A FEASIBILITY REPORT ON LIQUID SOAP PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        It is an established fact that Banking industry occupies a prominent position in the Nigeria economy today. The significance of banks stem from the fact that they are custodians of the most sought after commodity on earth. Which is money. Availability of financial capital is obviously a condition for the rapid development and transformation of any national economy.

        However, since the provision and efficient management of this scarce resource is best facilitated by the existence and appropriate function of financial institutions in the economy. It therefore follows that banks have a vital role to play by making their vast financial resources available for financing and promoting economic development banks play this unique role through granting of loans which constitute a vital function in banking operations, because of its direct effect on economic growth and business development. Loans and bank lending which is the primary function of commercial banks. It is the single most important source of gross income for the commercial banks.

        Lending contributes the larger part to a bank’s profit, hence, it is the backbone of banking activities however, the degrees of risk associated with lending is proportionate to it contribution to profit.

        As financial intermediaries, banks assist in channeling funds form surplus economic development generally. Since these funds are owned by third demands the depositors, prudence demands that such funds should be efficiently managed to sustain the confidence of depositors in the banking system and ensure the continued soundless of the system itself and thereby minimize risk of the bank failures.

        Unlike the depositor who is certain of getting his money back on demand and, or when due a lending bankers is faced with the problem of either delay in reimbursement or out right non-reimbursement by the borrowers. As in case of National Bank of Nigeria which is being managed by Nigerian Deposit insurance corporation (NDIC) due to inability to meet its numerous customer’s cash needs. The bank was crippled by the non-payment of about N800 million Naira (eight Hundred million naira lent out to customers. Recovery of these huge debts became more difficult due to poor credit administration and control reflective in subjective appraisal of loan request, improper documentation, poor perfection of securities etc.

        In January 1993, the newly reconstituted management of Owena Bank Plc, discovered several cases of expenses incurred but not properly booked, unearned income over statement and above all several unsecured, unanalyzed loans which are not charged off or provisioned lack of commercial orientation is also glaring in the management and administration of staff leans in Owena Bank Plc.

        By February 1993, total outstanding staff loans was at over N60 million (sixty million Naira) exceed the bank’s paid gross loans. These loans are granted at 28% interest rate per annual against the prevailing cost of loans are said to have been used not for the purpose originally intended and are not support with documentation to secure the bank’s interest.

        Many bank’s in Nigeria today are facing similar problems of national bank limited and owena bank plc stated above and many lead to bank failures if not urgently addressed. In fact, the number of banks sin operation remained at 90 as at end-December, 2002 following the insurance of an operating license to one bank (bond bank Ltd) and the revocation of the operating license of another (savannah bank plc) during the year.

        Nevertheless, this worrisome position of banking industry in Nigeria possibly forms the federal government’s decision to amend C.B.N Decree 24 of 1991, which centers autonomy on the Apex Bank. This amendation granted a wider power to  of bank’s debtors, in addition to the earlier provision in section 52 of the principal decree which authorizes the nation’s apex bank to compile and circulate to all banks in Nigeria a list of debtor whose outstand debts to any bank had been classified by bank examines as bad debts.

        From the above therefore, the need for effective administration of credit to customers cannot be over-emphasized. Thus, the effective supervision and monitoring loans to ensure that they do not turn bad forms the theme of this study. A credit to beneficial to the bank only when the principle and interest are fully paid.
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A FEASIBILITY REPORT ON LIQUID SOAP PRODUCTION

FEASIBILITY REPORT ON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        It is an established fact that Banking industry occupies a prominent position in the Nigeria economy today. The significance of banks stem from the fact that they are custodians of the most sought after commodity on earth. Which is money. Availability of financial capital is obviously a condition for the rapid development and transformation of any national economy.

        However, since the provision and efficient management of this scarce resource is best facilitated by the existence and appropriate function of financial institutions in the economy. It therefore follows that banks have a vital role to play by making their vast financial resources available for financing and promoting economic development banks play this unique role through granting of loans which constitute a vital function in banking operations, because of its direct effect on economic growth and business development. Loans and bank lending which is the primary function of commercial banks. It is the single most important source of gross income for the commercial banks.

        Lending contributes the larger part to a bank’s profit, hence, it is the backbone of banking activities however, the degrees of risk associated with lending is proportionate to it contribution to profit.

        As financial intermediaries, banks assist in channeling funds form surplus economic development generally. Since these funds are owned by third demands the depositors, prudence demands that such funds should be efficiently managed to sustain the confidence of depositors in the banking system and ensure the continued soundless of the system itself and thereby minimize risk of the bank failures.

        Unlike the depositor who is certain of getting his money back on demand and, or when due a lending bankers is faced with the problem of either delay in reimbursement or out right non-reimbursement by the borrowers. As in case of National Bank of Nigeria which is being managed by Nigerian Deposit insurance corporation (NDIC) due to inability to meet its numerous customer’s cash needs. The bank was crippled by the non-payment of about N800 million Naira (eight Hundred million naira lent out to customers. Recovery of these huge debts became more difficult due to poor credit administration and control reflective in subjective appraisal of loan request, improper documentation, poor perfection of securities etc.

        In January 1993, the newly reconstituted management of Owena Bank Plc, discovered several cases of expenses incurred but not properly booked, unearned income over statement and above all several unsecured, unanalyzed loans which are not charged off or provisioned lack of commercial orientation is also glaring in the management and administration of staff leans in Owena Bank Plc.

        By February 1993, total outstanding staff loans was at over N60 million (sixty million Naira) exceed the bank’s paid gross loans. These loans are granted at 28% interest rate per annual against the prevailing cost of loans are said to have been used not for the purpose originally intended and are not support with documentation to secure the bank’s interest.

        Many bank’s in Nigeria today are facing similar problems of national bank limited and owena bank plc stated above and many lead to bank failures if not urgently addressed. In fact, the number of banks sin operation remained at 90 as at end-December, 2002 following the insurance of an operating license to one bank (bond bank Ltd) and the revocation of the operating license of another (savannah bank plc) during the year.

        Nevertheless, this worrisome position of banking industry in Nigeria possibly forms the federal government’s decision to amend C.B.N Decree 24 of 1991, which centers autonomy on the Apex Bank. This amendation granted a wider power to  of bank’s debtors, in addition to the earlier provision in section 52 of the principal decree which authorizes the nation’s apex bank to compile and circulate to all banks in Nigeria a list of debtor whose outstand debts to any bank had been classified by bank examines as bad debts.

        From the above therefore, the need for effective administration of credit to customers cannot be over-emphasized. Thus, the effective supervision and monitoring loans to ensure that they do not turn bad forms the theme of this study. A credit to beneficial to the bank only when the principle and interest are fully paid.
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FEASIBILITY REPORT ON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY

THE ROLE OF COMPUTER ANIMATION IN ADVERTISING AND ITS IMPACT ON ONLINE ADVERTISING

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION

1.1      COMPUTER ANIMATION 

       This research project is basically to help undergraduates or even be handy for computer graphic programmers who want to learn and know more about the basis of computer animation programming and even go a step further to knowing it role in advertising because this research project gives some deep and explanatory as earlier stated.

       As discussed earlier in animation itself, to ‘animate’ is literally to give life to ‘Animating’ is moving something, which cannot move itself and its concern with time so, computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers or the use of computer to create animations. It is a sub field of computer graphic and animation.

       There are different method operate or make computer animations.

       Increasingly it is created by means of 3D computer graphics or animation; through 2D computer graphics are still widely used. Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself sometimes the target is another medium, such as file. One way to create computer animation is to create objects and render them. This method produces perfect and three-dimensional looking animations.

       To create the illusion of movement an image is displayed on the computer screen then quickly replaced by a new image that is similar to the previous image, but shifted slightly. This technique is clinical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion picture

i.                                    SAMPLE EXAMPLE (CA)

              The screen is blanked to a background color such as back. Then a filled red circle is drawn in the center of the screen. Next the screen is blanked; but the red circle is drawn slightly to the right of its original position. This process is repeated, each time moving the circle a bit to the right. If this process is repeated fast enough the red circle would appear to move smoothly to the right. This basic procedure is used for all moving pictures in films and television.

ii.                                  TOOLS

           Computer animation can be done on a variety of computers, simple cell animation requires nothing more than that a computer system capable of simple graphics with proper animation software. Unfortunately, most of the computer animation that you see on television and in other areas is done on extremely sophisticated workstation. This page is broken into two software and hardware,

       There are some of the most popular software packages used by companies schools and individual all around the globe.

1.3D Studio Max

2. 3D Studio

3. Light ware 3D

4. Adobe PhotoShop

5. Animator StudioEXPLANATION

       To trick the eye and brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object the picture must be drawn at about 24 frames per second (FPS) or faster (a frame is one complete image). With rates above 70 FPS, no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and brain process images at rates below 24FPS, most people can detect Jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images which detracts0 from the illusion of realistic movement. Conventional hand-draw cartoon animation often used 12EPS in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is usually accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. Because it produces more realistic imagery computer animation demands higher frame rates to reinforce this realism.

      The reason no Jerkiness is seen at higher speeds is due to ‘persistence of vision’ from movement to movement the eye and brain looking together actually store whatever you look at for a fraction of a second and automatically smooth out’ minor jumps movie film seen in a theater runs at 24FPS which is sufficient to this illusion of continuous movement.

(ii) COMPUTER ANIMATION’S ROLE ADVERTISING

Advertising is mass communication that advertising pays for in order to convince a certain segment of the public to adopt ideas or take actions of benefit to the advertisers.

        In the 1950s the advert of television, which is one of the faster way of advertising, developed fast to the advertising medium #1.

Now advertising could demonstrate thee use of their products and present well know figures to praise it. They also arrange emotions through television.

       One of the most popular uses for computer animation is in television advertising some of thee models that the commercial would see extremely difficult to animation in the past (i.e. saxophones, boxes of detergent, bathrooms, kitchen etc.) this is use or was discovered. The modeled objects would then be animated and incorporated with live video. The process involved in modeling and create the animation could take as many weeks.

          In most case, advertising needs media to be inserted. Usually, animation is used images derived from live film.

Sometimes the animation detail is so high, that viewers can’t tell if what they are seeing is real or not.

       In this context of computer animation in advertising, the effects of animation in Online Banner Advertising will be assess; Hierarchy of effects models.

       This study/ research attempts to examine the effects of animation banner ads, as well as the moderating effects of involvement, on each stage of the hierarchy of effects model.

The result of this study/ research provide support for the notion that animated banner ads prompt better advertising has better attention – grubbing capabilities, and generates higher recall more favorable Ad.

       While online advertising has grown dramatically during the past several years (low 2000) attracting individuals attention and persuading them remain one of the critical issues for the practitioner. The only way these practitioner can make a big hit is by the innovation of animation in the ads.

       The also attempts to assess the effect of animation banner ads over status ads with the framework of the hierarchy of effects.
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THE ROLE OF COMPUTER ANIMATION IN ADVERTISING AND ITS IMPACT ON ONLINE ADVERTISING

AN ANALYSIS ON THE ART FORMS ON OPOTO FESTIVAL IN ENUGWU – AGIDI

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.            BACKGROUND HISTORY OF ENUGWU-AGIDI

     The Opoto festival belongs to an Igbo group in Southeastern Nigerian called Enugwu- Agidi it is at the center of Awka and Onitsha in Anambra state.

The people are known for farming because of their fertile land. Then also, they are known for timber trading because of the think rain forest that surrounds them.

            Enugu –Agidi has so many festival which are known for its significant but the main cultural festival celebrated by Enugu Agidi in “Opoto Festival” Opoto festival is a celebration which is one every third month of the year ie March. This festival is annual done to bring all the people of Enugwu- Agidi people from far and wide together to that the gods of land and ancestors for keeping them throughout the past years and also for the new farming season which they are about to begin “Opoto” is a festival which after the celebration, anybody can now start to cultivate yam and if at all anybody live old yam in his farm it is entitled to anybody who comes across it.

The celebration starts which the chief priest of “Eke” (Eke Eke) made some consultation with the gods in which he asks when they want to have festival has been fixed and it must be “Eke” which is the day of the market in Enugwu- Agidi, the festival lasts for four days the first day is the to buy all the things needed for that day.

            The next day, is the main day when the festival starts with some local food which are used in celebrating the festival properly prepared by that second day is the day in which the Mbubu Udo” masquerade will perform in the market square when manhood is being tested among various groups, using “Agba” then the “Ufuo” will be used in playing some melodies for them to dance to the tone the music. The third day is also the day when young boys who also come to pour libation to the gods by bringing yams kolanut, palmwine, alegator pepper and some other things to the chief priest which he blesses and gives them traditional chalk to draw at the center of the shrine (ITU NZU). The grand finally is the day for Afo Mmumi) by masquerade both from my farm and from other towns’ such Ukpo, Abagana Nnewi, Ukwuli etc. around us that is the day that women watch the way they move around because they are not expected to look at a masquerade directly. It is the men’s world now.

            The music played the last day is known as “Abia” and no woman dances to its melody. If done, it is known as sacrilege and some sacrilege here to be done appease the gods on behalf of the festival.

            The reason or significant of celebrating Opoto” Festival in Enugwu- Agidi are so many but the main ories to mark beginning of the farming season in which the gods of the land are appeased for keeping them to see and also to beg the gods of the land to give them more beautiful harvest farming season. This is done by making many sacrifices to the god of the ;land befor this festival commences. It is the chief priest of Eke od that announce the date of the festival which he always know by the reading the of the moon and consultation of the god  on when they want the festival to take place.

            Opoto is also meant to known the man that are men which means it is when method are being tested this is done by the boys which are of certain age grade to show who it is the king among them. They display some masquerade’s (Iga) which is known for (Ipa agba) this will be done when music from “Ufo” is being played. There is special step for dancing “Ufo” which is known by every male child in my town. The name “Ufo” is a wooden gong that is made up wood and its stand is made up metal. It is also during this festival that boys at the age of fifteen is initiated into the Mmanawu cult which means that the person is fit to display any type of masquerade in the markrt square during the festival such as Izaga, Evava, Obulu Nyi Mbulu Udo, Osiasili etc.
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THE PROBLEMS AND EFFECT OF POOR MAINTENANCE STUDIO EQUIPMENT AND THE PRACTICE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of poor maintenance culture as it affects tools and equipment used in art production in tertiary institutions in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is a poor attitudinal behaviour which has eaten deep into the social fabric of the Nigerian people. It manifests in different aspects of the industrial life of the people.

Most institutions of higher learning where Art is taught lack adequate infrastructure facilities and equipment for effective teaching and learning of art. Some of the institution that could boast of some  facilities and equipment, have them in their dilapidated conditions were as a result of carelessness handling by student artists poor maintenance culture and total negligence on the part of departmental studio managers.

This attitude to Art studio materials, equipment and machineries is in line with the general attitude prevailing within the nation. 

A visit to various ministries such as works and Housing: Agriculture citic will reveal sorry site of abandoned tractors, vehicles and other heavy equipment and machineries which otherwise would have been put to effective use in the pursuit of the objectives and goals of such ministries.

It is not surprising therefore that professor Adesing Oladapo Aderisigbe of Obafemi Awolowo Uinversity Ile Ife would lament over inadequate funding in the faculty of Agriculture which has resulted in the abandonment of many of the facilities and equipment of the faculty for decades. (Kehinde Adio, 2005).

The abandonment must have been as a result of their functional state which in most cases must have been as a result of poor maintenance.

Writing on the collapsed Nukkei bridge in, Jalingo Taraba  state, David Molomo (2005) quoted Alhaji Abubarka (Deputy Governor) is attributing the collapse of the bridge to poor structure and maintenance. 

Within the premises of the campus 2 of the Institute Of Management and Technology Enugu would be found a good number of water tankers, pail loader,  and other vehicles which have been abandoned in a state of despair. At the industrial center would also be found, equipment for various productions which have not been assembled or have been allowed to rust.

According to  the Head of work and services department the institute lacks the necessary fund to put these vehicles and equipment back to life – hence their abandonment.

From the foregoing it is discovered that lack of fund is one of the major factors responsible for the poor maintenance culture that is prevailing within the Nigeria system.

Another major factor to consider is non availability of the required technical know how. Most staff within the ministries, display lack of technical competence in the handling of machine and other working equipment. Where there are competent hand, surely maintenance cost would be reduced as the required repairs parts would be procured and repairs effected without engaging “experts” whose services would be very exorbitant.

Reporting on the repair being carried out on the Niger bridge, Nwabueze Okonkwo of Saturday sun pointed out that the Commissioner for works lamented that lack of maintenance culture which has affected the bridge since 1962.  

Architectural structures also suffer similar fate. There are reports of such collapsed buildings all around the country in recent times.

Poor maintenance culture has been the bane of  our country which is having very adverse effect on national growth and development.

1.2              STATEMENT OF PEOBLEM

Most art studio in institutions of higher learning have facilities for the teaching and practice of art but because of their conditions many of them are not functional this situation has affected student artist especially those who are specializing in ceramics.

Because of financial constraints facing management, money is not readily available to repair such equipment like electric potters wheels, kick wheels, kilns, ball mill, blunger, and other higher equipment like pugmill and compressors.

For lack of fund, electrical and mechanical experts cannot be consulted to effect repairs on these broken down equipment to this end, what is expected of the student artist whose progress in training depend on the availability of such tools and equipment.

1.3              PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to identify the possible ways art student can organize themselves through costless self help project to undertake effective repairs of broken down equipment and machineries in the art studio of their institutions that aid their training.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT

The significance of this project is the new dimension it introduces in the study of art. Under this new dimension, students have the opportunity to study and understand the design and mode of operation of the tools, equipment and machinery that are used in art production particularly with reference to one’s area of specialization.

In this regard the art student will not see his working tool or equipment as object whose production is beyond his scope of knowledge and understanding.
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THE PROBLEMS AND EFFECT OF POOR MAINTENANCE STUDIO EQUIPMENT AND THE PRACTICE

EXAMINING STUDIO PRODUCTION AND COMMUNICATIVENESS OF TIV TRADITION CLOTHING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Studio production is the creative activities which takes place within the workroom of an artist or producer. According to (Merriam-Webster) “A studio is “the building or room where an artist works”, while production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output). It is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. (Wikipedia). Therefore, studio production is the process of combining diverse tangible and intangible material inputs in order to create consumable functional and aesthetic items or objects which possesses economic value in an artist workroom.

Kaiser (1997) observed that clothing can be any tangible or material object connected to the human body. Clothing whether sewn or not sewn has symbolic import which facilitate and defines the concepts of a person, people and their culture, social relationship, history, beliefs and their comprehension of human experiences and existence. Clothing offers two fundamental functions for human beings, namely: as a medium or vehicle for communication and as a body modifier. For cloth to serve as a medium of communication which is an integral part of this study, an individual or a culture has to ascribe meaning and symbol to the cloth and over a period of time the symbols and meanings are tied or connected to that individual or particular culture though the meanings could undergo some modification with time and usage. This is the case for studio production and communicativeness of Tiv traditional clothing.

In Tiv society like any other African society their cloth which is an aspect of their art and life share an affinity. Their cloth symbolism serves as an interface by which they gain a lot of insight and comprehension of themselves, the concept of their cloth; their society and larger global society. All these though, no doubt transcend beyond and deeper than the superficial aesthetics of the cloths as they have an innate aesthetics in their symbolism, colour and motifs as well as the meanings and the message they communicate. To understand the meanings and messages they communicate and to appreciate them, their semiotics relevance is imperative, this is because semiotics deals with meaning making, it is a science of signs and symbols in relationship with every human event. It is a focus of enquiry into the manifest and latent meanings of every human phenomenon. In this case, it’s integral part is the replication of Tiv traditional clothing produced in weaving and dyeing techniques in a hand screen-printed fabric surface decoration using same to analyse semiologically and to leave a written document of their semiotics upon which other researchers can build upon with time, since clothing language like any other language is dynamic.

The studio production (screen printing) of these clothing may facilitate the clothing production in large quantity within the shortest possible time compared to weaving which takes many days to produce a complete cloth for an average adult male or female wrap around or dress. The diversification of the products from weaving and dyeing to printing will not make the clothing lose their meanings and aesthetic values but further enhance them. The aesthetic value of a cloth is not only dependent on the methods of production but on other factors like the end use purpose, tensile strength, suppleness of the fibre and cloth, colour fastness, texture, durability, ability to withstand abrasion during scouring, laundry detergents, solvents and chemicals effects, number of yarn twist, temperature and fibre types. Any clothing whether woven by hand or machine, printed by hand or machine must possess if not all, some of the qualities listed above to maintain a high aesthetic value though some cloth are valued more and above others based on functional purpose, design technique and fibre type. Example, fabrics or garments made from animal fibres most often are more esteemed above other garments and fabrics from natural and synthetic fibres.

Omatseye & Emeriewen (2012). State that just like most African visual art forms; the African conception of cloth is created not just to please the eyes. The African cloth has its underlying symbolism which actually takes its root in the people’s values and belief system. In the African belief, cloth goes beyond mere covering of the body, to prevent exposure. There is this inherent aesthetics in its symbolic usage, motifs and colours, and the messages, cloth “speaks”.
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EXAMINING STUDIO PRODUCTION AND COMMUNICATIVENESS OF TIV TRADITION CLOTHING

THE GOAL OF SERIAL ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT OF SERIAL IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One would ask what motivated the researcher to embark on this research work. The answer is simple. The researcher developed keen interest in serials acquisition policy, procedure and management in academic libraries two important factors motivated the researcher to undertake this study first was the acquisition of serials and the inability of librarians to really managed these acquired. Second was the important of serials in libraries.
The role of serials in dissemination of information in academic library system cannot be overemphasized. Like orange juice, milk and bread, information better when it is fresh. Serials from the backbone of any academic library or research library because of their currency in information. In this way, they aid the dissemination of current information.
Information explosion has necessitated an improvement in the gathering, processing and dissemination of information sources in libraries. Hence they could be say to be indispensable in academic libraries. The use of serials in academic research has continued to be on the increase in recent times. This has further necessitated their effective development and management.
The term serials and periodical are synonymous. They are under interchangeably to refers to the materials imprint or non-print form that are produced serially or periodically. As indicated in the Anglo. American cataloguing rule (1978) a serial is a publication in any medium issued in successive part bearing numerical or chronological designation and intend to be continued indefinitely.
The part of serial publication may be published at different materials e.g. daily, weekly, month, bi-monthly, quarterly, annually, bi-annually and so forth by an academic society, a research institution, a learned society, a reputable publishing organization, a professional body. Some serials one published on subject bases while some one on general topic. It is sterility that distinguishes serial publication from book and monographs and it is the periodicity that dictates format and price.
Serials are pointed out lawal (1982) in serial acquisition and management in Nigerian university libraries problems and prospects.
can be regarded as the nerve centre of any university or academic library because they contain the most up to date information or research and knowledge. Hey are useful for study teaching, learning and research purposes, serials includes journals, magazine, newspaper, bulletins, newsletters, memories, report, year book and directories.
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EXAMINATION OF AN ADAPTATION OF WOVEN FABRIC ON BATIK FOR PERSONAL CLOTHING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The textile world is very broad and everyone is dependent on it. Nearly every aspect of our lives uses some form of textile. Imagine what would have happened, if all textiles were removed from our environment. In the home, most furnishings are enhanced with textiles, even woven mosquito net on the windows and around our beds are textile pieces. In the class-room, many books have some form of textile. The car not only has textile upholstery, but the wire in electrical system is insulated in woven cloth. Within the rubber of tyres is either woven steel or fibre glass cloth which gives it strength. Indeed textiles are ever present in our lives.

The most common use of textiles are for clothing and containers such as bags and basket. In homes, they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishing, window shades, towels, covering for tables, beds and other flat surfaces. In work places, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering; Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents; Cleaning devices, such as handkerchiefs and rags; Transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails and parachutes. Children can learn, using textiles to make collages, sew, quilt and toys. Textiles used for industrial purposes and chosen for characteristic other than their appearances include textile structure for aircraft and automotive applications; Medical textiles for example implants; Geotextiles. reinforcement of embankment; Agro textiles e.g. textiles for crop protection; Protective clothing e.g. Clothes worn against heat and radiation, fire fighting clothing, clothes worn against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet- proof vests.

This project therefore is aimed at helping the upcoming textiles students and those interested in textiles and its end products to appreciate the efforts of textile producers, and especially fabrics made in Nigeria. Fabrics have gained so much prominence so much so that its adaptation for interior and domestic usage has brought about great aesthetics and uniqueness. Although, dyed fabrics are generally used for clothing, they have of late become relevant in the area of interior decoration and other domestic usage like shoes, caps etc.

Adaptation in textiles means to modify and suit a particular purpose. While dyeing is the complete immersion of the fabric into a solution containing dyes and chemicals. On the other hand, fabric is referred to as any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further goods like garments e.t.c. PH From the definitions of dyes and fabrics,  the meaning of the term “dyed fabric” can now be easily understood.

Therefore, the title adaptation of woven fabric on batik for personal clothing will no longer be strange. However, in this project the researchers have carefully researched and made successful attempts in the adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal use.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As the title indicates “An adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal clothing” the following are the statement of the problem.

Transportation was also another problem encountered. So trips were made to Benin and Auchi anytime materials were needed coupled with the risk of carrying them.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this study is centered on   enlightening the public on the possibility of the adaptation of woven fabrics on Batik to produce items like dresses, shoes, walking sticks, caps e.t.c.To adapt other usage for textile materials for domestic and household end use To create a means for awareness and marketing for such end-use. To document our findings for future use To encourage new artist into the field of decoration. utilization and adaptation of fabric in other end use than the normal usage that we are used to. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is to see how woven materials or fabric can be adapted into end uses other than familiar usages.

At the end of the research, there will be an exhibition to show case all the beautiful works that were produced in the course of the research.LIMITATION OF STUDY

One of the problems encountered in the course of the research was time. The time was not enough considering the enormity of the project. The production of woven fabrics and it’s adaptation on batik, to produce the end-uses took a lot of time and energy.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Adaptation:      The act of making or becoming suitable for new needs; to change so as to be suitable for new needs.

Batik:               Batik is a fabric dyeing method using wax to create patterns and design.

Weaving           It is the inter-lacing of yarns to form a structure.

Yarn                 Yarns are unprocessed fibres.

Weft                 Weft are those yarns that runs horizontally on the loom.

Warp                Warps are those yarns that are layed vertically on the loom.

Loom                A loom is a device used in weaving to help knit threads together to make a single piece of cloth.
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EXAMINATION OF AN ADAPTATION OF WOVEN FABRIC ON BATIK FOR PERSONAL CLOTHING

AN INVESTIGATION OF ART TEACHING ON THE AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.1          Background to the Study

The Child from birth to adolescence experiences some developmental changes which involves physical, intellectual, social and emotional growth. Although people change throughout their lives, developmental changes are especially dramatic in childhood. During this period, a dependent, vulnerable newborn grows into a capable young person who has mastered language, is self-aware, can think and reason with sophistication, has a distinctive personality and socializes effortlessly with others.

The school should encourage each child to identify with his own experiences. These schools should help the learners to go as far as they can in developing concepts that express their feelings and emotions. Kparevzua (2002) stressed that it is necessary for schools to train children in Art Education to acknowledge the role of art in their society and to broaden their awareness of the values inherent in the arts that are available in society.

While learning, development occurs naturally in young children, they will not occur automatically without conscious contributions from adults either as parents or as teachers (Lansky and Mukherji, 1980). Development according to Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) is related to the gradual increase in skills and abilities that occurs over a lifetime. It is comparing students prior and post knowledge experience and ability to perform, problem solve and understand ideas, concepts in many areas of life. While each person progresses as an individual, the stages of development are similar for almost everyone.





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AN INVESTIGATION OF ART TEACHING ON THE AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IGERIA