Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

Abstract                                                                                                                      x


Background to the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                 5         

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  7

Research Question                                                                                                      7

Research Hypotheses                                                                                                  8

Significance of the study                                                                                            9

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                       9

Scope and Delimitation of the Study                                                                  10


Concept of Personnel                                                                                                  11

Concept of Management                                                                                            16

Concept of Personnel Management                                                                   24

Concept of Personnel Management Skills                                                      28

School Management and payment of staff of salary                32

School Management and Staff Professional Development            38

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                          44


Research Design                                                                                     48       

Population of the Study                                                                                              49

Sample and Sampling Procedure                                                                49

Research instrument                                                                              50       

Validity of the Instrument                                                                          50

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                50

Procedures for Data collection                                                                    51

Method of Data Analysis                                                                          52


Data Analysis                                                                                                              53

Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                     55

Summary of findings                                                                                                  58


Discussion of Findings                                                                                               59

Conclusion                                                                                                                  60

Recommendations                                                                                                      61

REFERENCES                                                                                                          63

APPENDIX                                                                                                                67


This study investigated the teachers’ assessment of personnel management skills by school owners in Ilorin West, Kwara State.     

Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and multi-stage sampling method which involved proportionate, stratified and random sampling techniques was adopted to draw a total of 100 respondents that participated in the study. Teaching methods adopted by basic science teachers and the implication Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) of inferential statistics were used to test the null hypotheses postulated for the study at 0.05 alpha level while, frequency count and percentages were used to compute the demographic data collected.

The findings of the study revealed that There is a significant relationship between teachers’ assessment and personnel management skills by school owners in Ilorin West, Kwara State. There is a significant difference between the financial entitlements and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State. There is a significant difference between the Professional development and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State. There is a significant difference between the Staff Welfare and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that there should be seminar giving to the teachers on important of assessment and personnel management skills by school owners in Ilorin West, Kwara State. There should be seminar giving to the administration on the effects of financial entitlements and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State. There should be seminar giving to the administration on the effects of Professional development and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State. There should be seminar giving to the administration on the effects of Staff Welfare and the personnel management skills among private school owners in Ifako Ijaye Local Government Area of Lagos State.



Background to the study

Personnel management is one of the most important and challenging functions of any organization because it constitutes the ultimate basis for the creation and utilization of the wealth of a nation. Okafor and Udu (2008) perceive management as a set of activities (planning, decision making, organizing, leading and controlling) directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial and physical) with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. Personnel management is the acquisition of personnel or human resources and co-ordination of their performance within the organization. Riches and Morgan in Uche (2009) explain that human resource management in any organization (education or otherwise) is part of the process of management in general that focuses on the people aspect of management, ensuring that the objective of the organization is met. In order words, personnel management is the effective utilization of people at work to achieve the aims and objectives of the organization.

It is in line with the above assertion that Peretomode (2004) asserted that, personnel management acts as the wheel of progress in the realization of educational goals and objectives. It means that without an effective personnel management, an organization may find it difficult to achieve its set goals and objectives. Nwachukwu (2000), argues that for an organization to attain its desired objectives, it must seek to obtain the co-operation of the personnel working under it. It is clear that personnel management is challenging in every organization but far more challenging in educational institutions. This is because most of the activities in education deal with human beings.

The management of educational institutions is faced with not only the complexities of characters and behaviour of the staff, but also with those of the students and parents (Okoro, 2006). This means that the way and manner these chains of human elements are managed could affect the success of educational institutions. Developing therefore, a functional structure that accommodates the diverse needs of all the groups in the educational system remains a challenge to the management in the education sector.

As is the case in other fields of human endeavours, the educational sector depends on active, efficient, effective and reliable workforce to achieve success. To achieve the desired success, the administrators in the Nursery / Primary school system are saddled with the responsibility of directing, guiding and co-ordinating staff and students appropriately to achieve excellent performance. Agreeing with this, Peretomode (2004), argues that the job of managing the personnel is one of the crucial functions of educational administrators, because of the existing correlation between effective management and achievement of educational goals and objectives.

Personnel management is also called human resource management. Human resources according to Nwachukwu (2000), consists of all the individuals engaged in any of the organizational activities whose potentials such as talent and abilities are combined and utilized with other resources (financial and physical) to procure goods and services. Human resource management comprises planning, forecasting, organizing, controlling and co-ordinating specific activities like recruitment, selection, training, development, motivation, remuneration, and assessment and employee relations. These activities need to be handled through a systematic and structural approach to achieve organizational goals, and at the same time ensuring delivery of satisfactory services to the general private and the workers.

The importance of personnel management towards the achievement of educational goals cannot be over-emphasized. According to Amstrong (2005), it helps in identifying current and future human resource requirements to avoid shortages of manpower. Its importance is also seen in the areas of ensuring that justice, equity and fair-play are maintained when dealing with staff in the organization; ensuring that organizational goals are achieved through team work and co-operative efforts; ensuring that employees’ needs are recognized in the organizational goals. Personnel management equally helps in assisting personnel in building up a good career, and in selecting and replacing the staff based on laid down principles to avoid favouritism that may mar the realization of goals. This goes  to say that personnel management covers both organizational growth and provides conducive environment for employee development (Onah, 2008).

An effective and efficient personnel management makes for a good school organization that in itself brings academic success. School organization is regarded as good and productive if it is characterized with good personnel management. Such management is recognized by the competency, honesty, loyalty, inspirational stride and co-operation of the staff. Adiotiome and Ekwevugbe (2005) noted that parents and some stakeholders believe that the quality of instruction in the private Nursery / Primary schools is higher than that of the private schools because of proper management of personnel in the private schools. Private schools are those schools owned by individuals or organization while private schools are those owned by the government. Gobir (2005) asserts that privateNursery / Primary schools have qualified and experienced staff but the problem of poor performance should be blamed on poor personnel management. This is in line with the observation of the former president of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo who, while launching the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in 200 9, observed that the falling standard of education can be blamed on poor management.

Poor management of staff in the Nursery / Primary school system has been identified as the major cause of anti-social behaviour such as the increasing cases of examination malpractice, truancy, bullying, cultism, extortion and other social delinquencies observed among staff and students. In this period of rapid expansion in the number of schools and student’s enrolment, Ogba (2011) asserts that the job of managing the human elements of the organization is usually very tasking. Under such environment, the management of each educational institution requires both knowledge and application of personnel management principles and skills. The key management task becomes how to get staff to comprehensively carry out the skill development needs of students through the use of the academic curricula.

Identification of the skills and education needs of students is as important as assigning specific teaching tasks towards addressing such issues like examination malpractice and cultism. Although the Federal Reprivate of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) is very specific about the needed areas of skill development, enhancing effective personnel management strategies that address students’ needs remains a difficult task in most educational institutions. The Federal Reprivate of Nigeria (2004) indentified the major skills required in the Nursery / Primary level of education to include: equipping the students with the skills that will lead them to scientific growth, technological development, social emancipation, artistic mastery that will lead them to self reliance and respect the views of others and acquisition of vocational knowledge. The above skills can only be achieved through effective and efficient personnel management.

Nursery / Primary education is a very crucial level of education. It is a bridge between Nursery / Primary and tertiary levels of education. Nursery / Primary education level provides the general training necessary for individuals to acquire skills necessary to programme themselves for future career challenges. According to Ogba (2011), the need to bridge educational gaps arising from Nursery / Primary education and preparing students for specialization in different fields of life, place fresh demands on the managers of Nursery / Primary school level of education. This is because the number and structure of the workforce expand at this level and there exist some degree of academic independence among teachers and other staff.

The importance of personnel management in Nursery / Primary schools has remained a great concern to parents, managers of education, researchers, students and consumers of the products of education because of the quality of administration, management and achievement of set goals that is declining in education and its attendant student delinquent behavior. It must be noted that the management of schools in Nigeria before the Nigerian civil war was in the hands of the Missions and private individuals or organizations. Omeje (2006) observed that personnel management skills  in educational institutions in Nigeria before and after the war were characterized by general poor conditions of service for teachers in the then Mission and privately owned Nursery / Primary and Nursery / Primary schools.

According to the Lagos State Nursery / Primary Education Management Board Reversed Personnel management Manual (2010), Personnel management functions of the Nursery / Primary Education Management Boards in the Lagos States of Nigeria involve recruitment of staff, through proper advertisement that will not be less than six weeks and selection of qualified candidates for employment, orientation of newly employed staff by way of in-service training, provision of welfare schemes, assessment , promotion and discipline of staff. When recruitment has been effected, the next function is orientation.

Orientation is designed to help newly employed staff become familiar with the environment. Oboegbulem (2004) stated that orientation helps new staff have good impression on the work environment, the nature of the community in which they will work, and the type of colleagues they are going to work with. In-service training is a personnel management function which is essential for professional growth and to keep abreast with changes in teaching techniques and methods which are not static. Onu (2012) described in-service training as a consciously designed programme to improve the professional growth of employees for the achievement of organizational goals. Welfare of staff is also an important personnel management function. It deals with conditions of service and provision of social amenities at work place. Agu (2009) maintained that welfare of staff include such issues like adequate and prompt payment of salaries and allowances, grant of study leave, grant of maternity leave and sick leave, among others. Assessment  of staff is also a personnel management function. Assessment  means the assessment of the worth or value of an undertaking. It is judgment of value performance. Adeyemi (2009) viewed performance assessment  as a systematic and formal assessment of both employers and employees, made in a prescribed and uniform manner at a specified time to identify both individual and group weaknesses and strengths so that weaknesses can be converted into strength. It is the assessment of individual task performance based on some set standards.

Promotion is another important aspect of personnel management; it elevates staff to the next level. According to Adeyemi, promotion is the elevation of someone’s status as a result of having satisfied the required conditions. Waziri (2014) perceives staff promotion as the positive progression of staff in rank or position in recognition of their contributions towards the growth of their institution or establishment. When staff get promoted, they are motivated to work harder for the advancement of their establishments.  As a result of these issues, it has become necessary to ascertain the extent to which the Personnel Management skill have influence on the school administration in Lagos State.

Balansikat and Gerhard (2005), say that globally, the majority of school leaders were not trained as school leaders but they assume offices because of their experience. In United Kingdom and Switzerland, future and serving head teachers are trained in management of schools, also specific management and or certification is required in countries like Slovenia, Estovenia and Catelonia. Performing head teachers are trained in different institutions and in varying curriculum. The authors however, advocate for a higher degree of autonomy, coupled with curriculum of: distributed management, supporting, evaluating and developing teacher quality, goal setting, assessment and accountability, strategic finance and human resource management, and networking with other institutions (Balansikat &Gerhard, 2005).

According to Stoner (2004), management is the ability to use different forms of power to influence followers in a number of ways to accomplish organizational objectives. Ade (2003), defined management as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinated in an effort to reach organizational objectives.

Formal institutions including Nursery / Primary schools are established to impart knowledge, skills, habits, values and attitudes among the learners. These institutions are led by head teachers who are expected to employ management functions to achieve the organizational goals. Examples of these functions are planning and policy making (Nir, 2003); organization, motivation, and directing (Keegam, 2003); coordination and budgeting (Fapojuwo 2002); personnel management or management (Deborah, 2002); curriculum development and instructional management (Jamentz, 2002); providing students‟ personnel services such as orientation, guidance and counselling and discipline (Renald, 2000). If such management functions are employed properly, the functions can lead to good school performance.

Studies have been conducted to examine the effect of management of instructional materials on teachers, performance in Kampala district. Findings showed that there was a positive relationship between instructional materials and teachers‟ performance and that students‟ academic performance has a root from the teachers‟ capacity to perform (Mpierwe (2007).

Good educational performance in Nursery / Primary schools is an investment that enhances developing human capital which has a significant positive correlation between education and economic-social productivity of the national development (Nsubuga, 2003). The new education policy of Universal Nursery / Primary and Nursery / Primary Education which is aiming at equitable access to education, is posing a great challenge to head teachers and traditional way of managing schools, students‟ enrolment in Nursery / Primary schools is rising from time to time (Agura, 2011).The goal is not only to increase equitable access but also to improve quality and efficiency in the management of Nursery / Primary schools. This mass participation will require new management approaches such as good management, so that the government achieves its objective of access and quality of education (Nsubuga 2010).

Through inefficiency, much learning time is lost in Sub-Saharan African Education. Twenty five percent or more of school days may be lost each year in the poorly managed schools (Lewin, 2001). Sashkin adds that, mass education at Nursery / Primary education level, requires new management approaches such as visionary management and proper management styles (Sashkin, 2003). Cole (2002), defines management as inspiring people to perform. “Even if an institution has all the financial resource to excel, it may fail dismaily if management does not motivate others to accomplish their tasks effectively” he says. Management in this context, pursues effective performance in schools because it does not only examine tasks to be accomplished and who to execute them, but also seeks to include greater reinforcement characteristics like recognition, conditions of service and morale building, and coercion remuneration (Balunywa, 2002).

When referring to performance, Lav (2007), says that good performance in any Nursery / Primary school should not only be considered in terms of academic rigor, but should also focus on other domains of education like affective and psychomotor domains. This refers to other aspects like, discipline, co-curricular activities and school development aspects. In this regard, Bitamazire (2005), said that in some Nursery / Primary schools there is increasing poor performance in mainly the science subjects. Therefore this study aims at assessment of personnel management skills among head teachers in Ifako Local Government Area of Lagos State.




The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria’s tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth as secret cult member. It therefore became imperative to carefully redress the issue of cultism in our tertiary institution where reason should rule over emotion. Undoubtedly, the issue has assumed horrifying proportion as cultic violence thrives even more. The main purpose of this study was to find out the causes, effects and strategies to stop cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was discovered from the study that cultism among the students of tertiary institutions is real and urgent solutions is needed by government and institution at large to curb it. The parents must work closely with the institutions authority to arrive at a lasting solution. This study was therefore carried out in the University of Abuja, Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                        PAGE(S)

Abstract          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —


  1. Background of study  —          —          —          —          —          —          —

1.2       Statement of the Problem       —          —          —          —          —          —

 1.3      Research questions/Hypothesis           —          —          —          —          —

1.4       Purpose of study         —          —          —          —          —          —          —

1.5       Significance of the Study       —          —          —          —          —          —

1.6       Scope of the Study     —          —          —          —          —          —          —

1.7       Limitation of study     —          —          —          —          —          —          —

1.8       Operational definition of terms          —          —          —          —          —


2.1       Introduction    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —

2.2       Conceptual Framework          —          —          —          —          —          —

2.2.1    Concept of Cultism       —             —             —             —             —             —             —

2.2.2    Historical Background of cultism          —             —             —             —             —

2.2.3    Campus Cultism             —             —             —             —             —             —             —

2.2.4    Social Problems Associated with Campus Cultism    —          —          —

2.2.5    Control of Campus Cult Activities     —          —          —          —          —

2.3       Theoretical Framework           —          —          —          —          —          —

2.3.1    The Behavioural Theory          —          —          —          —          —          —

2.3.2    The Social Learning Theory    —          —          —          —          —          —

2.4       Review of related Empirical Studies —          —          —          —          —

2.4.1    Studies related to causes of campus cultism. —          —          —          —

2.4.2    Studies related to social problems of campus cultism —         —          —         

2.4.3    Studies related to control of campus cultism —          —          —          —

2.5       Summary of Reviewed Literature      —          —          —          —          —


3.1       Introduction    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —

3.2       Design of the study    —          —          —          —          —          —          —

3.3       Area of study              —          —          —          —          —          —          —

3.4       Population of the study           —          —          —          —          —          —

3.5       Sample and Sampling Techniques      —          —          —          —          —

3.6       Instrument for Data Collection           —          —          —          —          —

3.7       Validity of the Instrument       —          —          —          —          —          —

3.8       Reliability of the instrument   —          —          —          —          —          —

3.9       Method of Data Collection     —          —          —          —          —          —

3.10     Method of Data Analysis        —          —          —          —          —          —


4.1       Data presentation and analysis           —          —          —          —          —

4.2       Discussion       —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —         


5.1       Summary         —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —

5.2       Conclusion      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —

5.3       Recommendation        —          —          —          —          —          —          —

5.4       Limitation of study     —          —          —          —          —          —          —

5.5       Implication of study   —          —          —          —          —          —          —

5.6       Suggestion for further research           —          —          —          —          —

References      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —

Appendix        —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —



  1. Background of study

Cultism is undeniably one of the social vices setting the hand of the developmental clock of Nigeria backwards.  The unabated atrocities of secret cults in the Nigerian educational institutions and even in the wider Nigerian society continue to take tolls on the lives of young and old Nigerians.  Many young people, politicians, academics and industrialists have been hacked down in their prime by the cultists.  It could be in the execution of a contract to assassinate and waste the life of their mentor’s real or imagined often political enemy.  Acting as hirelings, the cultists get their target in his residence or office or track him down on the way.  In most cases, the murderers ‘escape,’ not tracked down because they are serving the powers that be.  They do not face the wrath of the law because the event is linked to a political godfather, a sacred cow.  The dismayed Abuja Development Association (ESDA) feared in 2005 that the failure of the government security apparatus to arrest and prosecute any suspects in the numerous incidences of political murder in Abuja showed that the government had a hand in the crimes and made speaking out very risky.  More often than not, however, it is in a clash between two cult groups, the one trying to demonstrate its stronger devilish powers over the other. 

The emergence of cult activities in tertiary institutions in Africa can be traced back to the early 1950s. According to Opaluwah (2000), what is known as campus cultism in tertiary institutions started at The University College, Ibadan, Nigeria in 1952. It was formed by Nigeria’s only Nobel Laureate, Professor Wole Soyinka and six others who founded the Pyrates Confraternity. The other six are Olumuyiwa Awe, Ralph Opara, and TunjiTubi, AigImokhuede, Pius Olegbe and OluAgunloye. Their main objectives included the abolition of convention; the revival of the age of chivalry and to end tribalism, to elevate the social life of the university campus where orderliness and discipline could be planted in the mind of students/youths who were expected to be future leaders in Nigeria and elitism. Adejoro (1995) lamented that little did Soyinka and his friends realized that they were making history nor did they come to terms with the fact that students and indeed youths radicalism was being given a national boost and the unleashing of a national vanguard. The development was paradoxical to the extent that they little realized that they were laying the foundation for what was to be transformed eventually into gansterism.

For almost 20 years, the pirate a non-violent body become established in all tertiary institution that emerged in post independent Nigeria as the only confraternity on Nigeria campus. The emergence of campus cult as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split of early 1970s, in pirates confraternity. 1972 Bolaji Carew and several others were expelled from the pirates for failing to meet expected standards. In reaction to this and other events, the pirates registered themselves under the name National Association of Seadogs [NAS]. The Buccaneers of Seadogs was founded by Carew. In 1980s confraternities spread over the 300 institutions of higher education in the country. The Neo-Black movement of Africa [Black Axe] emerged from University of Benin in Edo state while the Supreme Eiye confraternity [National Association of Air Lords] broken off from Black Axe in 1983. Students at the University of Calabar in cross River State founded the Eternal Fraternal Order of the Legion Consortium [the KlansmensKonfraternity] while a former member of Buccaneers confraternity started the Supreme Vikings confraternity (the Adventures of the De Norsemen Club of Nigeria) the following year.

In the mid-80s, it had become evident that some of the cults had been adopted as elements in the intelligence and the security services serving the then military government. They were used against students union and University staff who were the only organized groups opposing military rule. 

In 1984, Prof Wole Soyinka, extricated himself from emerging trend, initiated the abolition of the pirates confraternity in all tertiary institution, by then the phenomena of violent cults had developed a life of its own. In early 1990s as the end of the second Republic drew near, confraternity activities expanded dramatically in the Niger Delta as they engaged in a bloody struggle for supremacy. The family confraternity [The campus mafia or The mafia], which modeled itself after the Italian mafia, emerged, shortly after their arrival, several students were expelled from Abia State University for cheating and ‘’cultism ‘’ a reference to the voodoopracticing confraternities, which marked the beginning of a shift of confraternity activities from the university to off campus.

The Brotherhood of the Blood [also known as Two-Two [Black Beret] another notorious confraternity was founded at Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Cults established in early 1990s are; Second Son of  Satan [SSS], Night Cadet, Sonmen, MgbaMgba Brothers, Temple of Eden, Trogan Horse, Jurists, White Bishops, Gentlemen Clubs, Fame, Executioners, Dreded Friends, Eagle club, Black Scorpion, Red Sea Horse,

Fraternity of Friends The klansmenk on fraternity expanded their influence by creating a Street and Creek Wing,, Deebam to expanded their influence by creating a street and Creek wing, Deebam to fight for and control territory outside the Universities through violence and crime. In response, the supreme Vikings Confraternity [SVC] establish their own street and creek group, Dewell. When was unable to match Deebam, the SVC created the second confraternity wing. The Icelanders [German], which was led by militia leader Ateke Tom. The outlaws, another well-known street and creek confraternity began to be formed. These includes the Black Brazier [Black Bra], the Viqueens, Daughters of Jezebel and the Damsel. Female confraternities have supplied spies for all allied male confraternities as well as acted as prostitution syndicates