WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR ADMISSION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Student admissions are a vital part of any academic institution’s running because students are what keep the institutions alive. The student admission is one of the most important activities within a university as one cannot survive without students. A poor admissions system can mean fewer students being admitted into a university because of mistakes or an overly slow response time. The process begins with a potential student completing an application form through the institutions’ admissions unit, the first step for students is to apply directly to the university through a custom online form. The next step is for the Admissions service center has to review the application and ensure that all of the required information has been provided, from the form itself to the supplementary documentation, such as language and degree certificates. If any of the required information is missing, it is the secretary for the department to which the application concerns that contacts the potential student and arranges for the delivery of the outstanding data. The application in its entirety is then forwarded, complete with a recommendation, to the respective department’s Admissions Tutor, who has the final say as to whether each potential student is accepted or rejected. Before making a decision, the Admissions Tutor reviews the application and the additional documentation, comparing the academic credentials to a list of university rankings and previous, similar applications [1].

1.1 Background of the Study

The national focus on student outcomes has placed an additional burden on our nation’s schools, school districts, and state education agencies, for they must monitor the achievement of individual students, as well as groups of students, and show that all students are meeting high standards for learning. An education organization’s ability to meet this challenge is affected by the organization’s access to complete, accurate, and timely information about its students. Many schools, school districts, and state education agencies already collect and use data effectively. However, the proliferation of new reporting requirements and dramatic changes in technology have had a profound effect on the need for student data and the education community’s ability to manage student records. Purchase of more powerful computer hardware and software and the reconfiguration of information systems have become essential components in efforts to meet the needs of all students. There is probably no single best information system solution that can meet the needs of all 90,000+ public schools, 16,000+ school districts, 27,000 private schools, and 57 education agencies in states and outlying areas. However, there are certain steps that could help all education organizations to determine the best solution for their particular situations. This booklet can lead education organization decision-makers through the process of making the best and most cost-effective decisions about information management systems devoted to individual student records [2].

1.2 Statement of Problem

Many institutions do not have an automated system to manage the admission screening of prospective students. The consequence of this is that the time spent in processing admission becomes too long. In addition, the manual system in place makes it very difficult for the admission officers to record and retrieve needed information pertaining to admission. Errors are numerous in the manual screening. There is therefore need for an automated system to handle the admission screening process so as to improve admission screening, reduce errors and save time. More importantly, the record of admission status of the students should be easily stored and retrieved.

  1. Aim And Objectives Of the Study

The aim of the study is to develop  a web based system for admission management. The following are the specific objectives:

  1. To develop an automated system that will enable applicants for admission apply online
  2. To develop a system that will allow the easy updating of admission application
  3. To develop a system that will enable easy storage and retrieval of admission information.
  4. To implement a system that can hold a database of admission records such that it can be queried to get report.

1.4 Scope of the study

This study covers web-based system for admission management using Ritman College, Ikot Ekpene as a case study.

WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR ADMISSION

WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR STUDENT INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, UKANA)

ABSTRACT

This research work focused on web based system for student information management using Federal Polytechnic, Ukana as a case study. The study was necessary because of the existing problems which include: absence of a web based student information system that facilitates the capturing, storage and retrieval of relevant information pertaining to its students, the traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back.  The objectives of the study include: to implement a system that aid easy uploading of student information, to develop a system that will aid easy verification of student information and  to design a system that facilitates easy updating of student information. The significance of the study is that it will provide the management of the institution with a web-based system that can complement the manual system of managing student information, and it will provide an effective means to capture, store update and retrieve student information online. The software development methodology used is Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) and the programming language used is PHP (pHp Hypertext Pre-processor). It was concluded that a web based student information management system is a very important system that will enable management of the institution to organize student information for easy retrieval in no time. It is expected that every institution should develop and make use of the system to facilitate the student information operations of the institution, the system can be used to verify the identity of every student and as such stands as a tool to decipher impersonation. It is recommended that institutions should implement a web based student information management system and dependency on manual methods of recording should be abandoned or only used for back up purpose.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i 

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract               –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –    vii-ix

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

List of Figures      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1-2

1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        2-3

1.2     Statement of Problem              –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study                –        –        –        3-4

1.4     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.6     Organization of the Research  –        —       –        –        –        4-5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction   –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        6

2.1  Theoretical Background   –        –        –        –        –        –        6-9

2.2  The Concept of Information Systems  –        –        –        –        9-10

2.2.1 Types of Information System  –        –        –        –        –        11

2.3     Advantages of Information System  –        –        –        –        12

2.4     Web-based Students Information Management System          12-14

CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

  • Introduction    –        –        –        –        –        –        –                  15     

3.1 Research Methodology      –        –        –        –        –                  15

3.2 Analysis of the Existing System –        –        –        –                  15

3.2.1 Disadvantages of the Existing System        –        –        –                  16

3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System         –        –        –        –                  16

3.2.3.1 Advantages of the Proposed system        –        –        –                  17

3.4 System Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        –                   17   

3.4.1 Input layout          –        –        –        –        –        –        –                   18

3.4.2 Output Layout                                                 –   –                  19     

3.4.3 Algorithm                                                         –   –                  20

3.4.4 Program Flowchart                                          –   –                  21-24

3.4.5 Database Design   –        –                  –        –        –                  25-26

3.4.6 System Architecture       –        –        –        –        –                  26

3.4.7 Use Case Diagram          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26-27

CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION

4.0     Introduction                  –        –        –        –        –        –                  28

4.1     System Design Diagram –        –        –        –        –                  28

4.2     Analysis of Modules               –        –        –        –                  28-29

4.2     Choice of Programming Language              –        –                  29

4.4     Programming Environment     –        –        –        –                  29

4.4.1 Hardware Requirements –        –        –        –        –                  29-30

4.4.2 Software Requirements  –        –        –        –        –                  30

4.5     Implementation    –        –        –        –        –        –                  30-31

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32     

5.1     Constraints of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

5.2     Summary                       –        –        –        –        –                  32

5.3     Conclusion                     –        –        –        –        –        –        33

5.4     Recommendations                   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

 References                      –        –        –        –        –        –        34

Appendix A (Source Code)-    –        –        –        –        –                  35-47

 Appendix B (Output)                                  –      –        –                48-50          

LIST OF TABLES

                                                                                       Page Number

Table 3.1: Output Layout        –        –        –        –        –        –        19

Table 3.2:  Database design     –        –        –        –        –        25

LIST OF FIGURES

Page Number

Figure 2.1: Login page   –        –        –        –        –        –        9

Figure 3.1: Input Layout         –        –        –        –        –        –        18

Figure 3.2: Login flowchart     –        –        –        –        –        21

Figure 3.3:  Main Menu Flowchart   –        –        –        –        22

Figure 3.4: Registration Flowchart             –        –        –        23

Figure 3.5:Update flowchart   –        –        –        –        –        24

Figure 3.6: Database Records flowchart     –        –        –        25

Figure 3.7: Architecture of the System       –        –        –        –        26

Figure 3.8: Use case diagram   –        –        –        –        –        27

Figure 4.1: System Design Diagram  –        –        –        –        2

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

This chapter is focused on the introduction to the web based system for students information management. It presents the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

Over the past few decades, institutions all over the world have been experiencing new paradigms in the way they handle and manage students’ information due to the proliferation of ICTs and its applications such as web-based student information systems. With the adoption of such systems as the web based student information system in academic institutions, the experience is that it has now become easy to harness and fast track all students’ records in one centralized database via the internet technology. While the benefits of the system seem to be celebrated, it has been a hustle for most universities in Africa to completely go digital in their operations due poor ICT infrastructures that seem to be prevalent in the region.

In the pre-digital age, managing student’s information was done manually, using paper-based systems. However, with increasing number of students in educational institutes, the system could no longer handle student’s records effectively. Suffice to say, the dawn of ICT applications and databases presented unparalleled opportunities in managing students’ records in academic institutions which gradually lead to the disappearance of paper-based systems. The major concern with manual systems has been the speed with which business operations and decision making processes are carried out in education institutions. Consequently, to cope up with the rise in student’s enrolment whilst at the same time ensuring efficiency in their operations, universities had to experience a paradigm shift from using manual student’s management systems to online student management systems. Students Management Systems (SMS) whether manual or web-based are there to maintain and provide easy access to student information. As an information system, it is very useful.

An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people’s activities that support operations, management and decision making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. There are two views on (IS) and IS-centered view that includes software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. A second managerial view includes people, business processes and Information Systems. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes [1].

In an institution for instance, there is need to record information pertaining to members of the institution especially the students so that it will be easy to retrieve needed information instantly without stress. A web based student information management system is a software system that enables the data of students to be captured, such that it will be easy to obtain needed information pertaining to any particular student or group of students. The system can also be viewed as a database system that enables capturing of large amounts of students record to facilitate manipulation by the administrators in charge. For example, every student has a unique registration number which stands as the primary key. In an information system it will be very easy to obtain the record of any student just by querying the database based on the primary key or registration ID of the student.

1.2 Statement of Problem

  1. The traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back.
  2. Also, it is difficult for management to get needed information instantly thereby delaying the decision making process that is based on the information needed.

It is in view of these challenges that this research work is carried out to design and implement a web based system for student information management.

WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR STUDENT INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, UKANA)

WEB BASED IDENTITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR POLYTECHNIC STAFF

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

A web based Identity management system for polytechnic staff is an electronic record management system that can aid users of the system to capture and upload polytechnic staff information to an online database. Personnel records are important as they depict the employee’s employment relationship with an organization. It is important that they be maintained and updated. An integrated human resource system is one where all elements of the system fit together and support each other. A software system can be developed that integrates basic human resources functions. For example, the identity of staff in an institution can be automated such that whenever information of the identity of any staff in the polytechnic is needed, it can be retrieved.  Record is an important asset of every organisation and should always be handled with care regardless of their formats. The importance of maintaining records efficiently is to ensure that they support the organisation in for better decision making and can be used to enhance accountability and transparency. Records Management is not a new concept but instead have evolved from the ancient world to modern times. The contribution of information communication technology (ICT) has been remarkable behind the development of records management. Institutions should ensure that they manage their records properly and effectively for legal and efficient management of records purposes [1].

1.1 Background of the Study

 Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) have now produced and created most of their documents and records electronically. These records need to be managed efficiently and effectively according to the widely accepted standards. Well-managed records could give untold benefits to organization, hence, help organizations remain competitive. The management of electronic records ought to be guided by a policy, which serve as a roadmap in implementing the initiative. Personnel  or staff are the most vital to organizations and there is a need to ensure that information pertaining to them are properly managed and that their activities are monitored efficiently such that reports can be presented pertaining the details of each and every employee or human resource. To achieve this, there is a great need to adopt computer systems due to their advantage of speed, high volume of storage and instant presentation of data stored. This will better organize the duties of human resource managers and facilitate better record management. A web based identity management system for polytechnic staff is one of such systems that needs to be adopted in institutions of higher learning.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

  1. Staff identity information management involves a lot of paper work and the consequence of this is that it is difficult to manage human resource information.
  2. There are different aspects of human resources and management and the manual system of recording human resource information makes it difficult to integrate and get reports pertaining to human resource.
  3. The flat file organization occupies unnecessary office space in addition to making information retrieval difficult and time consuming.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to design and implement a web based identity management system for Polytechnic staff. The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. To implement a functional web based staff identity database application.
  2. To develop a system that can be used to update staff identity information when needed.
  3. To create a system that can be used to instantly verify the identity of staff in any department of the polytechnic..
  4. To develop a system that can be used to obtain reports by querying the database.
WEB BASED IDENTITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR POLYTECHNIC STAFF

WEB BASED IDENTITY FOR CAMPUS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Over the past few decades, higher institutions all over the world have been experiencing new paradigms in the way they handle and manage students’ information due to the proliferation of ICTs and its applications such as web-based student information systems. With the adoption of such systems as the web based identity System for campus management in academic institutions, the experience is that it has now become easy to harness and fast track all students’ records in one centralized database via the internet technology. While the benefits of web based identity management system for campus management seem to be celebrated, it has not been implemented in most institutions in Africa to completely go digital in their operations due to poor ICT infrastructures that seem to be prevalent in the region.

The higher education sector is not immune from risks of identity-related fraud and other kinds of dishonest practices, and, as this paper demonstrates, risks are present throughout the sector – from enrolment of students, through the examination process, upon qualification, and during subsequent employment. Reducing the risks associated with identification of students and staff alike entails the employment of a wide range of strategies that need to be implemented uniformly across the entire sector. This paper analyses the nature of the problem and how government, business and individuals can share in the task of preventing identity thieves from enrolling and graduating dishonestly. In undergoing higher education, people are required to establish who they are by providing evidence of unique identifying characteristics. It is usual to produce or disclose something that you have (tokens), something that you know (knowledge), something related to who you are (biometrics), or something indicating where you live (location). Of course there are others, such as the use of a person’s name, and a variety of behavioural and psychological characteristics that can be used to identify people. Depending upon the degree of certainty with which one needs to establish one’s identity, one or more of these methods may be relied upon. Often only one method will be used, and this will generally involve the disclosure of a document. Each has its own vulnerabilities and risks which are able to be exploited by those who want to act illegally [1].

In the past, identity was more easily verifiable as people conducted most of their transactions in person. With the advent of computers, however, documents can easily be fabricated and personal information obtained from electronic databases either by gaining access without authority, or by tricking unsuspecting users into disclosing their access codes and passwords. In higher education, examples of identity-related fraud and other dishonest practices exist in all aspects of the sector extending from enrolling as a student, undergoing examinations and submitting essays, commencing employment as a staff member, paying fees, receiving salaries, and using technology. There is a continuing need to identify both new students and staff with accuracy and the task for university administrators is considerable. Evidence is needed of previous qualifications and/or eligibility to enroll for new students; previous employment and qualification details for new staff; as well as identification necessary for conducting business transactions including payment of fees and receiving payments such as salaries [2].

1.2 Theoretical Background
Institutions all over the world have realized the benefits of the web based system in managing records and verifying the existence of records in a few milliseconds. This advantage of the computer system has brought about a migration from manual ways of operations to computerized means so as to facilitate the management of large volumes of information. Every institution recognizes the possibility of identity fraud and to overcome the problem, they need to adopt the computer system so that the identity of students can be easily captured and retrieved when needed. This will mitigate the risk of identity fraud in the institutions. It is in view of the need to properly manage the identity of students on campus that necessitates the development of this study on Web-based identity management system for campus management

1.3 Statement of Problem

The following are the existing problems of identity management on the campus:

  1. Many students commit the crime of impersonation (i.e claiming to be who they are not).
  2. The situation is serious as they sometimes take exams and tests on behalf of some other persons, and sometimes they have been convicted of one crime or the other and do not want their identity to be known.
  3. This poses serious problems to the institution and may affect the integrity of the institution when the student involved is discovered to be incompetent.
  4. Absence of a Web-based identity management system for campus management
  5. Manual process of verifying identity of student is time consuming.
  6. Accumulation of paper files
  7. High security risk as student information in existing system is not secure.
WEB BASED IDENTITY FOR CAMPUS

ONLINE SUPERMARKET

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

An online supermarket shopping system is a web based application that enables people to buy products from a supermarket online. Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product’s availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smart phones. An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular “bricks-and-mortar” retailer or shopping center; the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm’s range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications, features and prices (Davis, 1989).

1.1 Background of the Study

An online store is a virtual store on the Internet where customers can browse the catalog and select products of interest. The selected items may be collected in a shopping cart. At checkout time, the items in the shopping cart will be presented as an order. At that time, more information will be needed to complete the transaction. Usually, the customer will be asked to fill or select a billing address, a shipping address, a shipping option, and payment information such as credit card number. An e- mail notification is sent to the customer as soon as the order is placed. Online stores are systems that typically enable shoppers to use “search” features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products (e.g., paperback books or clothes), the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; for digital products, such as digital audio files of songs or software, the e-tailer typically sends the file to the customer over the Internet (Monsuwe, Dellaert and Ruyter, 2004). To increase patronage and boost the income of supermarkets, an online shopping web site is needed to enable buyers order a product from the convenience of their homes, offices, etc. This reduces stress on the side of the shoppers to physically be present at the shop and also boost the revenue of the supermarket.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most supermarkets in Ikot Ekpene including NTEPS do not have an online shopping system, They are restricted to selling within their physical environment. The following problems were identified:

  1. NTEPS supermarket does not have an online supermarket shopping system.
  2. Customers need to physically be present at the supermarket before they shop for a product.
    1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
    The aim of the study is to develop an online supermarket shopping system. The specific objectives are:
  3. To design an online sales management system for supermarket that can be use to upload products for sale online.
  4. To provide a function that enables customer to place order.
  5. To create a system that will enable the administrator view records of shopping orders by customers.
ONLINE SUPERMARKET

ONLINE DATABASE MODEL FOR CHURCH RECORD MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF QUA IBOE CHURCH, IKOT OSURUA, IKOT EKPENE)

ABSTRACT

This research work focused on online database model for church record management system a case study of Qua Iboe Church, Ikot Ekpene. The system was necessary because the manual method of maintaining church record makes it difficult to retrieve needed information concerning members of the church. In addition, it is difficult to update membership record information without making mistakes. Also, important record of church meetings such as attendance is manually kept and it is time consuming to retrieve needed report. To overcome these problems, an automated system has been developed to aid easy management of church membership record. The software development methodology employed for the development of the system is the spiral model and the programming language used is PHP (pHp Hypertext Pre-processor).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i 

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract               –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii-ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        1-3

1.2     Statement of Problem              –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study                –        –        –        4

1.4     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4       

1.6     Organization of the Research  –        —       –        –        –        5

1.7     Definition of Terms       –        –        –        –        –        –        5-6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  •    Introduction –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        7

2.1     Records Management    –        –        –        –        –        –        7-8   

2.2     Guidelines for Church Record Management         –        –        –        8-15

2.3     The Need for Congregation Record Management –        –        15-16

2.4 District Register       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        16-17

2.4.1 Care for District Register         –        –        –        –        –        –        17-18

2.5     Electronic Database       –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.5.1 Care of Electronic Database    –        –        –        –        –        19

2.5.2 Retention of Electronic Database      –        –        –        –        19

2.6 Electronic Documents       –        –        –        –        –        –        20

2.6.1 Care of Legal Documents         –        –        –        –        –        –        20-21

2.6.2 Retention of Legal Documents –        –        –        –        –        21

2.7 Legal and Property Related Documents         –        –        –        –        21-22

2.7.1 Care of Legal Property Related Documents         –        –        –        22

2.8 Membership Information  –        –        –        –        –        –        22-23

2.9 Online Database Model Concept –        –        –        –        –        23-26

CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS  AND DESIGN

  • Introduction   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        27     

3.1 Research Methodology      –        –        –        –        –        27     

3.2 Analysis of the Existing System –        –        –        –        28              

3.2.1 Advantages of the Existing System   –        –        28              

3.2.2 Problems of the Existing System       –        –        –        28              

3.2.3 Analysis of the Proposed System      –        –        –        28     

3.2.4 Advantages of the Proposed system  –        –        –        28     

3.3 System Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        29

3.3.1 Input layout          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        29-30

3.3.2 Algorithm                                                         –   –        31-32

3.3.3 Program Flowchart                                          –   –        32-38

3.3.4 Output Layout      –        –                  –        –        –        39     

CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION

4.0     Introduction                  –        –        –        –        –        –        40

4.1     System Design Diagram –        –        –        –        –        40     

4.2     Choice of Programming Language              –        –        41

4.3     Analysis of Modules               –        –        –        –        41     

4.4     Programming Environment     –        –        –        –        42

4.4.1 Hardware Requirements –        –        –        –        42

4.4.2 Software Requirements  –        –        –        –        42

4.5     System Implementation –        –        –        –        –        42-43

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44

5.1     Constraints of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        44

5.2     Summary                       –        –        –        –        –        –        44-45

5.3     Conclusion                     –        –        –        –        –        –        45

5.4     Recommendations                   –        –        –        –        –        –        45

          References                      –        –        –        –        –        –        46-47

           Appendix A (Source Code)-   –        –        –        –        –         48-59

          Appendix B (Output)                         –      –        –                 60-64   

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

This chapter is focused on the introduction to online database model for church record management, it presents the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

Today, most of the records of congregations begin as digital files. The financial records church  membership register can be stored in a database. Minutes, reports, newsletters, sermons, and other documents are created using word processing software. Correspondence is usually by e-mail. Much of the information you use and distribute to parishioners is created in formats to be read by a Web browser. Even the photographs of your congregation’s activities are now in digital formats. These guidelines will address the ways in which you can assure future generations that these records will still be available for their use long after hardware, software, and file formats have changed. Consistency is important in the care of records. Any records retention policy has validity, once accepted as the policy of the organization, only as it is uniformly practiced. It should be neither selectively implemented nor disregarded at the whim of the custodians of the records. Information that is retained in hard copy or in electronic files is the property of the congregation. For the effective management of the church, each type of record has a specific life cycle and needs appropriate management.

An online database model for church record management is a web based system that can help the church management upload and manage church records online. Such records can include: membership record, reports of meetings, record of workers in the church, etc. Church records management is an area that less attention is often given to; they simply expect that when they need access to a record, someone from the church will be able to find it. While we all wish records were that simple, the fact is that efficient management of records requires some thought and planning to make accessing them go smoothly.

The records of the developments and decisions of a church, whether in traditional paper form or electronic (online), are important sources of information about its activities. These records can include minutes of meetings, membership rolls, newsletters, annual reports, programs, etc, as well as photographs and recordings. These records are important now and in the future – for example, they will be needed by church officers who are responsible for planning and decision making in the church. These records may also be needed by the church for legal reasons and could help to protect the church and its members in cases of litigation. So it is vital that these records be properly made in the first place, then carefully stored and well managed (Lutheran Church, 2005).

Pastors and church workers create and maintain the records of the congregation in order to have the information they need when reports are needed and in the format from which they can most easily retrieve it; and in such a way that partners working in the congregation, today and in the future, can readily find the information. Implementing an online system for managing church record is a step in the right direction as it will facilitate proper management of church records.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

  1. Many churches manually maintain their records.
  2. Absence of an online database for church record management.
  3. Membership records when manually maintained makes it difficult to retrieve necessary information instantly pertaining to members of the church.
  4. In addition, the identity of the members of the church and their status in the church cannot be easily ascertained.

To avoid these problems there is need for the development of an online database model for church record management.

ONLINE DATABASE MODEL FOR CHURCH RECORD MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF QUA IBOE CHURCH, IKOT OSURUA, IKOT EKPENE)

GENDER AND LOCALITY AS FACTORS INFLUENCING ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADOLESCENTS

ABSTRACT

The study investigated influence of locality and parental socio-economic background on moral behaviour among adolescents in the south eastern Nigeria. 176 adolescents 91 males and 85 females selected from four secondary schools, two from urban and rural areas each. The participants were within the age bracket of 12-17 year with a mean age of 15 years. Ethical moral self inventory fits (1965) was used for data collection. 2×2 factorial design was adopted based on two independent variables locality (urban and rural) and parental socio-economic (low and high) with two levels each. Two way ANOVA statistics was used for data analysis. Finding revealed a significant influence of locality on moral behaviour among adolescences. F, (1, 172) = 64.02 P<.01; A significant influence of parental socio-economic background on moral behaviour F, (1,172) = 172.09 P<.01. No interaction effect was observed F, (1, 172) =3.73 P>.05. Findings were discussed in relation with the literature reviewed and recommendations were also made.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

As manure is necessary for good yielding vegetation, so is a good moral background to an ideal society. From the above statement, morality seems to be an inevitable quality of an ideal society. Thus, depriving any community access to a good moral reputation is as bad as terminating her entire existence. One of the insidious social illness that threatens the future survival of Nigeria as a developing nation is the continuous declination in morality level of her adolescents. The concept of morality is essential in the understanding of thoughts and behaviours. From the 46 chromosomes in the human genome, 45 are unisex (Harris, 1998). Female and male are therefore similar in many physical and traits, such as age of setting teething, and walking. They are also alike in many psychological traits, such as overall vocabulary, certainty, intelligence, self-esteem, and happiness. Actually, there are some differences and it is this difference, not the many similarities that capture attention and make news. Researchers in the main stream sociological tradition exemplified by Limp-man Blumen (1984) have argued that people first acquire gender through socialization in childhood. It has been argued kin a large number of studies that boys act differently toward girls from birth onward. In the first 24 hours after birth, according to one study, parents described boys as more alert stronger and firmer and girls as less attentive, weaker, and more fragile, this go a long way in determining the behavior of the child in all aspect of his or her development including assertiveness. Gender is virtually assessed in every study that evaluated treatment, retention and outcome (Berrigan & Garfield, 1981). People expect woman to behave unassertively.

GENDER AND LOCALITY AS FACTORS INFLUENCING ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADOLESCENTS

BOOKSTORE MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

An automated book shop point of sales and ordering system is a computerized system that facilitates the capturing, processing and storage of sales and book ordering information. The system aids the easy retrieval of needed information pertaining to sales record and customers that have placed an order for a book.

A bookshop is a shop were books are sold. To efficiently manage a bookshop a point of sales and ordering system is needed. A point of Sales (POS) software records each sale when it happens, so, inventory records are always up-to-date. Better still, much more information about the sale using an automated system than you could use manual system. By running reports based on this information, you can make better decisions about ordering and merchandising [1]. With a POS system:

  • You can analyze sales data, figure out how well all the items on your shelves sell, and adjust purchasing levels accordingly.
  • You can maintain a sales history to help adjust your buying decisions for seasonal purchasing trends.
  • You can improve pricing accuracy by integrating bar-code scanners and credit card authorization ability with the POS system.

There are plenty of popular POS software systems that enable you to use add-on devices at your checkout stations, including electronic cash drawers, bar-code scanners, credit card readers, and receipt or invoice printers. POS packages frequently come with integrated accounting modules, including general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, purchasing, and inventory control systems. In essence, a POS system is an all-in-one way to keep track of your business’s cash flow [2].

1.1 Background of the study

At the point of sale, the seller calculates total cost of books bought and an invoice is issued to the customer. After receiving payment, receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed will be issued to the customer.. The point of sale (POS) is often referred to as the point of service because it is not just a point of sale but also a point of return or customer order.

One of the ways to improve sales management in a book shop is by implementing a POS system. For effective sales management an automated system such as book shop point of sales and ordering system is needed to enable the bookshop maintain proper record of sales so that reports of sales can be easily provided when needed [3].

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many business enterprise such as book shops still manually record and process sakes transactions.To solve this problem, an automated system is needed. The identified problems are:

i.                   Interchange of book(s) order ticket with other tickets

ii.                 Difficulty in providing appropriate and updated books information.

iii.              Sometimes they may be errors in computation of sales.

iv.              Sales record information cannot be easily presented instantly with manual system.

v.                 Lack of proper sales management

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to develop an automated  book shop point of sales and ordering system. The following are the objectives of the study:

i.                   To implement an automated system that will enable users to register order placed on books to database.

ii.                 It will help for easy retrieval of book orders made by the customers.

iii.              Provide a user friendly environment between the customers and employee thus increasing the efficiency of the book ordering system.

iv.              To design a system that can be used to capture and process sales information and generate and invoice for the sales.

v.                 To design a system that can be use to provide reports of daily sales made in the book shop,

1.4 Significance of the Study This study is significant in the following ways:

1.     It will serve as a sales management information system to the management of the book shop.

2.     It will aid accurate recording on purchased order and delivery in the bookshop.

3.     It is also significant to the customers as it will aid proper documentation of sales transaction.

4.     It will reduce the workload in the present system

5.     It will reduce time wasted in data processing..

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study covers automated book shop point of sales and ordering system using Dev Consort services Bookshop, Ikot Ekpene as a case study, to enable customers order for books and get it delivered accordingly and also to reduce the long queues of customers at the counter ordering for books and to reduce the work load on the employees.

1.6 Organization of the Research

This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.

Chapter two focuses on the literature review and covers theoretical background, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.

Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology used in the development of the system, it analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.

Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation, the choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.

Chapter five focuses on the summary, constraints of the study, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Book Shop: A store where books and related accessories are sold.

Point of Sales: A system that is used to process transaction billing information at the point of sales.

Ordering: To place a request for something ahead of time.

System: The combination of one or more related parts that work together in order to realize a specific objective.

BOOKSTORE MANAGEMENT

FUZZY LOGIC ALGORITHM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA (A CASE STUDY OF GENERAL HOSPITAL, IKOT EKPENE)

ABSTRACT

This research work focused on the development of fuzzy logic algorithm for diagnosis of malaria, a case study of General hospital Ikot Ekpene. A fuzzy logic system is an artificial intelligence based system that involves drawing conclusion from a partial truth. In the diagnosis of malaria, there are symptoms that the patients are tested for, when these symptoms match the known symptoms for malaria, conclusion is drawn that the patient has malaria. The problems that necessitated the development of the system include: blood testing for diagnosis of malaria is time consuming and expensive, health care facility should be accessible by all at all times, medical expert maybe under pressure. The objectives of the study included: to create a system that will help in diagnosis of malaria using fuzzy logic, to create a system to help simplify the task of a Doctor in diagnosing malaria, to create a system to improved efficiency by systematically keeping patient diagnosis records and timely generation. The software development methodology used is object oriented analysis and design methodology (OOADM). The programming language used is Visual BASIC and the database used is Microsoft Access 2003.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –          i

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –          ii

Approval Page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract               –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –     vii-ix

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –                  –        x

List of Figures      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1-2

1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        2

1.2     Statement of Problem              –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study-     –        –        –        –        3-4

1.4     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.6     Organization of Research        –        –        –        –        –        –        4-5

1.7     Definition of Terms       –        –        –        –        –        –        6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  •    Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7

2.1   Theoretical background   –        –        –        –        –        –        7-8

  •    The Concept of Fuzzy Logic     –        –        –        –        –       9-11
    •    Fuzzy Logic in Medical Diagnosis      –        –        –        –     11-13
    •    Applied Fuzzy Methods in Disease Diagnosis       –        –        –     13-14
    •    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships     –        –        –     15
    •   Fuzzy Logic in Medical Decision Support Systems          –        –    16-17    
    •   Fuzzy Logic in Malaria Diagnosis       –        –        –        17-19

CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

3.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        20     

3.1     Research Methodology            –        –        –        –        20     

3.2     Analysis of the Existing System       –        –        –        –        21     

          3.2.1 Advantages of the Existing System   –        –        21     

3.2.2  Disadvantages of the Existing System        –        –        22     

3.3     Analysis of the Proposed System     –        –        –        22-23

3.3.1  Advantages of the Proposed System –        –        24     

3.4     System Design     –        –        –        –        –        –        24     

3.4.1 Input Layout        –        –        –        –        –        24-25

3.4.2  Output Layout     –        –        –        –        –        24     

          3.4.3  Algorithm   –        –        –        –        –        –        25-26

3.4.4 Program Flowchart        –        –        –        –        27-31

3.4.5  Database Design  –        –        –        –        –        32     

3.4.6  System Architecture      –        –        –        –        33     

3.3.7  Use Case/Class Diagram-        –        –        –        –        33     

CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION

4.0     Introduction                  –        –        –        –        –        –        35     

4.1     System Design Diagram –        –        –        –        –        35     

4.2     Choice of Programming Language              –        –        36     

4.3     Analysis of Modules               –        –        –        –        36     

4.4     Programming Environment     –        –        –        –        37     

4.4.1  Hardware Requirements          –        –        –        –        37     

4.4.2  Software Requirements  –                  –        –        37     

4.5     Implementation    –        –        –        –        –        –        37-38

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.0     Introduction                   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

5.1     Constraints of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        39

5.2     Summary                       –        –        –        –        –        –    39-40

5.3     Conclusion                     –        –        –        –        –        –        40

5.4     Recommendations                   –        –        –        –        –        –        41

References                      –        –        –        –        –        –   42-44

          Appendix A         (Source Code)     –        –        –        –        –   45-49

          Appendix B         (Output)     –        –        –        –        –        –   50-55     

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.2: Patient RegistrationDatabase Design –        –        32

Table 3.3: Fuzzy logic diagnosis database design          –        –        33

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Patient registration form –        –        –        –        8

Figure 3.1 : Patient registration input layout       –        –        –        24

Figure 3.2: Fuzzy logic diagnosis layout     –        –        –        25

Figure. 3.3 Login flowchart     –        –        –        –        –        27

Figure. 3.4 Main Menu Flowchart    –        –        –        –        28

Figure 3.5 Patient Registration Flowchart  –        –        –        29

Figure 3.6: Diagnosis flowchart        –        –        –        –        –        30

Figure 3.7: Existing records    –        –        –        –        –        31

Figure 3.8: Architecture of the System       –        –        –        –        33

Figure 3.9: Use case Diagram  –        –        –        –        –        34

Figure 4.1: System Design Diagram  –        –        –        –        35

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Introduction

This research presents a novel method for malaria diagnosis which is Fuzzy Logic. In this method, based on the selection of the problem, the expert system gives some symptom from which the user needs to select from. Based on the selection of symptoms, the user is again asked some questions. According to the answer selected, the fuzzy expert system diagnoses the disease based on it’s knowledge, add catalyst factor (if any), do ranking and gives the result in fuzzy form. As fuzzy expert system deals with uncertainty and vague terms, it is generally accepted in different spheres of life [1].

Fuzzy logic is an expert system algorithm used for solving problems. Fuzzy logic can be conceptualized as a generalization of classical logic. Modern fuzzy logic was developed by Lotfi Zadeh in the mid-1960s to model those problems in which imprecise data must be used or in which the rules of inference are formulated in a very general way making use of diffuse categories. In fuzzy logic, which is also sometimes called diffuse logic, there are not just two alternatives but a whole continuum of truth values for logical propositions. A proposition A can have the truth value 0.4 and its complement Ac the truth value 0.5. According to the type of negation operator that is used, the two truth values must not be necessarily add up to 1. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be applied in the diagnosis of ailments such as malaria by evaluating the symptom variables used by doctors to conclude if a patient is sick of malaria [2].

1.1 Background  of the Study

Identification of malaria at early stage will be helpful as its effect is increasing drastically and causing harm to people’s life. Malaria is due to imbalance (increase) of amount of parasites in the patient’s blood and an indicator for the degree of infection. Malaria is caused by a blood parasite named Plasmodium spp. It affects at least 300 to 600 million people every year and causes an estimated 3 million deaths. Early diagnosis and treatment of it is necessary. Expert system for disease diagnosis is becoming popular day by day. In today’s world people are so busy, that they hardly have enough time to visit a doctor. So they can use the service of this expert diagnosis system residing home or office and have an idea about the disease. After that they can consult the specialist doctor if it is necessary or serious. Fuzzy logic algorithm can help in the early diagnosis of malaria when applied properly [3].

AUTOMATED CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS FROM CARITAS UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

Automated clearance system is a research work that will help build an effective information managementfor schools. It is aimed at developing a system for making fee clearance after school. Due to the problems of the manual system which encompasses the loss of vital information by rodents and pests, repeated clearance process and late result computing. The new system will serve as a more reliable and effective means of undertaking students clearance remove all forms of delay and stress and enable you understand the procedure involved as well as how to do your school and departmental clearance. The project made use of data collected from the case study, materials and journals from various authors and software was developed to effectively achieve the aim of this project. In this project, the implementation is carried out with Asp.net and MySQL to handle the database aspect.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

A clearance in schools is a certificate giving permission to disengage from an institution. Final year students who have satisfied the academic requirements to graduate must undergo a clearance process before they disengage from the University. The process of clearing involves the Student’s academic department, Faculty, Bursary, Students Affairs, Library, Hostel, Sport department, Health Centre and Registry (Exams and Records). A student is allowed to collect his/her graduation certificate only after he/she has been cleared for something to be done.

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Caritas University, Amorji Nike Enugu is a private University approved by the federal Government of Nigeria on Dec/ 16/ 2004. It was officially opened on Jan 21, 2005 by the Federal minister for education, Prof. Fabian Osuji.. The school operates the faculty system and presently has four faculties; Engineering, Environmental sciences, Management and social sciences and natural science

    In Universities like Caritas, there is need for automating the method of data keeping, so a greater need for an automated online clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of clearance. Also, the issue of delay in youth service as a result of inability to complete the tedious manual processing of clearance will be curtailed.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The process of clearing students after their graduation entails that the student is been cleared in various departments and information units among which are

  • Departmental dues
  • Library fines and over due or list of library materials from the university
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Security
  • Bursary and all others

For a graduating student to carry out his/her clearance from all these department, it is time wasting and stressful. It also causes delay in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of result. Hence, it becomes necessary for an automated clearance system to eradicate the bottle neck of the manual system in place.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this project includes:

  • To effectively and efficiently process students clearance
  • To ensure fast computing of students result
  • To provide a reliable and transparent system devoid of personal inclinations and interest
  • To provide borderless access
  • To ensure prompt clearance
  • To eliminate travelling and queuing up of students during clearance
  • To serve as reference materials to other researchers.

1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to automated clearance system for graduating students from Caritas University. The software developed will be carried out using Asp.net and MYSQL as the database

1.5LIMITATIONS

Realizing the financial and time factor usually associated with students in project of this kind. There is no research carried out without difficulties. This work is not an exception, the following are the constraint.

Financial constraint: study of this kind is meant to be carried out in a wider field but due to lack of funds, some functions and programs could not be applied.

Time constraint: the time given for this study was short so much was not covered

Non availability of materials: during the course of this research there were some documents and materials that were not available which were classified as confidential

Exit constraint: due to the nature of the school as a private university, permission to go out was not always granted and it posed a big problem in achieving this goal.

AUTOMATED CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS FROM CARITAS UNIVERSITY

AUTOMATED ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

Automated online clearance system is a research work that will help build an effective information management for graduating students in higher institutions. It is aimed at developing a system for making fee and other forms of clearance after school. Due to the problems of the manual system which encompasses the loss of vital information, repeated clearance process, errors and late clearance computing. The new system will serve as a more reliable and effective means of undertaking students clearance, remove all forms of delay and stress and enable easy retrieval of students information in order to carryout departmental clearance. The project made use of data collected from the case study, materials and journals from various authors and software was developed to effectively achieve the aim of this project. In this project, the implementation is carried out with PHP, HTML, CSS and SQL to handle the database aspect.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

A clearance in schools is a certificate giving permission to disengage from an institution. Final year students who have satisfied the academic requirements to graduate must undergo a clearance process before they disengage from the University. The process of clearing involves the Student’s academic department, Faculty, Bursary, Students Affairs, Library, Hostel, Sport department, Health Centre and Registry (Exams and Records). A student is allowed to collect his/her graduation certificate only after he/she has been cleared for something to be done. As people of this generation become more dependent on the computer for accuracy, speed and safety, the need for an automated clearance system becomes more apparent. The skills needed to access and comprehend information and communication technology which has been an integral part of academic system since almost four decades is encouraged.

  1. Theoretical Background

In schools, there is need for automated method of keeping data, more so a greater need for an automatic student clearance system. This would go a long way in alleviating the various problems and stress involved in the manual method of school student clearance in the institution.

Hence it became imperative for student clearance system to eliminate the shortcomings of the manual system in place.

These days every sector is known with the word-computer. We can find computers at everywhere around us. In fact modern world will be incomplete without computers and their applications. It’s almost impossible to even imagine the modern facilities without the use of computers. For many individuals computer means PC, on which they can see movies, play games, prepare office sheets and manage daily planners. But this is just a page of the book of computers.

On the other hand, computers are also used in conducting simple operations like billing, ticket transactions, record maintenance, security analysis etc. and even Personal Computers (PC) are also used to do home based general activities like office sheet maintenance, day planner, entertainment etc. So computers are involved in every sector of life with different forms and different applications.

In modern word everything around us like GPS, ATM machines, cell phones, petrol pumps, portable play stations and all other modern devices use computer controlling units to conduct their featured operations. It is necessary to implement this new mode of operation in the clearance department so that it enhances students’ records to be efficient and free from error. The whole entire clearance process will be forwarded, along with the required documents to the section of the clearance department for the evaluation, the lecturers and staff committee will have right to decide that which student to graduate.

  1. Statement of the Problem

The process of clearing students after their graduation entails that the student is been cleared in various departments and information units among which are

  • Departmental dues
  • Library fines and overdue or list of library materials from the university
  • Residence hall damage charges
  • Security
  • Bursary and all others

For a graduating student to carry out his/her clearance from all these departments, and the after the information is no more to be found is a waste of time and effort. Existing system also causes delay in clearing the student for youth service as well as collection of result. Hence, it becomes necessary for an automated clearance system to eradicate the bottle neck of the manual system in the institution.

AUTOMATED ONLINE CLEARANCE SYSTEM FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS

CLOUD COMPUTING A BETTER MEANS OF IT OUTSOURCING

ABSTRACT

The use of cloud computing is becoming widespread, but systematic study of its managerial implications is lacking. This paper examines cloud computing in the context of means of Information Technology (IT) sourcing and explores the revolutionary transformations and challenges it brings to IT management. The paper analyzes the IT pendulum of centralization and decentralization and discusses the managerial implications of the major components of cloud computing: hardware (INTEL, IBM chips to support virtualization); services (Google, Amazon.com); applications (SaaS, Software-as-a-Service) and virtualization (VMware), or their combination (Citrix).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiguitions, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.

Although this widely adopted description of what makes a cloud computing solution is very valuable, it is not very tangible or easy to understand. Why is cloud computing different than just visualizing alone which is commonly mistaken to be cloud computing as well.

Cloud computing is composed of five essential characteristics, three deployment models and four service models. The essential characteristics consist of;
A, On-demand self-service;  users are able to position cloud computing resources without requiring human interaction, mostly done through a web –based self-service portal (management console) B, Board network access; cloud computing resources are accessible over the network, supporting heterogeneous client platforms such as mobile devices and workstations.
C, Resource pooling; service multiple customers from the same physical resources, by securely separating the resources on logical level.
D, Rapid elasticity; resources are positioned and released on demand and/or automated based on triggers or parameters. This will make sure your application will have exactly the capacity it needs at any point in time.
E, Measured service; resource usage are monitored, measured and reported (billed) transparently based on utilization.

Therefore cloud computing is much more than just visualization. IT’s really about utilizing technology as a service. Users need little to no knowledge in the details of how a particular service is implemented, on which hardware, on how many cpu’s and so on. All that is important for a user is to have a good understanding of what the service offers and what it does not and how to operate the self-service portal.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

When it comes to outsourcing everyone has a tale of woe. Some software vendor that outsources a new development project could not meet dead line because they were amateur so they switch from one platform to another. But the big question is who reach the platform, did the customer work daily? (NO). Did it have automated status reputing (it did not) Outsourcing is a key part of ever modern IT group. The problem is, we still don’t seem to do it well. Hence many business technology professional fire vendors within a short period of time. Companies using IT outsourcing speak of the importance of managing outsourcing better.
One of the growth of cloud computing and software as a service initiatives.

IT outsourcing is moving up the stack as vendors take over increasingly strategic functions. Nearly six to ten IT shops outsource some critical function. Management, engineering or development, almost one fourth keep executive and management functions in-house but look to outsource everything else as companies relies more on outsiders, a lack of oversight , management and even monitoring can have catastrophic consequences.

Cloud computing blurs the lines between what had been conventional outsourcing and internal operations and it will test IT’s management and control policies. Therefore the research seeks to investigate cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem confronting this research is to investigate cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • To determine the nature and characteristics of cloud computing
  • To determine the nature of IT outsourcing
  • To highlight the role of cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the nature and characteristics of cloud computing?
  2. What is nature of IT outsourcing?
  3. What is the role of cloud computing as a better means of IT outsourcing?
CLOUD COMPUTING A BETTER MEANS OF IT OUTSOURCING

EFFECTS OF ICT ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Introduction

There are no doubt some negative effect of the ICT on education. In teaching, computer is not enough for teachers to make the best use of ICT in the classroom. Based on the research of Sandholtz, it will take a lot of time in the classroom even up to a year with the support of experienced teams. Teachers always depend on the information that searched from the web. It may make a mistake. Information from the web or internet that mostly came or wrote from personal opinion. It is not all facts by the way. Teacher who depend more on the ICT do not perform well as a teacher. For example, they may not check through the details of the work that searched from the web.

Students, however, feel lazy to attend the class if they can easily get the study material from the web. It will change their behavior to become more irresponsible. Let’s say lecturer give an assignment to the students, they may not understand if they never attend that class. The technological reliability was important and yet the students could respond negatively to a resource, both of teaching and technology. Across the school or colleges, students might not value ICT that spent too much time on presentation needs and copying without reading and understanding. At the same time, students will search the information from the web and caught by “cutting and pasting”. Through this type of behavior, reliability of the students will be affected. By then the students will access the internet for other things, for example, facebook, MSN, Yahoo, Twitter and others. While the lecturer having the lesson in front, they will not pay more attention to the lecturer.

Then, it had created severe problems to the students. To those who always play computer games and use instant messaging, they will choose online communication rather than having real life conversation with the teachers. For example, when they are having flu and will not be attending the class or lesson, they might e-mail the lecturer rather than call the teachers. When the problem deteriorates, students will become less confident when they meet outsiders. Furthermore, the students sitting in front of the computer for a long time may cause health problem. Health problem such as stress and eyes strain can affect a student in their education. By then ICT may also created some illegal act such as pornography. Those students who are affected by pornography may suffer in their studies. The students will waste time by using ICT better than study on their work. Overall, the evidence on the impact on attainment of learning through ICT remains inconsistent.

EFFECTS OF ICT ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

THE SUREST WAY OF ERADICATING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON STUDENTS

ICT means Information Communication Technology. ICT is widespread and essential to play a meaningful role in changing and modernizing educational systems as well as the way of learning. It is part of many aspects of our daily lives and as such should be encouraged in learning at schools. ICT refers to the technology that access to information. It includes any product that will store, restore, operate, or receive information in a digital form. ICT is similar to IT that ICT focus more on communication which includes internet, wireless network and other communication mediums. There are some examples of ICT tools, such as computing industry, telecommunications, and electronic display.

Nowadays the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially internet in the education sector can never be over emphasizes, especially in the process of empowering the technology into the educational activities. Education sector can be the most effective sector to anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT. Technology (internet) in another side can be the most effective way to increase the student’s knowledge.

Being aware of the significant role of ICT (internet) in our life, especially in the educational activities, education authorities should be wise enough in implementing the strategies to empower ICT in supporting the teaching and learning process in the classroom. ICT is not just the bloom of the educational activities, but also it will be the secondary option to improve the effective and meaningful educational process.

The main purpose of the Strategy for Information and Communication Technology Implementation in Education is to provide the prospects and trends of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the general educational activities. There are some unavoidable facts in the modern education; Firstly, the ICT has been developing very rapidly nowadays. Therefore, in order to balance it, the whole educational system should be reformed and ICT should be integrated into educational activities.

Secondly, the influence of ICT, especially internet (open source tool) cannot be ignored in our student’s lives. So, the learning activities should be reoriented and reformulated, from the manual source centered to the open source ones. In this case the widely use of internet access has been an unavoidable policy that should be anticipated by schools authorities.

Thirdly, the presence of multimedia games and online games by internet has been another serious problem that should be wisely handled by the educational institutions. The students cannot be exterminated from this case. They can have and do with it wherever and whenever they want. Schools, as a matter of fact, do not have enough power and time to prevent or stop it after school times. Meanwhile, most parents do not have enough times to accompany and control their children. So, the students have large opportunities to do with multimedia games or online games or browsing the negative and porn sites. Having been addicted, the students will have too little time to study, and even do not want to attend classes.

In such situation, education institutions play an important role to eradicate these problems. One of which is by facilitating the students to do edutainment or educational games. Schools can let their students be familiar with educational games adjusted by their teachers. Besides, they can also support and facilitate their students to have their own blogs in the internet. A lot of WebBlog providers are free to the users, such as WordPress. In their blogs, the students can create and write something, like an article, poem, news, short stories, features, or they can also express their opinion by an online forum provided in the internet. They are able to share experiences throughout their blogs to others from all over the world. Hence it will be an interesting activity for them, and it will lessen their time to visit the negative or porn sites existed, also the young generation will get more and more information and knowledge by browsing in the internet. They can also create innovation in web design that it may be out of the formal curriculum content, but it will be useful for their future.

Fourthly, the implementation of ICT in education has not been a priority trend of educational reform and the state paid little attention to it. Therefore, there should be an active participation, initiative and good will of the schools and the government institutions to enhance ICT implementation at school.
Finally, the teachers should be the main motivator and initiator of the ICT implementation at schools. The teachers should be aware of the social change in their teaching activities. They should be the agent of change from the classical method into the modern one. They must also be the part of the global change in learning and teaching modification.

The followings are the aim and objectives of ICT implementation in education:
i.To implement the principle of life-long learning / education.
ii.To increase a variety of educational services and medium/method.
iii.To promote equal opportunities to obtain education and information.
iii.To develop a system of collecting and disseminating educational information.
iv.To promote technology literacy of all citizens, especially for students.
v.To promote the culture of learning at school (development of learning skills, expansion of optional education, open source of education, etc.)

This paper is on “Educational sector: the surest way of eradicating the negative impacts of internet communication and technology (ict) on classroom” following the Introductory section of this paper, the researcher shall deal on relevant literature review in the next section. The subsequent sections shall deal on conclusion and attainable recommendations.

THE SUREST WAY OF ERADICATING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON STUDENTS

A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (GIRS)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

According to Chang, K. T. (2008), Geographic Information Retrieval System (GIRS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIRS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information a study which refers to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information system. In simplest terms GIRS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology.

A geographical information retrieval system can be thought of as a system which digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose or application- oriented. Generally, a GIRS can be custom designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIRS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose. What goes beyond a GIRS is a spatial infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

In general sense, the term GIRS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares and displays geographic information for informed decision making. GIRS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user – created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps and present the result of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications and systems.

The link between geography and information technology can not to a very large extent be over- emphasized.

Using Enugu State tourism board as a case study has helped to give a comprehensive understanding of the importance and the need of a geographic information system, as it is believed, information technology has a significant role in geographic information system and high level of expectations would and is already being demanded from its use both in Nigeria and the world at large.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In our daily lives as humans, most of our endeavors involve moving from one location to another for one thing or the other. A problem emerges when there is no proper direction or a system as to give accurate direction in locating our destination, what the said destination contains and what is has to offer. This is the problem the state has as concerning tourism, whereby a good number of tourists (most especially tourists visiting for the very first time) and other individuals wanting to visit tourist sites in the state but cannot do so because of the lack of a well detailed system to provide them (tourists) with an accurate geographic information system as to how to locate these sites within the state.

Due to the lack of an accurate geographic information retrieval system as far as tourism is concerned, most tourists are discouraged from exploring these tourist locations within the state, this in turn hampers the positive impact that tourism is meant to have on the development in the state and the Nigerian society at large.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To examine the existing / current system in regards to how geographic information for tourism is provided for tourists in and outside the state.
  2. To improve on the already existing system by designing a geographic information retrieval system that is well detailed and easily accessible.
  3. This study also seeks to help in broadening the scope of tourism in the state through providing a comprehensive geographic information retrieval system.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is to show that a link between geography and other professions can be created on the platform of information technology. i.e. to show that with information technology the problem of location can and is solved to a very large extent.

A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (GIRS)

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AIRLINE FLIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

This project was out of the necessity to address the inherent problems encountered by members of staff of Air Nigeria and their customers. The manual processes involved in the management of airline were critical examined and the flows noted. The software so designed offers to a great extent, the solutions to these problems. The project went further to ret the different techniques used in implementing the newly design software in order to facilitate a broader understanding of the design software by any user. Airline flight information system are used to track and maintain records of flight schedules, passenger reservations and seat assignments, aircraft loading, flight inventory, ticket purchases and fare tariffs. The modern airline reservation system also serves customer needs from beginning to end of each customer’s reserved flight, therefore laying out management tasks for each flight.

        TABLE OF CONTENTS
i. Certification -  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -i
ii. Dedication- -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -ii
iii. Acknowledgement    -   -   -   -   -   -   iv
iv. Abstract        -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -v
v. Table of contents    -   -   -   -   -   -   vi
CHAPTER ONE; INTRODUCTION                   

1.1 Background of study – – – – – – -3
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – -5
1.3 Purpose of study – – – – – – – -6
1.4 Limitations – – – – – – – – -7
1.5 Aims and objective – – – – – – – -7
1.6 Significant – – – – – – – – -9
1.7 Scope of delimitations – – – – – – 10
1.8 Assumptions – – – – – – – – 10
1.9 Definition of terms – – – – – – – 11

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW                       

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – 13

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE
EXISTING SYSTEM
3.1 Fact finding methods used – – – – – 25
3.2 Organization structure – – – – – – 26
3.3 Objective of the existing system – – – – 27
3.4 Input, process, output analysis – – – – – 28
3.5 Information flow diagram – – – – – – 23
3.6 Problem of the existing system – – – – – 24
3.7 Justification for the new system – – – – 24

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 SYSTEM DESIGN, TESTING, & IMPLEMENTATION -25
4.2 Output specification and Design – – – 25
4.3 Input specification and Design – – – – 25

4.4 File design – – – – – – – 27
4.5 Procedure chart – – – – – – 29
4.6 System flow chart – – – – – – 30
4.7 System requirement – – – – – 31
4.8 Program design – – – – – – 32
4.9 Program flowchart – – – – – – 33
4.10 Pseudo code – – – – – – – 38
4.11 Source program – – – – – – 38
4.12 Test program – – – – – – – 38
4.13 Documentation – – – – – – 38

CHAPTER FIVE
Summary – – – – – – – – 41
Recommendation – – – – – – – 42
Conclusions – – – – – – – 42
References – – – – – – – – 43

Appendix i – – – – – – – – 45
Appendix ii – – – – – – – – 46
Appendix iii – – – – – – – – 47
Appendix iv – – – – – – – – 48
Appendix v – – – – – – – – 49

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

It is obvious that everything that is sustainable would have to go through advancement. In science and technology, the desire for improvement is a constant subject which triggers advancements. This is visible in every ramification and the airline industry is not an exemption.

Airline flight information system (ARS) used to be standalone systems. Each airline had its own system, disconnected from other airlines or ticket agents, and usable only by a designated number of airline employees. Travel agents in the 1970s pushed for access to the airlines’ systems. Today, air travel information is linked, stored, and retrieved by a network of Computer Reservations Systems (CRS), accessible by multiple airlines and travel agents. The global distribution system (GDS) makes for an even larger web of airline information, not only merging the buying and selling of tickets for multiple airlines, but also making the systems accessible to consumers directly. GDS portals and gateways on the Web allow consumers to purchase tickets directly, select seats, and even book hotels and rental cars.(Winston, Clifford 1995).

Aviation jobs are known for hitech. Many of the aviation jobs are made available by the airline operators and airport authorities.

Aviation jobs are one of the few Nigerian jobs that pay like their foreign counterparts. With the recent aviation security measures, aviation recruitments are done very carefully. Airline operators are now serious in their screening processes than before. This is because, any kind of misconduct or insecurity may lead to their license withdrawal. Most graduates are hired through internships which are normally advertised on this site. These are still very competitive since many applicants rush for them whenever available. Graduates also get lucky to be hired through „Hosts‟ recruitments i.e. when airline operators want to hire staff that will be serving inside the airplane.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Air Nigeria (formerly Nigerian Eagle Airlines and Virgin Nigeria Airways), is the national flag carrier of Nigeria. The airline operates scheduled regional and domestic passenger services. Its base is Murtala Mohammed International Airport, Lagos. The airline is a replacement for defunct Nigeria Airways. Its registered office is in Ikoyi, Lagos State, while its head office is on the 9th floor of Etiebets Place in Ikeja, Lagos State.

The carrier’s loyalty programme is named ‘Eagle flier’. On 28 September 2004, the Nigerian government and Virgin Group signed an agreement to establish a new airline for Nigeria, to be called Virgin Nigeria Airways. Nigerian institutional investors own 51% of the company and Virgin Atlantic Airways owns 49%. The airline’s Mohammed International Airport inaugural flight was on 28 June 2005 from Lagos to London Heathrow using an Airbus A340-300 aircraft. Virgin Nigeria has since gone on to become one of Nigeria’s largest airlines carrying its 1,000,000th passenger and 4,000th ton of airline within two years of operation. The airline has also received accolades including THIS DAY Awards 2006 Airline of the year and a nomination for 2006 African Airline of the year by ASATA (Association of South African Travel Agents).

Virgin Nigeria had plans of making Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport inAbuja its second base where in addition to its Lagos base Murtala it will serve all countries in West Africa.

The Nigerian government set a deadline of 30 April 2007 for all airlines operating in the country to re-capitalise or be grounded, in an effort to ensure better services and safety. The airline satisfied the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA)‟s criteria in terms of re-capitalization and was re-registered for operation

Aviation jobs in Nigeria are definitely scarce. They are seen as high qualification and technical jobs. Many of the aviation jobs are for captains, air hosts/hostesses, aviation maintenance engineers, aviation security guards, traffic and movement controllers etc.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AIRLINE FLIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED TUTOR FOR NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL (QUANTITATIVE AND VERBAL REASONING)

ABSTRACTS

Computer Assisted Instruction today presents new options and opportunities: powerful Machines, advanced computer science techniques, and input from cognitive psychology. Using these tools well is a challenge for which there are few guidelines or examples. The Purpose of this write up is to describe how we used some simple artificial intelligence Techniques in a powerful educational programming environment to capture some of the Expertise of experienced teachers for an instructional program that runs on advanced Workstations. The computerized tutor is designed in visual basic programming language

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                       i

Certification                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                      iii

Acknowledgment                                                            iv

Abstracts                                                                        v

Table of content                                                              vi

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

  1. INTORDUCTION
    1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
    1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    1. DEFINATION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 REVIEW OF PAST WORK ON THE PROJECT

2.2 REVIEW OF GENERAL TEXT

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM

3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA AND THE EXISTING SYSTEM

3.3 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSE SYSTEM

3.4 ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSE SYSTEM

CHAPTER FOUR

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM

4.1 DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM

4.1.1  DESIGN OF VERBAL REASONING TUTOR

4.1.2     IMPLEMENTATION OF VERBAL REASONING TUTOR

4.2 .3 DESIGN OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS TUTOR

4.3.4  IMPLEMENTATION OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS TUTOR

4.2  SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

HARDWARE SUPPORT

SOFTWARE SUPPORT

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY,CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2     CONCLUSIONS

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCE SECTION

REFERENCES

System flowchart/program flowchart

Source program listings

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          A look at the educational practices many people will perceive that there are some obstacles besetting the teaching of quantitative and verbal (English) reasoning in nursery and primary schools now days. Computer Assisted Instruction today presents new options and opportunities: powerful Machines, advanced computer science techniques, and input from cognitive psychology.

Using these tools well is a challenge for which there are few guidelines or examples. The Purpose of this write up is to describe how we used some simple artificial intelligence Techniques in a powerful educational programming environment to capture some of the Expertise of experienced teachers for an instructional program that runs on advanced Workstations.

HOW COGNITIVE TUTORS CAN HELP

The above discussion suggests that we need a “tool” that will engage students with quantitative and verbal problems covering more than the current week’s topic. Ideally, this tool would encourage students to use variety of skills and to apply these skills in the context of real-world data sets. We propose that cognitive tutors offer one way to do just that. The name “cognitive tutor” refers to a computerized learning environment whose design is based on cognitive principles and whose interaction with students is based on that of a (human) tutor—i.e., making

comments when the student errs, answering questions about what to do next, and maintaining a low profile when the student is performing well.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The basic problems behind this design is the hardship in passing the knowledge of quantitative and verbal reasoning to nursery and primary school students. Before building a cognitive tutor for quantitative and verbal reasoning, it made sense to us to look for data that could help shape such an endeavor. There is much evidence that students have difficulty applying quantitative reasoning as a subject. We added to this body of empirical work by further investigating where (and hopefully why) these difficulties arise in the context of solving quantitative-reasoning problems.

Quantitative reasoning domain tests your ability to use numbers and mathematical concept to solve mathematical problems, as well as ability to analyze data presented in a variety of ways, such as in table or graph form. only a basic knowledge of mathematics is required

All the quantitative reasoning problems takes the form of multiple choice questions that is; questions followed by four responses, of which only one is the answer.

Quantitative reasoning questions consist on two categories of questions 1.questions and problems and graph or table comprehension.

 English tutorial in other words verbal reasoning is multimedia based application intended to help nursery and primary school students, middle school student, high school student or in general, anyone interested in learning to learn the basic of English. The contents of the application are organized into different modules that comprises of interactive learning programs to develop skills for reading and writing alphabets, words, and sentences. The animations, pictures and sounds teach the association of objects and word along their spelling and pronunciation.

  1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to design and implement a computerized tutor for primary school students on quantitative and verbal reasoning as the subject of focus, and ensure positive performance of every student involved.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED TUTOR FOR NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL (QUANTITATIVE AND VERBAL REASONING)

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED BILL OF MATERIAL PROCESSING PROJECT

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Material Procurement can be defined as the purchase of goods or services at a total cost of the optimum possible in the correct amount and quality of procurement. These goods and services are also purchased at the right time and location to express profit or the use of Government, business, business, or individuals by signing a contract.

The process of acquisition of goods or services that are required as a raw material (direct procurement) or for operating purposes (indirect procurement) a company or a person might call acquisition. The procurement process involves not only the purchase of commodities, but also the quality and quantity of controls. Typically, providers are listed and pre-determined by the contracting company. This makes the smoother process, the promotion of a good relationship between the buyer and the supplier.

The synonyms for procurement, which are the gain, purchase, and acquire, can shed light on the meaning of procurement. The procurement process may vary from company to company, and a Government entity can have a slightly different procurement process compared to a private company.

Acquisitions can also be defined simply as the procedure in which the goods or raw materials are purchased when prices are low. Procurement is advantageous if the goods are purchased in large quantities. E-procurement is another method of electronic media is used for the acquisition or purchase of goods. Everything is processed electronically, the search for the right bidder delivery and payment. The procurement procedure may vary depending on the product and the uses of the product. Health team must be efficient and reliable, and the procurement process is carried out carefully in order prevent the defective equipment purchase. Another important factor that usually includes definitions of the procurement is the amount purchased the product. This is important because the quantity of purchased goods is inversely proportional to their cost

Thus, acquisition is a process that is carried out by the company almost every individual and for their own personal benefit or benefits, involving the purchase of commodities by choosing the appropriate provider.

  1. Statement of the Problem

Most company’s are suffering some set backs due to their procurement system. Most often low quality goods are purchased and they end up loosing money. Also at times, they lack a steady supply, resulting to lack of materials for production, hence the need for computerization of bill of material processing system.

  1. Aims and Objectives of the Study

The main objective is to computerized bill of material processing system of business transactions. This will help the manager know when to make purchases of items, ascertain the exact number of each items or stock available, to ascertain the materials that are either mostly or sparsely used as well as knowing the exact number of each material or items that are lacking thereby helping to improve workflow in the organization. Moreover to reduce time wasted in data processing and information retrieval. And finally to improve management activities, which will lead to improved productivity, accountability and business management of the organization.

  1. Purpose of the Study

This purpose of this study is to design a computerized bill of material processing system for a company. This will help in monitoring their material procurement.

  1. Significance of the Study

The project is aimed at designing, a new better alternative system to help the organization in material procurement thereby making the management system to be more effective. Also the software designed will help management to: –

  • Maintain a database of materials procured.
  • Safeguard data and information in the system.
  • Reduced workload in the present system.
  • Keep accurate record on material procurement
  • Reduce time wasted in data processing.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED BILL OF MATERIAL PROCESSING PROJECT

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REGISTRATION FOR SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF AUNTIE TOLA NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL)

ABSTRACT

It is quite obvious that, there are lot of problems associated with the manual used in school enrollment system, especially in some private school like “Auntie Tola Nursery and Primary School” which is the case study of the project work.The problem associated with the system may includes, inaccuracy, data lost, data manipulation e.t.c.This project “Design and Implementation of Registration for School Enrollment System” is design mainly to proffer solution to the problems stated above.This project is also divided into some sections first of which deals with the introduction, statement of problem, aims of the project, justification of study, methodology and definition of terms. This project also stated the literature review, system design, system analysis and summary, conclusion and recommendation came at the end of this project work.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Content

List of Tables

List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION)

  1. Introduction
    1. Statement of the Problem
    1. Significance of Study
    1. Aim and Objectives
    1. Scope of the Study
    1. Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO (LITERATURE VIEW)

2.1    Review of previous work on this Topic

2.1.1 Historical Trend of Website

2.1.2 Related Works

2.1.3 Importance of Web design

2.1.4 Principles of a good web design

2.2    Previous Methods in Use

2.3    Current methods in use

2.4    Approach to be used in the Study

CHAPTER THREE (SYSTEM INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS)

3.1    Research Methodology

3.2    Analysis of Data and the Existing System

3.3.1 Output from the System

3.3.2 Input to the System

3.2.3 Processing Tasks

3.3    Problem of the Existing System

3.4    Description of the Proposed System

3.5    Advantages of the Proposed System

CHAPTER FOUR (SYSTEM DESIGN)

4.1    Output Design

4.1.1 Reports to be generated

4.1.2 Screen form of report

4.1.3 Files used to produce report

4.2    Input Design

4.2.2 List of Input items

4.2.2 Data Capture Screen forms of input

4.2.3 Files used to retain Input

4.3    Process Design

4.3.1 Visual Table of Content

4.4    Storage Design

4.4.1 Description of Database

4.4.2 Record Structure of all files used

4.5    Design Summary

4.5.1 System Flowchart

4.5.2 HIPO Chart

CHAPTER FIVE (SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION)

5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation

          References

          Program Flowchart

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In the world today. It is definitely not a new thing that most activities being performed by almost all organizations have been computerized. In factual sense, the invention of computer which began with a very small investment has now increased both in strength and importance when one looks back with analytical mind, it can be concluded that Computer Technology keeps on advancing with remarkable increase in speed, accuracy and reliability.

Computer as an electronic device has the ability of performing a very vast amount of Data, This Device is made up of Software and Hardware components. It can be handle volume and complex information at a very High Speed in view of this factor, the range of computer capability is paramount to employ in one Hand.

On another Hand, Designing and implementing a website for “AUNTIE TOLA NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL” is above of contention for the project and it will be beneficial to the School management, students and general public.

Designing a website has cut across many organizations in the world today. This is so because of the easy-accessing capability which can be provided by a Web base Application.

A website is a collection of web pages, images, videos, and other Digital assets that is Hosted on one or several web server usually accessible via the internet, cell phone or a LAN. The pages of website can usually be accessed from a common root called the Homepage and the same physical server.

The requirement of a website must be attractive and must also include proper arrangement links and images which enables a browser to easily interpret and access the properties of the site. Hence, it provides the browser with adequate information and functionality about the organization, commonly network and above all, schools. Moreso, the website to be designed for this school will incorporate features like Homepage, User log in module, Students Registration which will enable recruiters form on the Notice board and the events corner for Displaying the Latest Development, announcement and events associated with the school.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There are some certain problems encountered in the existing system under investigation. Some of those problems which affects the Management’s Students in their various needs are as follows.

  1. Inadequate information dissemination to the students and general public
  2. Extensive use of paper during students Registration exercise
  3. The existing types of Database is not dynamic
  4. Lack of uploading facility on the website
  5. Inability to reach global forum.

1.3    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of any well defined project is to critically examine certain system in existence, discover any faulty areas and propose a corrective measure to the system by designing a new system. Likewise, the aim of this project is to identify and analyze the problems or challenges faced by existing system of “Auntie-Tola Nursery and Primary School and design a more feasible, attractive and dynamic website which will soon be implemented.

Also, the objective of this project are as follows:

  1. To make information reachable to students on Time
  2. To reduce the risk involved in Transportation
  3. To critically examine the existing system, identifying various problems encountered and provide solutions to the problems.
  4. To ensure the proper management of links and images which will enable a browser to easily interpret and access the properties of the web.
  5. To reduce the stress involved in Student Registration.
  6. To compose the benefits derivable from the existing system with the proposed system.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REGISTRATION FOR SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF AUNTIE TOLA NURSERY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL)

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SECURITY INFORMATION SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN POLICE)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page- –             –

Approval page-     –

Certification-             –

Dedication –              –

Acknowledgement – Table of contents-

List of figures-       –

List of tables-          –

Abstract-      –              –

CHAPTER ONE

-i
-ii
-iii
-iv
-v
-vi
-x
-xi
-xii
1.0 INTRODUCTION- – -1
1.1 Statement of problem- – -5
1.2 Objective of the study – -5
1.3 Definition of terms/variables- – -6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Security Information system- – -6
2.2 Information security- -17
2.3 Cia as Information Security Watchword- -18
2.4 Risk Management in Information Security- – -23
2.5 The Relevance of Cryptography to Security Information- -29
2.6 The Concept of “Due Care” In Security Information- -31
CHAPTER THREE:  METHODOLOGY AND  ANALYSIS OF THE
EXISTING SYSTEM              
31. Fact finding method- -33
3.2 Organizational structure- -35
3.3 Objectives of the existing system- -36
3.4 Input, process, output analysis- -36
3.5 Information flow diagram-   – -38
3.6 Problems of current system- – -39
3.7 Justification for the new system- -39

CHAPTER  FOUR:  DESIGN  AND  IMPLEMENTATION  OF  THE NEW SYSTEM

4.1 Output specification and design- -40
4.2 Input design and specification- -42
4.3 File Design – -44
4.4 Procedure chart- – -47
4.5 System flowchart- -48
4.6 System requirement- -49
4.7 Program flowchart- -51
CHAPTER   FIVE SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION. AND
CONCLUSIONS                  
5.1 Summary- -53
5.2 Conclusion- – -54
5.3 Recommendation- -55
REFERENCES -58
APPENDIX -61

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 3.2 Organization Structure- -35
Fig 3.5 Information Flow Diagram- – -38
Fig 4.1.1 Security Signal Report- -41
Fig 4.1.2 Police Personnel Information- -42
Fig 4.4 Procedure Chart- -47
Fig 4.5 System Flowchart- -48
4.7 Program Flowchart- -51
Fig 5.1 Program Flowchart- -52

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.3.1 Structure for “Police Information” – -45
Table 4.3.2 Structure for File “Signal” –  – -46

ABSTRACT

The principal objective of this project is to help Security Information Systems (SIS) especially NIGERIAN POLICE which is my case study in the area they encounter problems in securing security data-processing and efficient information system. This will be the solution given to handle this problem by transforming the existing manual information system into an automated form and overcome the existing problems of insecurity and delay in data processing. I decided to use an automated database system to enhance information storage and keep track of security information. Again, doing this will ensure that there is an effective security information system computerization. To achieve this, Visual Basic 6.0 is used for its implementation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, security operatives especially police, political power and the exercise of diplomacy. The concept developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II focusing on the police and military might. Now, it encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the police and military for economic security of the nation, lives property and values protected by national society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as other national states but also non-state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations;

some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe environmental change in this category.

The origin of the modern concept of “national security” as a philosophy of maintaining a stable nation state can be traced to the peace of Westphalia, wherein the concept of a sovereign state, ruled by a sovereign, became the basis of a new international order of nation states.

As an academic concept, national security can be seen as a recent phenomenon which was first introduced in the United States after World War II, and has to some degree replaced other concepts that describe the struggle of states to overcome various external and internal threats. The struggle of states to overcome various external and internal threats. The earliest mention of the term national security, however, was made in Yale University in 1790 wherein was made to its relation with domestic industries.

The concept of the national security became an official guiding principle of foreign policy in the United States when the National security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947 by the U.S. President Harry S. Truman. Together with its 1949 amendment, this act create American national security d important facets for American national security as the precursor to the department of defense, subordinated the security operatives branches to the new cabinet level position of the secretary of defense, established the National Security council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The Act did not define national security which was conceivably advantageous as it’s ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke whenever issues threatened by other interests of the state, such as domestic concerns, came up for discussion and decision making.

The realization that national security encompasses more than just security was present though understated, from the beginning itself.

The US National Security Act of 1947 was set up “to advise the president on the integration of domestic security and foreign policies related to national security”.

Gen Maxwell Taylor’s essay of 1947 titled “The Legitimate claims of National Security” has this to say;

The national valuables in this broad sense include current assets and national interests, as well as the sources of strength upon which our future as a nation depends. Some valuables are tangible and earthly; others are spiritual or intellectual. They range widely from political assets such as the Bill of Rights, National Security and political institutions and international relations to many economic assets which radiate worldwide from a highly productive domestic economy supported by rich natural resources. It is the urgent need to protect valuables such as these which legitimizes and makes essential the role of national security.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SECURITY INFORMATION SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIAN POLICE)