many of our students lack”.However, to teach the English language effectively, there is need to identify areas of difficulty and the variables which may militate against effective use of the languages.

According to Corder (1974a) “every language consists of a set of rules for generating phonologically, syntactically and semantically well-formed sentences”.  Errors are therefore, flawed side of the learner’s speech or writing.  They are those parts of writing or speech act, which deviated from the rules of language performance (Ushi, 2005:1).

Judging from experience that one of the major sources of learning difficulties that a second language learner experiences, is interference of the mother tongue in the second language.  There is no doubt that a person’s mother tongue is visible in his foreign language performance.  Rivers (1968) opines that the major difficulties for the language learner are to be found at those points where the foreign language differs most radically from the native language.  For example in Igbo, suffixes are used to show past tense but in English it is a change in the root word or the use of auxiliary verbs.   Oluikpe (1997) further says

Since the learning of a new language consists in the transfer of habits already acquired in the mother tongue, it means that students carry into the classroom the intuitive grammar of their mother tongue.  As the two languages are not genetically identical, there is, of necessity, bound to be problems which the learner of English must grapple with.  Among the areas where these problems manifest themselves are tense, number, case and concord – generally referred to as major grammatical categories (p.3).


The Current National English Curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools (1985) recognizes the effects of the mother tongue interference on the teaching and learning of English as a second language and in preparing their syllabus opine:

We have taken into consideration the demands made on the Nigerian user of English at the national and international levels.  Similarly, we have examined critically, how the usage patterns of the Nigerian user of the English language fall short of international expectations.  In so doing, it has become obvious to us that the English usage in Nigeria is substandard when compared to its international expectation, for not only are the sentences full of grammatical and mechanical errors, but also reveal:

  • Lack of intuitive sense of linguistic appropriateness;
  • Inadequate knowledge of different varieties of forms and usage;
  • Mother tongue induced forms and usage. (p.3)

Igbo is a Benue-Congo tone language spoken in the South-Eastern area of Nigeria.  It is spoken as a first language by over 20 million people in all of Imo, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Abia States and in some parts of Delta, Rivers, Benue and Akwa Ibom States (Emenanjo, 1987:17).  Emenanjo in Essien (1991:129) posits that “Igbo is spoken as a second language by many neighbours of the Igbo in the Igbophone areas and elsewhere in Nigeria (Such as the Sabon Garis in the northern parts of Nigeria) where Igbo presence is significant”.

Igbo is one of Nigeria’s three major languages and according to Government Views and Comments on the Findings and Recommendations of the Political Bureau (1987), one of Nigeria’s national languages or lingua Francas.  In the context of Nigerian languages Igbo is a ‘developed’ language.  “It has a stabilized orthography large corpus of written texts, a standardized written form and a sophisticated and dynamic metalanguage” (Emenanjo, 1985:27).  Like all modern languages, Igbo has evolved a standard written variety.  Igbo is being taught as a first language in all the tiers of education in the Igbo-speaking areas. It is also being taught as a first degree course and for various forms of certificates and diplomas (along with education) in a number of Colleges of Education at Owerri, Awka, Agbor, Nsugbe, Eha-Amufu, Okene and Obudu.  Igbo is also being offered as a first degree course in the Universities of Nigeria Nsukka, Lagos and Ibadan and at the higher degree level in the Universities at Nsukka and Lagos.

Igbo language has so many dialects that it even affects the teaching and learning of indigenous languages in our schools.  Indigenous languages are being advised to be taught but because we have so many dialects the teachers teaching might not know the indigenous language of where he or she is teaching.  Again there may be students from different areas in a particular place with different dialects.  The Igbo dialect situation has for long been seen as too vast and complex, as such defy serious systematic linguistic analysis.  There are people who believe that practically, every village has its own distinct dialect.  It is projected that more than 300 dialects exist in Igbo language.  Dialect is any variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language (Odo, 2006:1).

Some Igbo speakers or writers of English as a second language tend to apply the grammatical rules of Igbo to their use of English.  Instances of Cross-linguistic influences abound as some speakers, even combine L1 rules that is mother tongue rules with those of L2 (second language) (idea from Afangideh2004).

In trying to solve these problems, there are some variables that should be in place like class exposure that is SS11 being more mature educationally than SS1 and SSI more mature than JS1.  Also gender (female and male) may influence students’ control of the grammatical rules of English language either positively or negatively. It is to find out if these variables gender and school exposure have any influence in the use of tense and aspect patterns of Igbo language on English usage.

In discussing tense and aspect, every language has its tense and aspect systems.  The systems cannot be transferred from one language to another.  Though there is a distinction between them in languages yet they go together in a sentence.  The tense and aspect are deeply rooted in verbs.  The most outstanding characteristic of English verbs is that they indicate tense.

Tense as posits by Oji (1988) is the “form that a verb takes to show the time of an action”.  ‘Tense deals with the relationship between the actions conveyed in the verb and time it happened. For these reasons only two tenses are distinguished in English.  These are Present and Past tense (in study).





Background to the Study

Adult education refers to the provision of instructed learning events for adults after earlier terminated or interrupted education within the regular education system. It is characteristic that adult education is arranged and organized specifically with adults in mind (Fulah, 2003). The differences to education within the regular education system can be such as the time and modes of instruction. Adult education is defined on the basis of the organization providing education and training to adults (Jenny, 2001).

Adult education is instructional and related support services for adults who are not enrolled in the school. It is for adults who lack the educational foundation expected of a high school graduate. It is a form of education for adults whose inability to speak, read, and write the English Language, compute and solve problems constitutes a substantial impairment in their ability to obtain, retain and/or function on the job, in their family and in society commensurate with their real ability, to achieve their goals, and develop their knowledge and potential. This category of people is in need of a programme that helps them eliminate such inability and raise their level of education and self-sufficiency (Aback, 2000). Adults are taught in adult education classes by professionals known as adult educators.  An adult educator is one who practices the profession of facilitating the learning of adults by applying the principles of androgogy. An adult education student is a student who studies adult education as a course in any institution in a bid to become a qualified adult educator after graduation. An adult education student is supposed to pass through some training to enable him/her qualify for the career.

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (Frank, 2009). Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life (Sidney, 2002). People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.

Freire ( 2005), believed that education and training should not be a ‘banking‘ process, where students are filled with lecturer-determined content, and are then asked to reproduce it. He argued that students at whatever stage of learning are capable of conscientization, of reading the world and breaking the culture of silence in order to create their own instructional agenda. The training methods utilized in the traditional setting for the training of adult education students include lecturing and questioning techniques. The lecturer presents and explains the topic to the adult education students and asks questions to check for understanding or not.

Lecturing is a well known teaching method used in education. In this teaching method the lecturer plays a more active role than learners. The lecturer prepares the lesson before entering the class by collecting teaching materials and developing a good teaching/learning plan. This method helps the learners to focus on the specific subjects delivered by the lecturer. It can be useful for a class wanting only to learn to read and write. However, it limits learner participation since it gives more chance to the lecturer to dominate.

A lecturer is someone who dispenses knowledge, someone who lectures, tells, feeds, disseminates, covers material, and teaches the subject matter more than the students. The students sit passively while the lecturer is going on. Desks in rows and a blackboard and podium up front are forms of arrangements designed for this type of teaching method. However, Huntington (1997) suggests that lectures are an effective method for giving short sets of instructions, background information, guidelines, or other information that is needed in a short time frame.

The integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs), training methodologies in tertiary Adult Education is a new teaching methods, which has added a new dimension to teaching and learning in Adult Education. Integration is the act or process of integrating; the state of becoming integrated; the bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation (Alako, 2006). Integration can be said to be a way of applying/introducing a particular concept or method to improve a system or an organizational activity, be it a company, industry, educational institutions e.t.c. Such a concept or method could be necessary to the aim of such an organization to better their previous activities or mode of operations in a bid to obtain a better result or output. Hence, there is need to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are defined as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information” (Brandford, 2008). ICT implies the technology which consists of electronic devices and associated human interactive materials that enable the user to employ them for a wide range of teaching – learning processes in addition to personal use (Clarlson, 1999). These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephone. ICT is that technology which uses the information to meet human need or purposes including processing and exchanging. Information and communications technology (ICT) in education is the processing of information and its communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education (Dowling, 2003). Anzalone (2001) opined that some ICT facilities like PowerPoint presentation packages, Data projector, Internet services can boost the academic achievement of students if applied in teaching and learning.

When these technologies are applied in the field of education, it is termed as ICT in education. The term too can be used to connotate the term Educational technology, because it also uses any hardware and software approaches that can enhance better learning outcomes (Eric, 2004). In the era of Computer technology, ICT mainly focuses on the infrastructure, devices and sources of computer technology and thus it is imperative to discuss about the use of ICT in education by focusing mainly on Computer based technology.

ICT in education is any educational technology that is applied in the educational process. It encompasses Hardware approach like use of machines and materials, Software approach like use of methodologies and strategies of teaching learning and Systems approach that uses the management technology that deals with the systematic organization of the hardware and the software (Johnson, 2006). It also include different software packages for use in different departments of education; e.g library software, administration software, software related to managing the entire teaching learning process. Ogan (2006) stated that an appropriate use of PowerPoint can enhance the teaching and learning experience for both staff and students.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) — which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet — have been proven as potentially powerful tools for educational change and reform (Jack, 2006). When used appropriately, different ICTs can help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by helping make teaching and learning into an active process connected to real life. ICT materials should be readily available for integration into the training of adult education students. Eric (2004) suggested that ICT should be properly integrated to enable adult education students to source information at ease. Freire ( 2005) is of the view that It is important that lecturers and students acquired the needed skills for integration of ICT in the training of adult education students.




This study was carried out to determine the influence of parents’ socio-economic status on the students’ performance in Igbo language in secondary schools in both Ụzọ-Ụwanị and Nsụkka Local Government Area of Enugu State. This study was designed to find out the educational level of the parents, the socio-economic status of the parents, the influence of educational level of the parents and the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the students learning Igbo language. Four research questions were generated while two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher.   A total number of 660 respondents were involved in supplying data needed for the study. The data were obtained through a structured questionnaire of forty items. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. Based on the research findings, it was discovered that socio-economic status of the parents influenced the students’ performance negatively in Igbo language. Moreso, it was established that most parents have low educational level and low socio-economic level which in effect influenced students’ consciousness and willingliness in learning the Igbo language. The researcher therefore, recommended that parents, teachers of Igbo language and the school guidance councilors should as a matter of responsibility help in sensitizing the students in learning the Igbo language. This would go a long way in creating positive attitude among the students towards the study of Igbo language in the schools.



Background of the Study

Language is man’s greatest asset and it is very fundamental to his self-fulfillment. It is the vehicle through which ideas, feelings, thoughts, information, skills, knowledge and culture are transmitted. This makes communication, interaction and learning very possible among people. Language plays an important role in teaching and learning. It is man’s exclusive means of communication using signs and symbols to express emotions and wills. Ali (2000) defines language as “… a means of communication of ideas, facts, figures and thoughts. Consequently, it plays a very vital role in all aspects of human development”. According to Trager in Mgbodile (1999), language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which the member of a total culture communicate. Also, other linguists like Brooks and Naldman as quoted in Huxley and Ingram in Azikiwe (1998), view language as a learned systematic, symbolic, vocal behaviour, and a culturally acquired and exclusive mark of man. Nwadike (1999) states that without language of its own, a nation becomes merged and lost in the foreign group whose language it is forced to speak. A nation identifies itself and ensures its perpetuation. It is man’s greatest asset and it is very fundamental to his self-fulfillment.

Again, Radford, Akinson, Britain, Caltisen and Spencer in Anozie (2007) see language as a complex structure represented in the minds of its speakers. Likewise, Azikiwe (1998) views language as a means of social control, it is a collection of motor responses, it functions symbolically and so is used for verbal communication. Ajakobi (1997) states that, one of the notable functions of language is to record observations, incidents and processes. Language, he said has also been considered as a product and an integral part of culture. It reflects the culture of the people concerned and their worldview. However, with the advent of the English language and white man in Nigeria, the acquisition of the whiteman’s language and culture, and the interaction with other people from other tribes in Nigeria, the Igbo man has been known to neglect his languages and cultural attire.

Besides, Nwadike (2000) asserts that the greatest problem that has faced Igbo from all times is the apathy of the Igboman towards the language. He prefers to express himself more in English than Igbo. His attitude towards written materials in Igbo is negative. He further frowns at many Igbo parents who do not speak Igbo language to their children.

Igbo language is the language spoken by the Igbo people, and ethnic group that lives in the eastern part of Nigeria. Igbo language is grouped among the “kwa” language of Benue-Congo group of the language family. It is one of the three major languages recognized in Nigeria (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba). Language and culture go together, therefore, any language be it Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba serves as conveyor belt that propels the culture of the people who own it. Ameh (1991) said that language in any society is an indispensable tool for unity and development.

Thus, the federal government of Nigeria realizes the importance of language and indeed the mother-tongue, and consequently states in Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), among other things, that the medium of instruction in primary school should be the mother-tongue or the language of the immediate environment. The term mother tongue or mother language is used for the language that a person learnt at home usually from their parents. It is the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at a later age. Mother tongue does not mean that the language is that of one’s mother. Mother in this context probably originated from the use of “mother” as origin; as in mother-country or mother-land. In some countries like Kenya and India, “mother tongue” is used to indicate the language of one’s ethnic group (ethnic tongue). This is very necessary since language is an effective medium for people to interact meaningfully as well as potent vehicle for them to express and transmit their culture. Thus, there is need to start from the primary schools to learn the cultures of the people who own the language, and it is believed that teaching these children their language from this early stage will aid the pupils to acquire the speaker’s competence in the language.

In some schools in Igbo speaking region, the authorities debare their students from speaking their mother tongue even up to the tune of paying fines ranging from five naira to twenty naira. Nwadike (2002) stated that others do not reckon with Igbo on the false pretence that it lacks certain kinds of technical vocabulary, either because of its inherent linguistic poverty or because as it is not used for certain kinds of discourse, its words will not assume technical significance in those discourses. But during the Nigeria/Biafra Civil War (1967 – 1970), continued, because Igbo language was used in technology, some Igbo names were developed such appellations as Ogbuniigwe, BokeetiOjukwu, Ogbunando, Igbokwe, Agbaraọjọọ, these names are just like the Japanese technology that introduced names such as – Yamaha, Toyota, Honda, Suzuki, Kawasaki, Toshiba and Mitsubishi.

Language unites and integrate people, for instance, the people who are not of the same language group but understand each other’s languages are tied together as one by the language. According to Bamgbose (1976), teaching the pupils the Nigerian languages will enable them know as early as possible the culture of the people who own the language and their good ways of doing things. This will make them, right from primary schools, respect each others ideas, values and beliefs. When they know all these, it will make them behave like brothers and sisters. When they eventually graduate with the spirit of oneness inculcated in them through language, they will build a society that would be tied together as one unity in diversity and there will be stability.

In buying and selling also, language does a very good work. Somebody who understands a language stands a better chance of buying and selling than those who do not understand such a language. They tend to speak with one voice, and agree with one heart. For instance, the mono linguistic approach to Hausa as a common language of the North makes them more united and stable than their southern counterparts who do not have a unifying language in transmitting cultural beliefs, norms and values, enhancing buying and selling, unifying and integrating people, among others, there is the need to constantly examine the state of language teaching and learning in our schools. Particularly, the state of the Igbo language study at the Secondary School level deserves attention. Okoye (1995) explains that at this level language learning is a conscious activity rather than behaviour acquisition and teaching the language is more of disorganization rather than acquisition, thus, learning becomes a tedious process which inspires repulsive attitude.

Furthermore, it is continued in the National Policy on Education (2004) that a child should be encouraged to learn any of the three major Nigerian languages such as Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba, this is to promote our culture and for national unity.

The federal government of Nigeria in an effort to promote the use of indigenous language in Nigeria, made a pronouncement that the business of the National Assembly shall be conducted in English language, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba languages until when adequate arrangements have been made. This was an effort to get a national language which was very difficult in Nigeria because of her multi-lingual nature.

Moreso, the document of Federal Republic of Nigeria (1979) places much importance to the study of indigenous language, when it stated thus:

In addition to appreciating the importance of language in the education process and as a means of preserving the people’s culture, the government considers it to be in the interest of national unity that each child should be encouraged to learn one of the three major languages other than his own mother tongue. In this connection, the government considers the three major languages in Nigeria to be Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba (FRN, 1979).

The potential role of these languages (if studied by the rising generation) for national unity is undeniable. Infact, there are reasonable speculations to the effect that if seriously taught in the school system, one of them will eventually emerge as a national language without government imposing it on the nation (Abba, 1976).

Nwadike (2002) further elaborates the current trend in Igbo studies. He said that following the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 education system in Nigeria, the National Education Research Development Council (NERDC), for example, has designed much improved syllabuses for Igbo at the primary and secondary schools levels, and which the WAEC has adopted at Secondary School level.

In spite of the government’s effort towards encouraging the learning of the major Nigerian languages, Igbo language being one of them in schools, studies have indicated a declining trend in the enrolment and performance of Senior Secondary School students in Igbo language examinations. Some students who study Igbo language in secondary schools do so under the instruction of their parents. Even the few that study Igbo language, do not exhibit any interest in the language. This is believed by both psychologists and sociologists to have some influence on the student’s learning. Wilkins (1974) was particular that such social factors influence language learning.

In Nigeria, education has been a major factor associated with social mobility. And the social class is a sociological (socio-economic) variable, which is seen to be an important factor in educational achievement. The educational development of the child can be perceived as an unfolding process governed merely by maturity and perhaps teacher’s efforts. The background of the parents is also a strong factor in the child’s reading readiness. In this parental background of the child, what is considered most is the educational and socio-economic status of parents which affect the child’s readiness to learn. Uche (1998) states that family environment is the most important factor in the child’s language learning. The child whose parents talk with him a great deal develops better in language than one who grows up in a family in which he is ignored or told to keep quiet. In addition to providing the child with language experiences, the family provides the language model that is the kind of language he is going to imitate. So the parents’ educational level and socio-economic status are important factors that can influence the child’s performance in Igbo language.




This study was carried out to investigate the influence of parental achievement orientation on achievement motivation and school adjustment of in-school adolescents.  Five research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study.  The study adopted ex-post-facto research design. The population for the study was 10,077 SS2 students and a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 420 students for the study. The instruments for data collection were questionnaire titled: parental achievement orientation questionnaire (PAOQ) and students’ achievement motivation and school adjustment questionnaire (SAMSAQ). The data generated from trial testing were analyzed using Cronbach Alpha statistics an overall reliability index of 0.802 was obtained.   Mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions while paired sample t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 probability level. The findings of the study revealed that, achievement orientation of in-school adolescents’ parents is significant as perceived by the students. The findings also showed that, parental achievement orientation has significant influence on achievement motivation and school adjustment of in-school adolescents. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that parents should develop positive parental achievement orientation that will make their children to have high achievement motivation and good school adjustment.



Background of the Study

School is a formal organization established by the government or the community or an individual to carry out the business of teaching and learning in the society. School is one of the major stepping stones for academic, socio-economic, cultural and political development in Nigeria.And it has been described as one of the most influential socialization domains in an adolescent’s life (Catalano, Haggerty, Oesterle, Fleming and Hawkins, 2004). School alsoprovides adolescents with the forum for interaction with peers from different socio-economic backgrounds and teachers of different standing and exposure. And provides arena for personality development, social adjustment and it help adolescents to realize their potential.

Adolescence is a period of rapid exploration, a particular period between puberty to adulthood. Meyer in Santrock (2005) defines adolescence period as a time of growing up, of moving from the immaturity of childhood into the maturity of adulthood. Okafor in Landies (2000) defines adolescence period as a period when the individual is in process of transfer from independent, irresponsible age of childhood to the self-reliant, responsible age of adulthood.  Okafor in Landies (2000) added that, this period is used to describe youths within the age limit of 12 to 19 years. As a result of developmental changes that take place during this period, an adolescent becomes physically, socially and intellectually mature. Physiological and psychological changes, which accompany sexual maturity, come so quickly that individual is unsure of himself, his capacities and interest.  Iwuama (1997) opine that, adolescents often feel insecure in articulating their obvious need as a result of on-going changes on their body. Iwuama (1997) added the features associated with adolescents which includes body contour and stature taking an adult shape, physical and sexual maturation as shown by changes in both the primary and secondary sex characteristics, they are often concerned about what people think or say about them, experience a lot of storm and stress as a result of increased emotion tension resulting from physical, emotional and psychological development.  During this period, adolescents are given ambiguous treatment by their parents or caregiver, at a particular stage the adolescents are seen to be too young, at another stage they are expected to take up responsibilities (Iwuama, 1997).   If adolescents are given proper guidance services and education at this period they may become very useful and fulfilled citizens but if neglected they may constitute greater problems to themselves, their parents, teachers, school authorities and the society at large (Iwuama, 1997). Some parents and caregiver may give their adolescents’ children proper orientation, like changes that occur at adolescence period, teach them sex education at home before they enroll in secondary school, give them proper guidance and counseling and also teach them moral education while some parents and caregiver may fail to give their adolescents’ children such orientations. A child that was opportune to acquire the above mentioned orientations from their parents at home may become a successful adolescent in school.

In-school adolescents are those adolescents who are still in secondary school. According to Onyejiaku (1991), they are referred to as “School Stayers”. Some of the in-school adolescents see school as the most significant institution in their lives because school helps adolescents to realize their potentials but when they do not perform well in school, it may lead to unrealized potentials which could result to low achievement motivation and poor school adjustment. Some of the in-school adolescents may see school as a challenging because some of them may not have the ability to carry out school tasks while some of them may be interested to continuing academic pursuit to higher institution.

Operationally, in-school adolescents are young children who are studying in secondary school.  Some of in-school adolescents may find it difficult to cope and deal with the challenges that exist in school environment which could result poor school adjustment.

Adjustment can be defined as the reaction of an individual to external or internal demands and pressures which social environment imposes on him. Mangle (2006) defines adjustment as an outcome of the individual’s attempts to deal with stress and meet his needs and effort to maintain harmonious relationship with his environment. A change in an environment requires a change in the organism in that particular environment for it to thrive well.  Arkoff in Mangal(2007) opine that, how one copes in a particular environment depends on one’s personal characteristics and the circumstance of the situation.  Arkoff in Mangal (2007) added that, both personal and environmental factors therefore, work together in adjustment.  This implies one cannot do without each other. For an individual to be well adjusted in the environment there should be interaction between an individual and the environment.

A person is well adjusted if he or she copes well in the environment.Adjustment is a state in which the needs of the individual on one hand, and claim of the environment on the other hand are fully satisfied. If otherwise, there will be maladjustment among or within the individuals in the environment. There are three areas where an individual need to be adjusted to live a balance life. These areas include: family, school and society (Margett, 2002).

Operationally, adjustment can be defined as the individual’s way of dealing with changing situation. This is because people do not exist in a vacuum. They live in social environment, knowing that change is the only constant thing in the life situation and circumstance.  A person who is well adjusted at home may also have good school adjustment.

School adjustment has to do with ability of the students’ to cope effectively with internal or external demands and pressures which school environment imposes on them such as attending lessons, doing assignments, being attentive in subject, not cheating in examination, making a good grade and not dropping out of school, Mangal (2006). According to Coleman (2005), school adjustment is a degree to which adolescents become comfortable and successful in school environment. Secondary school students, either at home or in the school, struggle to cope in environment they find themselves, Onyejiaku (1999).

School adjustment could be good and poor. Good school adjustment has to do with ability of the students to cope well in the school while poor school adjustment also has to with inability of the students to cope well in the school.  Adolescents’ adjustment to school required assistance from parents and family members since child’s development and adjustment start from home, (Onyejiaku, 1999).  Recently in Orlu Education Zone of Imo State the researcher has observed through the help of teachers and school counselors that secondary school students have poor school adjustment and some of these students indulge in examination malpractice, bullying,truancy, school drop-out, fighting, secret cult, and other school violence and offences.

School adjustment could be academic, emotional, psychological and social. Academic, well adjusted students will overcome learning problems and instructional difficulties, and they make a satisfactory progress in exploratory experiences. Emotionally, well adjusted students have control their emotion; have a stable emotion and will not exhibit action like anxiety, fighting and aggression. They have internalized control over their emotion. Psychologically, well adjusted students have good self concept about themselves and others. They know how to cope or deal with disappointment and loss; can also influence their environment positively in order to achieve their goal. Socially, well adjusted students do not exhibit withdrawal behavior and other anti-social behavior (Onyejiaku, 1999).

Operationally, school adjustment can be seen as ability of a student to cope and deal   with the challenges that exist in school environment. For a student to be well adjusted in school they need to be motivated firstly at home by their parents, siblings or caregivers and this may enable them to study hard and achieve success. A student who has good school adjustment may also have high achievement.

Achievement is task-oriented behavior that allows the individual’s performance to be evaluated according to some internally or externally imposed criterion, which involves the individual in competing with others, or that otherwise, involves some standard of excellence. Ukah, (2008) defines achievement as a progressive realization of a predetermined worthwhile goal. Ukah (2008) added that, it is a “Journey” that is “on Going” but is not an event rather is a positive result of steady forward movement.  Harackiewicz and Sansone (2000) opined that, students’ achievement increases their motivation to achieve more success in whatever activities they are doing.

Motivation is generally defined as internal and external conditions that stimulates, directs and maintains behavior. According to Deci and Ryan (2000), motivation is greatly appreciated because of the positive and negative outcome it produces.  Motivation also explains, for example, why some students swot to pass examinations, while some students wait for manners from heaven, and why an individual perseveres and deprives himself of some pleasures in order to achieve a life goal, (Ngwoke, 2010). Bernstein and Maier (2005) were of the view that, motivation shapes a person’s behavior based on their own self view and can influence their choice and responses from outside cues.