A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT

          The study examines the comparative study of students academic performance in economics and commercial in selected Senior Secondary Schools in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State.

          Five research hypotheses were raised and addressed in the study. The research population consists of twelve secondary school in Asa Local Government Area out of five schools were chosen as sampled. SSCE Result for the year 2004, 2005 and Questionnaire was only instrument used for the study. Data collected were analysed using T-Test to find out the differences.

          The results show that lack of interest, non-challant attitudes of students and parents, shortage of teachers as well as un-conducive environment contributed to the factors that hindered the performance of students in both economics and commerce.

          Based on the findings, it was recommended that the recruitment and retention of qualified teachers in commerce and economics must be given priority attention. Also, the government and school authorities should provide enough classroom with learning materials to avoid congestion as well as motivates the teachers by improving on their condition of service.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                           i

Approval Page                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                             vii

Table of Contents                                                                               viii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                       1

Background to the Study                                                                    1

Purpose of the Study                                                                          3

Statement of the Problem                                                                   4

Significance of the Study                                                                    4

Research Questions                                                                           6

Limitation of the Study                                                                       6

Definition of Terms                                                                             7

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature                                                               9

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design Adopted                                                                   19

Population                                                                                          18

Sample Selection                                                                                18

Validity of the Instrument                                                                   18

Data Collection                                                                                   19

Data Analysis                                                                                     19

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussion                                                                       20

Discussion of Findings                                                                        30

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary                                                                                           32

Conclusion                                                                                         33

Recommendation                                                                               33

References                                                                                         36

Questionnaire                                                                                    38

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          In the community, people are engaged in a number of activities from which they earn some income. Professionals such as Lawyers, Accountants and Teachers, while other professional activities and some in the factories which produced goods and services such as matches, shoes and clothes. These activities are often referred to as Economics activities, every economic activity which involved uncertain element such as human effort, choices of alternatives or other use of what may be termed material resource and a system of exchange.

What is Economics?

          In consideration of the element inherent in Economics activities which economists have come up with various definition of Economics, for instance.

          Daven, H.J. in (2001) says that economics is a subject that treats phenomenal from the stand point of price.

          This definition emphases on exchange and seeks to explain that economic deal with things that have a price value, which implies that for any commodity or services to be impart of an economic they may have a price attached to its generally speaking which means that economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

What is Commerce?

          Commerce ban be defined according to Adeyeye, I.A. (2001) as an inter-disciplinary field of knowledge which help us to understand some other topics in accounting and mathematics to mention but few.

          Commerce theory is just as a school discipline. That is being constantly resorted by the frequent change characterize with the purpose of contents, over the year such as body of knowledge require distinct and specific methods or strategies of importing into learners.

          Commerce is a practical subject, but it has a close connection with the theory of economics and it knowledge of fundamental concepts of this subject is necessary for an understanding of the subject.

          Commerce can also be seen as an exchange of items of value between persons or companies. At exchange of money for a produce, services of information is considered a deal of commerce.

          Lastly, commerce was generally aspects of the exchange of production, distribution, buying and selling of goods and service from one place to another.

Purpose of Study

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT

THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT USING SEMEK GROUP OF COMPANIES IN IKOT EKPENE AS A CASE STUDY

THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Production management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling of production activities. Production management deals with converting raw materials into finished goods or products. Production management also deals with decision-making regarding the quality, quantity, cost, etc., of production. It applies management principles to production. Production management is a part of business management. It is also called “Production Function.” Production management is slowly being replaced by operations management. The main objective of production management is to produce goods and services of the right quality, right quantity, at the right time and at minimum cost. It also tries to improve the efficiency. An efficient organization can face competition effectively. Production management ensures full or optimum utilization of available production capacity.  Production management, also called operations management, planning and control of industrial processes to ensure that they move smoothly at the required level. Techniques of production management are employed in service as well as in manufacturing industries. It is a responsibility similar in level and scope to other specialties such as marketing or human resource and financial management. In manufacturing operations, production management includes responsibility for product and process design, planning and control issues involving capacity and quality, and organization and supervision of the workforce (Daneshjo, 2013).

One of the ways to improve the production management process is through the use of appropriate tools. In today’s world, information is the most valuable asset of any organization so that the importance of information technology and its effects has grown tremendously and sense its growth and development. Acquisition of key technological tools that helps manufacturing companies to maximize the utilization of available resources for maximum production is very important. With the maturing of manufacturing, companies large and small are looking to other areas that offer opportunity for significant value addition and growth. At the same time, advances in sciences and engineering are producing significant new discoveries and technologies such as in genomics, stem cells, renewable energy, and networked information technology.  With the ever-increasing demands by the clients and customers, raw materials suppliers, as well as the pressure from the upper management of the organization for increased efficiency and profit, collaborating and effective management of priorities in the production constantly pose challenges and beset the operations management of the company. As such, it is inevitable that the organization implement programs and production systems that will best suit the needs of the company and its clients. Utilizing technological systems in the workplace provides more advantage in terms of receiving, recording, processing, storing and transferring information (Rahmani, 2015).

Production and operations management must also help develop a better understanding of the information-intensive contexts in which technology commercialization occurs today. Given the importance of technology in production management, this research work is therefore focused on the impact of technology on production management.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Several manufacturing firms have suffered from inefficient and imprudent management of resources and product scarcity, which has resulted in low level of productivity, inability to meet up with meeting customers’ needs, delayed production because of lack of modern technology to aid in the production processes and consequently this brings about financial losses. Poor production management leads to scarcity and this scarcity can be attributed to shut downs and breakdown of manufacturing firms, due to absence of relevant technology to facilitate smooth maintenance activities and production. This is brought about by the unavailability of critical and useful technology, which should have been provided by the production management department. The use of technology in production management department is very important especially in view of the high level of competition that exists in the global market. Frequently, the production management department has been accused for the frequent breakdown and shut downs as a result of its inability to provide the necessary equipments and tools for production process as at when they are needed.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

  1. To ascertain the impact of technology on production management in manufacturing firm.
  2. To ascertain the need of utilizing technology in production management in manufacturing firm.
  3. To identify the importance of production management in manufacturing firm.
  4. To reveal the ways of fostering adoption of technology for production management in a manufacturing firm.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated based on the research objectives:

  1. What is the impact of technology on production management in manufacturing firm?
  2. What is the need of utilizing technology in production management in manufacturing firm?
  3. What is the importance of production management in manufacturing firm?
  4. What are the ways of fostering adoption of technology for production management in a manufacturing firm?

1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses

As a guide to achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

  1. Ho: Improved production standard, increased output level, satisfaction of the demand of customers for manufactured products are not the impact of technology on production management in manufacturing firm.

Ha: Improved production standard, increased output level, satisfaction of the demand of customers for manufactured products are the impact of technology on production management in manufacturing firm.

  • Ho: Maximizing utilization of production resources, reducing time of production, increasing profitability are not the need of utilizing technology in production management in manufacturing firm.

Ha: Maximizing utilization of production resources, reducing time of production, increasing profitability are the need of utilizing technology in production management in manufacturing firm.

  • Ho: Accomplishment of firm’s objectives, optimum utilization of resources, expansion of the firm are not the importance of production management in manufacturing firm.

Ha: Accomplishment of firm’s objectives, optimum utilization of resources, expansion of the firm are the importance of production management in manufacturing firm.

  • Ho: Willingness of management to invest in the acquisition of technological tools for production management, training of workers on how to use technological equipments, support from government for manufacturing enterprises to acquire needed tools for effective production management are not the ways of fostering adoption of technology for production management in a manufacturing firm.

Ha: Willingness of management to invest in the acquisition of technological tools for production management, training of workers on how to use technological equipments, support from government for manufacturing enterprises to acquire needed tools for effective production management are the ways of fostering adoption of technology for production management in a manufacturing firm.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant in the following ways:

  • It will help the manufacturing firm know the impact of technology in contributing positively to the production management process.
  • It will provide useful information to enable manufacturing firm know the need to utilize technology for production management.
  • It will help manufacturing firms to meet the demand of their customers and also increase their profitability through the use of technology tools.
  • The research work will reveal the importance of adopting technology in production management.
  • It will serve as a useful reference material to other researchers seeking for related information.

1.7 Scope of the study

This study covers the impact of technology in production management using Semek group of companies in Ikot Ekpene as a case study.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study was limited by the following factors:Financial Factor: Inadequate funds affected the way data were

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THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORPORATE PLANNING IN MANAGEMENT PROCESS

AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORPORATE PLANNING IN MANAGEMENT PROCESS

ABSTRACT
This research work focused on an examination of the effectiveness of corporate planning in management process, a case study of First Bank plc, Ikot Ekpene. To achieve the research objectives, the study made use of survey research design. Convenience sampling technique was used to select fifty (50) respondents as sample size for the study. The instrument of data collection was self-developed questionnaire and the forms were personally administered. Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and the data were analyzed using chi-square( 2) statistical tool and frequency tables. The findings from the study revealed that the effectiveness of corporate planning in the management process are: making of decisions that bring about long term direction of the organization, effective management of the resources of the organization.  Also, the study revealed that the strategies for effective corporate planning in an organization for effective management are: developing planning based on current trends and future conditions and establishing strategies to achieve objectives. The study also showed that the challenges to effective corporate planning in an organization are: inadequate information during planning on the strengths and weakness of the organization and inability to re-assess established goals. Finally, the study revealed that the possible solutions to the challenges of effective corporate planning in organizations are: conducting research to gain information on the strengths and weakness of the organization and regular re-assessment of corporate plans/goals. Useful recommendations are also offered such as; that management of organizations should always ensure that the trend in business is always studied overtime and those who carry out the planning should have foresight, skill or expertise knowledge in corporate planning.
 
LIST OF TABLES
                                                                     Pages 
Table 3.1:             Sample Selection-   –      –      –
Table 4.1.1:          Responses to Research
Question One  –      –     –      –
Table 4.1.2:          Responses to Research
Question Two – –     –      –      –
Table 4.1.3:          Responses to Research
Question Three-       –     –      –
Table 4.1.4:          Responses to Research
Question Four- –     –      –      –
Table 4.2.1 A:       Observed Frequency Table for
Hypothesis One-     –      –      –
Table 4.2.1 B:       Expected Frequency Table for
Hypothesis One      –      –      –
Table 4.2.1 C:       Comparison of Observed with
Expected Frequencies for
Hypothesis One-     –      –      –
Table 4.2.2 A:       Observed Frequency Table for
Hypothesis Two      –      –      –
Table 4.2.2 B:       Expected Frequency Table for
Hypothesis Two      –      —    –
Table 4.2.2 C:       Comparison of Observed with
                           Expected Frequencies for
Hypothesis Two-     –      –      –
Table 4.2.3 A:       Observed Frequency Table for
Hypothesis Three – –       –      –
Table 4.2.3 B:       Expected Frequency Table for
Hypothesis Three –  –      –      –
Table 4.2.3 C:       Comparison of Observed with
Expected Frequencies for
Hypothesis Three    –      –      –
Table 4.2.4 A:       Observed Frequency Table
for Hypothesis Four –      –      –
Table 4.2.4 B:       Expected Frequency Table
for Hypothesis Four –      –      –
Table 4.2.4 C:       Comparison of Observed with
Expected frequencies for
Hypothesis Four      –      –      –
  
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                               Page
Title page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –            i
Approval page –      –      –      –      –      –      –             ii
Certification   –      –      –      –      –      –      –            iii
Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –            iv
Acknowledgements –      –      –      –      –      –            v-vi
Abstract  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –            vii
List of tables   –      –      –      –      –      –      –             viii-ix
Table of Contents   –      –      –      –      –      –            x-xii
CHAPTER ONE
 INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study –      –      –      –
1.2  Statement of Problem     –      –      –      –
1.3  Objectives of the Study   –      –      –      –
1.4  Research Questions –      –      –      –      –
1.5  Statement of Hypothesis –      –      –      –
1.6  Significance of the Study       –      –      –
1.7   Scope of the Study –      –      –      –      –
1.8   Limitations of the Study  –      –      –      –
1.9  Organization of the Study      –      –      –
1.10        Definition of Terms  –      –      –      –
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • The Concept of Corporate Planning in Organization
  • Effectiveness of Corporate Planning in the Management Process
  • The Strategies for Effective Corporate Planning in an Organization
  • The Challenges of Effective Corporate Planning
  • Possible Solutions to the Challenges of Effective Corporate Planning

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
 
3.1  Research Design     –      –      –      –      –
3.2  Population of the Study   –      –      –      –
3.3  Sample and Sampling Technique    –      –
3.4  Instrumentation     –      –      –      –      –
3.5  Plan for Data Analysis     –      –      –      –
3.6  Problems of Data Collection    –      –      –
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1  Analysis of Research Questions-     –      –
4.1.1 Analysis of Research Question One
4.1.2 Analysis of Research Question Two
4.1.3 Analysis of Research Question Three
4.1.4 Analysis of Research Question Four
4.2 Test of Hypotheses
4.2.1 Test of Hypotheses One
4.2.2 Test of Hypotheses Two
4.2.3 Test of Hypotheses Three
4.2.4 Test of Hypotheses Four
4.3  Discussion of Findings
 
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Preamble –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –
5.1  Summary of Findings-    –      –      –      –
5.2  Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      –
5.3  Recommendations  –      –      –      –      –
References
Appendix(es) 
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 
1.1 Background of the Study
 
The development of corporate planning in business is a post World War II Phenomenon. Before the period of the World War II, almost all business enterprises were carrying on their business affairs without stating any formal objectives or formal long range business plans. Usually business planning was confined to the lower organizational levels, mainly the functional or the departmental levels and they had only short-term plans which focused mainly on manufacturing product planning, materials ordering and receiving, and hiring of labor. Most companies used to have annual budgets or yearly financial plans to ensure their liquidity (Imaga, 2000). Since that period of World War II, higher level that is at the core body of the company level long-range, usually of 3 to 7 years period planning has assumed ever increasing importance. The development of business planning has been a revolutionary movement or as the technological revolution or even the revolution in life-styles due to income demonstration effects from time to time.
Comprehensive business planning now covers long-range in the form of The scope of corporate planning covers not only the whole organization but every functional aspect of the organization. It takes into account the full environments in which the business operates and is a systematic assessment of a most comprehensive nature, leading to the realistic mapping out of long term objectives, strategic and operational plans Akpala (1990). In corporate planning, top management is concerned with the future direction of the business as a whole, such decisions taken are long-term in nature and are bound to have far reaching implications on employment, the financing of the business and the types of products manufactured.

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORPORATE PLANNING IN MANAGEMENT PROCESS

THE STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN INVESTMENT PROMOTION COMMISSION, UYO)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The need for foreign direct investment policies arises due to the activities of inward foreign direct investment in Nigeria. The policies are sometimes used to control the activities of multinational corporations, attract foreign investors and encourage industrialization in Nigeria. The discussion on foreign direct investment policies in Nigeria will not be complete without laying bare the precursor (the history of foreign direct investment in Nigeria) in laconic. Foreign direct investment as a developing process of the developed countries is not peculiar to developing countries such as Nigeria (Obasi, 2015). The history of foreign direct investment in Nigeria is traced to 19th century and its precursor was anchored on the Berlin Conference of the 19th century which allotted the Nigerian territory to Britain. Foreign direct investment is seen by some scholars as a conduit of colonial expansion. The coming of Britain in Nigeria integrated the latter legal system into the former which protected them and made the flow of foreign direct investment to flow in earnest. The major investor of foreign direct investment in Nigeria in the early period was Britain. Out of 102 firms that were operating in Nigeria in the 1960s, 94 were from Britain, 5 had joint British ownership and the remaining 3 owned by Nigeria (Mohammed 1985). The prominent multinational companies during the colonial era in Nigeria were United Africa Company (UAC), John Holts, A.G Leventis, Patterson Zechonics (PZ), and Pfizer among others. Initially most of the foreign investment in Nigeria was in mining sector which later shifted to manufacturing sector. In 1965 Convention on the settlement of investment disputes (for settling investment disputes among the Western countries) was signed which resulted to the broadening of the sources of foreign direct investment in Nigeria to include United States of America and other European countries. Foreign direct investment in mining sector in Nigeria received added impetus by the discovery of oil in the 1970s.
Mwilima (2003) describes FDI as investment made to acquire a lasting management interest (usually at least 10% of voting stock) and acquiring at least 10% of equity share in an enterprise operating in a country other than the home country of the investor.
FDI has further been explained as the long-term investment reflecting a lasting interest and control, by a foreign direct investor (or parent enterprise), of an enterprise entity resident in an economy other than that of the foreign investor (IMF, 1999). Equally, Mallampally and Sauvant (1999) describe FDI as investment by multinational corporations in foreign countries in order to control assets and manage production activities in those countries. Expanded explanation on the meaning of FDI has been offered by Ayanwale (2007) as ownership of at least 10% of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for the existence of a direct investment relationship. Ownership of less than 10% is recorded as portfolio investment. FDI comprises not only merger and acquisition and new investment, but also reinvested earnings and loans and similar capital transfer between parent companies and their affiliates. Countries could be both host to FDI projects in their own country and a participant in investment projects in other counties. A country’s inward FDI position is made up of the hosted FDI projects, while outward FDI comprises those investment projects owned abroad.
Ikiara (2002), UNIDO (2002), UNCTAD (1997) recognize and emphasize the significance of FDI in providing technological know-how, capital, management and marketing skills, facilitating access to foreign markets and generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms provided the right policy and
business conditions are available.
By facilitating access to the above, FDI is expected to improve the integration of the Nigeria’s economy into the global economy, and further spurring economic growth through technological advancement.
In view of the above fact, Nigeria’s investment policies and regulations have been improved to contain provisions aimed at encouraging foreign investors to invest in the country. Other measures include; the liberalization of the foreign investment regime to allow major foreign ownership, lifting foreign exchange controls and the privatization of Nigeria’s public enterprises.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The underdeveloped nature of the Nigerian economy essentially hindered the pace of her economic development and has necessitated the demand for Foreign Direct Investment into the country. According to Aremu (2005), dependency theory maintains that, developing countries are poor because they have been systematically exploited through: imperial neglect; overdependence upon primary products as exports to developed countries; foreign investors’ malpractices, particularly through transfer of price mechanics; foreign firm control of key economic sectors with crowding-out effect of domestic firms; implantation of inappropriate technology in developing countries; introduction of international division of labour to the disadvantage of developing counties; prevention of independent development strategy fashioned around domestic technology and indigenous investors; distortion of the domestic labour force through discriminatory remuneration; and reliance on foreign capital in form of aid that usually aggravated corruption and dependency syndrome (Amin, 1976).
The main factors motivating FDI into Africa in recent decades appear to have been the availability of natural resources in the host countries (e.g. investment in the oil industries of Nigeria and Angola) and, to a lesser extent, the size of the domestic economy. The reasons for the lacklustre FDI in most other African countries are most likely the same factors that have contributed to a generally low rate of private investment to GDP across the continent. Studies have attributed this to the fact that, while gross returns on investment can be very high in Africa, the effect is more than counterbalanced by high taxes and a significant risk of capital losses. As for the risk factors, analysts now agree that three of them may be particularly pertinent: macroeconomic instability; loss of assets due to non-enforceability of contracts; and physical destruction caused by armed conflicts.
The second of these may be particularly discouraging to investors domiciled abroad, since they are generally excluded from the informal networks of agreements and enforcement that develop in the absence of a transparent judicial system. Several other factors holding back FDI have been proposed in recent studies, notably the perceived sustainability of national economic policies, poor quality of public services and closed trade regimes.
This problem is compounded where a deficit of democracy, or of other kinds of political legitimacy, makes the system of government prone to sudden changes. Finally, a lack of effective regional trade integration efforts has been singled out as a factor.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are:
a. To find out the need for foreign direct investment in Nigeria.
b. To ascertain the strategies for promoting foreign direct investment in Nigeria.
c. To determine the role of FDI on the growth of the Nigerian economy.
d. To determine the role of Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission on promotion of Foreign Direct Investment.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated based on the objectives of the study:
a. What are the needs for foreign direct investment in Nigeria?
b. What are the strategies for promoting foreign direct investment in Nigeria?
c. What are the roles of FDI on the growth of the Nigerian economy?
d. What are the roles of Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission in promoting foreign direct investment?
1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses
As a guide to achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:
1. Ho: Attraction of foreign investors, encouraging industrialization, boosting of the Nigerian economy are not the needs for foreign direct investment in Nigeria.
Ha: Attraction of foreign investors, encouraging industrialization,
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THE STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA