IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT COMPANY IN OGUN STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

During the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, pollution became a major problem with the introduction of the steam engine and a series of technological advances that led to the production of goods and services, shifting it from homes and small factories to large industrial factories. The invention of more productive processes to manufacture cotton textiles contributed greatly to the number of mills located in England and later in the Northeastern United States.

Industrial pollution is particle especially waste gases like carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides which are the waste products of industry and end up in the air. Industrial emissions are the second largest pollutants of the atmosphere after automotive exhausts (Gull, Ali, Hussain, Nawaz&Mushta 2013). During the Industrial Revolution, companies were virtually concerned with production and profits. There was little time for or concern with the effects of pollution. Companies were by and large concerned with the means of production rather than the effect of production on the environment.

Cement production releases various pollutants into the environment. These may give rise to complaints of terrestrial or ambient air pollution. In Nigeria, deficiencies in both the monitoring of environmental performance and the compliance of many industries have been exploited by some plant operators. Consequently, several host communities and their environments are at risk from the negative impacts of such industrial activities.

In Ogun state, Cement production releases various pollutants into the environment. These may give rise to complaints of terrestrial or ambient air pollution. In Nigeria, deficiencies in both the monitoring of environmental performance and the compliance of many industries have been exploited by some plant operators. Consequently, several host communities and their environments are at risk from the negative impacts of such industrial activities.
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IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT COMPANY IN OGUN STATE

IMPACT OF SANITARY LANDFILLS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA, KADUNA STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

In terms of Sustainability and environment, the natural elements play important roles for ecological preservation. Water is the most abundant environmental resource on earth but its accessibility is based on quality and quantity, as well as space and time. It may be available in various forms and quantity but its use for various purposes is the subject of quality. About 70% of the human body and about 60-70% of plant cells is made up of water (Smith and Edger, 2006). It is one of the determinants of human settlement, existence and activities on the earth. Its quantity is fixed but dynamic in formation and storage. Of all the environmental concerns that developing countries face, the lack of adequate, good quality water remains the most serious (Markandya, 2004). Once contaminated, groundwater may forever remain polluted without remedy or treatment. Water is one of the determinants of human earth system. Diseases may spring up through water pollution, especially groundwater contamination, and rapidly spread beyond human expectation because of its flow mechanism (Afolayan et al., 2012). One of the major factors that make the earth habitable for humans is the presence of water. Forming the major component of plant and animal cells, it is the basis of life and therefore the development of water resources is an important component in the integrated development of any area.

Water is critical to our daily lives and is an extraordinary compound in nature. It covers 71% of Earth (USGS, 2014). Water is the most important resource of a country, and of the entire society, since no life is possible without water. It has this unique position among other natural resources, because a country can survive in the absence of any other resource,except water (Garg, 2009). According to the National Water Policy (2002), in the planning and operation of systems, water allocation priorities should be broadly as follows: drinking, irrigation, hydropower, ecology, agro-industries and non-agricultural industries, navigation and other uses.
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IMPACT OF SANITARY LANDFILLS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA, KADUNA STATE.

APPRAISAL OF THE PERCEPTION OF REAL ESTATE INVESTORS’ ON THE LENDING REQUIREMENTS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN ABUJA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

An investment in real estate development requires a huge sum of money, most at times exceeding six (6) figures as such only a hand full of individuals could venture into this form of investment.

This financial insufficiency naturally turns investors to financial institution for possible credit advancement. Mbanefo (2002) observed that the importance of banks in our economy lies in their monopoly of the resources to provide loans for industrial and commercial developments. The provision of this loan however, carries the risk of default in repayment hence the need to take adequate, reliable and appropriate security for the purpose of insulating default risk associated with credit transactions in banks. According to CBN (1995) out of every N1.00 loan granted by Nigerian Banks only 57 kobo were capable of being realized representing 57%.

Lending which may be on short, medium or long-term basis is one of the services that commercial banks do render to their customers. In other words, banks do grant loans and advances to individuals, business organizations as well as government in order to enable them embark on investment and development activities as a mean of aiding their growth in particular or contributing toward the economic development of a country in general. Commercial banks are the most important savings, mobilization and financial resource allocation institutions.

Consequently, these roles make them an important phenomenon in economic growth and development. In performing this role, it must be realized that banks have the potential, scope and prospects for mobilizing financial resources and allocating them to productive investments. Therefore, no matter the sources of the generation of income or the economic Policies of the country, commercial banks would be interested in giving out loans and advances to their numerous customers bearing in mind, the three principles guiding their operations which are, profitability, liquidity and solvency. However, commercial banks decisions to lend out loans are influenced by a lot of factors such as the prevailing interest rate, the volume of deposits, the level of their domestic and foreign investment, banks liquidity ratio, prestige and public recognition to mention a few.
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APPRAISAL OF THE PERCEPTION OF REAL ESTATE INVESTORS’ ON THE LENDING REQUIREMENTS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN ABUJA

A REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY ENVIRONMENT

REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY ENVIRONMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Dedication

Certification

Acknowledgement

Introduction

Objectives of the Report

Brief Overview of Julius Berger Construction Company

Health, Safety and Environment Policy at Julius Berger

Health and Safety Measures in The Construction Industry

Health and Safety Strategies at Julius Berger

Importance of Adequate Health and Safety Environment

Conclusion

Recommendations

INTRODUCTION

Prosperity and security is a crucial resource for associations in their aspiration to be forceful and to make first class things expecting almost no exertion in a safe helpful manner without making hurt part players. There is an association between human direct and working environment security. When in doubt people are one of a kind. Their qualities differentiate, what others hold with high see might be seen as irrelevant by others. A couple of individuals derive pleasure from partaking in unsafe practices while others ensure mindfully against risks.It is basic for associations to make a sound workplace framework. A sound work put framework is a structure that helpers in overseeing associations in executing a healthy workplace condition.

Hattingh and Acutt (2009), experts in word related prosperity and security, state that occupational prosperity is stressed over the association among work and prosperity and was defined in 1950 by a joint leading group of trustees of ILO and the WHO as being stressed over:

  1. The progression and upkeep of the most raised level of the physical, mental and social success of the authorities in all occupations.
  2. The shirking among workers of departures from prosperity caused their working conditions.

III.           The protection of pros in their work from perils coming to fruition in view of factors adverse to prosperity.

  1. The setting and support of the worker in a word related environment adapted to his/her physical and mental state.

The Occupational Health and Safety Act communicates that it is the commitment of the business (organization) to surrender and keep correspondingly as sensible practicable a working environment that is ensured and without peril to the prosperity of the delegates. Genuine threats recognized at the creating business are according to the accompanying:

  1. Lifting gear/overhead cranes
  2. Hot metal and cobbles in the industrial facility

iii.            Vehicles: trucks and fork lifts

  1. Stacking and limit

Advancement industry is comprehensive seen as a champion among the most hazardous endeavors as a result of the exceptional kind of its things and unconventionality of its method with display of arrangement of people included. Incident records in the business so explained that it cuts transversely finished made and making economies along these lines the business is known as one of the endeavors with high rate of disaster. Improvement still adds to a high number of word related fatalities notwithstanding late undertakings to upgrade the security picture.

Buttressing this reality, Hinze (1997) concedes that when the advancement business is differentiated and other labour intensive undertakings, it showed a too much high rate of insufficiency wounds and fatalities one of a kind to its size. A more basic look in like manner reveals that the advancement business is falling behind most extraordinary undertakings to the extent prosperity improvement.Nonetheless, it is battled that regardless of the way that a vital security change in the improvement business has been proficient in late decades, prosperity records in the business are up ’till now a noteworthy concern and one of the poorest, along these lines, destroying any execution change. It is a direct result of this the report hopes to reveal the word related prosperity and security systems regular in the improvement business, using Julius Berger advancement association as a sort of point of view.

Targets OF THE REPORT

The report was made to finish the going with objectives;

  1. Analyze the word related prosperity and safety efforts endeavored by the Julius Berger advancement association.
  2. Evaluate the watched safety efforts and apparatus in light of recognized gages.

iii.            Give proposition on upgrading word related prosperity and prosperity in the advancement business.

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF JULIUS BERGER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

Julius Berger is a Nigerian association offering facilitated improvement courses of action. The association takes after its operations back to the improvement of the Eko Bridge in 1965, an imperative

system wander in the megacity of Lagos which still stays undaunted as an exhibit of

Julius Berger’s power in passing on quality. Quite a while of determined improvement took after this pioneer wander, in the midst of which Julius Berger created to wind up doubtlessly the dynamic Nigerian association it is today. All through this time, Julius Berger has sent dynamic improvement systems to ensure that headway and quality are sorted out for the upside of its clients. The association’s degree covers all scopes of improvement, including the pre and post stages. Accomplishment depends on the strategy of having vertically joined operations, which improve viability and perfection of wander execution. Additionally, helpers support the association’s ability to offer an aggregate extent of advancement related organizations.

Julius Berger is a brand that is unmistakably seen all through Nigeria, a brand that has produced a notoriety of passing on the most lifted measure of execution and a brand synonymous with quality and steadfast quality.

Prosperity, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT POLICY AT JULIUS BERGER

Achievement of flawlessness in Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) is a noteworthy piece of Julius Berger’s business guidelines and corporate culture. The association assumes that intense organization of HSE issues guarantees staff, and in addition adds to continued success. Julius Berger thusly places the most hoisted require on the prosperity and security of all specialists, subcontractors and contractual partners, and what’s more the overall public and the condition that may be impacted by the association’s hover of development.

In the spirit of upheld change in HSE execution, Julius Berger places seriously in the constant getting ready of its workforce. The association dedicates the advantages critical to progress extended Health, Safety and Environment care, in perspective of best practice standards, at all levels inside the affiliation. Julius Berger’s rationale is to proactively remove and reduce potential dangers and along these lines the peril.

Waiting perils are perceived and mitigated through ventures for scene evasion, examination and examination. Watching and control strategies including site audits and surveys, predictable prosperity social occasions, despite concentrated on educational campaigns, reinforce the execution of HSE plans and certification consistence with set standards. Besides, key tasks including protected driving courses for the association’s drivers and executive getting ready are enter portions in constraining threat and progressing HSE targets.

Julius Berger Nigeria Plc has grasped the models laid out in the OHSAS 18001 rules and works a HSE Management system that enables determined difference in their HSE execution. The speaking to benchmarks of this system are;

  1. Setting HSE objectives and targets pertinent to operations, working condition and customer’s necessities.
  2. Monitoring HSE shows against objectives and targets and investigating HSE strategy and approach in like way.

iii.            Communicating, planning and showing laborers on HSE matters at all levels of the affiliation.

  1. Complying with statutory HSE essentials and accepting applicable industry best practices.

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REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY ENVIRONMENT

HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING AND URBAN ECOLOGY IN LAGOS STATE

EFFECT OF HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING AND URBAN ECOLOGY IN LAGOS STATE

Abstract

Against the background of incessant occurrence of flood and its devastating impacts on residents, the research focused on the effects of flood in effect of hazardous metropolis flooding and urban ecology in lagos state. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire from the respondents. A total of two hundred fifty (250) questionnaires were administered to the respondents in the study areas. The questionnaires were distributed using the systematic random technique at interval of ten housing units. Data collected were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as cross-tabulation and frequency. The study reveals that the major cause of flood in the study area was the non-functionality of the drainage system (65.89%) or total absence of the drainage system (37.68%) as the case may be. Also, high rainfall (65.22%) and dumping of waste into the drainage and water bodies (44.93%) have contributed to the regular occurrence of flood in the area. The regular re-occurrence of flood in the area has also been detrimental to the health of the residents of Area. The study recommends enforcement of environmental laws that will restrict dumping of waste into the water body and sponsoring of public awareness and educative programs on how man’s activities has contributed to flood occurrence. Also, the repair and construction of drainage system should also be sponsored by the government at various level as well as proper channelization of river bodies to prevent overflow during heavy downpour. This will undoubtedly control its occurrence.HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Statement of the Problem

Objective of the study

Research Questions

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

CONCEPTUAL REVIEW

Causes of flood

Effect of flood

Flood Risk Mitigation

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Theory and Thoughts of Sustainable Development

Theory and Thoughts of Climate Change 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design

Data Sources

Sampling design and procedure

Sample size

Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

Introduction

Objective one: Causes of flood

Objective two: Availability of drainage and its condition

Objective three: Flood induced by man’s activities

Objective four: Effects of flood incidence

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCES

QUESTIONNAIRE TEMPLATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

The complexity of anthropogenic activities of man without adequate attention to geological structure of most cities of developed and developing nations has undoubtedly contributed to reoccurrence of disaster and consequently poses threat to environmental sustainability in most of these nations (Oludare et al., 2018). This irrefutably has led or accumulated to unresolved challenges. Among the unresolved challenges being faced are vicious flood incidences experienced in the last four decades. The occurrence is stern in third world countries where there is intensity in land use, haphazard development, and unprecedented urbanization among others. According to Adeyinka et al. (2008, p. 1) “Most of these cities are also characterized by uncontrolled development , substandard and inadequate housing, poor infrastructure provision and development, poor planning process and administration, weak urban governance, poor land use structure resulting to slum…’’. These plethora of problems are bedeviling cities of third world countries and Nigeria in particular.HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING

Consequently, there has been unprecedented occurrence of floods and its associated negativities in most of the urban centers of developing countries (Montoya Morales, 2002). For instance, in Nigeria, reports have shown that devastating flood disaster had occurred in Ibadan (1985, 1987, 1990, and 2011), Osogbo (1992, 1996, 2002, and 2010), Yobe (2000), Akure (1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) and the coastal cities of Lagos, Ogun, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others (Olaniran, 1983). This claimed many lives and properties worth millions of Naira.

Several anthropogenic factors have contributed to the incidence of flood. Among these factors is the encroachment of development to flood prone areas. The incursion into such areas have being progressive until now because of unprecedented urbanization and industrialization which has undoubtedly resulted into large scale massive deforestation, loss of surface vegetation and farmlands.

According to Okechuckwu (2008 p. 272); “the incursion of unplanned and uncontrolled development into urban infrastructure facilities, violate the major objectives of physical planning and consequently result into misuse of land thereby creating disorderly arrangement of urban landscape and the occurrence flood that is mostly evident in cities of third world countries”. Arising from these incongruous and haphazard developments in cities of third world cities, the occurrence of flood, particularly in Lagos, has been known to be paramount to some areas or local government in the state. HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING

According to Oyebande (1990) water will always find its way if not well channelized. Its choice route often poses problems to man by tampering with his physical environment, health and products of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization. This has created a lot of social and economic cost on the environment and the citizenry. Few among these social and economic impacts on the environment are: outbreak of health diseases, infrastructure failure, mental health effects, building collapse, destruction of agricultural farmland and products.HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING

Flood has been reported as a major and devastating problem in some sectors of the economy (Petak and Atkisson, 1982). Its effects are very severe to virtually all forms of land use. The severity of its impact is also reflected on the rate of development of most nations that experience such. Thus if adequate attention in terms of preventive measures are not put in place towards controlling its sporadic occurrence and its associated impacts particularly during rainy season, its incidence can turn a developed nation back into a developing nation.HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING

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EFFECT OF HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING AND URBAN ECOLOGY IN LAGOS STATE