UTILIZATION OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT IN THE REALIZATION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION OBJECTIVES IN SCOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

         Education is the priority of any nation’s economic, social and political development. To ensure, every government is trying day-in-day out to embark on viable projects in order to promote education of her people and to fairly eradicate the massive illiterate ratio.

         In a broader view, Education is meaning-less when it is divert from learning, which is the ultimate goal of education. In this perspective, learning is an intangible concept, which can be, inferred when a person has a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice.

         Education is highly volatile and dynamic. It incorporates so many aspirations and objectives. It changes the behaviour of man by socializing people and others so as to be happier, more productive, good neighborliness and for good citizenship.

         This volatile nature of education does not contradict its socializing aim. Education acts powerfully to train the citizens to acquire, maintain and improve societal existing traditional skills, attitudes, values, norms and beliefs. The young become more rational and are encouraged to bequeath the society with better values than it were. Therefore, education is accountable for socializing the younger ones, it accounts for the rate of progress and development of any country (Lawal, 2003). Carney (2002) stated that countries with viable education, peer capital are more likely to have western style democracies. The teacher in any society is the principal executor of any functional curriculum. The quality and quantity of learning experience acquired by student matters a lot in Nigeria today, education is gradually moving from teacher centered where the teacher does all the talking, all the doing and perhaps all the reasoning to learning centered.

         Eze (2010) retention is one of the processes involved in observational learning.

Teaching business education at any level requires that the students be exposed to different form of stimulation; learning cannot take place in a sensory vacuum. “As a minimum physical requirement, the instructor must be able to produce stimulus having enough strength and definition to get through to the students for the students must notice something.

Savolainen (2009), said from the aforementioned, the teacher place a vital role as an agent of education in the classroom teaching and learning process. Among the numerous responsibilities of a teacher, identification of his objectives and planning of his teaching. Therefore, to achieve these educational goals, we could not isolate the effects of modern office equipment from school curriculum.
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UTILIZATION OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT IN THE REALIZATION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION OBJECTIVES IN SCOOLS

THE LEVEL OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EZZA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2006) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.

Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.

In modern classrooms, teachers and students have access to wide variety of technology. Various types of technology including computers, projectors, handhelds, television and digital cameras are more accessible now than ever before (Jawad Khan, 2013). This type of technology also called instructional technology has helped in moving the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more student centered one (Trotter, 2008). Through the use of technology, necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Through the use of these technologies researchers, scholars, and professionals are able to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education.

Lu and Miller (2012) also stated that instructional technology encompass a wide variety of technologies as well as systems used to deliver information. Many secondary school classrooms are integrating technology to help students better understand the concepts that are being taught (Croxall and Cumming, 2010).
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THE LEVEL OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EZZA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

THE INFLUENCE OF WORKING CLASS MOTHERS ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The typical African cultural setting is centered on the man as head of the family and the sole provider of sustenance. The woman (or mother) on the other hand is expected to mind the home front and fend for the children. She is not expected to take up paid employment that will take her away from the domestic chores of a houswife. She is, however, expected to provide informal education and subsequently prepare the child for formal education. The general believe (in the view of the Researcher) is that mothers who work will find it difficult to fulfill their role of providing early childhood education that will ultimately affect their child’s academic performance when enrolled in school. Academic performance is determined by several factors. The literature is replete with how the socio-economic status of the mother determines the type of house pupils live in, the social amenities they have, mobility, even the types of food the pupils eat, and consequently their academic performance in school (Olusanya, Eyisi, Ogunyide, and Egbichulam ,1990). 2

Kriesberg (1990) reported that the middle class family is more supportive and rewarding of academic achievement than the lower class family. Indeed, according to Capper (1996), the entire family can be influenced by a child’s performance in an examination because that performance can constrain or expand future employment possibilities for the child. Musgrave (1998) also recognized parental status on academic performance. He explained that personal characteristics such as achievement, motivation, and self-concept are strong determinants of academic performance. Mothers’ employment has influence on the academic performance of their children especially when it is considered that mothers play significant roles in the education of their children, starting from conception,informal to formal education. Akogun (1998) stated that there is mounting evidence which indicates that, when malnutrition starts early in life, it becomes more severe in the impairment of the brain and may result in life-long reduction of intellectual abilities. Also, a mother who has consistently lived on poor nutrition is not likely to produce pupils with good intellectual abilities and may lead to poor academic achievement.

In most homes, mothers take care of their children, preparing them for school, cooking their food, and taking care of their dresses and books. 3

Women encourage children to aim high in educational pursuits and through their life example and counselling (Omotosho 1998). Mohammed (1999) asserted that global consensus is that education is a process that helps to develop the whole human being, physically, mentally, morally, politically, socially, and, technologically to enable one to function in any environment in which one may find oneself. Education, according to her, performs a major role in equipping the individual with the skills and knowledge which would help to transform any economy. Thus, the researcher is of the view that education is the greatest investment that any nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources. The role of the mother is to ensure that children are well fed with nutritionally balanced diet and were necessary to ensure that the pupils go to school with a well packaged lunch-box. Where the employed mother is not always available to do this, the tendency is for the pupils to go to school with junk foods or money with which they buy junk food. This ultimately influences the mental development of the child and determines the level of academic performance.
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THE INFLUENCE OF WORKING CLASS MOTHERS ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT

THE EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHY LITERACY POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SS III STUDENTS IN ENUGU EAST L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1.  Background of the Study

            Geography as a discipline enables us to understand the Earth we are living in from a spatial perspective. It offers a systematic framework for enquiry into questions about the world that surrounds us. Geography provides a bridge between the social sciences and the physical sciences, through the provision of an understanding of the dynamics of cultures, societies and economies on the one hand, and those of physical landscapes and environmental processes on the other. Geography as a secondary school subject enables students to explore and understand the relationship between the Earth and its peoples through the study of space, place and environment. These three elements (or macro-concepts) form the core of geography in secondary education. In pursuit of such an understanding, the questions “What”, “Where”, “How”, “Why” and “What if” are central and are the basic constructs for developing a geographical framework for enquiry. The study of Geography at senior secondary level is built on the knowledge and skills students will have acquired in the junior secondary curriculum.

These include the concepts and knowledge embedded in the various strands of the PSHE Curriculum, in particular Strand 4 ‘Place and Environment’. Students completing the junior secondary geography curriculum will also have acquired basic enquiry and generic skills, and have had experience of making values judgements through investigating issues from a geographical perspective. The Nigerian policy on education has made provisions to make education of the citizenry both functional and relevant with a view to ensuring all round development. Specific provisions have also been made for different levels of education system so as to ensure effective curriculum delivery in schools.

For the benefits of all citizens, the country‘s educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and those of the society, in consonance with the realities of the environment and the modern world (Federal Republic of Nigeria, (FRN, 2004). Orji and Uka (2012), argued that in order to actualize this in any society, there is the need of attending to certain unavoidable variables such as teaching materials, methods adopted, curriculum, teacher as well as students‘ interest. With particular reference to secondary education in Nigeria, various subjects have been included in the curriculum to enable pupils acquire knowledge and skills. Certain subjects are categorized as core while others are either vocational electives or nonvocational electives. Geography is found under both core and non-vocational electives categories. This shows the importance of Geography in achieving the national educational goals whose significance cannot be overemphasized.
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THE EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHY LITERACY POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SS III STUDENTS IN ENUGU EAST L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

THE EFFECT OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background to the Study

The phenomenon of drug trafficking through old in some part of the world, Was recent discovery in this country? Perhaps, all along, our country was used as a conduct for exploration of drugs to decent southern societies, but it was only in the late 1970’s and early 1980 are that the phenomenon started attracting massive public attention. To arrest this trend, General Muhammadu Buhari (Rtd) the then head of state and the commander in chief of armed forces authorized public execution of drug traffickers and merchant.  In addition, they were to forfeit all their belongings to the coffer of the federal government to show his seriousness three drug traffickers were publicly short in 1985.

Drug has never been part of us. It could be described as a sign of music inception by us, on the current trend of civilization as depicted by the white. Through different media African has been mode to regard the southern culture and practices as superior.

However, the adolescent tendencies of their age on such ideas must have encouraged this further and his no doubt contributed to numerous numbers of social menaces in a school. Examples of which is truancy, insubordination, indiscipline etc all of which negate student’s academic performance. During abuse unfortunately would not only harm the drug user but equally destroy his relationship with other. The normal use of drug and drug abuse cannot be easily distinguished even though alcoholic beverage have been in use by people in many societies for some years, alcohol ranks as one of the most widely abuse drugs, man y people cannot control their drinking and in time became addicted to alcohol.
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THE EFFECT OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISIALA MBANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Around the world the general, concern for Citizenship Education is growing and plays an increasingly more significant role in the future of education (Sears and Hughes 2006). In a bid to either eradicate or minimize the ‘evils’ of society, Citizenship Education is propagated (Ajayi, 2007). World Education Forum Dakar (2000) considered the social ills of society and suggested education as a powerful tool for promoting democracy and citizenship and Citizenship Education. It was stressed that apart from education being the right of every child, certain virtues need to be displayed by every individual or citizen (UNESCO, 2000).

Citizenship Education implies being educated to become an efficient member of one’s immediate and the general human community and to develop a commitment to work effectively with diverse people and to accept differences in cultures and values to social and development needs or issues. Citizenship Education also provides an essential element in the socialization process by helping young people to understand their society, contributing to it as informed, effective and responsible citizens (Aggarwal, 2000). Children’s learning is a major focus within most early year’s settings and one that is rewarding and exciting for early years practitioners. Understanding how children learn and how to support their learning experiences require extensive and in-depth knowledge from those people who care for them (Osler, 2001). Provision of quality secondary school education will ensure sustainable academic future for generations. It may not be easy to speculate, because today’s children are tomorrow’s leaders. They should not have to wait until they get to the tertiary institutions to be introduced to Citizenship Education (Atubra, 2009).

With the new development in promoting democracy among all countries in the world, Citizenship Education becomes increasingly important in the educational system (Torney-Purta & Vermeer, 2004). Citizenship Education is highly topical in many countries at present and urgent consideration is given to how to prepare the young people for the challenges and uncertainties of life in a rapidly changing world (Ichilov, 1998). It is just in order that many international communities are undertaking major reforms of schools and the curricula, Citizenship Education is part of this reform process (Kerr, 2005). Hence the secondary schools have no options but to be part of it. The school teachers who are the “attacking troops” in the classroom in this regard need to be given serious consideration.  The concept of Citizenship Education is generally said to embrace the preparation of young people for their roles and responsibilities as citizens and in particular the role of education in the preparatory process (Kerr, 2005). He further (2005) added that Citizenship Education is covered by a wide range of terms used in many countries to include citizenship, civic, social science, Social Studies, world studies, society and studies of society. It also has links to curriculum subjects and options including history, geography, economics, politics, environmental studies, values education, religious studies, language and science.
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TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISIALA MBANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       Social studies, is a programme of instruction or study which a society uses in still in the students or pupils the ideas, knowledge’s, skills attitudes and actions , it considers important concerning the relationship and thing we have with each other. This is a dynamic body of knowledge in a discipline which deals with the study of man and his interaction with his physical and social environment, it deals with how man influence and is influence by his physical, social, political, economic and psychological and cultural environments. The teaching of social studies in Nigeria secondary schools has a short but an important history in the school curriculum.

       Social studies is not only a study but also a way of life which integrated study of the social science and humanities to promote civic competence. There are field of scholarship that study society, is also a peer reviewed Journal that publishers articles of interest to educators at all levels. Through the proper development implementation and utilization of the knowledge that social studies could provide about society of the best of society, the right environment could be created for development of the right laws ethics and values for the society in a way for superior to what could be obtained was application of any knowledge attainable for any one its component subject parts.
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PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE.

PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Mathematics education was introduced in the Nigerian School Curriculum as part of the instrument for achieving national development (National Policy on Education (NPE) 1981). This was what informed its designation as part of the core curriculum at different levels of education in Nigeria. problems and prospects mathematics education curriculum development agencies such as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and experts further identified and disseminated the curriculum goals or purposes of the subject in the school curriculum. These include citizenship education, reflective inquiry and mathematics education, (Barth-shermis, 1920; Barth-Norris, 1976; Dubey and Barth, 1980; Olawepo, 1984) among others.

These broadly stated goals must be clare to, and recognized as important as well as attainable by teachers and other participants connected with the Curriculum if the intentions or purposes must be realized and the investment of effort is to be considered worthwhile (Feather, 1982; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988). These intentions or purposes are prima facie stated with clarity, but their perception or conceptualization by teachers and scholars is still in doubt as Onyabe (1980) observed that the philosophy, content and methodology of mathematics education has remained vague to both scholars and teachers. The incidence of conflicting conceptions of mathematics education curriculum is a cause for concern for three major reasons. First, the anchor or strategic position of purposes or intentions in the curriculum development process (Pratt, 1994) as illustrated in Tyler (1949) (Linear) and Wheeler (1980) (cyclic) curriculum models, among others problems

Secondly, curriculum goals or purposes, are indispensable elements in instructions as far as effective implementation of an already developed curriculum is concerned. Thirdly, the correct conception, investment of efforts and ultimate realization of the purposes of the curriculum will facilitate the realization of the overall aims of the Nigerian educational enterprise problems and prospects
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PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

PROBLEM OF EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO

                                                 CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

      Students performance in secondary schools over the years, have not been very encouraging. This has been giving the government and parents a lot of causes for concern. Some analysts have likened the cause for concern of this problem to the incessant strike action embarked upon by teachers as a result of irregular payment of salaries. Others attribute it to lack of seriousness on the part of the students. These facts may not be far from the truth. The analysis however, cannot be said to be thorough without researching on student’s family background which goes a long way to affect their performance in school. This is what the study intends to make a research on. To spread the scope and concept of family and extended family system and its impacts on secondary school students performance in school. in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State the effects of extended family system on students performance has been prevalent, the performance of students from extended family has not been too impressive and since the system is practiced in Nigeria and Africa in general students cannot do without socializing with other family members.      

        According to Humbling and Matters (1976), “Hunanbings are basically social creatures created by society primarily through family’s influence” society creates the individual; the individual does not create the society. Therefore, in the local government man is allowed two or more wives and this is known as polygamy. Polygamy has constituted academic problems to students. Finally, extended family system has some positive impacts on students since it is the commonest family unit in the society. Members who are financially buoyant assist students who are related to them thereby enabling them to meet some of their needs in school. Against, this background, extended family system is one of the numerous traditional practices which western civilization has not been able to erase in the local government and it may be with us for a long time even in the presence of western threat.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        In this research attempt will be made to look at the problems students face in some secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State as a result of extended family system. The study will also include some suggestions which can help to improve on their performance in school.

1.3    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

        The aim of this study is to analyze the problems associated with extended family system in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

 And to highlight some factors that gave rise to the system.

 The study also aims at giving the differences between students from extended families and tose tat are not, based on teir academic performances. .
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PROBLEM OF EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO

PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

In developing and developed countries, teenage pregnancy continue to receive increased attention because of early age at which adolescents engage in sexual activities and the result of unplanned and unintended pregnancies associated with the risk and problem of early motherhood. Lack of adequate information, education and communication on reproductive health services and the perennial concern in different parts of the world reveal that adolescents become sexually active at an early age which lead to a high number of teenage pregnancy today.

In many developing countries, about half the population is under 15 years. These age groups expose themselves into sexual habit which have led many of them into teenage pregnancy and at the same time cost the adolescent their educational background, (Gyan, 2013). Out of wedlock pregnancy and motherhood is not encouraged in Owerri North community at large. When teenage pregnancy is allowed to continue, at times it places the teenage mother’s health in danger because of inadequate parental care received by the teenage mother. So, after birth, the risk of the mother and her child will be high. Those circumstances may be responsible for increase in infanticide, baby abandonment and child abuse. For these reasons, pregnancies among teenagers are creating concern for many industrialized countries today WHO, (2000).
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PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Gesinde (2000) asserts that, the need to achieve varies among individuals. While some individuals‟ need for achievement is very high, that of others may be very low. Atkinson (1964) states that, individuals‟ actual achievement behaviour depends not only on their motivation to achieve but also whether they expect to achieve. People are more likely to work hard when they perceive a reasonable chance to succeed than when they perceive a goal to be out of reach. The trend of school achievement over the years among secondary school students seems to be poor. This could be in line with WAEC Report (2005), which observes that, the level of achievement among secondary school students in recent times has not been encouraging. It is in recognition that statistics from the West African examination council WAEC (2005) reveals that, the number of candidates that entered for biology, for instance has been encouraging over the years while their percentage pass at credit level in the senior school certificate examination (SSCE) has been following a downward trend. In the year 2001,2002,2003,2004, for instance, only 31.7%, 25.6%, 25.3%, 23.1% passed biology at credit level respectively.

These are indications of poor achievement by students. On a similar note, Osuji in Ali (2006) states that, trend analysis studies on achievement pattern in mathematics among secondary school students indicated that between 1979 and 2001, there was steady average of 1.7% annual decline in students A1 to C6 grade in mathematics at the west African school certificate examination. This implies that over the past decade or there about in Nigeria, students‟ attitude to achievement in their schoolwork has taken a negative direction. Shaffer (2000) opines that, achievement is inferred from individual (and often competitive) accomplishments that can be compared among some standard of excellence.

Conceptually, achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people or ideas; for attaining a high standard (Iheanacho 2002). Students develop interest in reading certain literary genres, writing, poetry, engaging in experiments and so on, all of which enhances learning. These unique patterns of interest might have developed through exposing the children to a knowledge domain or type of activity they discover they value as they identify with it in some fashion or because it meets some salient need
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MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

LACK OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS (SSS) IN EZZA SOUTH L.G.A OF EBONYI STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Man as a gregarious being moves closer to his fellow men to share knowledge, live together in groups, share ideas and opinions in their various groups as well as recreate themselves, also entertain themselves in a group after hard day’s work, these activities are needed to relieve him of worries, fatigue, tension, physical and physiological needs. An eighty seven years old physical educator who still played badminton claimed that recreation has been very useful as a secret of his good health despite the old age (Onifade, 2012).

Recreation is a deviation from ones normal activities to relax, it is an activity voluntary engage in during leisure and motivated by the personal satisfaction derived from participation (Onifade, 2012). There is fairly consistent evidence that suggests that adolescents are becoming more obese and more sedentary because of their lack of participation in recreational activities.

In his own definition, Bucher (2003) defined recreation as socially acceptable worthwhile activities in which a person voluntarily participates during leisure hours and through which he or she has opportunities to develop physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. The benefits of participating in recreational activities are numerous and well documented in the literature. Dubbert (2002) highlighted that recreational participation reduces obesity, maintains healthy joints, controls pain, builds stronger bone mass as well as improve endurance, strength and balance. Furthermore, recreational participation improves the functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardio respiratory system to carry oxygen to blood vessels and also improves metabolism – the process by which food is converted to energy and tissue is built (Insel and Roth, 2006). According to Insel and Roth (2006), being physically fit makes it easier to do everyday tasks. Regular recreational participation provides reserve strength for emergencies and helps people to look and feel good. In the long term, physically fit individuals are less likely to develop heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and many other degenerative diseases (Insel and Roth, 2006).
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LACK OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS (SSS) IN EZZA SOUTH L.G.A OF EBONYI STATE.

INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Education has been recognized as the fundamental basis on which any nation could function effectively. Its socio-political and economic depends solely on the qualitative education given to her citizen. Any nation that wants to be recognized as a developed country must build its human resource firmly. Hence, a country is said to be developed if the majority of her populace is highly educated  Therefore, those that impact the needed knowledge or those that build or mould the character should be attainted and motivated adequately, knowing that their welfare is the key to performance and improvement. Hence, it is believed that a motivated teacher always complete the tasks set for him, even when such task is difficult or seen uninteresting.

Teachers are a central actor in the learning process that takes place in schools, and teachers are the power tools for improving quality education through effective classroom practices in secondary schools (Davison, 2011). Attitudes and effectiveness can vary depending on the incentives they face. Pay structure is potentially an incentive-tool in the hands of the education policy maker, and merit pay proposals have important recently been discussed in several countries and applied in some. However, the issue of whether linking teachers pay to student performance is an effective means of improving that performance has been contentious in educational debates. According to Geeta and Francis (2010) that causality is established as running from higher wage to improved student achievement, the relationship is open to alternative interpretations.

One is that a positive impact from wages onto achievement reflects the fact that higher wages likely attract better quality people into the pool for applicants for teaching jobs. A second interpretation is that higher pay raises achievement by raising the effort of existing teachers. In terms of the efficiency wage theory, better paid teachers are likely to work harder in order to increase the chance of retaining their more valuable jobs. The paper will test these alternative explanations of the wage effect on student achievement. According to Patrick and Jane (2013), Teacher incentive is the idea that has been received with divergent views. The proponents of teacher incentive programmes believe that teacher incentives are meant to boost teacher motivation and effectiveness resulting in high productivity and increased pupil performance. On the other hand, opponents of the idea argue that monetary incentives, especially of small amounts, tend to crowed out intrinsic motivation and lead to inferior outcomes (Jacob, 2011).
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INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

THE INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       The teaching and learning of social studies in schools has been faced with a lot of problems. Aguokogbuo (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge, skills, so on to an immature or less experienced person. On the other hand Omebe (2009) defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is a function of previous behaviour usually referred to as practice. Aguokogbuo (2008) stated that teaching involves some complex activities on the part of both the teacher and learner in the classroom. These activities, according to him, must be designed and guided so as to promote learning. According to Okoro (2009) one of the problems militating against the teaching and learning of social studies is non-availability and use of instructional materials. The general purpose of classroom instruction is to help teachers achieve set instructional objectives. According to Mezieobi (2007), effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.

       Sarah (2008) instructional material is defined as audio-visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning and others as curriculum materials It involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of things/objects to ensure effective communication between an educational agent (the instructor) and the learner.

       Onwuka (2007) and Mkpa (2008) see instructional material as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructor’s time and efforts a way of capturing learner’s interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students busy and active and a way of stimulating imagination.

National Teachers Institute defined instructional materials as those materials (audio, visual, and audio visual) which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher communicate more effectively. Instructional materials therefore are teaching aids which aid teaching and make the concept taught more real to the learner which also facilitate teaching and learning. These instructional materials according to Fadeiye (2005), bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Fadeiye added that instructional materials are not an end in themselves but they are means to an end.
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THE INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE.

INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       The teaching and learning of social studies in schools has been faced with a lot of problems. Aguokogbuo (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge, skills, so on to an immature or less experienced person. On the other hand Omebe (2009) defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is a function of previous behaviour usually referred to as practice. Aguokogbuo (2008) stated that teaching involves some complex activities on the part of both the teacher and learner in the classroom. These activities, according to him, must be designed and guided so as to promote learning. According to Okoro (2009) one of the problems militating against the teaching and learning of social studies is non-availability and use of instructional materials. The general purpose of classroom instruction is to help teachers achieve set instructional objectives. According to Mezieobi (2007), effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.

       Sarah (2008) instructional material is defined as audio-visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning and others as curriculum materials It involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of things/objects to ensure effective communication between an educational agent (the instructor) and the learner.

       Onwuka (2007) and Mkpa (2008) see instructional material as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructor’s time and efforts a way of capturing learner’s interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students busy and active and a way of stimulating imagination.

National Teachers Institute defined instructional materials as those materials (audio, visual, and audio visual) which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher communicate more effectively. Instructional materials therefore are teaching aids which aid teaching and make the concept taught more real to the learner which also facilitate teaching and learning. These instructional materials according to Fadeiye (2005), bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Fadeiye added that instructional materials are not an end in themselves but they are means to an end.
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INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

INDISCIPLINE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       Indiscipline is one of the major problems hindering the normal development of youths in the society especially students in post primary schools. Indiscipline as it concerns achievement of educational goals, has received a lot of attention.

       Edem (2001)states that indiscipline is the violation of school rules and regulations which is capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system should be consequently avoided through perfect orientation of students and imposition of positive sanction in case of obvious violation of the order.

       Indiscipline is the inability of students and/or teachers to respect authority observe and obey school rules and regulations. It is also a social disorder which hampers a high standard of behaviour conducive to maintenance of teaching learning process.

       Nwanna (2005) carried out a study of the major offences committed by students in some schools in the Western region and found that some of the most frequently committed offences include stealing, lying, bulling, lateness to school, rioting, cruelty, absence and truancy.

       Soya (2006) in his study found that students these days

block the school entrance thereby preventing others, the principal and staff gaining entrance into the school premises. Such was another form of indiscipline behavior exhibited by youths these days. This act is termed socially as maladjusted. Some of the disciplinary measures adopted by the various school authorities are canning, suspension, manual labor, expulsion, deprivation of privileges etc.

       Indiscipline is like a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of the society. It breeds lawlessness and lawlessness brings crime, and consequently self-destruction. Indiscipline in schools contributes to lack of success in one’s life, if allowed to linger on for a long time. It is in this view of the above that the researcher was moved to carry out this study.
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INDISCIPLINE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

HOW SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS HAVE USED THEIR ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS TO INFLUENCE TEACHERS’ WORK PERFORMANCE; A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

The term ‘administration; is often used to mean ‘to execute; or ‘to enforce. However, the job of an administrator involves more than mere execution of plans and decisions made elsewhere. Accordingly, Onyene (2005) noted that where administrative function is reduced to execution, critical details are ignored. According to her, administration is a process of achieving organizational goals through frantic efforts directed towards putting to optimal use every available resource such as human, money, material and entrepreneurial skills. Perhaps it is in this operationally intricate sense that a school of thought reasoned that administration is more complex than management.

This is because day-to-day school administration entails critical procedures through which one in a position of authority such as the head teacher or principal discharges his/her responsibilities using the combined efforts of other people. Administration uses organized method to ensure the achievement of the aims and objectives of the school or any organization. Thus, the school administrator such as the principal combines his or her conceptual, technical, and human skills in “performing a garmot of management functions like planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, instructing, communicating, supervising, etc (Onyene 2000).

Besides, in a private school situation, Onyene (2005) noted that administration is most tasking because it has to sometimes commence with fundamental issues in structural designing, asking and answering essential questions on enrolment and patronage such as customer relations, customer values and satisfaction, learning and curriculum repackaging and many more. This workload explains why effective school administration is often at crisis level.This is because investors in schools in a bid to break even in terms of cost-benefit employ unqualified persons to head their schools.

Thus, the head teacher or principal may not possess those administrative skills which he or she can strategically use for achieving corporate excellence. In actual sense for a private school to attain organizational effectiveness, proper definition of tangible and non-tangible goals is expected. In order words, private school organizations must pursue in a very personal astute manner consciously defined goals and or purposes using the helm of affairs. Once these goals are attained both internal efficiency and “break-even”, normally follow using simple administrative maintenance tips.
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HOW SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS HAVE USED THEIR ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS TO INFLUENCE TEACHERS’ WORK PERFORMANCE; A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PUPILS’ DROPOUT AND ACHIEVEMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       Education is the acquisition and application of knowledge in various fields for effective performance of ones task. The federal, state and local Governments of the federation place high premium on education they recognize it as a weapon against ignorance, disease, squalor and poverty and as a means of raising an enlightened, lively and industrious citizenry and of producing a prosperous nation.

       Education is an important medium for imparting the cultural traits and for change and transition and for instructing members of any society on the accepted norms, values and practices. Omebe (2005) states that the main aim of educational institution is to bring change in the behaviour of human beings from the time an individual is born and last till death.

       Omebe (2007) defined education as that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted in non-rational soul. The particular training in respect of pleasure and pain which leads on to hate and love what love ought to have and love is called education.

       The federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument for excellence for effecting not only national development but also as a tool in the achievement of her five national objectives stated in the national policy on education (2007). These objectives are the building of:

  1. A free and democratic society
  2. A just and egalitarian society
  3. A united, strong and self-reliant nation
  4. A great and dynamic economy
  5. A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.

       This implies that among other things Nigeria intends producing education for all her children of school age. This provision of education covers at least from primary school level  to tertiary levels depending on the individuals academic ability.

       National policy on education (2007:14) defined primary education as the education given in institutions for children aged 6 to 11 plus since the rest of the education system is build upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. The duration shall be six years. The goal of primary education is to:
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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PUPILS’ DROPOUT AND ACHIEVEMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INATTENTIVENESS OF STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM AS EXPRESSED BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Inattention in the classroom can have a profound effect on academic progress if it continues for a prolonged period. Several causes range from various disorders, stressors in the child’s home or school environment, or not getting enough sleep at night. Of utmost importance is to avoid jumping to conclusions and to find the root of the problem for the child involved. From there, work on helping the student solve or improve his inattention in the classroom.

The critical tool used in the transformation of individual in particular and the society in general. Secondary education in Nigeria is meant at preparing the learners for valuable living conditions within the society and training for further education. In order to live a valuable life within any given community and contribute towards the social, economic, and political development of the nation, the appropriate skills, values, attitudes, knowledge, and competencies must be impacted into the individual. Stakeholders have experienced magnificent increase in students’ inattentiveness in secondary schools in Nigeria.  In developing nations, indiscipline has been a major and continuous administrative problem among secondary schools in developing countries. Denga (1999) in his study identified indiscipline problems such as stealing, truancy, sexual offence, vandalism and cheating as destructive practices.

The percentage of students who drop out of school in most urban and rural areas of Nigeria, is on an increase. These students cultivate and demonstrate deviant behaviours and may never fulfill their potentials. They become burdens to the society. There is an outcry of Nigeria educators, administrators and parents about the increasing rate of indiscipline in Nigeria secondary schools. This observation unsettles the mind of patriotic Nigerians since children are considered the future leaders of the country. As a result, any attempt to curb students’ inattentiveness in school would be highly welcomed by the government, educators, parents, teachers and school administrators. The principal push of this study is to examine students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria and discover the frequent and familiar types, the causes and suggest possible solutions to curb this deviant behaviour.
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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INATTENTIVENESS OF STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM AS EXPRESSED BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

EFFECTS OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Attainment of any teaching and learning objectives involves both human resources and materials resources and factors, that is, the teacher who is the enforcer of the subject content and the availability of both convectional materials and improvised materials, otherwise known as instructional materials. These factors must be in place to ensure attained educational objective, instructional materials are said to be all those materials needed in the classroom to be used by the teacher for the purse of facilitating teaching and learning. According to Kay (2008), instructional materials stimulate the students’ desire to learn, and assist learning process by making assimilations and memorizing of the learned topic easy for students.

          Agun (2008) refers to them as learning materials, the proper use which helps learners to learn faster and better. Offering computer studies, the computer itself serves as an instructional material because the subject is more of concrete object that can be seen and touched by both the teacher and learners (Ituma, 2010).

According to Benson (2011) instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous impact if intelligently used. In most cases learner have the difficulty in understanding some certain concepts as a result of their cognitive operation and ability, hence the need for teachers to employ materials and methods that will facilitate students’ understanding of the concepts as in the case of computer studies is appreciated. It is against this background that (Nwuba2016) cited jean Piaget who postulated human beings to be classified along sensory motor, pre-operational, concrete and abstract cognitive level.
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EFFECTS OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF EBONYI STATE