INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATION STRATEGY ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EZINIHITE MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

Abstract

The study examined the influence of instructional simulation strategy on students’ achievement in computer studies  in secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. The general purpose of the study were to: find out the Influence  of instructional simulation strategy on achievement scores of students in Computer studies  in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State, determine the Influence  of instructional simulation strategy on the mean achievement scores of male and females on Computer studies  in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State, and to ascertain instruction interaction Influence  of gender and method on students mean achievement scores in Computer studies  in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State. The study was conducted in Fifteen (15)senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local government area of Imo State. Three research questions and three hypotheses are designed for the study.

The research design used for the study is a quasi-experimental design. Fifteen (15)senior secondary schools were stratified into male and female secondary schools using simple random sampling method. 87 students were selected from the stratified secondary schools by intact classes. Instrument used for data collection are (i) Computer studies  Achievement Test (BSAT) developed by the researcher. Research questions are analyzed using an adjusted mean and standard deviation whereas hypotheses are tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result of the study indicates that instructional simulation package method in the teaching and learning Computer studies  has a great positive impact on students’ Computer studies  achievement. It is against this backdrop that the study recommended that schools should have simulation machines which will help to improve students learning, teachers should be trained on various new ways of teaching in the class instead of still adopting old method of teaching and that there should be constant power supply in schools so as to help in powering the few available simulation machines.
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INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATION STRATEGY ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EZINIHITE MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

IMPEDIMENTS TO THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The world is advancing at a rapid rate and events have moved to the electronic stage with computer at the centre. This development has brought a lot of innovations and revolution into teaching and learning. The 3R’s (reading, writing and arithmetic), which forms the nucleus of the old system of education has witnessed series of literacy reforms. The world is now in the age of technology, hence there is need to keep abreast with time.

One of the ways of achieving this is through the introduction of computer into our institutions of learning. Ugoji (2006) explains computer as an electronic machine that performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication under the control of a set of instructions called programs. The programs usually reside within the computer and are retrieved as processed by the computer. He went further into defining computer as an electronic machine that has the ability to accept data, process data and retrieve data i.e. give out the result as information. Okolo (2007) describes the term ‘computer’ as an electronic machine or gadget that accepts data as input and processes them electronically to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set instructions.

Computer can be generally defined as an electronic device that accepts data, processes the data and brings out the result of the data as information. Computer is used in our educational system to enhance teaching and learning. In this case, teaching according to Anyanwu (2006) means a systematic, rational and organized process of impacting knowledge, attitude and skills in accordance with professional principles. Wikipedia (2010) describes learning as a change in behaviour based on previous experience. This learning therefore involves processing of various types of information.

Computer education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this premise that the Federal government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to secondary schools. Education systems around the world face formidable challenges that are taxing conventional strategies. Fresh approaches are needed to address persistent problems of the past and provide students with an education appropriate to the needs of a modern, information based-global economy. Now, after more than two decades of unfulfilled promises to revolutionize education, computer and communication technologies are finally able to offer opportunities to significantly improve teaching and learning.
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IMPEDIMENTS TO THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

IMPEDIMENT TO THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

          A well developed scientific and technological base are conditional to any national human and material development. Nigeria has been classified as a developing nation and has continued to make a break through by emphasizing much on science and technology thereby making inclusive of computer studies in the curriculum of the junior and senior secondary schools.

          Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2012) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.

Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.

The world is advancing at a rapid rate and events have moved to the electronic stage with computer at the centre. This development has brought a lot of innovations and revolution into teaching and learning. The 3R’s (reading, writing and arithmetic), which forms the nucleus of the old system of education has witnessed series of literacy reforms. The world is now in the age of technology, hence there is need to keep abreast with time.

One of the ways of achieving this is through the introduction of computer into our institutions of learning.

Jawad Khan ( 2013) “explain computer as an electronic machine that can solve different problem, process data, store and retrieve data and perform calculations faster and efficiently than humans”. These type of problems includes: time wastage,  error in calculation, difficulty in  storing and retrieving of information,  low research of new information etc.

 Ugoji (2011) view computer as an electronic machine that performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication under the control of a set of instructions called programs. The programs usually reside within the computer and are retrieved as processed by the computer. He went further into defining computer as an electronic machine that has the ability to accept data, process data and retrieve data i.e. give out the result as information. Okolo (2014) describes the term ‘computer’ as an electronic machine or gadget that accepts data as input and processes them electronically to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set instructions.

Computer can be generally defined as an electronic device or gadget  that accepts data through an input device, processes the data  through the CPU and brings out the result of the data as information through the output device.  Educationally, computer is used to enhance teaching and learning.  Wikipedia (2010) describes learning as a change in behaviour based on previous experience. This learning therefore involves processing of various types of information. Computer study is very important to national development and it is on this premise that the Federal government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary, secondary schools, through to tertiary institution. Education systems around the world face formidable challenges that are taxing conventional strategies.
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IMPEDIMENT TO THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2006) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.

Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.

In modern classrooms, teachers and students have access to wide variety of technology. Various types of technology including computers, projectors, handhelds, television and digital cameras are more accessible now than ever before. This type of technology also called instructional technology has helped in moving the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more student centered one (Trotter, 2008). Through the use of technology necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Through the use of these technologies researchers, scholars, and professionals are able to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education.

Lu and Miller (2012) also stated that instructional technology encompass a wide variety of technologies as well as systems used to deliver information. Many secondary schools science classroom are integrating technology to help students better understand the concepts that are being taught (Croxall and Cumming, 2010).         While teachers are trying to implement new types of instructional technology into their classrooms, many of them are faced with barriers that hinder their attempt to advance. Beyond mere awareness and competence, anxieties, lack of training, and absolute equipment are barriers faced by the teacher on a daily basis (Redmann and Kotrlik, 2008). Through various research studies that have been conducted with secondary school science teachers, researcher has found out that teachers have positive attitude about technology despite the barriers they face when trying to become literate in the functioning of the equipment. If the problems faced by the teachers are tackled, they will better fully integrate more technologies into the classroom, thus giving students a wide learning opportunities and help them to become technologically prepared for their problem solving in the future. The use of technology in education helps in the following:
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EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2006) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.

Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.

In modern classrooms, teachers and students have access to wide variety of technology. Various types of technology including computers, projectors, handhelds, television and digital cameras are more accessible now than ever before. This type of technology also called instructional technology has helped in moving the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more student centered one (Trotter, 2008). Through the use of technology necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Through the use of these technologies researchers, scholars, and professionals are able to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education.

Lu and Miller (2012) also stated that instructional technology encompass a wide variety of technologies as well as systems used to deliver information. Many secondary schools science classroom are integrating technology to help students better understand the concepts that are being taught (Croxall and Cumming, 2010).         While teachers are trying to implement new types of instructional technology into their classrooms, many of them are faced with barriers that hinder their attempt to advance. Beyond mere awareness and competence, anxieties, lack of training, and absolute equipment are barriers faced by the teacher on a daily basis (Redmann andKotrlik, 2008). Through various research studies that have been conducted with secondary school science teachers, researcher has found out that teachers have negative attitude about technology inspite the role playedby technology in the modern classroom setting. Because of their general wrong perceptions about technology, they face various barriers when trying to become literate in the functioning of the equipment. If the problems faced by the teachers are tackled, they will better fully integrate more technologies into the classroom, thus giving students a wide learning opportunities and help them to become technologically prepared for their problem solving in the future.
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EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

EFFECTS OF THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

          We live in an age that is experiencing an ever-increasing use of computers in diverse areas of human endeavor. Computers offer great assistance in decision-making, operations control, modeling, simulation, automated manufacturing etc. The history of development shows that so far, no industrialized nation has been able to make it without the use of computers (Inyama, 2006).

          In education, computers are used in extremely versatile ways to aid the understanding of a wide variety of students. Computer science as a feature in secondary school curricular has been faced with some challenges. Over the years, students` response to computer science especially in public schools has been poor and the reason seems to be that   instructional materials specifically audio-visual materials may not have been used or properly utilized during instruction and this is a source of worry to the researchers considering its possible effects on students’ achievement in the subject. This stated problem has often been attributed to the effects of the use of instructional materials, specifically, (audio-visuals).

Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when information is presented in a potentially meaningful way that the information conveyed is made or presented in a way that the majority of what was taught remains permanent in the learners memory. Webster’s Encyclopaedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language defines Audio-Visual Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”.

The term has also been defined by Dike, (2011) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
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EFFECTS OF THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF EBONYI STATE

EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS IN BIOLOGY IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE, EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background to the Study

Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution (Wikipedia, 2016). Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches and sub-disciplines such as anatomy, entomology, ethology, veterinary science, mammalogy, primatology, zoology, entomology, etc. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also understood today that all the organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition known as homeostasis (Wikipedia, 2016).         

Biology is a science subject being taught at the senior secondary school. Biology teaching helps learners to understand  biological concepts,  principles  theories  and  laws. Among others,   the   objectives   of   teaching   biology   at secondary school level as stated by National Policy on  Education (2004)  involve  ability  of  the learners’  to  development  of  an  awareness  of  the environment,  to  have  meaningful  and  relevant knowledge in biology necessary for successful living in a scientific and technological world and to make room for technological advancement.

In view of the above, it would be observed that the  schools  are  not  only  to  equip  learners  with  basic  knowledge of biology content but also the practical  skills  needed  for  enhancing  self  development.  In  order to achieve this, the pedagogical approach which  is centred on teachers’ method of imparting facts  and  concepts  of  the  subjects  is  important. The  implication is that biology teaching must be effective  and   meaningful   to   achieve   this   goal. The conventional instructional methods are not able to achieve these goals.   NTI (2008) remarked that the conventional instructional method is teacher centred while Adeyemi (2012) also commented  that  theconventional instructional method is characterized by emphasis   on   instructor   behaviour   rather   than students’ behaviour, minimal responses of students to the instructional materials and delayed feedback on students’ performance.
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EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS IN BIOLOGY IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE, EBONYI STATE

DESIGN OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT STUDENT REGISTRATION DATABASE SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.0              Introduction

This chapter describes the theoretical background, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and organization of the study. The rest of the report is tied to the information supplied. Theoretical background entails relevant theory or theories that best unfold the knowledge behind the research work and also state its areas of contributions. Statement of the problem describes the problem a researcher is trying to solve and the need for the research on the problem. The next which is objectives of the study states relevant areas needed to work on. They are clearly listed by the researcher. Significance of the study is about the contribution(s) that the research work would make to the case study, other relevant bodies or institutions. Scope of the study implies the areas that the research covers and what it does not cover is stated clearly to avoid ambiguity. Organization of the study as the name implies, gives a brief overview of the research on how the chapters are organized. And finally on chapter one is definition of terms where a researcher defines keywords used in the study.

1.1     Background of the Study

Many schools have their own system to manage student’s registration. Common practice is by recording the student information in a record book. Students’ information is obtained from the registration form completed by them when they registered for the first time. This practice has some weaknesses such as the longer time to search the student profile and registration status, the possibility of misplacement of record book and vulnerability of student record to be accessed by unauthorized person. The case study is not free from these challenges and so this research work is considered and research to encounter them. In education the existence of computerized database are changing the instructions, administrations, and public services (Katz and Oblinger, 2000.

In case of manual system they need a lot of time, manpower etc. Here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained. Maintaining backup is very easy. It can do within a few minutes. Our system has two type of accessing modes, administrator and user. Student management system is managed by an administrator. It is the job of the administrator to insert update and monitor the whole process. When a user log in to the system. He/she would only view details of the student. He/she can’t perform any changes.
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DESIGN OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT STUDENT REGISTRATION DATABASE SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A TOURISM GUIDE FOR ANDROID OPERATING SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction

We have been investigating location based tourist applications targeted at off-the-shelf hand held devices, such as the Compaq Aero. The hand held device is augmented with Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide regular updated information about the user’s current location. Such an application enables the user to participate in a travel expo (a self guided tour of a specific area) that will display detailed information about specific features linked to their current position. This will include information about: where they are, attractions nearby, and details about specific buildings.

The Tourist Guide project investigated the use of context sensitive mobile computing for the use of visitors in the country. Rich multimedia support has been incorporated into the system to provide extra features to enhance the tour expo. In this paper we describe the processes involved in designing the Tourist Guide application and in particular we focus on the context sensitive features of the system as well as the reliability of the navigation system. The hand held computing device used in the project is the Compaq Aero colour palm-size PC. This device was connected to a Garmin GPS navigation system that provides the location information required to run the application.

 Current hand held devices allow for an integrated computing and GPS system, but at the time the project commenced, there was no integrated solution for the Aero.

1.1     Background of Study

There have been a number of research efforts into GPS based hand held tourist applications, and we provide an overview of two of these systems. To achieve the aims of the project we leverage a number of areas currently being investigated by others, context sensitive computing and mobile computing.

The Distributive Multimedia Research Group at the Lancaster University has an ongoing project GUIDE (Cheverst et al., 2000) to investigate electronic tourist guides in a practical real-world environment. They have been building and testing different versions of electronic tourist guides for the city of Lancaster over the past few years. Their current approach is using wireless communication to a pen based tablet computer.

Compared to our solution, the GUIDE uses a larger device (213mm x 153mm x 15mm in size and 850 grams in weight). This allows for an SVGA resolution display to support a traditional web browser style interface, supplying a rich information service to the user. The wireless communication allows an almost infinite data store for tourism information and services.
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A TOURISM GUIDE FOR ANDROID OPERATING SYSTEM

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR BILLING SYSTEMS OF ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The Automated Meter Reading (AMR) was started in 1962 by AT&T, but this experiment was not successful. The modern era of AMR started in 1985; since then different techniques have been utilized to get better reliability and performance [9]. Therefore currently in developed countries, many successful AMR systems are being used to facilitate the consumers of electricity, water, or gas. However in Nigeria, service provider companies (e.g. WAPDA, SNGPL, WASA, etc) are still using analogue meters and manual billing systems. Such type of billing method is being used both for domestic consumers as well as for industrial consumers. Basically using this system the bill is calculated in three steps. Firstly meter readers (human being) go home to home to manually record the meter reading. Secondly all readings are sent to regional billing office where data entry operator, enters the meter readings in a computer to calculate the bills. Thirdly at the end, the bills (in paper form) are sent home to home (to electricity consumers).

The above stated process is manual and prone to defects and ultimately the consumers mentally and financially suffer in such billing system. Therefore to replace the manual and traditional billing techniques in Nigeria, we designed and implemented a cost effective, but still reliable, billing automation system for electricity provider companies. As already discussed that analogue meters are already being used in Nigeria therefore in our system we modified an analogue meter and converted it into a digital gas meter. In this way the electricity provider companies would not have to completely replace their existing setup facilities and they would be able to replace their existing billing methods with our automated system.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Nigerian power sector faces a serious problem of lean revenue collection for the actual electric energy supplied owing to energy thefts and network losses. One of the prime reasons is the traditional billing system which is inaccurate, slow, costly, and lack in flexibility as well as reliability. The present practice of electricity billing is manual method only. With this, the total billing is a time consuming process and it requires more manpower. The collection of billing is late procedure and so many consumers may not pay in time. Disconnecting of unpaid connections is also manual. Due to all these drawbacks we cannot have proper auditing. To overcome these drawbacks, we are implementing this project. If this system comes in our day-to-day life, it will be useful for both the Government and the public.
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR BILLING SYSTEMS OF ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MOBILE AND WEB APPLICATION FOR THE AUTOMATION OF LIBRARY TASK

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A library can be defined as a room or building where books are kept and referenced. It is an area of multifarious activity on book management. A library is a repository of knowledge, houses collections of books, both reference and general, technical reports, periodicals, journals, conference proceedings and the likes. Consequently, truth and knowledge can be found and acquired from the library through the aforementioned sources. The information contents of any of the collections can be recorded on microfilms, audiotapes, microchips and other materials traditionally kept in the library, which is charged with the responsibility of acquiring, organizing, maintaining, and judicial circulation of the books and other library materials through the various sections of the library, for efficient use of the library by the users.

The acquisition, cataloguing, bindery and circulation sections of the library undertake the acquiring, organizing, maintaining and circulation of the books/library materials respectively. When the library through the acquisition section of the library acquires a book, its record is taken and accession number is given to the book after which the book will be sent to cataloguing section of the library. Under this section, the book will be carefully studied and given catalogue number before it will be sent to circulation section of the library as the case may be. The circulation section is responsible for circulation or distribution of books.

This section also arranges the consulted books in the shelves. There are other sections like reference section, which provides reference questions and bibliographic service, and serial section where periodical, journals and related materials are kept. The library also houses special collections and also operates circulation control in which books are lent to users. In fact it is indeed a place of multifarious activities on book management.
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MOBILE AND WEB APPLICATION FOR THE AUTOMATION OF LIBRARY TASK

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED BUDGETING SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF I.M.T., ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Many years back, individuals, government and even companies have tried to regulate income and expenditure, but this was not as possible as expected due to certain problem and constraints.

Better suggestions result to these approaches since most of the available resources at that time were not judiciously used. As a result of one problem or the other such as: Non-actualization of some basic needs of the masses, increase in population of the country. Delay and inaccuracy of job done. Payment of uncompleted projects.  It is considered expedient to have a balanced and reliable budget which mainly implies the manual estimate of revenue and expenditure which could be applied to individuals, organization and government. They begin to make budgets of their day-to-day expenditure and revenue.

Notwithstanding, the careful planning and execution of budgets in Nigeria, the targets are hardly met while most budgets end up in difficult.

Based on this, the researcher deemed necessary to look into budgeting system in institutions with special emphasis on tertiary institutions. Institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu being a tertiary institution, is required to have a planned budget to enhance an objective oriented operation.

1.2     Statement of the Problems

Government, companies, institution and individuals have in the past set up a wonderful budget on daily bases, most of these budgets worked only for a while and crushed.

IMT has been spending so much time on the planning of these budgets even to the extent of setting up a budgets monitoring committee to ensure strict adherence to requirement of these budgets. Notwithstanding, the fact still remains that budgets in this country especially institution budget have never produced desired goal. This work therefore tends to find out why institution budget fails to achieve its goal by tactfully studying the budgeting system of institution of management and technology (IMT) Enugu and formulating a good reliable computer system that will take care of these problems.
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED BUDGETING SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF I.M.T., ENUGU)

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE ACHIEVEMENT MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN COMPUTER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. This requires knowing the computer itself, how it is operated, what it can do, how it can do it and the reason it is doing it; these form the basis of computer studies curriculum in secondary schools(Adigun, 2015). Computer studies, a subject that is added newly to the senior secondary school curriculum in Nigeria which exposes students to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) needs to be accepted as a result of its comparable importancein this jet age.

The  impediment to the lowachievement of students  in  secondary  schools  in  Nigeria  has  been  a  great debate in the issues of education. To overcome the impediment, it is important to know the root of such impediment. Many causes have been looked into as the origin for under-seeking the occurrence of failure or success in school. These causes are looked into from several views including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, and government. Useful works among these are effects of: student’s study habits (Obasoro&Ayodele 2012; Ayodele&Adebiyi, 2013), school environment (Adesoji& Olatunbosun, 2008), teacher’s competencies (Akiri&Ugborugbo,   2009), parent’s economic status (Osonwa, 2013), continuous assessment (Okwu&Orum, 2012; Kolawole&Ala, 2014), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). Thoughmost authors has to be in harmony to elaborate failure from several causes viewwhere the occurrence is resolved at several levels, and where multiple variables are involved.

Gender is one of such factors mentioned in literature to have considerable effects on student’s academic performance especially in science subjects. Gender is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between the masculinity and femininity(male and female) population. The importance of examining performance in relation to gender is primarily based on the socio-cultural differences between boys and girls. Some vocations and professions such as engineering, arts and crafts, agriculture, etc. have been deemed as men’s exclusive reserve while others are considered women’s which include catering, typing, nursing etc.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE ACHIEVEMENT MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN COMPUTER

AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR SOLVING SCHOOL TIME TABLE

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

The class timetabling problem is a typical scheduling problem that appears to be a stressful job in every academic institute. In previous years, timetable scheduling was done manually with a single person or group of individuals involved in the task of scheduling it manually. Planning of school timetable is one of the most complex and error-prone applications because it is actually done manually. This situation demands a comprehensive approach where a computer can be used to schedule a timetabling problem by being automated using a concept gotten from evolutionary biology called Genetic algorithm.

1.2     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Scheduling is one of the important tasks that we encountered in our daily life situations. There are various types of scheduling problems which includes personnel scheduling, production scheduling, educational timetable scheduling etc.
In educational timetable scheduling, there are many constraints that need to be satisfied in order to get a clear solution which has made it a very hard task. Educational timetable scheduling can be called a non-polynomial hard (NP hard) which means that, there are no exact algorithms that can solve this problem of timetable scheduling. Hence, evolutionary techniques have been used to solve the time table scheduling problem. Techniques like Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), Genetic Algorithms (GAs) etc.

Scheduling conflicts arise in different varieties of settings as illustrated by the following examples: (i) Consider a school environment that requires the scheduling of a given set of courses and meetings between students and lecturers. Each course will take place in a particular lecture hall and each hall has its own capacity. We must also make sure that no student or lecturer is fixed up in more than one particular appointment.
(ii) Consider a factory that produces different sorts of gadgets. Each gadget must first be processed by a “machine 1”,“machine 2”,“machine 3” and so on where different gadgets requires different amount of processing time on different machines.
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AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR SOLVING SCHOOL TIME TABLE

AUTOMATED PHARMACY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction

An organization requires a system which is dedicated to facilitate and expedite the work process to increase efficiency and productivity of the organization. Tie existence of a good system, systematic and safe requires the management organization to oversee all information management effectively.

A system should be analyzed and designed to ensure future implementation of the system is easily understand by the end users. Automated Pharmacy Management System, a web-based or online pharmacy record system is equipped with the automated record features. It will remind the administrator (Pharmacist Officer) about the list of the drug that reached the minimum quantity and it also support reminder for prescription of drugs made for customers. The web based system which is implementing in web-based pharmacy record system is suitable to be used for rural clinic to keep records of drug and other business routines through an online system. For administrator page, admin can access all records related to drug stock and related information in the user equipment to store and update if there are any changes to be made.

1.1     Theoretical Background

Griffin, R. M. (October 2010). Pharmacy automation involves the mechanical processes of handling and distributing medications. Any pharmacy task may be involved, including counting small objects (e.g., tablets, capsules); measuring and mixing powders and liquids for compounding; tracking and updating customer information in databases (e.g., personally identifiable information (PII), medical history, drug interaction risk detection); and inventory management. This article focuses on the changes that have taken place in the local, or community Pharmacy since the 1960s.
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AUTOMATED PHARMACY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED EDGE DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR NOISY COLOURED IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Edge detection can be defined as the process of identifying set of connected pixels that forms a boundary between two disjoint regions (Gang et al., 2008). It can also be defined as the process of locating and identifying sharp discontinuities in images (Rashmi et al., 2013). It is mostly used in image analysis to preserve image features and partition images into regions of interest. The discontinuities in these images can be caused by (Ghasemi et al., 2011):

i. Discontinuity in depth and/or surface colour and texture.

ii. Reflection of light, Shadows and Illumination.

Edge detection is an image segmentation technique in which images are partitioned into meaningful regions of interest. Some of the practical applications of edge detection algorithms are in face and finger print recognition, location of objects in satellite images, medical images, and computer aided surgery or diagnosis amongst others (Rashmi et al., 2013). One of the most important challenges of edge detection algorithm is to detect the edges in noisy images. Many traditional edge detection algorithms have been developed to overcome noise such as Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts and Gradient based edge detection algorithms etc. (Rashmi et al., 2013).

These traditional edge detection algorithms are very fast but they cannot perform well on noisy images. Hence, the significant problem of these edge detection algorithms are displacement, removed edges, false and broken edges(Maini & Aggarwal, 2011). Noise phenomenon is an obstacle in detection of continuous edges as it causes some variation of pixel intensities, thus reducing the performance of an edge detection algorithm in noisy images (Setayesh et al., 2013). It also leads to unclear and displaced edges (Chaudhary & Gulati, 2013). Many edge detection algorithms have been developed in the literature over the past years to improve precision of recognized edges. However, they still suffer from producing broken edges and false edges due to noise effect (Maini & Aggarwal, 2011). Therefore, an improved edge detection algorithm is required to detect edges with greater continuity in noisy images in order to reduce the shortcomings of traditional edge detection algorithms. In the field of image processing, there exists basically two types of images which are the gray scale and the coloured images.

Numerous researchers have developed edge detection algorithms for gray scale images in the past. But in recent times, with improvement in computer capabilities and the increased applications of coloured images there is need to develop an effective edge detection algorithm for coloured images (Haque & Aljahdali, 2013). Some of the applications of the edge detection algorithms are in image segmentation, image compression, face recognition, computer vision, computer surveillance, medical diagnosis, image encryption/communication multimedia and remotely sensed images, amongst others(Vijayarani & Vinupriya, 2013). In the areas of medical diagnosis, satellite images, face recognition, and computer surveillance, representation of images by its edges reduced the amount of data required to be stored whilst retaining useful information in the image.

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED EDGE DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR NOISY COLOURED IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED PLAYFAIR CRYPTOSYSTEM USING RHOTRIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

The security of data transmission is an important problem in communication networks. A communication system is reliable as long as it maintains the integrity, availability, and privacy of data. Data integrity is the protection of data from unauthorized modification, resistance to penetration and undetected modification. Therefore, it is important to secure cryptosystem which provides encryption and decryption to the data. To achieve a secure cryptosystem, Cryptology is essential. Cryptology is the study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.

Cryptography is the study of information hiding and verification. It includes the protocols, algorithms and strategies to securely and consistently prevent or delay unauthorized access to sensitive information and enable verifiability of every component in a communication (Saini and Mandal, 2015).

Cryptanalysis is the art of ‘attacking’ cryptosystems in order to ‘crack’ them or at least discover their weaknesses (Stallings, 2011). When cryptanalysis reveals weaknesses in cryptosystems, cryptographers create more secure cryptosystems. Conversely, as cryptosystems become stronger, cryptanalysts try to discover more powerful methods of attacking them. Thus, cryptography and cryptanalysis are complementary.

Cryptography is divided into three main branches (Chirstof and Pelzi 2010) which are:

  1. Symmetric Algorithms: it refers to encryption and decryption methods in which both the sender and receiver share a secret key. All cryptography from ancient times until 1976 was exclusively based on symmetric methods. Symmetric
  2. ciphers are still in widespread use, especially for data encryption and integrity check of messages
  • Asymmetric (or Public-Key) Algorithms: In public-key cryptography, a user possesses a secret key as in symmetric cryptography and a public key that may be freely distributed. Asymmetric algorithms can be used for applications such as digital signatures and key establishment, and also for classical data encryption.
  • Cryptographic Protocols: crypto protocols deal with the application of cryptographic algorithms. Symmetric and asymmetric algorithms can be viewed as building blocks with which applications such as secure Internet communication can be realized. The Transport Layer Security (TLS) scheme,

which is used in every Web browser, is an example of a cryptographic protocol. Symmetric cryptography addresses the problem of secrecy protection by using the shared secret key to transform the message in such a way that it cannot be recovered anymore without this key. This process is called symmetric encryption. Based on the paradigm used to process the message, these ciphers are typically categorized into one of two classes: block ciphers and stream ciphers. The security of symmetric encryption algorithms can in general not be proved (the notable exception being the one-time pad). Instead, the trust in a cipher is merely based on the fact that no weaknesses have been found after a long and thorough evaluation phase (Canniere, 2007). Two types of ciphers are used in Symmetric Key Cryptography: Transposition cipher and Substitution cipher (Stallings, 2006).

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED PLAYFAIR CRYPTOSYSTEM USING RHOTRIX

DESIGN OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT STUDENT REGISTRATION DATABASE SYSTEM

DESIGN OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT STUDENT REGISTRATION DATABASE SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

The students registration database system is the central part of the educational administration system, which consists of registration of new candidates for admission, undergraduate registration, postgraduates registration, pre-degree/Basic studies registration, school of continuing education registration, undergraduate course registration, graduate course registration etc. The methodology used was Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology SSADM which is an internationally accepted software engineering model mainly used in most result oriented analysis. By registering the students voluntarily, the new system would improve student registration mechanism, support the administrative management of student information, running of school activities and reducing stress for staff. This project introduces the design of computer science department student registration database system, including registration mechanism, technical architecture, and system design, etc. Visual BASIC 6.0 was the technology used to develop this new system due to its user friendliness, usability and scalability and Microsoft Access for database. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                   Pages

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.0        Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Scope of the Study

1.6     Organization of the Research   

1.7     Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER TWO

 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0     Introduction

2.1     Overview on Computer-based Student Registration

 

2.2     The Role of Information Systems in an Institution

2.3     Impacts of Computer-based Student Registration System

CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

3.0     Introduction

3.1     Research Methodology

3.2     System Analysis

3.2.1   Analysis of the Existing System

3.2.2    Problems of the Existing System

3.2.3     Analysis of the proposed system

3.2.2  Problems of the Existing System

3.2.3  Analysis of the Proposed System

3.2.3.1 The Advantages of the Proposed System

3.3     System Design

3.3.1 Input Layout

3.3.2 Algorithm

3.3.3 Flowchart

3.3.4 Output Layout

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION

4.0     Introduction

4.1     System Design Diagram

4.2     Choice of Programming Language

4.3     Analysis of Modules

4.4.1  The Hardware Requirements

4.4.2  The Software Requirement

4.5     Implementation

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.0     Introduction

5.2     Constraint of the Study

5.2     Summary

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Recommendations

References 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.0              Introduction

This chapter describes the theoretical background, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and organization of the study. The rest of the report is tied to the information supplied. Theoretical background entails relevant theory or theories that best unfold the knowledge behind the research work and also state its areas of contributions. Statement of the problem describes the problem a researcher is trying to solve and the need for the research on the problem. The next which is objectives of the study states relevant areas needed to work on. They are clearly listed by the researcher. Significance of the study is about the contribution(s) that the research work would make to the case study, other relevant bodies or institutions. Scope of the study implies the areas that the research covers and what it does not cover is stated clearly to avoid ambiguity. Organization of the study as the name implies, gives a brief overview of the research on how the chapters are organized. And finally on chapter one is definition of terms where a researcher defines keywords used in the study.

1.1     Background of the Study

Many schools have their own system to manage student’s registration. Common practice is by recording the student information in a record book. Students’ information is obtained from the registration form completed by them when they registered for the first time. This practice has some weaknesses such as the longer time to search the student profile and registration status, the possibility of misplacement of record book and vulnerability of student record to be accessed by unauthorized person. The case study is not free from these challenges and so this research work is considered and research to encounter them. In education the existence of computerized database are changing the instructions, administrations, and public services (Katz and Oblinger, 2000.

In case of manual system they need a lot of time, manpower etc. Here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained. Maintaining backup is very easy. It can do within a few minutes. Our system has two type of accessing modes, administrator and user. Student management system is managed by an administrator. It is the job of the administrator to insert update and monitor the whole process. When a user log in to the system. He/she would only view details of the student. He/she can’t perform any changes.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

At my case study students registration is still carried out manually. The problem encountered with the manual method is viewed from two perspectives, the school management problems and the student problem.

Authorities and management of the computer science departments in the school think that the use of computer in school administration is only for admission process and displaying list of admitted students. The use of computers in schools cannot be over emphasised, it can help in all kinds of school administration activities. Investigation revealed that the manual method adopted in students registration pose some problems in most schools. These problems can be arranged under the following heading:

(a)     Poor security of documents

(b)     Misplace of students files

(c)      Untimely processing clearance of students who have paid their fee

(d)     Inconsistency in student’s registration records

(e)      Poor management of student’s registration and payment information.

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to improve the relationship between the manual and automated student registration. The objectives of the study include the following:

  1. To create automated registration for enrollees of computer science department
  2. To develop an accurate and easier way of registration for the students of the department

iii.      To generate reports needed for enrollment

  1. To provide a user friendly enrollment database in managing enrollment of old students, new student and transferees

1.4     Significance of the Study

The significance of the study would justify the need to conduct the study. It specifies the group of people who will benefit from the study. They are:

  1. Students: The study will help students to be knowledgeable enough on entering the information technology fields as applying the lectures to actual performances and to inform them of an easy way of registration.

It will give them also a background and become more advance and be familiar on having a new way of registration.

  1. Faculty: In this proposed system, it will help them to lessen their work and less time consumed in handling the enrollment process for the students. It helps them to minimize the effort and time exert in terms of gathering the information of the students.

iii.      Administrators: The result of this investigation would serve as a benchmark for them to make an easy on handling the student records during the enrollment. It will help to lessen their work, also to have a fast way of enrolling students as well as in securing student information.

  1. Future Researchers: This study would serve as a handy reference for the other researchers who would embark on a similar study in the future especially on certain aspects not derived into by the present study.

1.5     Scope of the Study

The computer science department student registration database system is a system that covers the major processes in the registration of students. Administrators have total access to the system, view students registration that are officially enrolled and generate or print records of the students, search student profile information.

1.6     Organization of the Research

The project is organized as follows;-

Chapter one introduces the project; the background of the project is also discussed. Statement of the problem, objectives of the project, its significance, scope are pointed out.

A brief review of literature on student registration is the subject matter of Chapter two.

Chapter three discusses system analysis and design. It deals with detailed investigation and analysis of the existing system and problem identification.

Chapter four covers the system implementation, testing and integration.

Chapter five is the summary of findings, constraints of the project, summary, conclusion, recommendations of the project. References, appendix A and Appendix B are also included after chapter five.

 

1.7   Definition of Terms

Registration: the act or process of entering information about something in a book or system of public records, the act or process of entering names on an official list and a document showing that something has been officially registered.

System: A collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose.

Module: A separate unit of software

Database: A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques.

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SOFTWARE DEVLPMENT FOR POST PRIMMARY EDUCATIONAL DATABASE

SOFTWARE DEVLOPMENT FOR POST PRIMMARY EDUCATIONAL DATABASE

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Undeveloped and develop countries have suffered a lot from the consequence of insufficient data or information, in most; consist a matter of the inaudibility of data. The secret of any good management is based on organized, coordinated and sufficient relevant data. This fact support the ideal of database whose overriding importance is to provide relevant and sufficient data or information to the user.

According to French (2000),users earnestly desire far piece of information which would be of immense benefit to them in their business this therefore, buttress the  fact  that a database in any organization or establishment is very essential to the organization. In a database, data may be stored in which it may involve a data directly which it will provide descriptive information on the data them stored in the database and how to access them.

The term database is often used synonymous of information. A database is generally made up of data from number of database it could be a collection of related information.

According to Brien James A (2000). The control and management system (DBMS)> this software (set of instrument that tell the computer what to do) is designed for record keeping, allows the computers to sort files of records in specific location. They spatially handle structural data that would normally be stored in a cabinet containing files. The concept of database means something specific. The data collected must posses certain qualities, the essential requirement of a database is no merely to store data efficiently but also to provide an effective means of retrieval.

The objective is to provide a reliable up to data information on demand. The centralization of it cannot be retrieved more efficiently than others then the data structure of a business may be rationalized. Data can be retrieved without for the fact that base is in logical section.

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SOFTWARE DEVLOPMENT FOR POST PRIMMARY EDUCATIONAL DATABASE

SATISFIABILITY REASONING OVER VAGUE ONTOLOGIES USING FUZZY SOFT SET THEORY

SATISFIABILITY REASONING OVER VAGUE ONTOLOGIES USING FUZZY SOFT SET THEORY

 

Chapter One

Introduction

1.1.        Background to the Study

The use of information from heterogeneous sources is an intelligent task that requires human being who has a background knowledge of the information. However, due to existence of several information sources, human processing speed cannot be relied upon for speedy information processing. In contrast, computers can easily deal with such voluminous information as long as their processing do not require human intelligence. Therefore, for information to be processed efficiently, its processing must be automated. Almost all information can be represented in natural language, this richness of natural language, however, makes it very difficult to process computationally. The traditional computational processing of information involved a pattern matching process, a literal character by character comparison of the words in natural languages representing information. This simplistic computational processing approach is known as syntactic information processing. On the contrary, semantics information representation provides a universal understanding of information (both by human and machine) and leads to automated information processing. This can be achieved by attaching meaning to letters, words, phrases, signs, and symbols. Semantic information processing is seen as a means of resolving the problem of ambiguities in syntactic information processing (Richardson, 1994).

While talking about automated processing for natural language, Miller (1995) stated that, because meaningful sentences are composed of meaningful words, any system that hopes to process natural languages as people do must have information about words and their meanings. This information is traditionally provided through dictionaries, and machine-readable dictionaries are now widely available. But dictionary entries evolved for the convenience of human readers, not for machines.

According to Kana and Akinkunmi (2014), for the semantic processing of information to be possible, systems must be able to understand the meaning of data they are processing and then, perform the processing semantically. To achieve that, three key issues must be resolved:

  1. Information should be represented in such a way that, its semantics is contained within its representation and should be unambiguous.
  2. There should be a possibility of deducing the semantic of the data represented by machines possibly with some inference capability.
  3. There should be a possibility of two or more system processing related information to interoperate.

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SATISFIABILITY REASONING OVER VAGUE ONTOLOGIES USING FUZZY SOFT SET THEORY