AN ANALYSIS OF THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS GENERAL STUDIES IN THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC DEPARTMENT COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, EKIADOLOR.)

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the attitudes of student’s towards General Studies Education in the college of Ekiadolor –Benin and the relationship, if any, between attitude and performance using the part-time ECO/SOS students of the College as a case study.

A structural questionnaire administered on a sample of 50 students from which data was obtained on student’s attitude and perception towards General studies courses.

Results from the data analysis reveal that student consider General studies course to be a necessary part of the N.C.E curriculum in the college.

It also show that the attitudinal factors on the part of students and teacher related factors are very important when determine students performance, even through the former appears to be more important.

The students attitudinal factors that are most important are students attitude to learning in general, and to general studies education, in particular students perceptions as to whether a course is important, also, teacher ability to motivate students, trapped the list of teachers related factors.

Country to popular belief, the results also show that Economic /Social Studies Students do not necessarily have preference for Art course – based GSE course over mathematic.

This study urge GSE teachers to positively encourage students especially those in social science (students) the attitude of motivation towards GSE course in the college.

The study recommend teacher to generate interest and dedication to the course that students have wrong attitude towards.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.

One of the main features of higher education in Nigeria before 1995 was the over compartmentalization of academic field of study. There were no common university courses to all students both at the instructional level and across the country. Cross – fertilization of knowledge between humanities and science students were not there.

In 1975, the newly created commissions over see the Nigeria universities. Nigeria universities commission (NUC) introduced General Studies Education (NUC) programmed. These programmed were of an two categories which is commonly referred to a General Study and the faculty wide category I e. General Studies, which is the main focus of this study, was made compulsory for all undergraduate students of Nigerian higher institutions.

College of Education, Ekiadolor as it is called today was established in Benin City in 1996 at Iyaro, as an advanced teachers college for the training of NCE teachers. The college was formally opened on 15th may 1980 and renamed college of Education, Benin City. An enabling law knows\ as the College of Education, Benin City law 1981n was enacted from 2nd October 1999. The law was revised in 1988, before the College moved to its permanent site at Ekiadolor about 25 kilometers from Benin City in April 1986.

General Studies Education (GSE) is a compulsory part of the curriculum for all students admitted into the College of Education, Ekiadolor – Benin.

The purpose of this said course is for students to have a broad knowledge need to fit them a going to face after their studies in the College. The course also serve to supplement the specialized knowledge, students acquire in their respective discipline GSE course in college are spread over the three – year NCE programmed. More specifically, the aims of the College of Education, Ekiadolor. General Studies programmed (as it is, many other higher institutions in Nigeria) are:

(1) To develop in all students the skill needed for effective use of English in all communicative situations and for logical reasoning.

(2) To expose students to the cultural feature of their society and to social and moral obligation there of.

(3) To promote health education and encourage actions that will lead to a better health practice.

(4) To give students a good foundation in liberal education by exposing them to some of the foundational questions which philosophers have been concerned with through the ages?

(5) To equip all students with mathematic and computational skill. This has high application not only in scientific and technological skills development, but also in entrepreneur development.

(6) To sharpen the students awareness of the multifarious dimension and significant of science and technology to the modern world.

Specifically, sensitize them to the benefit as well as the danger of science and technology to man and his survival in the universe (N. C Onwueme, 2001).

AN ANALYSIS OF THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS GENERAL STUDIES IN THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC DEPARTMENT COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, EKIADOLOR.)

AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN NIGERIA JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: (A CASE STUDY OF ORHIONMMWON L.G.A. EDO STATE)

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to look into the problems affecting teaching and learning in business studies in junior secondary schools Nigeria. This investigation however, revealed amongst other following lack of teaching facilities and instructional materials, lack of guidance and counselling, lack of school library, lack of workshops in schools for typing and lack of qualified teachers handling business studies. The following recommendations were made based on the findings. the students should be encouraged and motivated to cultivate positive attitude and interest in the subject enough skilled manpower should be developed, school should endeavour to stock variety of typewriters and shorthand textbooks their libraries and other necessary teaching aids such as the chalk board and charts.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

During the colonial era education was mostly in the hands of the missionaries who introduced a type of education known as the Latin grammar. The grammar schools offer very little subject based on the types of curriculum specified by colonial masters and by the agency establishing them, which is the introduction of their educational system and also incorporate into their ideas and opinions.

The main objectives of the missionaries were to train men and women for the church as a religions teacher, interpreters to the audience and government as well as to produce those who can read and write so that they can be employed as office clerk, the interpreting the build and the laws of the land and services as interpreter between the foreigners and the natives.

Generally, the content of the grammar schools curriculum consist of Latin, English, history, geography, mathematics. Literature, biology e.t.c with the development of their (colonial masters) economy, there came the need for introduction of commercial or business studies subjects, but instead of widening the scope of grammar school curriculum to include a wide range of business studies subject, the colonial government created two curriculums which are secondary grammar school and the secondary commercial schools.

The secondary grammar schools have no problem of organization because the colonial government financed them roam catholic mission Anglican and the Baptist each propagating their own ideas and the philosophies. The commercial secondary schools were left for the private hands and this did not anger well for the development of the school in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government introduced the new national policy on education in 1981. A major provision of this policy was the teaching of business studies at the junior secondary school level with emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills, values and knowledge that would enable individuals to live a meaningful life in he society one the reasons for the emphasis laid on business studies is the fact that it is a skilled subjects with would equip its graduates with the needed skills for gainful employment

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is true that the teaching of business studies subjects in Nigeria secondary schools. However, the main aim of this researcher is to investigate the causes of poor performance in business studies and also to suggest reasonably answers to such problems as:

  1. How effective is the teaching method teaching facilities and instructional material.
  2. Are there well equipped laboratories for learning type writer and short hand?
  3. Are there qualified teachers handing the subject.
  4. In what way is the government contributing to the causes of poor performance studies in junior secondary certificate examination.
  5. Is there guidance/counseling aids for the students?

Even if they terminate their formal education at the junior secondary school level one basic instrument for the achievement of business studies is the total activity which is planned organized and the evaluated in order to prepare youths to meet the technical and economical of a complex society.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

In this study, the purpose will be to examine the causes of poor performance in junior secondary school students in business students in business studies and to suggest solutions by using selected junior secondary schools in Benin City, Benin metropolis of Edo state the purpose will there includes.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN NIGERIA JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: (A CASE STUDY OF ORHIONMMWON L.G.A. EDO STATE)

THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF PATIGI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                 i

Approval page                                                          ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of contents                                                     vi    

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                         1

Statement of the Problem                                        8

Purpose of the Study                                                       9

Research Hypothesis                                                       10

Significance of the Study                                                 11

Scope of the Study                                                   12

Definitions of Key Terms                                          12

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Meaning of Drugs Abuse                                          14

Types of Drugs Abuse                                              19

Causes and effects of Drug Abuse                            21

Effects of drug abuse                                               37

Impact of Drug Abuse on students academic           41

Appraisal of Literature Review                                 42

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                                      45

Population                                                               46

Sample and Sampling Technique                            46

Instrument of the Study                                           47

Validity of the Study                                                48

Reliability of the Instrument                                    48

Procedure of Data Collection                                    49

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT

Result and Discussion                                             50

Presentation of Result                                              50

Discussion of Result                                                51

Analysis of Result                                                    57

Discussion of the Result                                          57

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

   RECOMMENDATION

Summary                                                                 59

Conclusion                                                              59

Recommendation                                                     60

References                                                               62

Appendix                                                                         64

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        Initially in view of contemporary Nigeria, it is obviously reflected that drug abuse has become a cankerworm that is being difficult to alleviate from the flesh of the nation.

        It is so rampant that students almost indulge in this acts, in Nigeria nowadays a lot have been said and written on issues of drug abuse as it relate to youth.

        Also, Nigeria youth have been caught up with their counterparts in developed country such as Japan, Britain e.t.c. with regards to the use of drugs and also the youth has inculcate act of drug abuse which effect the mind and produce changes in mind and behaviour of the youths.

        For instance, Atolagbe (1985) said that in an attempt to become westernized and civilized Nigeria youth have been settled among. Such as heroine tobacco, cocaine and some other hard drugs that have severe effect on humanity.

        Since the past twenty-one years Nigeria like other development country of the world have become increasing acquainted concerning the high level of involvement about drug abuse among the youths. Drugs abuse among Nigerian youth has been a great concern to every sector of Nigerian society.

        President Olusegun Obasanjo (R.T.D Gen) in his Keynote address to secondary schools principal in 1977 remarked that a day hardly passed without some media reports on their examination leakage, student unrest, cases of indiscipline and drug abuse. All now becoming natural emergency which should be treated urgently and severely handled as it routine for many students to the extent that most can not effectively function their academically of other wise a without using drugs.

        In accordance to “Ajala (1984) he stated the rate of which it is increasing one start wonder if our schools are meant to train to be drugs users who as well engage in some other juvenile delinquencies such as raping, arm robbery, picking pocket e.t.c. its not common that some students, who were not drugs users during their first year in school, get into act either through peer group that have engaged in the act or as manifestation from either through peer group that have engaged in the act or as manifestation from either parent at home.

        This is so because peer groups are essential instruments to be contended as most students must have been warned against an act like drugs abuse. From home yet still involved actively as a drug have a lot of negative effective of drug abuse as millions of addicts are withdrawn from productive activities and drug add to the cost of medical car, disruption of families and the load of (U.N.O) Secretary General was quoted by news daily Sunday Tribune March 17th (1991) to have said illicit drug wherever they are produced or used contaminate and corrupt the very fabric of society increasing worldwide abuse which is destroying uncounted useful lives” involve, from experience some students do take drug when they are well having it in mined that the ailment would be cued.

        Others involve in the drug abuse when they intend to do thing that need imperviousness to ones action like being invited to take in the public gathering and having no audacity to do so.

        It is only hard drugs like cocaine, heroine, marijuana, alcohol, amphetamine and inhalants and so on that people abuse, but others like phensic, panadol, chloraquine, paracetamol and also being grossly abuse. It is unfortunate that despite the orchestrated propaganda against hard drugs teenagers still crave of the action of Nigeria kids between the ages of 8 and 13 residing in major cities like Lagos. Abeokuta, Ibadan are learning to overcome these difficulties time of hand drugs.

        According to a Nigeria Daily Newspaper (African Concord 4th March 1991) stated that the selling, buying and sniffing of the illicit drug actually reach its peak between 3 and 6.

        Aim each time to sniff more drugs in order to restore themselves to their state of drunken stupor.

        According to Observes, they can do anything even kill just to get money with which to buy drugs and cure their jousting once they are looked unto drugs.

        This country is now deep in social crisis. The types of dislocation our country has suffered in the past ten years, is so debilitating that one can’t just put the right hold for the sneer disharmony of many frightening magnitudes of homeless boys and girls, or the streets.

        The main issue is that in a country gripped win evil of stagnation and chronic unemployment, the children are usually the first causalities when the crunch really get down.

        Similarly the high court and tribunal officer Johnson in Tribune Newspaper of (March, 1982) said, the government is aware of this is deleterious effect of the abuse of drugs in the society and this is why a decree is promulgated to forbids the possession, warnings 1 Appeals. From private and public sectors that people particularly the student should desist from he abuse without talking the directive from medical experts.

        In the case of hard drug; tribunal officer Johnson said in high count judge to determine punishment for those who err. To show the gravity of how to reduce it to the basest minimum through punishment humiliating acts have been publicity executed for this offence despite the human right organisation and professionals bodies world wide clamour and decency.

        All these have given the researcher the concern for fellow students who are drug users. For instinct, Udofia (1981) said many students end up at psychotic patient at determent of their parent’s family and the nation at large because they would not be able to survive their preachment alone.  

        The incidence is on the increase among student and this demands critical assessment of researcher so as to minimize it for the betterment of our lives and the nation at large.

Statement of the Problem

THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF PATIGI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE)

INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOMES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

        This study is focused on the influence of broken homes on the performance of students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. A total of 200 respondents were used form ten secondary school in the local government. A questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to gather data in the study. The simple percentage techniques was used to analyse the data  collected and the reliability co-efficient is 70%. From the study it is revealed that broken homes affect students performance in different ways and achievement in life. It was recommended that parents should desist from what can jeopardize their children’s future. It is also recommended that seminars be organized to advice both parents and the society on negative influence of a broken home.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                     vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study                                         1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                        4
  3. Purpose of the Study                                       6
  4. Research Question                                           6
  5. Significance of the Study                                         8
  6. Scope of the Study                                           9
  7. Limitation of the Study                                    10
  8. Definition of Terms                                          10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction                                                     11
  • Meaning of a Family                                        12
  • Type of Family                                                 14
  • Making of Divorce and Broken Home               15
  • Causes of Broken Homes                                 17

2.6   Influence of Broken Home on the Ex-Spouses 20

2.7   Influence of Broken Homes on child’s Social

Relationship                                                    23

  • Influence of Broken Home on the child’s Education    28
  • Appraisal of literature Reviewed                       32

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction                                                     33
  • Research Design                                              33
  • Sample Population                                          34
  • Sample and Sampling Technique                    34

3.5   Method of Data Collection                               36

3.6   Validity of the Instrument                                36

  • Reliability of the Instrument                            37
  • Procedure for Data Collection                          37
  • Method of Data Analysis                                  38

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND

                             ANALYSIS                 

4.1   Introduction                                                     39

  • Discussion on Findings                                   51

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

   RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary                                                                 55

5.2   Conclusion                                                      58

5.3   Recommendations                                           59

5.4   Implication for the Study                                 66

5.5   Suggestion for further Study                            67

        References                                                       68

        Appendix                                                         71

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In every society in the world, broken homes are gradually becoming a common phenomenon. The family unit was enjoined by God to bring up their children.

In the way they should behave, adding that they would not depart from it. It is therefore intend that a man and his wife should co-habit till. However, this has not always been the case, God also institude death which can cause separation.

Separation can also come about through divorce which is the legal separation of marriage. A marriage is said to be legal when it is contracted according to the customary or English law.

Therefore a separation occurs to such a marriage the home is regard as a broken home. Usually the family must have had children before the home becomes broken. In actual fact children of such are either left to the care of the woman or the man depending on the custom, tradition or common understanding. Such situation usually has more serious implication when such children are in the school age.

Children look up to both parents for guidance as they start the journey of life. They need the encouragement of parents in the first attempts to learn and they need the discipline of parents to deter them from breaking the rules and norms of school and society.

Indeed the whole content of the child needs the parental backing in order to develop normally and in line with the goals and values of society.

But in this age of trail marriages and single parent mothers, many children are being denied these essential foundation of life. No day passes without one hearing of divorce suits in our law courts while the children of such marriages are left as pawns in a game of chess. Where the home is broken. The tendency is that the child lacks the co-operative care of both parents. He has a lot of idle time and like an idle brain is the devils workshop, the child finds pleasure in all the forms of misdemanour and the became delinquent. Invariably these delinquent behaviours are carried to the school system and are copied by other students. They become a source of bad influence to every secondary school because of the powerful influences of peer group and these in turn go round the schools. Children from separation homes are problems to their parents, teachers and to themselves. Their basic problem is one of social adjustment. Since they have never learnt to establish good relationship with other people.

They are often describe as maladjusted children. They may be uncontrolled in class and have delinquent tendencies. Others may have excessive desire for attention, or withdrawal and must have a difficulty in establishing normal friendly relationship with others. The effect of broken home and it’s attendant result is a serious state of affairs that calls the attention of any right thinking citizen and a responsible government as well. Hence the United Nations created the international year of the child for a solution.

Statement of the Problem

INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOMES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN KWARA STATE

ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES FOR REFORMATION OF PRISONERS IN OKO PRISONS IN BENIN

Abstract

The main objective of this study was on adult education programs for reformation of prison inmates in Oko prison Benin city Edo state: Challenges and Strategies for improvement. To guide this study, four research questions were formulated. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised all the prison staff and inmates in Edo State. The sample consisted of 200 persons i.e. 100 inmates and 100 prison staff selected through simple random sampling. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection which was dully validated by experts in Adult Education and Measurement and Evaluation. Among the major findings of the study were that overcrowding, poor funding, poor sanitation, poor facilities militate against reformation of prison inmates while provision of adequate facilities, recruitment of professional educators and administrators, adequate counseling services, adequate funding of prisons among others were the strategies for improvement in reformation of prison inmates in Edo State.

                                        CHAPTER ONE

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Reformation of Prison inmates is one of the most important functions of the Nigerian Prisons service. Reformation of Prison inmate means correcting, educating, re-orientating and rehabilitating the inmates so that they could become better citizens when released from the prison. Wikipedia (2015) defines prison reform as the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system or implement alternatives to incarceration. The Nigerian prisons service, just like other agencies inherited from the British colonial government has been viewed as an agent created by the government and its policies. Prison service of Nigeria derives its powers from Cap. 366 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (1990) to perform the following functions amongst which include: Take into custody all those legally intended and set in motion mechanisms for their training and reformation, preparatory to returning them back to the society as normal law abiding citizens. The implication is that reformed prisoners do no longer be security threats to national peace which is so vital for socioeconomic and political development. In other words, the purpose of reform is to train through appropriate conditions convicted prisoners to be better citizens on discharge. There is no better way to help prison inmates avoid breaking in and out of jail cycle and functioning suitably in the society on release, than assisting them acquire the skills needed to succeed in later life through rehabilitation (Uche, Uche, Ezumah, Ebue, Okafor & Ezegbe, 2015). Prison is an institution designed to securely house people who have been convicted of crimes or are on awaiting trial. These individuals known as prisoners or inmates are kept in continuous custody on a short or long-term basis. Usually, the more serious the offence, the longer the prison term imposed. Awake (2005) defined prison as a total institution or a place of residence and work, where a large number of like situated individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time together, lead and enforce formally administered round of life. This new environment is expected to provide the prisoners/inmates with particular opportunities of rethinking, stock taking and repentance from old ways (Omorogiuwa, 2014). Incarceration entails imprisonment or confinement as a deterrent without associating any privileges to it while rehabilitation of offenders may imply a more cooperative and remedial approach (Singh, 2008). Hence, the significant need for rehabilitation programmes in the transformation and restoration of prison inmates is recognized (Tanimu, 2010). Effective rehabilitation programmes in prisons could assist inmates acquire suitable skills, promote prospect development as well as attitudinal and behavioural changes. Hence, prison rehabilitation programmes are considered helpful provisions offered to inmates to ensure and promote their physical, mental-health, psychological, social, vocational and economic potentials (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1989; Nigeria Prison Services, 2009; Asokhia & Agbonluae, 2013). For any meaningful rehabilitation to take place in a prison, the rehabilitation services must first be based upon adequate provisions, which should be accessible to the inmates (Igbinovia, 2003; Igbo, 2007). There are a number of prison rehabilitation programmes for inmates which provide specific skills crucial for preparing inmates for better living on release from the prison; while the main objectives of the prisons service, which is the reformation and rehabilitation of inmates can be actualized through programmes such as: social case and group work/intervention, recreational activities, educational programmes and skills acquisition programmes (Nigeria Prison Service, 1989). As a consequence, prison inmates that incorporate rehabilitation services during confinement are likely to gain skills that could provide employment and entrepreneurial opportunities upon their release. The prisons services providers do not only identify the causes of the inmates’ anti-social behaviours, but ensures the path to reformation by impacting on their potentials and subsequent change unto social functioning (Omorogiuwa, 2014). According to Federal Government of Nigeria (1989), some of the specific objectives of rehabilitation services in Nigerian prisons include: to promote the provision of adequate and accessible recreational facilities and services for the prison inmates, provision of social welfare services for the prison inmates, development of skill acquisition programs and educational services. The philosophy of the Nigerian prison service is that treatment and rehabilitation of offenders can be achieved through carefully designed and well-articulated reformative and rehabilitative programmes aimed at inculcating discipline, respect for the law and order and regard for the dignity of honest labour ((Igbinovia, 2003; Nigeria Prison Services, 2009). Research Igbo (2007) indicates that the rehabilitation of prison inmates ought to begin from the first day of admission into the prison till the day of discharge. This is to ensure that they utilize the skills acquired through rehabilitation programmes to live a law abiding and meaningful life in the society. Rehabilitation services in Nigerian prisons therefore, should be aimed at increasing the educational and vocational skills of inmates and their chances of success upon release (Asokhia & Agbonluae, 2013). This is important for inmates particularly as a number of them are socially and economically deprived.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Reformation of prisons and prisoners in Nigeria still conjures punishment (Kalu, 2002). Kalu went further to say that the new ideology behind our panel practice in Nigeria was further predicted upon the belief that imprisonment and subsequent loss of freedom was punishment enough, punitive imprisonment had deformative effect on the minds and outlook of the prisoners. A prisoner or an inmate is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or forcible restrain. The term applies particular to those on trial or servicing prison sentence in a prison (Wikipedia, 2015). According to the Nigerian Prison Service Manual (2011), the realization of one of the major objectives of the prisons service – the reform and rehabilitation of convicts are to be done through a complicated set of mechanisms consisting among others: conscientization, group work, case work session, recreational activities, religious services and adult and remedial education programs, educational development project, skills acquisition program, mid-range industrial production, agricultural service and after-care service program. The prison’s services providers should not only identify the causes of the prisons’ inmates anti-social behavior but also endeavors to set them on the road to reform through induced self-rediscovery and eventual change for the better. It is in view of the above that necessitate the  researcher to embark on the study;

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to examine adult education programs for reformation of prison in Oko Benin city, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objectives;

  1. i) To ascertain the impact adult education programs on prisoners reformation in Benin City Edo state
  2. ii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between adult education program and prisoner’s reform and rehabilitation upon discharge

iii) To evaluate the effect of adult education programs on the reformation of prisoners when discharge

  1. iv) To ascertain the constrain to adult education programs for reformation in Oko prison

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. i) Does adult education programs have any impact on prisoner’s reformation in Benin City Edo state?
  2. ii) Is there any significant relationship between adult education program and prisoner’s reform and rehabilitation upon discharge?

iii) Does adult education programs have any effect on the reformation of prisoners when discharge?

  1. iv) Are they constrain to adult education programs for reformation in Oko prison?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0adult education programs do not have any impact on prisoner’s reformation in Benin City Edo state

H1adult education programs do have an impact on prisoner’s reformation in Benin City Edo state

H0there is no significant relationship between adult education program and prisoner’s reform and rehabilitation upon discharge

H2there is a significant relationship between adult education program and prisoner’s reform and rehabilitation upon discharge

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers adult education programs for reformation of prisoners in Oko prison in Benin city Edo state; in the course of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected inmate makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES FOR REFORMATION OF PRISONERS IN OKO PRISONS IN BENIN

EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN THE NIGERIAN PRISON

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The holy book says in Hosea 4:6 my people are destroyed from lack of knowledge. “Because you have rejected knowledge, I also reject you as my priests; because you have ignored the law of your God, I also will ignore your children. People perish for lack of knowledge and information. In a country like Nigeria, many of her citizenry are illiterates and those who manage to have the basic normal education do not have access to information regarding their day to day activities. The media’s provisions are not the best for the neo-literates. Hence, criminal behaviors and delinquency are common occurrences in Nigeria. In recent time, armed robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, fraud, traffic offence, rape, murder and theft have become more serious to tackle as they have manifested with new methods and techniques (Omisakin, 1998). Today, the nefarious activities of the Boko Haram in term of bombing, hijacking and life threatening incidences are worrisome. These high rates of criminal behaviors and manifestation with new methods and techniques are of great concern to the society, rehabilitation social workers and other behavior modifiers. Convicted criminals are sentenced to prison for purpose of rehabilitation. In most cases, the providers of rehabilitation services are either ill-equipped or not at all to give wholesome services that can affect inmates’ lives positively. Rehabilitation services are notable for their pivotal prison role in changing lives of the inmates; unfortunately these are either not there or grossly inadequate. Change is possible for everyone. Even prison inmates can change for the better and become productive citizens. However, changing for the better and becoming productive citizens need a little sacrifice from the prison inmates and a great help from government and concerned agencies. Prison rehabilitation services were established in Nigerian prisons for the purpose of reforming the inmates. For any meaningful rehabilitation to take place in prisons, rehabilitation services must first be improved upon; adequate provisions made and these should be accessible to the inmates. Colonial prisons in Nigeria were not designed for reformation or rehabilitation rather prisons were intended to be punitive. Hence, prisoners were used mainly for public works and other jobs for the colonial administrators as a form of punishment (Investigating Human Right, n:d; 176-184). At the end of the Second World War (1939-1945), there was a remarkable shift in penal philosophy, particularly in colonial territories. The emphasis was no longer primarily on the punishment of criminals but there was also concern for their reformation and rehabilitation (Igbo, 2007). Officially, it is claimed that the role of the Nigerian prison services is tripartite in nature. Firstly, the service is responsible for the safe custody of persons legally interned. Secondly, it provides treatment to them, and thirdly, it seeks to rehabilitate them. The philosophy of the Nigerian prison service is that treatment and rehabilitation of offenders can be achieved through carefully designed and well-articulated administrative, reformative and rehabilitative programs aimed at inculcating discipline, respect for the law and order and regard for the dignity of honest labour (Nigerian Prison Services, 2009). A prisoner without adequate rehabilitation opportunity through skills training and capacity building usually returns to the society which has incarcerated him or her as a hardened enemy of that society. Such an ex-convict is often full of desire for vengeance because he or she sees himself or herself as victimized rather than corrected. In addition, such an ex-convict is likely to do more harm than good to a society invariably perceived as an oppressive system. This condition explains to a very great extent why many Nigerian ex-prisoners end up as recidivists (Ugwuoke, 1994). The rehabilitation of prison inmates should begin from the very day they are admitted into the prison to the day they are discharged (Igbo, 2007). This is to ensure that they utilize the skills they acquired in the course of rehabilitation to live a law abiding life in the society. There are a number of programmes in place meant to divert offenders from crime to useful pursuits that make crime unattractive or condemnable such as moral or religious institutions, education, vocational training etc. Based on the fact that efforts of the prisons in equipping the inmates with vocational skills are faced with various problems, questions as to whether the prisons are actually rehabilitating convicts, the effectiveness of these rehabilitation programs or whether there is an existing conflict between the punitive ideas of imprisonment inherited from the colonialism and the need for rehabilitation are issues of concern. The above necessitated the interest of this study of Enugu prison; and examined the inmates’ perception of the effectiveness of rehabilitation program

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite the noble objectives of reformation, rehabilitation and reintegration which the Nigerian prison system embarks on to ensure that criminals become changed persons, the realization of this objective has been obstructed by certain factors. (Ayodele, 1993) asserted that the rate at which ex-convicts are returning to jail is alarming. Reformation of prisoners has not been effective as every year criminals who become more hardened and deadly are released as against changed individuals expected by the society. Ayodele further stated that prisons have in modern times become training ground and school for a new category of criminals and patterns of crime unknown to the society. In addition, (Civil Liberty Organization, 1993) reported that the prison is just where one learns one or two mistakes that led to one being arrested, so that inmates get smarter by sharing experience with more learned colleagues. In line with this, (Adelaja, 2009) noted that prisoners left unoccupied with constructive and positive activities are likely to perfect their criminal activities through the learning of new tricks from other inmates. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effectiveness of rehabilitation program in the Nigerian prison service.

EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN THE NIGERIAN PRISON

REHABILITATION AND REFORMATION OF PRISONERS IN NIGERIAN PRISON

Abstract

This study is aimed at identifying the rehabilitation and reformation of prisoner. The instrument used for collection of data or information in this research is mainly the questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to one hundred and thirty three respondents to tests the validity of the stated research questions from their respondents it was discovered that many of the option carrier choice education should be introduced in senior secondary schools in this research which will be of great benefit to the students in the means to establish guidance and counselling facilities centres in senior secondary schools. In conclusion, the presence of guidance and counselling facilities centres in senior secondary schools will help to solve carrier choice problems facing the students.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Benin kingdom during Oba Ewedor who was the 4th Oba in Benin Kingdom he reigned from 1255 to 1280 AD he was the first Oba to establish native prison called “Ewedor” in his own name where offenders were confined, the keeper or warder “Eriebo” in Benin dialect while the prisoners were called “Eseghan”. This native prison system was in use before the arrival of the colonial masters in 1895. In 1910 during the reign of Oba Eweka, government rebuilds the prisons in the same premises. It can be reveled that during the period 1910-1950 that the prison was fenced with ordinary hard wire and in 1957, the perimeter wall was fenced with burnt bricks.

As a result of this awareness, the concept of rehabilitation took the top stage in the treatment of delinquents. Rehabilitation is defined as efforts that aim at restoring by formal act or declaration (a person degraded or attained) to former privileges ranks and possession, to re-establish (a person good name or memory) by an authoritative pronouncement. It also means re-establishing the character or reputation of a person or things to restore to a previous condition in order to set up again in proper condition. Applied to the deviants, it means that the society now realize that the deviant, one were on the road to proffer development and can be helped to readjust once more if the proper techniques of rehabilitation are applied. A desirable policy of rehabilitation was therefore formalize to set up again in proper condition those prisoners who have fallen foul of law of the society and who now need to be restored as properly integrated members of the society.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In order to make this study simpler and easily understood, it is necessary future researcher who might find this study helpful on the main issues in this project. An insight in to a topic reformation and rehabilitation of prison as a function of facilities on human resources in the prison project which in no small measures enhances an understanding of the major issues to be raised in this project. To pave the way therefore, one needs to pose the following questions.

  1. It is not that some inmate that come out of prisons are not accepted back home, community and society.
  2. Do any inmates who come out of prison still return back to prison?
  3. In prison are the inmates being given vocational training?
  4. Do the governments monitor the inmates to know if they are really given vocational training?
  5. Have any inmates or prisoner been reform after he/she is back from the prison.
  6. What is the difference between reformation and rehabilitation in terms of the type and number of self help project undertaken.
  7. What significant changes reformation and rehabilitation brought in the life of inmates or prisoners in Benin Prison? The above problem will be the focus of this research project.
REHABILITATION AND REFORMATION OF PRISONERS IN NIGERIAN PRISON

UTILIZATION OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT IN THE REALIZATION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION OBJECTIVES IN SCOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

         Education is the priority of any nation’s economic, social and political development. To ensure, every government is trying day-in-day out to embark on viable projects in order to promote education of her people and to fairly eradicate the massive illiterate ratio.

         In a broader view, Education is meaning-less when it is divert from learning, which is the ultimate goal of education. In this perspective, learning is an intangible concept, which can be, inferred when a person has a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice.

         Education is highly volatile and dynamic. It incorporates so many aspirations and objectives. It changes the behaviour of man by socializing people and others so as to be happier, more productive, good neighborliness and for good citizenship.

         This volatile nature of education does not contradict its socializing aim. Education acts powerfully to train the citizens to acquire, maintain and improve societal existing traditional skills, attitudes, values, norms and beliefs. The young become more rational and are encouraged to bequeath the society with better values than it were. Therefore, education is accountable for socializing the younger ones, it accounts for the rate of progress and development of any country (Lawal, 2003). Carney (2002) stated that countries with viable education, peer capital are more likely to have western style democracies. The teacher in any society is the principal executor of any functional curriculum. The quality and quantity of learning experience acquired by student matters a lot in Nigeria today, education is gradually moving from teacher centered where the teacher does all the talking, all the doing and perhaps all the reasoning to learning centered.

         Eze (2010) retention is one of the processes involved in observational learning.

Teaching business education at any level requires that the students be exposed to different form of stimulation; learning cannot take place in a sensory vacuum. “As a minimum physical requirement, the instructor must be able to produce stimulus having enough strength and definition to get through to the students for the students must notice something.

Savolainen (2009), said from the aforementioned, the teacher place a vital role as an agent of education in the classroom teaching and learning process. Among the numerous responsibilities of a teacher, identification of his objectives and planning of his teaching. Therefore, to achieve these educational goals, we could not isolate the effects of modern office equipment from school curriculum.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

UTILIZATION OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT IN THE REALIZATION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION OBJECTIVES IN SCOOLS

THE LEVEL OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EZZA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2006) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.

Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.

In modern classrooms, teachers and students have access to wide variety of technology. Various types of technology including computers, projectors, handhelds, television and digital cameras are more accessible now than ever before (Jawad Khan, 2013). This type of technology also called instructional technology has helped in moving the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more student centered one (Trotter, 2008). Through the use of technology, necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Through the use of these technologies researchers, scholars, and professionals are able to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education.

Lu and Miller (2012) also stated that instructional technology encompass a wide variety of technologies as well as systems used to deliver information. Many secondary school classrooms are integrating technology to help students better understand the concepts that are being taught (Croxall and Cumming, 2010).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE LEVEL OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EZZA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

THE INFLUENCE OF WORKING CLASS MOTHERS ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The typical African cultural setting is centered on the man as head of the family and the sole provider of sustenance. The woman (or mother) on the other hand is expected to mind the home front and fend for the children. She is not expected to take up paid employment that will take her away from the domestic chores of a houswife. She is, however, expected to provide informal education and subsequently prepare the child for formal education. The general believe (in the view of the Researcher) is that mothers who work will find it difficult to fulfill their role of providing early childhood education that will ultimately affect their child’s academic performance when enrolled in school. Academic performance is determined by several factors. The literature is replete with how the socio-economic status of the mother determines the type of house pupils live in, the social amenities they have, mobility, even the types of food the pupils eat, and consequently their academic performance in school (Olusanya, Eyisi, Ogunyide, and Egbichulam ,1990). 2

Kriesberg (1990) reported that the middle class family is more supportive and rewarding of academic achievement than the lower class family. Indeed, according to Capper (1996), the entire family can be influenced by a child’s performance in an examination because that performance can constrain or expand future employment possibilities for the child. Musgrave (1998) also recognized parental status on academic performance. He explained that personal characteristics such as achievement, motivation, and self-concept are strong determinants of academic performance. Mothers’ employment has influence on the academic performance of their children especially when it is considered that mothers play significant roles in the education of their children, starting from conception,informal to formal education. Akogun (1998) stated that there is mounting evidence which indicates that, when malnutrition starts early in life, it becomes more severe in the impairment of the brain and may result in life-long reduction of intellectual abilities. Also, a mother who has consistently lived on poor nutrition is not likely to produce pupils with good intellectual abilities and may lead to poor academic achievement.

In most homes, mothers take care of their children, preparing them for school, cooking their food, and taking care of their dresses and books. 3

Women encourage children to aim high in educational pursuits and through their life example and counselling (Omotosho 1998). Mohammed (1999) asserted that global consensus is that education is a process that helps to develop the whole human being, physically, mentally, morally, politically, socially, and, technologically to enable one to function in any environment in which one may find oneself. Education, according to her, performs a major role in equipping the individual with the skills and knowledge which would help to transform any economy. Thus, the researcher is of the view that education is the greatest investment that any nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources. The role of the mother is to ensure that children are well fed with nutritionally balanced diet and were necessary to ensure that the pupils go to school with a well packaged lunch-box. Where the employed mother is not always available to do this, the tendency is for the pupils to go to school with junk foods or money with which they buy junk food. This ultimately influences the mental development of the child and determines the level of academic performance.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE INFLUENCE OF WORKING CLASS MOTHERS ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVMENT

THE EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHY LITERACY POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SS III STUDENTS IN ENUGU EAST L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1.  Background of the Study

            Geography as a discipline enables us to understand the Earth we are living in from a spatial perspective. It offers a systematic framework for enquiry into questions about the world that surrounds us. Geography provides a bridge between the social sciences and the physical sciences, through the provision of an understanding of the dynamics of cultures, societies and economies on the one hand, and those of physical landscapes and environmental processes on the other. Geography as a secondary school subject enables students to explore and understand the relationship between the Earth and its peoples through the study of space, place and environment. These three elements (or macro-concepts) form the core of geography in secondary education. In pursuit of such an understanding, the questions “What”, “Where”, “How”, “Why” and “What if” are central and are the basic constructs for developing a geographical framework for enquiry. The study of Geography at senior secondary level is built on the knowledge and skills students will have acquired in the junior secondary curriculum.

These include the concepts and knowledge embedded in the various strands of the PSHE Curriculum, in particular Strand 4 ‘Place and Environment’. Students completing the junior secondary geography curriculum will also have acquired basic enquiry and generic skills, and have had experience of making values judgements through investigating issues from a geographical perspective. The Nigerian policy on education has made provisions to make education of the citizenry both functional and relevant with a view to ensuring all round development. Specific provisions have also been made for different levels of education system so as to ensure effective curriculum delivery in schools.

For the benefits of all citizens, the country‘s educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and those of the society, in consonance with the realities of the environment and the modern world (Federal Republic of Nigeria, (FRN, 2004). Orji and Uka (2012), argued that in order to actualize this in any society, there is the need of attending to certain unavoidable variables such as teaching materials, methods adopted, curriculum, teacher as well as students‘ interest. With particular reference to secondary education in Nigeria, various subjects have been included in the curriculum to enable pupils acquire knowledge and skills. Certain subjects are categorized as core while others are either vocational electives or nonvocational electives. Geography is found under both core and non-vocational electives categories. This shows the importance of Geography in achieving the national educational goals whose significance cannot be overemphasized.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHY LITERACY POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF SS III STUDENTS IN ENUGU EAST L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

THE EFFECT OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background to the Study

The phenomenon of drug trafficking through old in some part of the world, Was recent discovery in this country? Perhaps, all along, our country was used as a conduct for exploration of drugs to decent southern societies, but it was only in the late 1970’s and early 1980 are that the phenomenon started attracting massive public attention. To arrest this trend, General Muhammadu Buhari (Rtd) the then head of state and the commander in chief of armed forces authorized public execution of drug traffickers and merchant.  In addition, they were to forfeit all their belongings to the coffer of the federal government to show his seriousness three drug traffickers were publicly short in 1985.

Drug has never been part of us. It could be described as a sign of music inception by us, on the current trend of civilization as depicted by the white. Through different media African has been mode to regard the southern culture and practices as superior.

However, the adolescent tendencies of their age on such ideas must have encouraged this further and his no doubt contributed to numerous numbers of social menaces in a school. Examples of which is truancy, insubordination, indiscipline etc all of which negate student’s academic performance. During abuse unfortunately would not only harm the drug user but equally destroy his relationship with other. The normal use of drug and drug abuse cannot be easily distinguished even though alcoholic beverage have been in use by people in many societies for some years, alcohol ranks as one of the most widely abuse drugs, man y people cannot control their drinking and in time became addicted to alcohol.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE EFFECT OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISIALA MBANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Around the world the general, concern for Citizenship Education is growing and plays an increasingly more significant role in the future of education (Sears and Hughes 2006). In a bid to either eradicate or minimize the ‘evils’ of society, Citizenship Education is propagated (Ajayi, 2007). World Education Forum Dakar (2000) considered the social ills of society and suggested education as a powerful tool for promoting democracy and citizenship and Citizenship Education. It was stressed that apart from education being the right of every child, certain virtues need to be displayed by every individual or citizen (UNESCO, 2000).

Citizenship Education implies being educated to become an efficient member of one’s immediate and the general human community and to develop a commitment to work effectively with diverse people and to accept differences in cultures and values to social and development needs or issues. Citizenship Education also provides an essential element in the socialization process by helping young people to understand their society, contributing to it as informed, effective and responsible citizens (Aggarwal, 2000). Children’s learning is a major focus within most early year’s settings and one that is rewarding and exciting for early years practitioners. Understanding how children learn and how to support their learning experiences require extensive and in-depth knowledge from those people who care for them (Osler, 2001). Provision of quality secondary school education will ensure sustainable academic future for generations. It may not be easy to speculate, because today’s children are tomorrow’s leaders. They should not have to wait until they get to the tertiary institutions to be introduced to Citizenship Education (Atubra, 2009).

With the new development in promoting democracy among all countries in the world, Citizenship Education becomes increasingly important in the educational system (Torney-Purta & Vermeer, 2004). Citizenship Education is highly topical in many countries at present and urgent consideration is given to how to prepare the young people for the challenges and uncertainties of life in a rapidly changing world (Ichilov, 1998). It is just in order that many international communities are undertaking major reforms of schools and the curricula, Citizenship Education is part of this reform process (Kerr, 2005). Hence the secondary schools have no options but to be part of it. The school teachers who are the “attacking troops” in the classroom in this regard need to be given serious consideration.  The concept of Citizenship Education is generally said to embrace the preparation of young people for their roles and responsibilities as citizens and in particular the role of education in the preparatory process (Kerr, 2005). He further (2005) added that Citizenship Education is covered by a wide range of terms used in many countries to include citizenship, civic, social science, Social Studies, world studies, society and studies of society. It also has links to curriculum subjects and options including history, geography, economics, politics, environmental studies, values education, religious studies, language and science.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISIALA MBANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       Social studies, is a programme of instruction or study which a society uses in still in the students or pupils the ideas, knowledge’s, skills attitudes and actions , it considers important concerning the relationship and thing we have with each other. This is a dynamic body of knowledge in a discipline which deals with the study of man and his interaction with his physical and social environment, it deals with how man influence and is influence by his physical, social, political, economic and psychological and cultural environments. The teaching of social studies in Nigeria secondary schools has a short but an important history in the school curriculum.

       Social studies is not only a study but also a way of life which integrated study of the social science and humanities to promote civic competence. There are field of scholarship that study society, is also a peer reviewed Journal that publishers articles of interest to educators at all levels. Through the proper development implementation and utilization of the knowledge that social studies could provide about society of the best of society, the right environment could be created for development of the right laws ethics and values for the society in a way for superior to what could be obtained was application of any knowledge attainable for any one its component subject parts.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE.

PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Mathematics education was introduced in the Nigerian School Curriculum as part of the instrument for achieving national development (National Policy on Education (NPE) 1981). This was what informed its designation as part of the core curriculum at different levels of education in Nigeria. problems and prospects mathematics education curriculum development agencies such as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and experts further identified and disseminated the curriculum goals or purposes of the subject in the school curriculum. These include citizenship education, reflective inquiry and mathematics education, (Barth-shermis, 1920; Barth-Norris, 1976; Dubey and Barth, 1980; Olawepo, 1984) among others.

These broadly stated goals must be clare to, and recognized as important as well as attainable by teachers and other participants connected with the Curriculum if the intentions or purposes must be realized and the investment of effort is to be considered worthwhile (Feather, 1982; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988). These intentions or purposes are prima facie stated with clarity, but their perception or conceptualization by teachers and scholars is still in doubt as Onyabe (1980) observed that the philosophy, content and methodology of mathematics education has remained vague to both scholars and teachers. The incidence of conflicting conceptions of mathematics education curriculum is a cause for concern for three major reasons. First, the anchor or strategic position of purposes or intentions in the curriculum development process (Pratt, 1994) as illustrated in Tyler (1949) (Linear) and Wheeler (1980) (cyclic) curriculum models, among others problems

Secondly, curriculum goals or purposes, are indispensable elements in instructions as far as effective implementation of an already developed curriculum is concerned. Thirdly, the correct conception, investment of efforts and ultimate realization of the purposes of the curriculum will facilitate the realization of the overall aims of the Nigerian educational enterprise problems and prospects
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

PROBLEM OF EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO

                                                 CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

      Students performance in secondary schools over the years, have not been very encouraging. This has been giving the government and parents a lot of causes for concern. Some analysts have likened the cause for concern of this problem to the incessant strike action embarked upon by teachers as a result of irregular payment of salaries. Others attribute it to lack of seriousness on the part of the students. These facts may not be far from the truth. The analysis however, cannot be said to be thorough without researching on student’s family background which goes a long way to affect their performance in school. This is what the study intends to make a research on. To spread the scope and concept of family and extended family system and its impacts on secondary school students performance in school. in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State the effects of extended family system on students performance has been prevalent, the performance of students from extended family has not been too impressive and since the system is practiced in Nigeria and Africa in general students cannot do without socializing with other family members.      

        According to Humbling and Matters (1976), “Hunanbings are basically social creatures created by society primarily through family’s influence” society creates the individual; the individual does not create the society. Therefore, in the local government man is allowed two or more wives and this is known as polygamy. Polygamy has constituted academic problems to students. Finally, extended family system has some positive impacts on students since it is the commonest family unit in the society. Members who are financially buoyant assist students who are related to them thereby enabling them to meet some of their needs in school. Against, this background, extended family system is one of the numerous traditional practices which western civilization has not been able to erase in the local government and it may be with us for a long time even in the presence of western threat.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        In this research attempt will be made to look at the problems students face in some secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State as a result of extended family system. The study will also include some suggestions which can help to improve on their performance in school.

1.3    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

        The aim of this study is to analyze the problems associated with extended family system in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

 And to highlight some factors that gave rise to the system.

 The study also aims at giving the differences between students from extended families and tose tat are not, based on teir academic performances. .
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PROBLEM OF EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO

PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

In developing and developed countries, teenage pregnancy continue to receive increased attention because of early age at which adolescents engage in sexual activities and the result of unplanned and unintended pregnancies associated with the risk and problem of early motherhood. Lack of adequate information, education and communication on reproductive health services and the perennial concern in different parts of the world reveal that adolescents become sexually active at an early age which lead to a high number of teenage pregnancy today.

In many developing countries, about half the population is under 15 years. These age groups expose themselves into sexual habit which have led many of them into teenage pregnancy and at the same time cost the adolescent their educational background, (Gyan, 2013). Out of wedlock pregnancy and motherhood is not encouraged in Owerri North community at large. When teenage pregnancy is allowed to continue, at times it places the teenage mother’s health in danger because of inadequate parental care received by the teenage mother. So, after birth, the risk of the mother and her child will be high. Those circumstances may be responsible for increase in infanticide, baby abandonment and child abuse. For these reasons, pregnancies among teenagers are creating concern for many industrialized countries today WHO, (2000).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Gesinde (2000) asserts that, the need to achieve varies among individuals. While some individuals‟ need for achievement is very high, that of others may be very low. Atkinson (1964) states that, individuals‟ actual achievement behaviour depends not only on their motivation to achieve but also whether they expect to achieve. People are more likely to work hard when they perceive a reasonable chance to succeed than when they perceive a goal to be out of reach. The trend of school achievement over the years among secondary school students seems to be poor. This could be in line with WAEC Report (2005), which observes that, the level of achievement among secondary school students in recent times has not been encouraging. It is in recognition that statistics from the West African examination council WAEC (2005) reveals that, the number of candidates that entered for biology, for instance has been encouraging over the years while their percentage pass at credit level in the senior school certificate examination (SSCE) has been following a downward trend. In the year 2001,2002,2003,2004, for instance, only 31.7%, 25.6%, 25.3%, 23.1% passed biology at credit level respectively.

These are indications of poor achievement by students. On a similar note, Osuji in Ali (2006) states that, trend analysis studies on achievement pattern in mathematics among secondary school students indicated that between 1979 and 2001, there was steady average of 1.7% annual decline in students A1 to C6 grade in mathematics at the west African school certificate examination. This implies that over the past decade or there about in Nigeria, students‟ attitude to achievement in their schoolwork has taken a negative direction. Shaffer (2000) opines that, achievement is inferred from individual (and often competitive) accomplishments that can be compared among some standard of excellence.

Conceptually, achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people or ideas; for attaining a high standard (Iheanacho 2002). Students develop interest in reading certain literary genres, writing, poetry, engaging in experiments and so on, all of which enhances learning. These unique patterns of interest might have developed through exposing the children to a knowledge domain or type of activity they discover they value as they identify with it in some fashion or because it meets some salient need
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

LACK OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS (SSS) IN EZZA SOUTH L.G.A OF EBONYI STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Man as a gregarious being moves closer to his fellow men to share knowledge, live together in groups, share ideas and opinions in their various groups as well as recreate themselves, also entertain themselves in a group after hard day’s work, these activities are needed to relieve him of worries, fatigue, tension, physical and physiological needs. An eighty seven years old physical educator who still played badminton claimed that recreation has been very useful as a secret of his good health despite the old age (Onifade, 2012).

Recreation is a deviation from ones normal activities to relax, it is an activity voluntary engage in during leisure and motivated by the personal satisfaction derived from participation (Onifade, 2012). There is fairly consistent evidence that suggests that adolescents are becoming more obese and more sedentary because of their lack of participation in recreational activities.

In his own definition, Bucher (2003) defined recreation as socially acceptable worthwhile activities in which a person voluntarily participates during leisure hours and through which he or she has opportunities to develop physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. The benefits of participating in recreational activities are numerous and well documented in the literature. Dubbert (2002) highlighted that recreational participation reduces obesity, maintains healthy joints, controls pain, builds stronger bone mass as well as improve endurance, strength and balance. Furthermore, recreational participation improves the functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardio respiratory system to carry oxygen to blood vessels and also improves metabolism – the process by which food is converted to energy and tissue is built (Insel and Roth, 2006). According to Insel and Roth (2006), being physically fit makes it easier to do everyday tasks. Regular recreational participation provides reserve strength for emergencies and helps people to look and feel good. In the long term, physically fit individuals are less likely to develop heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and many other degenerative diseases (Insel and Roth, 2006).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

LACK OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS (SSS) IN EZZA SOUTH L.G.A OF EBONYI STATE.

INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Education has been recognized as the fundamental basis on which any nation could function effectively. Its socio-political and economic depends solely on the qualitative education given to her citizen. Any nation that wants to be recognized as a developed country must build its human resource firmly. Hence, a country is said to be developed if the majority of her populace is highly educated  Therefore, those that impact the needed knowledge or those that build or mould the character should be attainted and motivated adequately, knowing that their welfare is the key to performance and improvement. Hence, it is believed that a motivated teacher always complete the tasks set for him, even when such task is difficult or seen uninteresting.

Teachers are a central actor in the learning process that takes place in schools, and teachers are the power tools for improving quality education through effective classroom practices in secondary schools (Davison, 2011). Attitudes and effectiveness can vary depending on the incentives they face. Pay structure is potentially an incentive-tool in the hands of the education policy maker, and merit pay proposals have important recently been discussed in several countries and applied in some. However, the issue of whether linking teachers pay to student performance is an effective means of improving that performance has been contentious in educational debates. According to Geeta and Francis (2010) that causality is established as running from higher wage to improved student achievement, the relationship is open to alternative interpretations.

One is that a positive impact from wages onto achievement reflects the fact that higher wages likely attract better quality people into the pool for applicants for teaching jobs. A second interpretation is that higher pay raises achievement by raising the effort of existing teachers. In terms of the efficiency wage theory, better paid teachers are likely to work harder in order to increase the chance of retaining their more valuable jobs. The paper will test these alternative explanations of the wage effect on student achievement. According to Patrick and Jane (2013), Teacher incentive is the idea that has been received with divergent views. The proponents of teacher incentive programmes believe that teacher incentives are meant to boost teacher motivation and effectiveness resulting in high productivity and increased pupil performance. On the other hand, opponents of the idea argue that monetary incentives, especially of small amounts, tend to crowed out intrinsic motivation and lead to inferior outcomes (Jacob, 2011).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE