DETERMINATION OF THE CAUSES, EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND ITS POSSIBLE CONTROL, WITHIN KWARA AND OSUN STATE

ABSTRACT

This project, Eradication of Environmental Pollution, (a case study of Kwara, Osun, Industries).

            Pollution is a very terrible phenomenon as it does more harm to human health and environment, or pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the surrounding to cause discomfort to the Ecosystem. Industrial pollution, which is a branch of pollution, occurs mostly in towns as a result or rapid urbanization, geometrical increase, in human needs and industrial development which has a connection with increase industrial pollution. In the course of the study, the environmental protection Agency (EPA) collaborates with many agencies to eradicate pollution and the literature review enumerates the ideas and lectures on the project little by some school of thoughts and learning men in their books. The survey of several locations of industries and their characteristics in Ilorin, Oshogbo, and also gives the required information and data of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                               i

Certification                                                                                                   ii

Dedication                                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                               iv

Abstract                                                                                                                   vi

Table of content                                                                                                 vii

            CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                         1

  1.     Preamble, Definition and cause of environmental pollution           1

1.2       Types of Pollution                                                                                           2

1.3       Major Air Pollutant, Chemical Pollutant and Their Sources.           4

1.4       Aim and Objectives                                                                          5         

1.5       Scope of the Study                                                                                         5

1.6       Justification of the Study                                                                  6

1.7       Description of the Study Area                                                                       6

            CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                          7

2.1       Collaboration of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)                   7

2.2       Air Pollution                                                                                                8

2.3       Water Pollution                                                                                      9

2.4       Land Pollution                                                                                             10

2.5       Inter-Pollution of Resources                                                                        11

2.6       Pollution by Sanitary Waste                                                                        11

            CHAPTER THREE            

3.0       Methodology                                                                                       13       

3.1.      Nigerian Bottling Company Limited (Oshogbo)                        13       

3.2.      Saw – mill (Wood industry) (Ilorin)                                                15

3.3.      Iron and steel manufacturing industry (Oshogbo)                        16

3.4.      Dangote group of company                                                                  18

3.5.      Tuyil Pharmaceutical Company                                                             19

            CHAPTER FOUR

 4.0      Result and Conclusion                                                                             21

4.1.      Effects of water pollutant                                                                          21

4.2.      Effects of air pollutant                                                                                 23

4.3.      Effects of land pollutant                                                                            27

4.4.      Effects of noise pollutant                                                                   28       

4.5       Possible Method solution to industrial pollution                        30       

4.5.1.   Air pollution                                                                                        30       

4.5.2    Water pollution                                                                                        31       

4.6       Solid removal                                                                                              31

4.6.1    Piping system                                                                                                   32

4.6.2    Chemistry Treatment                                                                                32

4.6.3.   Noise pollution                                                                                             33

4.7       Possible Solution to Land Pollution                                                           34

4.7.1. Sanitary Land Filling                                                                                  35

4.7.2. Operation of a Sanitary Landfill                                                                36

4.7.3. Merits of sanitary land filling                                                                    37

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.      Recommendations and Conclusion                                                         38

5.1.      Conclusion                                                                                                       38

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                   39

            Reference                                                                               

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:- Industrial assessment                                                             14

Table 3.2:- Pollution in saw mill (wood industry)                                        15

Table 3.3:- Raw material used in the industry                                           17

Table 3.4:- Pollution from raw materials                                                           18

Table 4.1:- Summary of pollution of water                                                  23

Table 4.2:- Summary of air pollutants                                                             26

Table 4.3:- Summary of land pollutants                                                         28

Table 4.4:- summary of noise pollutant                                                             30

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1.1:- Water pollution                                                                          42       

Plate 1.3:- Land pollution II                                                                                       42

Plate 1.4:- Noise pollution                                                                                          43

Plate 1.5:- Air pollution II                                                                                          43

INTRODUCTION

1.0       ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, CAUSES AND IT’S POSSIBLE CONTROL

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical system or living organisms.

            Ibiwoye E.O (2009), Pollution can take the form of chemical substance or energy such as noise, heat, or light. It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environment pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense qualities of coal and other fossils fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharge added to the growing load of untreated human waste.

            If our surrounding polluted we suffer from many kinds of disease and sickness, if our surrounding get highly polluted our life get endangered.

            Pollution as a very pervasive phenomenon, is a discharge into the environment in qualities of some substance or energy or gases by man which can be considered harmful to himself and other living organism and worse still, reduce the quality of human life, pollution is a relative concept and although, almost no substance exists in a pure state, it is only when the impurities rise above a certain level that there is concern. Moreover, they varies from case to case depending on the particular use for which the source is intended.        

1.1       Causes of Environmental Pollution

            Industrial pollution is a pollution which can be directly link with industries in contrast to other pollution sources. This form of pollution is one most leading causes of pollution worldwide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate that up to 50% of nation’s pollution is cause by industries. Industrial pollution poses problem for the entire planet especially developing countries like Nigeria. There are number of forms of industrial pollution. One of the most common is water pollution, caused by dumping of industrial waste, which causes leakage into ground water and waterway.

            Industrial pollution can also impact air quality, and it can enter the soil causing widespread environment problems. Smoke rise from the fuel that we burn in our kitchens and workshops. This smoke gives rise to carbon dioxide that pollutes our environment. The smoke that people make while they smoke that rises from the hotels, and restaurants in towns and cities pollute the environment.

Industrial pollution hurts the environment in a range of ways, and it has a negative impact on human lives and health pollutants make an kill animals and plants, imbalance ecosystems degrade air quality radically, damage buildings, and generally degrade quality of life factory workers in area with uncontrolled industrial pollution are especially vulnerable.

1.2       TYPES OF POLLUTION

            Pollution is a result of progression and development that is occurring on a regular basis with the growth of technology, more and more development is taking place in order to improve the quality of human life, this series is certainly giving high level of comfort and a rich life style to all humans but is sadly diminishing the worth of human health, the need to have a good and healthy environment is ignored. Many new inventions and introduction are causing a danger to human life as they are done artificially; this artificial and unsystematic way of generating high level of comforts is producing components that are inevitable to human life. Be it anything including the basis needs of like clothing and even food is now being produced synthetically. There are some of the most common types of environmental pollution that are gradually bringing people to a morbid stage are

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Noise pollution
  4. Land pollution
  5. Waste and water pollution

A.  Air pollution in the industries takes place when some dangerous gases are discharge in to atmosphere in quantities that may render the air unbreathable.

B.  Water pollution The waste product of factories, (water pollution) which are in form of liquid effluent may drain off in to the nearby fresh or steam there by polluting the water and rendering the water noxious, harmful and undrinkable.

C.  Noise pollution The excessive noise emanating from the factories engines has effect on our sleep, hearing, speech communication, degree of annoyance and other undesirable effects of noise pollution and it also affect human being physiologically and physiological.

D.  Land pollution occur when solid refused are heaped-up on the ground surface causing severe nuisance to the environment and also reduce or limit the utility of availability of space to which the affected land can be put in to.

E.   Waste and water pollution, when toxic substances enter lake streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This result in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down affect the ground water deposit.

1.3       MAJOR AIR POLLUTANT, CHEMICAL POLLUTANT AND THEIR SOURCES.

Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon- based fuel including petrol, diesel, and wood. It is also produced from the combustion of nature and synthetic product such as cigarettes. It lowers the amount of oxygen that enters our blood; it can slow our reflexes and make us confused and sleepy.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principle green house gas emitted as a result of human activities such as the burning of coal oil, and natural gases.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Are gases that are released mainly from air-conditioning system and refrigeration when releases in to the air, with few other gas which leads to a reduction of the Ozone layer that protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Lead: Is present in petrol, diesel, lead, batteries, paints, hair dye products etc. lead, affect children in particular. It can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems and in some cases, cause cancer.              

Major Chemical pollution and their Sources

In most parts of world the bodies of wholes and dolphins washing ashore are so highly contaminated that they qualify as toxic waste and have to be specially disposed off. There are many different sources of chemical pollution including;

a) Domestic sewage

b) Industrial discharges

c) Seepage from waste sides

d) Atmospheric fallout

e) Accidents and spill at sea

f) Operational discharges from oil rigs

g) Mining discharges

h) Agricultural run-off.

However, the chemical that are probably of most concern for everyone are the persistent pollutants, those substances that enters marine food chain and are centrally passed along the chain to the marine top predators increasing amounts persistent pollutants industrial chemical. The most common pollutants are:

  1.  Carbon monoxide (Co)

ii.      Carbon dioxide (Co2)

1.4       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

            The primary aim of this project is to analyzed the causes, and effects of environmental pollution and how it can be eradicated in the society.

Objectives

  1. To investigate the possible causes of industrial pollutant
  2. To ascertain the effect of that or such pollution in the area of studied. i.e. Kwara and Osun State
  3. To provide a possible eradication or control method.
DETERMINATION OF THE CAUSES, EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND ITS POSSIBLE CONTROL, WITHIN KWARA AND OSUN STATE

AN ASSESSMENT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted on “Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Practices in Majidadi ‘B’ ward in the Bauchi metropolis” aimed at assessing the nature and the methods used by the users of the area, which was first carried out through survey with the use of structured questionnaires to some persons chosen from the study area. 152 questionnaires were administered out of which 84.87% response was received. The data was analyzed using frequency table and the use of pie chart to distribute the percentages of responses. From the data analyzed it was revealed that 57.36% have no knowledge on waste disposal practices to adopt and the remaining percentages have acquired the knowledge from either environmental officers, through the media or other agencies. The result also shows that kitchen waste, wood and ashes and clothes account for the higher percentage of waste type generated with 23.26%, 21.71% and 17.05% respectively. 43.41% of the waste generated is collected in open containers before disposal and 19.38% in a dustbin while 12.40% uses trash can. Adequate and proper waste disposal facility is greatly needed as only 3.87% opined the presence of incinerators while the highest percentage of 55.87% is of the view of landfill which is unsanitary. This analysis revealed that waste disposal practices among the community of Majidadi ‘B” ward is poor and unhealthy, thus the need for some strategies which will help improve the situation. 30.23% of the households felt that government is responsible for disposing off wastes from the households to the disposal sites; however wastes are rarely disposed off by the agencies responsible, this could be as a result of inadequate equipment and funds challenging the agencies.The study concluded that most household generate high quantity of waste which are not properly disposed of either without knowing the disposal method to employ or are unaware of the dangers improper disposal may cause; which threaten human health and the environment. It is therefore recommended that public enlightenment on health impacts associated with improper disposal of wastes should be made more intensified and a massive campaign on promoting awareness on proper waste disposal practices should be organized, and if these measures are taken then the government on her part can enforce laws and penalties regarding improper disposal.

ASSESSMENT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

AN ASSESSMENT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted on “Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Practices in Majidadi ‘B’ ward in the Bauchi metropolis” aimed at assessing the nature and the methods used by the users of the area, which was first carried out through survey with the use of structured questionnaires to some persons chosen from the study area. 152 questionnaires were administered out of which 84.87% response was received. The data was analyzed using frequency table and the use of pie chart to distribute the percentages of responses. From the data analyzed it was revealed that 57.36% have no knowledge on waste disposal practices to adopt and the remaining percentages have acquired the knowledge from either environmental officers, through the media or other agencies. The result also shows that kitchen waste, wood and ashes and clothes account for the higher percentage of waste type generated with 23.26%, 21.71% and 17.05% respectively. 43.41% of the waste generated is collected in open containers before disposal and 19.38% in a dustbin while 12.40% uses trash can. Adequate and proper waste disposal facility is greatly needed as only 3.87% opined the presence of incinerators while the highest percentage of 55.87% is of the view of landfill which is unsanitary. This analysis revealed that waste disposal practices among the community of Majidadi ‘B” ward is poor and unhealthy, thus the need for some strategies which will help improve the situation. 30.23% of the households felt that government is responsible for disposing off wastes from the households to the disposal sites; however wastes are rarely disposed off by the agencies responsible, this could be as a result of inadequate equipment and funds challenging the agencies.The study concluded that most household generate high quantity of waste which are not properly disposed of either without knowing the disposal method to employ or are unaware of the dangers improper disposal may cause; which threaten human health and the environment. It is therefore recommended that public enlightment on health impacts associated with improper disposal of wastes should be made more intensified and a massive campaign on promoting awareness on proper waste disposal practices should be organized, and if these measures are taken then the government on her part can enforce laws and penalties regarding improper disposal.

AN ASSESSMENT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

MICROBIAL METHANE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR MITIGATION OF LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

Abstract

Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials utilizing oxygen that diffuses into the cover layer from the atmosphere. The methane oxidation process, which is governed by several environmental factors, can be exploited in engineered systems developed for methane emission mitigation. Mathematical models that account for methane oxidation can be used to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed.

MICROBIAL METHANE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR MITIGATION OF LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLING

Abstract

Inevitable consequences of the practice of solid waste disposal in landfills are gas and leachate generation due primarily to microbial decomposition, climatic conditions, refuse characteristics and landfilling operations. The migration of gas and leachate away from the landfill boundaries and their release into the surrounding environment present serious environmental concerns at both existing and new facilities. Besides potential health hazards, these concerns include, and are not limited to, fires and explosions, vegetation damage, unpleasant odors, landfill settlement, ground water pollution, air pollution and global warming. This paper presents an overview of gas and leachate formation mechanisms in landfills and their adverse environmental impacts, and describes control methods to eliminate or minimize these impacts.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLING

STANDARDS FOR LANDFILLS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

ABSTRACT

Landfilling is the ultimate disposal technology which is relevant even when other advanced options are being used for recycling and/or volume reduction. It is the method of choice in developing nations because it is the lowest cost disposal option. Indeed, most industrial nations, including many European Union countries and the USA, still rely on landfilling as an integral part of solid waste management infrastructure. The steady increase in per capita waste generation since the 1970s, and the total quantity of waste, has sustained and expanded the demand for waste disposal capacity and increased the potential for releases of landfill gas and leachate in the absence of properly designed, installed, and operated emission control measures.

The amount and composition of municipal solid waste generated in a community depends on the levels and patterns of consumption. However, the quantity and quality of waste that finally enters the landfill is influenced by many factors including national waste management strategy, volume reduction measures, such as incineration, in place, and the availability and efficiency of waste recycling programmes. The latter is at a very low level (informal recycling excluded) in most developing nations, or due to lack of transparency, accurate data is not available. Informal recycling is the norm in several developing countries, particularly at the larger dumps serving urban areas. An estimated 2% of the urban population in Asia and Latin America depend on waste picking. There are about six million waste pickers in China, whereas the third largest economy in Asia, India, has one million people involved in waste picking.

These informal waste pickers undeniably contribute directly towards the quantity and composition of waste that ends up in the landfill. When waste recycling rates are high, landfilled waste is mainly the organic component, as in India, whereas the recyclables are diverted for better income to middle men. Recycling undoubtedly would enhance the lifespan of landfills, since it is estimated that in Mexico, waste scavengers remove 10% of the waste, while in Bangalore (India) 15% of the waste is reduced due to recycling. Materials diverted away from landfills via recycling means resources are saved.

Emissions from landfills, mainly landfill gas (LFG) and leachate, are directly related to the quantity and quality of waste disposed. Almost 65 to 80% of collected municipal solid waste is disposed of into landfills in developing nations. The bulk of the waste materials disposed of (40 to 70%) are organic in nature. As a consequence, landfills are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as at present 90% of the world’s landfills are dumpsites without proper LFG collection systems. Indeed, landfills are considered the largest human-caused source of methane in the atmosphere.

The methane fraction of LFG is a potent GHG as its global warming potential (GWP, 100 years horizon) is around 25 times higher than carbon dioxide. Thus, landfills are identified as a significant contributor to global warming. However, due to the growing international concern on climate change, the move from landfill-based to resource recovery-based waste management is becoming increasingly important. For example, anthropogenic methane emissions can be collected and used as fuel to generate electricity. Alternatively, organic wastes can be composted to produce a high-quality soil amendment that is valued by farmers and gardeners. These types of projects create both economic and environmental benefits for environmental sustainability. The sale of certified emission reduction (CER) credits [created through application of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the United Nations Framework on Climate Change Convention] can generate revenue streams that support waste emission reduction projects. Each CER is equivalent to 1 tonne of CO2, traded by industrialized countries to meet their emission reduction obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. However it is most likely that the installation of CDM LFG recovery projects in developing countries will come to a halt in 2013 when the Kyoto Protocol will end. Currently the number of CDM projects is declining due to the financial constraints in developed nations.

STANDARDS FOR LANDFILLS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

INTRODUCTION

In its modern concept, environment includes not only water, air and soil but the social and economic condition under which we live (Park, 2011). The key to mans health lie largely on his environment. Infact, much of mans’ ill-health can be traced to adverse environmental factors such as water, soil and air pollution poor housing conditions, presence of animal reservoir and insects vectors of diseases, which poses serious threats to man’s health. Man is often responsible for the pollution of the environment through urbanization, industrialization and other human activities. According to the National sanitation foundation of USA, the word sanitation is defined as “way of life that is expressed in the clean lines of homes, farms, business, premises, neighborhood and community Parks (2011). Furthermore, World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces and other waste materials (UNICEF and WHO 2012).

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH QUALITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Contemporary globalization and urbanization is reproducing classic conditions historically associated with the emergence of infectious diseases and the periodically recurring pattern of epidemics and pandemics. The dynamics of contemporary globalization has contributed to various institutional gaps that make dealing with infectious diseases is increasing difficult and threaten concentrated human populations with potential calamity (Gibson and Gumer, 2012). Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid urbanization of the world’s population.

According to Chilala (2015) Rapid urbanization has significant repercussions on migrants’ health. The increasing movement of people from rural to urban areas often alters the characteristic epidemiological disease profile of the country and at the same time new diseases appear or old ones remerges. Such is the case of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and recent case of Ebola and Lassa fever. Urbanization is also associated with changes in diet and exercise that increase the prevalence of obesity with increased risks of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Philip (1993) defines Urbanization as involves a physical change in which increasing proportions of populations live in urban settings. It also implies considerable changes in the ways in which these people live, how they earn their livelihoods, the food which they eat, and the wide range of environmental factors to which they are exposed. There is another underlying assumption that, increasingly, urban populations will be healthier than their rural counterparts and those higher levels of urbanization will equate with better health status.

It is however; manifestly evident that in many cities, particularly in the developing world, the poor are exposed to greater risks and have much lower health status than their richer neighbours. In addition, whilst urban residents may theoretically have a better access to health care and services than do residents in many rural areas, and whilst many indicators of health do appear better in more highly urbanized societies than ones less so, there are caveats Vlahov et al., (2007).  In certain cities in middle-income countries, residents, particularly the poor, are exposed to a double risk of both infection and chronic degenerative ailments.

It has been emphasized that urbanization, and the concentration of human beings into new areas in particular, can bring exposure to new risk factors for large numbers of people. The growth of infectious and parasitic disease in some urban settings must therefore be recognized, as must the emergence of chronic diseases, with the concomitant need for investment in new types of health and social care. However, a number of constraints militate against the achievement of improved urban health, especially in developing countries (Ojogbe, 2002; Kotz, 2009; Salau, 2012).

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH QUALITY

POLLUTION STATUS OF THE URBAN SECTION OF DELIMI RIVER: HYDROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Abstract

River pollution in the urban areas is a common problem in many parts of Nigeria. This study examines the physio-chemical and biological parameters of the river Delimi within the Jos urban area. The specific objectives were to identify the dominant activities that constitute factors of pollution, and assess the pollution levels at different activity positions and different times of the year. Eight water samples were collected at eight locations on the river stretching from the entry point of the river to the outlet point. The results of the water analyses were compared with the WHO and National /NAFDAC water quality standards for drinking and irrigation. The results show that the concentration of pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolve solid, hydrocarbon, lead iron and BOD exceed the WHO and NAFDAC standards. Cobalt, chromium, nickel, potassium, sodium and manganese values are below the contaminant level for all the eight sample points. E.coli drancuculum larvae, hydra-organisms, small fishes, small snails’ paramecium and spirogyra were significantly present in the water samples. In order to improve the quality of the water, there is need for control or prevention of pollution activities along the river course.

POLLUTION STATUS OF THE URBAN SECTION OF DELIMI RIVER: HYDROLOGICAL SOCIETY

EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA: A THEORITICAL AND CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

INTRODUCTION

The  aim  of  this  paper  is  to  develop  and  test  a  theoretical  and  conceptual  framework  for  an  alternative  approach  to evaluation  of  public  housing  programmes  in  Nigeria.  It  seeks  to  address  limitations  of  existing  approaches  where one  theory  or  discipline  has  the  upper  hand  in  evaluating  public  housing  programmes.  This  paper  proposes  a broad-based  framework  for  assessing  relationships  between  input,  output  and  outcomes  of  public  housing programmes  through  a  realistic  approach  to  evaluation  based  on  objective-oriented  theory,  theory-driven evaluation  paradigm  and  conceptual  issues.  This  approach  allows  for  the  use  of  logical  framework  to  explain  the complex  connections  between  underlying  programme  theory  and  outcomes.  The  distinct  features  of  this alternative  evaluation  approach  include:  an  open-ended  evaluation  approach;  housing  providers  and  residents participation;  broad-based  and  a  multi-faceted  data  gathering  approaches  and  analysis  in  distinguishing  the outcome  of  different housing  delivery  strategies  in  public  housing  programmes. 

EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA: A THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

PUBLIC LATRINE SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS

ABSTRACT

A lot of public latrine poses a very serious problem to the people of Awka and also to other places across the country. The problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Awka and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Awka and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear. Two hypothesis were formulated? To test the relationship between outbreak of disease and public latrine and the need for provision of latrine in public places. Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources including questionnaire survey of the residents in Awka. From the analysis, it was found out that enough latrine are not provided in public places like markets, public compounds and even hostels thereby making the least provided to be overused and uncared for. The tests result shows that good latrine and the quality of life of the residents are significantly related. The recommendations made in the study include adequate provision of public toilets and toilets facilities as well as financing and maintenance of toilet facilities. It is hoped that the suggested measures of this study will go along way to improving the life residents in Awka territory. 

PUBLIC LATRINE SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS

EFFECT OF WATER ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY PRICES

ABSTRACT

This research work is a careful study of effects of water on residential property prices in Owerri capital city of Imo state. The work was a handiwork of thorough and detailed fact finding task about water supply embarked upon by the researcher as is portrayed in various chapters and sections of this report. 

This work therefore tends to disclose the impact of water to many Nigerian citizens with direct reference to residential property prices of infrastructures in Owerri the capital city of Imo State. 

There existed great disparity in the prices of properties with very good sources of water supply and those without, leading to unnecessary social strata definition amongst the citizens as the rich who could afford the pleasure does so while the poor masses are left to wallow in scarcely furnished residential structures and poor water supply condition coupled with untold hardship. Also revealed in this study was the inability of the state government to conclude the MDG water project in the state for very long time which would have minimized the suffering of the people. The masses who this report gathered to be consistent to reasonable extent in paying their taxes preferred the government to provide better social facilities with their public fund instead of allowing them to cater for their needs themselves. The government in conclusion were urged to harness other alternative sources of water supplies available to the masses like the bore-holes, rain and stream waters and put them in better conditions so as to prevent the sharp gap created between the well to do and the poor who cannot afford the pleasure of expensive residential properties with convenient water supply sources.

In the course of the research, many existing articles, journals, periodicals and statistical records were gathered from reliable sources and used in the compilation process. The researcher also made use of primary data collected through interviews and questionnaires. The structured questionnaire which was captioned “Effect of Water on Residential Property Prices In Owerri Capital City of Imo State, Nigeria – Questionnaire (EOWORPPIOCCISNQ) was distributed to both (senior and junior) staffs in Imo state ministry of water resources and tenants living in the Owerri metropolis amounting to 92 final sample size gotten from a sample population of 220 people chosen by the researcher.

Data collected were presented and analysed with the help of the 2 hypotheses and research questions contained in the work. The sample size was determined using the Yaro Yamani statistical tool while the hypotheses were tested with the Chi- square (X2) method of analysis. 

Just as every good work would never come so easy, there also existed several challenges that in one way or the other constrained the researcher from producing a totally constraint-free research report. Like every other post graduate student, severe academic and work demands competed for limited time available for carrying out this research work. Meanwhile official laxity or bureaucratic bottlenecks better put severally reared its ugly head as the researcher never got any needed assistance or information from Imo state ministry of water resources without passing through unnecessary delays and postponements. Unforgettably, limited finance almost quenched the processes of this research as the researcher had to extend his tentacles far and wide to source information and materials on the research topic as very scanty or none existed prior to this work.     

Summary, recommendation and conclusion were clearly stated at the final chapter of this work, they were arrived at based on the findings and analysis of data and facts gotten from chapters three and four respectively.

EFFECT OF WATER ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY PRICES

THE IMPACT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT

Prospecting for oil in Nigeria started as far back as 1930s. Due to the economic reward from petroleum oil a lot of companies are scattered all over the Delta region of river Niger in quest of oil deposits. The act of oil prospecting  and production cannot continue without immense benefits to numerous parties as well as causing hazards and occasional damages to other parties. It is the light of this realization that this project investigated and identified the various effects and the implications of locating and removing the extractive mineral (oil) from their resting beds. Hence, the main objectives of this project examined the various operation of oil mining through the eye of town planner, as they affect man and his immediate environment. The various objectives are to investigate the effect of the pollution generated by oil mining on the built environment and to examine the effect of oil mining on the living condition of the people. The scope of the study was limited to SAPELE but for the benefit of the study, reference was made to other parts of the Delta findings was based on the data analyzed. Based on the data analyzed, recommendation was made to correct the impact of oil mining on the built environment.

FIGURE 1: MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING DELTA STATE

FIGURE 2: MAP OF DELTA STATE SHOWING SAPELE

THE IMPACT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

WATER SUPPLY PLANNING

ABSTRACT

Water is one of the most important natural resources for all life on earth. The availability and quality of water always have played an important part in determining not only where people can live, but also their quality of life. Even though there always has been plenty of fresh water on earth, water has not always been available when and where it is needed, nor is it always of suitable quality for all uses. Water must be considered as a finite resource that has limits and boundaries to its availability and suitability for use.Inadequate water supply in  Arawa  area  of  Gombe  has  been  associated  with  lack  of accessibility  and   population increase . As population of the area increases with time, competition for water demand also increases which outweighs the supply of water in the area thereby rendering water supply inadequate.Also reasons such as the inability to extract water from  sources  due to non-distribution of  public  water  supply  systems  and  lack of  maintenance  of  water facilities in the study area  have  contributed  to  the  insufficiency  of  water  supply.The  survey  was  carried  out  as  a  result  of  the  inadequacies  in  the  provision  of  public  water  supply  in  Arawa  community. So far, the  research  was  able  to  dictate  the  nature  and  problems  of  water  supply  in  the  study  area. The  field  survey  and  analysis  shows  that  the  problem  of  water  supply  in   the  area  ranges  from  the  absence  of  public  pipe  borne  water  which  have  been  related  to  the  neglect  of  the  area  by  the  state  water  corporation  board, poor  maintenance  of  facilities  due  to  lack  of  funds  as  well  as  the  rapid  population  growth  of  the  area.

WATER SUPPLY PLANNING

ASSESSMENT OF TOURISTS PERCEPTION OF THE YANKARI GAME RESERVE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the Yankari Games Reserve as a tourist destination by investigating the perception of the tourists who patronize it. The assessment used indicators including the level of patronage in number of tourists attracted annually, wildlife resources of the reserve, infrastructure, facilities and safety. The method employed reconnaissance survey of the reserve for observations and the administering of questionnaires to a sample of the tourists. The sample of 50 respondents, representing 10% of the average daily number of tourists received during the period of the survey was used. The study showed that in the last decade tourist inflow has continued to rise. The assessment of the perception of the tourists shows that most travel to Yankari for viewing game, which is the most important attraction. The survey also showed that tourists are satisfied with the park with 42% indicating preference of Yankari over other parks in Nigeria. The study also showed that Yankari could be better if the master plan for its development is fully implemented. The reserve however has a good prospect in view of richness of its resources. Proposals were made on appropriate policies and institutional framework to develop the park to a higher standard comparable to similar ones in other parts of the world which have been reviewed in the study.

ASSESSMENT OF TOURISTS PERCEPTION OF THE YANKARI GAME RESERVE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

EVALUATION OF THE PROBLEMS OF RENT COLLECTION AS AN ASPECT OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

Rent is a periodic payment made to an owner of a property for the use of such property. This payment is on the increase n modern times due to several factors which includes increase in the price of goods, inflation and greed on the part of landlords. Similarly, the collection of rent is limited by a lot of problems which often results to rifts between landlords and tenants. However, these problems of rent collection can be solved successfully, thereby promoting a cordial landlord –tenant relationship. This study therefore seeks to achieve this by identifying the problems of rent collection in residential properties in Enugu, and make recommendations on how to solve these problems. The government have put up measures to help ensure that the process of rent collection is less cumbersome. These measures have come in form of rent control edicts and recovery of premises edicts, as well as the setting up of rent tribunals. These laws have been adopted by various states of the federation, and modified to address the problems of rent collection peculiar to their state. States such as Cross-River, Kwara, Anambra and Lagos State have done this. These laws will be reviewed in this study, in order to arrive at a better understanding of how these laws can be used to address the problems of rent collection in residential properties in Enugu metropolis.  Three neighbourhoods have been selected for this study. They include: new Haven, Obiagu and Achara Layout all in Enugu metropolis.   

EVALUATION OF THE PROBLEMS OF RENT COLLECTION AS AN ASPECT OF PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

A TECHNICAL REPORT ON THE PROPOSED LANDSCAPE DESIGN

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of the study is to improve the visual aesthetics of the whole environment at large and make the faculty more convenient for man through the provision of different facilities lacking in the area.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives are those principled processes we intend to follow so as to actualize our goal.

(a) carrying out an in-depth study on the area so as to understand the site characteristics.

(b) Secondly, to carryout a research on the faculty and     departments so as to know the needs of the total population.

(c) To articulate a good proposal, which would be completely cost effective and economically viable.

A TECHNICAL REPORT ON THE PROPOSED LANDSCAPE DESIGN


EFFECT OF WATER SCARCITY ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY PRICES

ABSTRACT

This research work is a careful study of effects of water on residential property prices in Owerri capital city of Imo state. The work was a handiwork of thorough and detailed fact finding task about water supply embarked upon by the researcher as is portrayed in various chapters and sections of this report. 

This work therefore tends to disclose the impact of water to many Nigerian citizens with direct reference to residential property prices of infrastructures in Owerri the capital city of Imo State. 

There existed great disparity in the prices of properties with very good sources of water supply and those without, leading to unnecessary social strata definition amongst the citizens as the rich who could afford the pleasure does so while the poor masses are left to wallow in scarcely furnished residential structures and poor water supply condition coupled with untold hardship. Also revealed in this study was the inability of the state government to conclude the MDG water project in the state for very long time which would have minimized the suffering of the people. The masses who this report gathered to be consistent to reasonable extent in paying their taxes preferred the government to provide better social facilities with their public fund instead of allowing them to cater for their needs themselves. The government in conclusion were urged to harness other alternative sources of water supplies available to the masses like the bore-holes, rain and stream waters and put them in better conditions so as to prevent the sharp gap created between the well to do and the poor who cannot afford the pleasure of expensive residential properties with convenient water supply sources.

In the course of the research, many existing articles, journals, periodicals and statistical records were gathered from reliable sources and used in the compilation process. The researcher also made use of primary data collected through interviews and questionnaires. The structured questionnaire which was captioned “Effect of Water on Residential Property Prices In Owerri Capital City of Imo State, Nigeria – Questionnaire (EOWORPPIOCCISNQ) was distributed to both (senior and junior) staffs in Imo state ministry of water resources and tenants living in the Owerri metropolis amounting to 92 final sample size gotten from a sample population of 220 people chosen by the researcher.

Data collected were presented and analysed with the help of the 2 hypotheses and research questions contained in the work. The sample size was determined using the Yaro Yamani statistical tool while the hypotheses were tested with the Chi- square (X2) method of analysis. 

Just as every good work would never come so easy, there also existed several challenges that in one way or the other constrained the researcher from producing a totally constraint-free research report. Like every other post graduate student, severe academic and work demands competed for limited time available for carrying out this research work. Meanwhile official laxity or bureaucratic bottlenecks better put severally reared its ugly head as the researcher never got any needed assistance or information from Imo state ministry of water resources without passing through unnecessary delays and postponements. Unforgettably, limited finance almost quenched the processes of this research as the researcher had to extend his tentacles far and wide to source information and materials on the research topic as very scanty or none existed prior to this work.     

Summary, recommendation and conclusion were clearly stated at the final chapter of this work, they were arrived at based on the findings and analysis of data and facts gotten from chapters three and four respectively.

EFFECT OF WATER SCARCITY ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY PRICES

DESIGN OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTRE

INTRODUCTION

“Disaster management” can be defined as the range of activities designed to maintain control over disaster and emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping at-risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster. Disaster management deals with situations that occur prior to, during, and after the disaster. Globally, there has been lots of disaster on land, air and sea, though these disasters may be natural or man-made, it has however led to the destruction of lives and properties worth billions of Naira.In Nigeria, there have been instance of earth tremors in Ogun state in 1994, several cases of flood has occurred in Nigeria, in July 2012, 363 people killed, over 2,100,000 displaced, Areas affected include, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, and Benue state. On 2nd July 2012, many Nigerian coastal and inland cities experienced heavy rains, and residents of Lagos state were “gasping for breath” due to the flooding. In addition, there was a gridlock on major roads, causing people to cancel or postpone appointments they may have had. Thousands of stranded commuters had to pay increased fares for the few bus drivers who were willing to risk travelling on the roads, and construction of work by the Nigerian government on the inner Oke-Afa Road took a “heavy toll.” In mid-July 2012, flooding in the Ibadan metropolis caused some residents at Challenge, Oke-Ayo, and Eleyele to flee from their residences and save their lives. The flooding also prevented some Christians from attending churches in the morning, while a few bridges caved in. The Nigerian government said that certain structures on waterways had to be demolished as a result of the flooding, while Commissioner for Information and Orientation, Bosun Oladele, announced that there weren’t any casualties from the flooding. Although, most of the disasters that Nigerians face are generally preventable, such as aircraft crash, boat mishap, floods, landslides, fire out breaks, oil spillage etc, can actually be prevented.Disaster is an event, natural or man-made, sudden or progressive, which impacts with such severity that the affected community or individual has to respond by taking exceptional measures.Disaster Management is the systematic observation and analysis of disasters to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery. It is also the range of activities designed to maintain control over disaster and emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping at-risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster and deals with situations that occur prior to, during, and after the disaster.The term “Disaster Management” encompasses the complete realm of disaster-related activities. Traditionally people tend to think of disaster management only in terms of the post-disaster actions taken by relief and reconstruction officials; yet disaster management covers a much broader scope, and many modern disaster managers may find themselves far more involved in pre-disaster activities than in post-disaster response. This is because many persons who work in the development field, or who plan routine economic, urban, regional or agricultural development projects, have disaster management responsibilities. Disaster management also encompasses the field of emergency assistance and long-term maintenance for refugees and displaced persons. The refugee field of disaster management is highly specialized and requires not only many development skills but also a broader awareness of political, legal, and humanitarian issues.The project is to design a Disaster Management Centre which will serve as a centre for the operational squad and aid for investigation, assistance and relief of people affected with disasters. The aim of this project is to provide disaster management knowledge and skills to enhance the understanding of good (and bad) disaster preparedness and response and their reasons for them. This project introduces the main principles of Disaster Management, with a focus on disaster response in the developing world.

DESIGN OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTRE

PLANNING FOR INFORMAL ACTIVITIES

The Urban settlement over the world witness great influx of people from the rural area. These people move to the urban centres because of the basic infrastructure and services rendered.

The white collar job (Formal activities) cannot cater for the increased population; as such, informal activities takes off. These informal activities if not planned and controlled, contravene the provision of the planned Urban settlement.

PLANNING FOR INFORMAL ACTIVITIES