PRODUCTION AND USES OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES AN REMOVAL OF BITTERING PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Definition:  Protein hydrolysate could be defined as the end product of protein hydrolysis using chemical and enzymic methods.

Protein hydrolysate have many uses in specialty foods such as non allergenic infant formular, diets foods and other special nutritional foods.

The drawback of many hydrolysates such as Soya or Casein hydrolysates is the bitter taste that develops when they are hydrolysated into small peptides with protease enzymes.

Protein maldigestion which is often associated with cystic fibrosis and allergy to milk protein may be overcome by replacing intact in the diet with synthetic amino acid mixture, or with enzymic protein hydrolysates. Hydrolysates may be the treatment of choice for two reasons. The amino acids and small peptides constituents of protein hydrolysates have been shown to be more readily ascribed from the small intestine than their equivelent pure amino acid mixture, more over, protein hydrolysates are considerably less expensive than synthetic amino acid mixtures. Nonetheless, protein hydrolysates suffer from a serious drawback, namely, the occurrence of a bitter taste which develops during the course of the enzymic hydrolysis.

Murray r (1952) demonstrated that a treatment of enzymic casein hydrolysates with activated carbon resulted in a substantial improvement in the taste of preparations. However, authors regarded this method of improving the taste as impractical due to the simultaneous loss of a large proportion of the hyptophan during treatment. A different approach was presented in move recent studies in which a casein hydrolysate relatively free of bitter taste was obtained by the sequential employment of papa in and of pig’s kidney homogenate – the latter serving as a source of exopeptidases. However, extended time periods of hydrolysis were required, which necessitated the use of dolor form to control bacterial growth.

There is a variety of food and biomedical applications for protein which have been solubilized by enzymatic hydrolysis. Their enhanced solubility, heat stability, and resistance to precipitation in acidic environs, where many proteins are insoluble, offer attractive features to biochemists and nutritionists involve the research and development of high protein food formulations.

Applications of these valuable protein supplements may have merit in the diet of persons with digestive disorders, pre and post operative abdominal surgical patient, geriatric and convalescent feeding , and for other who for various reasons do not ingest a well balanced diet. Unfortunately, the use of enzyme – treated hydrolysates in dietary food applications has in many instances, been limited due to the presence of bitter flovour component. The unpalatability of these hydrolysate  arises mainly from the formation of bitter peptide and amino acids liberated during the hydrolytic process. The bitterness appease to be closely related to the content and sequence of hydrophobic amino acids in the peptides.

Further hydrolysis of pepsin digested soy protein using a bacterial proteins or an exopeptidase, reduced bitterness. Also, chemotropic plastering protein hydrolysates. Similarly, clegg and Mc Millan (1974) have reported that a combination enzyme treatment of case in using papain for 18 hr followed by the addition of a homogenate of swine kidney cortex, also produced a hydrolysate with reduced bitterness.

As another approach to resolving the bitter flavor problem, it seemed reasonable to attempt flavor improvement of protein hydrolysates by reducing the hydrophobic peptide and amino acid content of the digests. It was recognize many years earlier that activated carbon would absorb the aromatic  amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenycalaline. At a later date, Murrgy and Baker utilized carbon to treat a commercial enzymic hydrolysate of casein and reported the taste was greatly improved. A bitter tasting polypeptide fraction was elutated from the carbon.

Various phenol-formaldehyde resins with structures similar to carbon are available commercially and are used in a wide variety of ion-exchange and absorbent applications. Therefore the ability of a phenol-fomaldeliyde resin polymer to interact preferentially with the monoplane groups present in hydrophobic peptide was determined from the findings a hydrophobic chromatography process for debittering protein hydrolysates was developed.
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PRODUCTION AND USES OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES AN REMOVAL OF BITTERING PRINCIPLES

EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND WHEAT BLEND FOR CAKE PRIOR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM)

1.1.1  ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Despite many years of investigation, it has not been possible to determine accurately when and where the first cultivated wheat originated. At the beginning of recorded history, wheat was already an established crop whose origin was unknown (Anon 1953). There is however some evidence that cultivation of wheat started about 6,000 years ago in the 5yria – Palestine area and spread to Egypt, (ran, India, China, Russia, Turkey and Central Europe from where it spread to other countries and continents. Countries that produce wheat today include Russia, Switzer land United State of America, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, Poland, Netherlands, Norway, Swedan, South Africa, Peru, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Newzealand and Nigeria. 9Shellenberger, 1969, Olugbemi etal 1992).

In addition, wheat flour has uniques properties that differs it from other flours in containing a considerable proportion of gluten which makes wheat flour suitable for bread making and other bake products. This composition of gluten present has a bearing on the “strength” and water holding properties of the flour. The two protein that form the greater part of the guten are gluternin and gliadin while the latter appear to be identical in strong and weak wheat, the former exists in different varieties.

1.1.2  STRUCTURE OF WHEAT KERNEL

The main feature of the wheat kernel can be best described in terms of the rounded or dorsal side and a vertical or crease side (Shellenberger, 1969). A deep groove a crease extends the entire length of the wheat kernel. At the apex or the small end of the grain there are many short fine hairs called brush hairs. The outer bran or seed coat consist of three layers known as epidermis.

Wheat grain has the following average percentage composition. Endosperm 85% of the whole grain from which the flour is derived bran 12.5%, germ 2.5%.  the composition of wheat flour however varies considerably according to the class of wheat, its country of origin, proportion of the outer part removed by the particular milling process (Ehias, 1972, Nelson 1985). The outer partcontain more protein, fat fibre and ash then the starchy endosperm. The proportion of each of these constituents decreases as the extraction percentage gets less.

          CULTIVATION OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

It is mostly monocropping in a selected plot of land with suitable sandy soil 82% of households in North central are 67% in kavango planted Bambara groundnut in 1993. Estimating an average  of 1400m2 per farm cropped with Bambara groundnut, the total production areas sums up to  around 3000ha. Production figure are very variable, depending on the rainy season. Due to wide spacing 10 – 12 plants/m2 and lack of improved varieties yield rarely exceed 500kg/ha. Taking 250kg/ha as an overall average of the total production to 750t/year.

This does not satisfy the market requirements and a considerable amount of Bambara groundnut is informally imported from Angola and sold with local materials on tradition markets. Seed size is an important factor for the marketing of Bambara groundnut.

1.1.3  USES

1.       The dried mature seed cab be converted into paste, steamed and eaten with vegetable soup or sauce.  

2.       The form in which the Bambara groundnut seed is commonly consumed is moin-moin usually referred to as ‘Okpa’ in the eastern states of Nigeria.

3.       Dried and roasted Bambara groundnut can be used to make soup, flour and porridge.

1.1.4  USES OF WHEAT AND WHEAT PRODUCTS

1.       Wheat is perhaps the most popular cereal grain for the production of bread, cake and other pastries in baking industries.

2.       Wheat bran is used mainly for the formulation animal feed.

3.       Farinha, shorts, semolina, semovita, flour from wheat are used for other preparation purpose.

4.       It can also be used as an ingredient in breakfast, cereal, macaroni, adhesives and other products.
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EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND WHEAT BLEND FOR CAKE PRIOR

THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF COMPOSITE BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

          Biscuits are the major products produced by the biscuit and crackers industries. Flour confectionery describes a large range of flour based goods other than bread manufactured from batter sponge or dough by mixing, kneading and may be created by fermentation, chemical or other means resulting in puff/flaky short or sweet product. Those that have their moisture content reduced to make them exceptionally brittle or crops are generally regarded as biscuits. (Okaka, 1997)

          The word biscuit come from the Latin word Biscuit meaning twice cooked, baking at high temperature followed by drying at lower temperature (Okaka, 1997). The term biscuit and cookie are synonymous. The American Encyclopedia described biscuit as a form of bread baking soda as a raising agent rather than yeast.

          Biscuit are a common feature of southern us cousine which can be served as a side dish with meal or as a breakfast item. Biscuit is also said to be essentially bakery confectionery dried down to low moisture content name derived from Latin word for twice cooked, made from soft flour, mostly rich in fat and sugar and consequently of high energy content of 420 to 510kcal per 100g they are cherished by people of all ages and used at different meals and occasions as part of breakfast, snacks etc. they are eaten with butter and jam or jelly or as a part of a dish called “Biscuit and gravy”. Biscuits are also eaten covered in pizza sauce and cheese. Many varieties exist, both sweet and savoulry often produced in industrial quantities by large food companies. Sweet biscuit are commonly eaten as snack and may contain chocolate fruit, jam or nuts (peanuts). Savoury biscuits are plainer and commonly eaten with cheese following a meal

          The simplest form of biscuit is a mixture of flour and water but may contain fat sugar and other ingredients mixed together into a dough which is rested for a period, passed between rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out baked, cooled and packaged. Biscuits are generally made from wheat flour but according to the topic of this project, “use of composite blends for biscuit making”. Some raw materials other than wheat have to be used in producing the flour for the biscuits. In order to get a superior product especially for crackers, the following factors are of importance – choice of flour for sponge and dough, selection of fermentation environment and the baking conditions. It is therefore necessary to search for raw materials that give flour of light quality.

          Biscuits are classified based on their degree of enrichment and processing or by the method adopted in shaping them. Based on the enrichment criterion are hard dough, soft dough and batter biscuit respectively. (Okaka; 1997). Soft wheat is used in making flour for most biscuit and the softness is de to lower protein (gluten) content when compared with the hard wheat. Based on this fact, raw materials are chosen from other legumes such as Peanut and Roots such as cassava. Since they contain protein though in lesser quantity and quality.

          Peanuts are one of the leading agricultural crops of the world and belong to the family leguminous. It is a source of edible oil and plant protein. The characteristic feature of legume seed protein is that they are markedly deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Infact, methioine is t he first limiting essential amino acid in almost all the legume grains. Peanuts contain about 26% to 35% protein with the peanut meal containing a large amount of nutritionally essential amino – acid. The seeds are nutritional and contain vitamin E, Niacin, folacin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, riboflavin, thiamine, potassium etc (Ogbo; 2002). Peanut also contain a significant load of  resveratrol, a strong antioxidant which inhibit lipid peroxidation of low – density lipoprotein (LOL), prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized (LDL) and protects cells  against lipid peroxidation. Hydrophilic aid lipophilic properties, it can as well provide more effective protection than other well known antioxidations such as vitamin C and E.

Peanut is used for different purposes, food (raw, roasted or b oiled, cooking oil), animal feed and industrial raw material. There are four varieties of peanut:- Virginia, Peruvian runner, Valencia and Spanish.

Cassava, one of the raw materials is an indigenous and stable food of millions of Nigerian people. The few misconceptions related to cassava especially with regard to its low nutritional value and its toxicity have been effectively challenged by National ad International Research Institutions. National Institutions like University of Agriculture Umedike in Umuahia who have succeeded in producing many Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) varieties with an added advantage of low cyanide.

Despite the obvious advantages of cassava like being easily propagated by stem cutting. Relatively high yielder and excellent source of calories, cassava remained for some time a neglected crop in agricultural research and development activities to an extent not commensurate with its importance as food. However, some developments within the past 15 years have enhanced interest in the crop and research priority has been given to research on its improvement, increased production and utilization.

First, the International Society for Tropical Root and Tubers Crops was founded in 1967 to encourage research, increased production and utilization and exchange of information on tropical root and tuber crops including cassava yams, sweet potatoes and avoids. Second, among the International Institutions (International Institute for Tropical Agriculture – IITA – in Nigeria, and he International Centre for Tropical Agriculture – CIAT in Colombia) that have programmes giving high priority to research on the improvement, production systems, storage and utilization of cassava and other related training.  Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP was also put in place to develop and source for alternative uses of cassava as industrial raw material and create enabling market environment. High Quality unfermented flour”, including fortified cassava flours are now more accessible because of the improved processing and technological methods for processing cassava. These technologies can be used to produce particle / whole substitute for wheat flour from 540 100 percent in bakery and confectionery products such as biscuit, chin-chin etc. and some of these snacks have no noticeable change in texture, flavour, aroma nor colour.
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THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF COMPOSITE BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

INTRODUCTION

In developing countries like Nigeria, complementary foods are mainly based on starch tubers like cocoyam, sweet potato or on cereals like maize, millet and sorghum. Children are normally given these staples in the form of gruels that is either mixed with boiled water (Igyor et al., 2011).

Sorghum is an important food crop grown on a subsistence level by farmers in the semi arid tropics of Africa and Asia. It is the principal food crop grown in Northern Nigeria (Zakari and Inyang, 2008). Sorghum like other cereals is predominantly starchy and remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small _holder farmers in many countries FAO (1999).

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an underutilized legume crop that is predominantly cultivated in Western Africa. It produces nutritious pods, highly portentous seeds and capable of growth in marginal areas where other pulses fail to thrive (Enwere, 1998). It has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demands of the people in this region.

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, freshwater lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the super families Astacoidea and parastacoidea (Hart 1994). The greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in Southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambraridae (Tennessee Aquatic Nuisance 2007). A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, and oxygen rises from underground springs (Thompson et al., 2007).

Since many African mothers use gruels made from sorghum as complementary foods, for their infants, due to their inability to afford the cost of nutritional superior commercial meaning foods, this work was conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish locally formulated into flour blends.

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

To determine the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish.
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EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

Abstract

Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flours blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. Sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

          Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

          Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

          The African yam bean known as Odudu, Azama or Okpodudu by the Igbo’s belongs to the family Febaceae, which was formally classified under the sub-family Papillionoides (Anon, 1979). As a legume, it has an excellent supply of B-vitamins (Apata & Ologhobo, 1990). African yam beam will result in a more nutritious diet / snacks.
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PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF HAZARDS IN THE FOOD PREPARATION AREA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Occupation hazards constitute a major threat to an active workforce. Fricidences such as back pain, contact dermatis, fracture shoulder and wrist problem, cuts and burns and some of the ill-health and injuries suffered by people at work. Valueable man hours are lost from affected staff and in some severe cases, it may lead to permanent disability or death. People from all endeavours suffer or have experienced one form of hazard or another.

The case is no different in the hospitality industry where most of the function require human efforts the kitchen in particular is required as the most dangerous section to work in, strenuous work condition and prolonged hours of work with inadequate rest periods all add up to present an uncomfortable and insecure work environment.

There are various sizes and categories of catering operation most establishments have equipments unskilled to produce as much in order to meet consumer demand the drive in quite service operations in most system has further compounded the hazardous nature of duties considering that employees have to use these equipment in high customer turnover knives, choppers, mixers, mincers, food processors, ovens, strainers and cooking ranges all have inherent harzards from use.

Hazards do not just occur, but are influenced by other factors such as physical environment, poor lighting, ventilation, poor kitchen layout and workflow to happen. In the study of hazards, it has been observed as well that human factors such as loss of concentration haste, chimsy working procedure and not following user instruction all contribution to the incidence of hazards occurring. There is also the issue of poor hygiene which is capable of triggering food safety problem and an endangered work population.

Establishment under the health and safety at work Act of 1974 are mandated to provide safety and welfare facilities that would make the workplace a say and healthy place for its employees. Assessments of hazardous areas of operations should be taken to eliminate or reduce and control the degree and incidence of these hazards. Other appropriate regulation specifying safety requirements in specific areas such as price and first aid have further been improve and commanded.

Within the scope of this study, attempts shall be made to examine critically the causes and prevention of these hazards. Discussion shall feature areas of health and safety, kitchen planning and layout, work flow and other safety measures that can reduce hazards.

1.1FOOD PREPARATION AREA

The food preparation area can be defined as where raw food partly or wholly processed food and hygienically preserved for customers consumption.

The food preparation area has had interesting history from when kitchen were just a part of the house and coding experiences then were better imagined than experience. The sheer discomfort of having to cook in an enclosed part of the hour with smoke in one’s eyes, spillages on the floor and the poorly planned layout of all save early cooks quite a lot of discomfort to contend with. The issue of health and safety of the cook or the food were hardly prominent item.
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CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF HAZARDS IN THE FOOD PREPARATION AREA

EFFECT OF NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) ON FOOD INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Concern about the wholesomeness and safety of our foods has increased dramatically, particularly in those countries where food shortage is not a problem.   Increasing understanding of, and interest in technological matters on the part of the consumer and organized consumer groups, coupled with a recognition that neither government nor industry can guarantee the safety of food, have lent support to this concern.  Our food present dilemma is that technology has opened our eyes of possible dangers of which were once blissfully ignorant.  It has done so on two fronts.  First, it has enabled us to measure in trace quantities, substances that previously went undetected, and we have begun to recognize that many of these substances form the natural background of our food supply.  But perhaps more important, it has increase our awareness of the universe of possible affliction and their apparent causes.  No longer do we focus our fear on acute, lethal effects.  We now worry about the insidious chronic effects which rub us our health and diminish the quality of our lives.

Various forms of adulteration exists in food trade.  For example, textured vegetable protein may be substituted for meat, or bean flour may be adulterated with other cheaper flour.  In certain instances more costly vegetable oils have been diluted with cheaper ones or with non – edible oils resulting in cases of food poisoning with lethal consequences.  Such practices must be curbed and any control measures on food should prohibit and penalize any such acts.  Hence, the need for a food regulatory body.

Regulatory aspect of food is, in the main, an attempt to protect the health and pocket of the consumer, and to simplify trade at both the domestic and international levels.  The policy designed for a food, invariably is derived from the various quality control measures which are exercised in the production, sale or importation of food.  In other to achieve this, food laws must be enacted that will make provision for the legislating on the presence of poisonous materials in food, prohibit adulteration in any form and disallow the advertisement of misleading claims.  It must also permit compositional, hygienic and labeling requirements to be stipulated, and the presence and amount of additives to be controlled.  Provision must also be made to check dumping and for relevant regulation to he made.  The penalties for infringement must be spelt out and these should be sufficiently stringent so as to be an effective deterrent.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUGS ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL   

In a country like ours, which wants to stop the dumping of counterfeit and substandard products to avoid the purchase and consumption of unwholesome regulated products, it is necessary to regulate such products. NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUGS ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) is therefore, saddled with the responsibility of safeguarding the health of Nigerians through the fight against the manufacture, important, distribution and sale of substandard drug and unwholesome food products in Nigeria.

Therefore, the objective of NAFDAC is the promotion and protection of the health of the Nigerian consumers as well as ensuring rational and fair practices in commerce in the materials covered by the decree through which they are established.

1.3   GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL AGENCY    FOR FOOD AND DRUGS ADMINISTRATION AND    CONTROL

According to (Section 5 of Decree No. 15 of 1993) the agency have the following functions:

a.           Regulate and control the importation, exportation, manufacture, advertisement, distribution, sale and use of food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, bottled water and chemicals.
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EFFECT OF NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) ON FOOD INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

INVESTIGATION ON THE OCCURENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN YOGHURT SOLD

ABSTRACT

24 samples of different brands of yoghurt were collected from 2 popular Lagos market and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for the determination of heavy metals i.e. Lead, Cadmium and Chromium.   100% of the samples were found to have the concentration of heavy metals below the safe limit recommended by world health Organization (WHO).  The concentration of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium fall between 0.52ppm – 0.92ppm, 0.14ppm – 0.49ppm and 0.26ppm – 0.75ppm respectively.  The group mean of concentration of each elements (Lead, Cadmium and Chromium) in all brands are 0.70ppm, 0.27ppm and 0.41ppm respectively.  This findings suggest that the concentration of all the heavy metals in yoghurt falls within the safe limits.  The recommended Lead (pb), Cadmium and Chromium are 0.2 – 2.0ppm, 0.5ppm and 1.0ppm respectively according to World Health Organisation, but the relatively increase of Lead (pb) in yoghurt could be attributed to the industrialized status of Lagos State which if not checked might lead to greater value eventually.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Increasing industrialization has been accompanied throughout the world by the extraction and distribution of mineral substances from their natural deposits.

Following concentration, many of these undergone chemical changes through technical processes and finally pass by way of effluent, sewage dumps and dust into the water, the earth and the air and thus into the food chain.

The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at high concentrations. Examples of heavy metals include Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Thallium (Ti). Heavy metals are natural components of the earth’s crust.  They cannot be degraded or destroyed.  To a small extent they enter bodies via food, drinking water and air.  For food analyst they are termed contaminants which are undesirable materials, which have been added to advertently before, during or after processing of foods.  Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate.  Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of the chemical in biological organism overtime compared to the chemical concentration in the environment, compounds accumulate in living things anytime they are take up and stored faster than they are broken down or excreted.

During the early life most substances that people were likely to encounter in their daily lives were derived with little modification from the earth, the animals, vegetables, crops or the mineral sources. Today, there is an extensive existence of synthetic chemical in the environment a class, which was not present until their creation by human scientific and industrial effort.  The domination of chemicals is increasing in our lives, can we imagine life without Agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, preservatives, colourants, plastics, etc. (Envis Newsletter, 2002).  Heavy metals can enter a waste or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and many heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers and ground water. The presence of the most undesirable elements in foods can usually be attributed to any of the following causes:

·        Natural occurrence e.g. deposition in the liver of animals.

·        Sprays used as insecticides during cultivation e.g. Lead arsenate.

·        Accidental contamination due to confusion of materials of similar appearance.
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INVESTIGATION ON THE OCCURENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN YOGHURT SOLD

IRRADIATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Food Irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation to disinfect, sanitize, sterilize, preserve food or to provide insect disinfestation. (wikipedia.org)

Food irradiation is sometimes referred to as cold pasteurization or electronic pasteurization to emphasize its similarity to the process of pasteurization. Like pasteurization of milk and pressure cooking of canned foods, treating food with ionizing radiation can kill bacteria and parasites that would otherwise cause food borne diseases.

By irradiating food, depending on the dose, some or all of the microbes, fungi, viruses or insects present are killed. This prolongs the life of the food in cases where microbial spoilage is the limiting factor in shelf life. Some foods (e.g. herbs and spices) are irradiated at such high doses (5kGy or more) that they show microbial counts reduced by several orders of magnitude. It has also been shown that irradiation can delay the ripening or sprouting of fruits and vegetables and replace the need for pesticides.

Studies have shown that when Irradiation is used as approved on foods:

·                    Disease-causing germs are reduced or eliminated.

·                    The food does not become radioactive

·                    Dangerous substances do not appear in foods

In the food industries, specific types of radiation treatments are used, they are Radurization, Radicidation, and Radappertization. However, in the actual process of irradiation, three different irradiation technologies are used namely; gamma irradiation, electron-beam irradiation and x-ray radiation.

The dose of irradiation is usually measured in a unit called the Gray, abbreviated (Gy). This is a measure of the amount of energy transferred to food, microbes or other substances being irradiated. To measure the amount of irradiation something is exposed to, photographic film is exposed to irradiation at the same time.

The killing effect of irradiation on microbes is measured in D-values. One D-value is the amount of irradiation to kill 90% of that organism. For example, it takes 0.3kGy to kill 90% of Escherichia Coli, so the D-value of E.coli is 0.3 kGy.

A distinctive logo has been developed for use on food packaging, in order to identify a product as irradiated. This symbol is called the “radura” and is used internationally to mean that the food in the package has been irradiated.

1.2FOOD IRRADIATION DEVELOPMENTS

There is a widening gap in the less developed countries (LDC’s) of Africa, Asia and Latin America between the growth rates of population and food production. Yet, in LDC’s over a quarter of the harvested food is lost due to wastage and spoilage. In Nigeria, very high losses of foods, especially highly perishable foods such as fish, fruits, vegetable and some dietary staples such as yam, maize, millet and sorghum occur in the time lag between harvest and consumption and during storage. There is, therefore, the need for greater utilization of the available appropriate technologies of food preservation in these countries (Aworh, 1986).

In the last three decades a new technology, food irradiation, has been developed which has the potential of reducing food losses in LDC’s (Aworh, 1986).

Research on Food irradiation dates back to the turn of the 20th century. The first US and British patents were issued for use of ionizing radiation to kill bacteria in foods in 1905. Food irradiation gained significant momentum in 1947 when researchers found that meat and other foods could be sterilized by high energy and the process was seen to have potential to preserve food for military troops in the field. To establish the safety and effectiveness of the irradiation process, the U.S. Army began a series of experiments with fruits, vegetables, dairy products, fish ,meat in the early 1950’s. (www.ccr.uc davis.edu).

In 1958, Congress gave the FDA authority over the food irradiation process under the 1958 Food Additive Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The FDA has approved food irradiation process for wheat, potatoes, pork, spices, poultry, fruits, vegetables and red meat

Food irradiation was recognised by the United Nations which established the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. Their first meeting was in 1964. The committee concluded in 1980 that “irradiation of foods up to the dose of 10kGy introduces no special nutritional or microbiological problems”.
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IRRADIATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

NUTRITIONAL DISORDER COMMONLY FOUND IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Nutritional disorder can be defined as the disease caused by nutritional imbalance, either over nutrition or under nutrition.  Nutritional disorder may result from eating too much of little of foods of a particular nutrients such as vitamins or minerals.  (www.studenttechnology.com.). When food lack one or more of the common nutrients in food, one disease condition or another may result.  These diseases are called “deficiency  disease”.  (Akinjayeju,  1999).

Under nutrition as nutritional deficiency, refers to any change in the structure or function of body cells and tissues as a results of lack of one or more nutrients and or calories in the body.   Nutritional deficiencies are of two main types namely:- Primary and Secondary deficiency.  The nature and types of deficiency diseases that may occur depends on the type of nutrient the body lacks.  (Akinjayeju, 1999).

The most common deficiency disease is that relating to inadequate protein in diet and general shortage or lack of food thereby resulting in the inability to meet body’s energy requirements.  Such, diseases is referred to as protein calorie – malnutrition (PCM).  This diseases is common in infant and children, especially those below age six where it manifests as either Kwashiorkor (as a result of low intake of protein or deficiency of certain essential amino acid) or marasmus caused by energy and protein shortage. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder can affect any system in the body and the sense of sight, taste and smell.  Malnutrition begins with changes in nutrient level in blood and tissues

In addition to the deficiency diseases, there are certain specific nutritional disorders, which are of great concern in developing countries including Nigeria.  The World Health Organisation has identified three of such nutritional diseases, which she said deserves special attention and highest priority on a global referred to as “hidden hunger” include -: Iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency, vitamin c deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and iodine deficiency disorder. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder are caused by various means or ways which may include the Lack of food and poverty.  There are different symptoms of malnutrition depending on what nutrients are deficiency in the body and they include:- Fatigue, Dizziness, Anaemia, Diarrhea, Goiter etc. 

The importance of nutritional assessment cannot be overstressed since it serves some useful purposes.  When nutritional assessment is properly made, it enables the identification of the nutrient(s) whose supply is adequate or inadequate and makes appropriate decision in relation to the scope of the nutritional supports that is necessary.  In addition, when such nutritional supports is finally given further assessment allows for proper evaluation of its effectiveness and success. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Thus, the aims of this project includes:-

(1)        To identify some nutritional disorders prevalent in Nigeria in a bid to assess their effects.

(2)        To recognize the causes of such disorders

(3)        To outline the possible prevention of such nutritional disorders.
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NUTRITIONAL DISORDER COMMONLY FOUND IN NIGERIA ]

PROXIMATE AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF HONEY

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION 
Honey is as old as written history dating back to 2100 BC where it was mentioned Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, the Hittie code and then sacred writings of India and Egypt it is presumably even older than that. It names from English living and it was the first and most wide spread sweetener used by man, legend has it that cupid dipped his love arrows in honey before aiming at unsuspecting lovers. In the old testament of the Bible, Israel was often referred to as the land of milk and honey. “Mead, an alcoholic drink made from honey was called nectar of the goods” high praise indeed. Honey was valued highly and often used as a form of currency tribute or offering. In the 4th century A. D German peasants paid their feudal Lords in honey and beeswax. Although experts argue whether the honeybee is native to the Americas, conquering spanards in 1600 AD found Mexicans and Central Americans had already developed bee keeping method to produce honey.

In ancient days, honey has been used not only in food and beverages, but also to make cement in furniture polishes and varnishes and for medicinal purposes. And of course, bees perform vital senlice of pollinating fruits, legumes and other types of food producing plants in the course of their business of honey production. Honey was pronounced in English (hnni) is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees i.e. (GenusApis) is the most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by bee keepers and consumed by human. Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation, and store it as a primary food source wax honey combs inside the beehive. Beekeeping practices encourage over production of honey so the excess can be taken from the colony.

Honey acts its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavours that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweetness. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity (9w) of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death. Honey has a long history of human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavouring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism, flavours of honey varies based on the available. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat ailments. The study of pollens and spores in raw honey (mellissopalynology) can determine the floral source of honey. Because bees carry an Electrostatic charge and can attract other particles, the same techniques of melissopalynology can be used in area environmental studies of radioactive particles dust or particulate pollution.
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PROXIMATE AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF HONEY

EXAMINATION AND THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN THE WELL-BEING OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS (UNDERGRADUATES)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Good nutrition is necessary for good health and concern with food is important if certain illnesses are to be prevented. Good nutrition is closely associated with good health – how you look and feel, how well you perform mentally and physically at work or at home. The body is made up of many materials. These can be supplied by a wide variety of foods to ensure good health. The body is, broadly speaking, the product of its nutrition. You are what you eat. Therefore, it is important that daily decision-making on this important aspect of health be properly guided and should not be based on wrong influences. A person’s diet is made up of the food they eat. Nutrition is the way that food people eat nourishes their bodies. Good nutrition means your body is getting all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to work at its best level. Eating a healthy diet is your main way to get good nutrition.

These diets should maintain growth, encourage health and be satisfying, as nutrition for undergraduates is important to the way their bodies are shaped for the rest of their lives. Nutrition is what you eat and how your body uses it. It is your total daily food intake transformed into physical appearance, energy, growth and countless other body functions. Happily, your nutrition is in your hands. Your decisions really count when it comes to the food you eat. Whether you buy and prepare food to be eaten at home or you eat out, you are faced with important food choices.           
The basic function of food is to keep us alive and healthy to grow and to reproduce.

Food contains nutrients – components that contribute to, and in some cases uniquely provide for, biochemical and physiological functions in the body. Foods may also include non-absorbed components which may influence bowel health and function e.g. some phenolic compounds such as tannins and classes of non-starch polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose). Food may also include contaminants from unusual soil types or from industrial pollution. Heavy metals, radioactive isotopes, and microbial contamination all have potential negative health effects. Foods contain a variety of compounds which can be absorbed and which have important biological effects e.g. caffeine.           

Different age groups have different nutritional needs and people’s diets should meet these specific needs. For example, the nutritional needs and diet of a pregnant woman are different from those of an elderly man. Likewise, an infant needs a different diet and nutrition than a teenager. Each of us has different nutritional needs, and these needs are constantly changing. Children’s needs are dictated, in part, by their growth patterns. Adult needs change with age. One set of rules simply cannot apply to everyone. In addition, factors such as a person’s height and current weight, current health status, and activity level also affect what kind of nutrients they need and how much they need.           

Optimal nutrition is critical for the development, growth and overall health of undergraduates. It helps ensure optimal cognitive and physical development, prevent sickness and illness and promote overall well-being (Nicklas and Johnson,2004). Despite the benefits of healthy eating, only 30% of youths meet the dietary recommendations for fruits, grains, meat and dairy and 36% for vegetables (Munoz, Kerbs-Smith, Ballard & Cleveland, 1997), based on the Food Guide Pyramid. Further, 16% of youths did not meet any recommendations, and a merger 1% met all recommendations (Munoz et el, 1997).   
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EXAMINATION AND THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN THE WELL-BEING OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS (UNDERGRADUATES)

ANALYSIS OF FISH FLOUR OBTAINED FROM THREE FISH SPECIES AND THEIR PROXIMATE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
Food is a biological material which has aesthetic appeal, good organoleptic qualities, which when ingested, digested and absorbed by the body will supply the needed nutrients for growth, maintenance of health and support of other metabolic activities within the body system. There are two major sources of food as a biological material, these include food from plant and animal sources food for plant sources include cereal, roots, tuber, pulses etc. while those from animal sources include meat, milk, eggs, fish etc. 
Food commodities of animal origin are of utmost importance in diets due to the presence of a variety of essential nutrients. The essential nutrient which this group of food commodities are noted is protein, which is the only nutrient that takes pant in all the functions which nutrients perform in the body. Even though plant food commodities like cereals and legumes, have appreciable amounts of protein in varying quantities, such proteins are of lower quality compared to that of animal sources due to the deficiency of plant protein in certain essential amino acids like lysinc, methionine and cysterine. Methionine and cysterine on the other hand, animal protein has a full complement of all essential amino acids, food play a major role in our physical and mental well-being and it is needed to nourish the body and also plays a significant role in our social life protein from animal origin are referred to as complete proteins. 


Fish is an aquatic animal used as human food after processing. All true fish muscles is typical striated like other animal foods is a good source of protein of high biological value. However, unlike that of meat, the protein in fish contains small amount of connective tissues (which bind the muscle fibres together), but contains no elastin (the material the wall of the fibres is made of) this makes the cooking of fish muscle faster, and the cooked fish muscle more easily digested compared to that of meat. Fish varieties that are high in fat, e.g salmon, tuna and herring supply considerable amounts of energy from the fat, which is dispersed throughout the fish, flesh, and therefore normally invisible, unlike that fat deposited in meat carcass. Also, over 70% of protein comes from animal sources in developed countries. Generally animals fats contain more percentage of saturated fatty acids while vegetables of plants oils have a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Protein from animal sources are of better quality than those from plant sources, since they are complete proteins while vegetable proteins are incomplete proteins in that they are deficient in one or more essential amino acids. Fish are good suppliers of phosphorus and iron, but very little calcium, unless the bones are eaten. The fatty fish are also valuable sources of fat soluble vitamins, especially A and D. the cod liver is particularly high in these soluble vitamins. (Adepeju, 2010).  


1.1     Fish Protein Concentrate 
Fish protein concentrate (FPC) is any stable fish preparation intended for human consumption in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish. It is accepted as human food and not animal food while fish meal is not accepted as human food because of its comparatively poor flavor stability in general requiring antioxidants for flavor maintenance, its odor and also the fact that many countries will not permit the sale of foods made from unwholesome raw materials e.g fish guts. One way of supplementing the nutritional deficiency of a cereal diet lies in eating fish which supply high quality protein. Fish protein concentrate resolves the high problem in finding an inexpensive way of nutritional supplement.  
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ANALYSIS OF FISH FLOUR OBTAINED FROM THREE FISH SPECIES AND THEIR PROXIMATE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

EXAMINATION OF COMPOSITE JAM PRODUCED FROM FOUR (4) DIFFERENT TROPICAL FRUITS

CHAPTER ONE
1.1     INTRODUCTION
Jam is a shelf-stable food product from fruit pulp, pectin and sugar cooked to form a gel. Fleshy or pulpy fruits such as pineapple, pawpaw, orange, Apple, banana and mango etc or combination of these fruits are usually employed. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct part of fruit, a bright colour, good fruit flavour and jam jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid. (Nickerson 1998) Jam is a form of fruit preservation through the use of high concentration of sugar, hence jam can be classified as sugary food, and however their quality characteristics may be more easily determined from their relationship with fruit rather than with sugar. It is the product made by cooking fruit pulp to a suitable consistency. (Nickerson 1998)  Perfectly ripe and unblemished fruits are suitable for jam production because they have the best levels of pectin and a finest flavor. Pectin is important to the jam’ set, low pectin fruit like strawberries need extra pectin (from peel of unripe lemon or pectin enriched sugar) to attain a spreadable consistency.           
Composite jam i.e. combination of two or more fruits to produce jam such as mango, pawpaw, pineapple, etc improve the nutritive content of the final product and as well create food variety for breakfast menu. Although producing of composite Jam requires careful handling and good technical know how which in the long run is a beneficial and worthwhile venture. 
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim and objective of this research work is to produce four types of composite jam from combination of Pineapple, Apple, Orange and Banana at different proportion and carry out sensory evaluation to determine which of the fruit combination is most preferred as suitable composite jam by panel of judges
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EXAMINATION OF COMPOSITE JAM PRODUCED FROM FOUR (4) DIFFERENT TROPICAL FRUITS

BAKING OF BREAD USING BLEND OF WHEAT FLOUR AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR

CHAPTER ONE
PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAD USING BLENDS OF WHEAT AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOURs
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BREAD: Bread is the loaf that results from the baking of dough which is obtained form a mixture of flour, salt, sugar, yeast and water. However, other ingredient like milk, sugar and egg etc may be added. Due to increasing population, urbanization and change in food habits, consumption of leavened bread has increased tremendously in developing countries in recent years (Eggleston, 2005) It is however relatively expensive being made from wheat which is as a result of climatic reasons does not grow well in the tropics and has to be imported ( Edema, Etal 2004) efforts has been made to promote the use of composite flour in which flour from locally grown crops and high protein seeds replace a portion of wheat for use in bread. Thereby decreasing the demand for imported wheat and producing protein enriches bread ( Giami, etal 2004). Although wheat flour is the indispensable ingredient in leavened bakery products flours and meals from many other grains are frequently used as ingredients for the purpose of enhancing flavour or colour and improving nutritional aspect ( Samuel, 2004). The predominance of wheat flour for baking of  levened breads due to the properties of its elastic gluten protein, which helps in producing a relatively large loaf volume with a regular finely crumb structure. If the wheat flour used in bread making is to be substituted with flour produced from other crops, they must be milled to acceptable baking quality. However such products  cannot compare favourably with wheat flour product and therefore can only be referred to as non- wheat bread  or named after their flour sources ( Opara Etal 2005).    
1.2     NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BREAD per 100g
Carbohydrates                    41g 
Dietary fiber                         7g 
Fat                                         3g 
Protein                                 13g 
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)        0.4mg(35%) 
Riboflavin ( Vitamin B2)    0.2mg(17%) 
Niacin (Vatamin B3)            4.7mg(31%) 
Sodium                                472mg(31%)  
1.3     TYPES OF BREAD
We have two main type of bread White Bread Brown Bread 
–        White Bread: Is made from flour containing  only the central core of the grain ( endosperm). 
–        Brown Bread: Is made with endosperm and 10% brain ( pieces of grain husk separated from flour after milling. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring often caramel colouring) to make it brown e.g. wheat bread .  
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BAKING OF BREAD USING BLEND OF WHEAT FLOUR AND FERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR

THE IMPORTANT OF NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND CYANOGENIC CONTENT OF GARI SAMPLES IN OSUN STATE

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION Cassava is an important source of food in Africa as an important source of raw materials for the industries. More than any other crop in Africa, cassava has assumed great importance in Africa Agriculture and food supply. The reasons for this are because of the following features which cassava posses. 
(i)                Cassava is highly adaptable to wild Agro-ecological conditions and gives relatively high yield on poor soil. 
(ii)             Cassava has high drought tolerance and can survive the long dry season characteristics of many parts of Africa. 
(iii)           Cassava has no fixed planting and harvesting time and its production require relatively low skill. 
(iv)           Cassava is relatively tolerant to common pest, which devastate other crops easily. 
In spite of the above advantages, cassava has some limitations which affects is utilization and militates against its marketing beyond its region of propagation. These limiting factors include the following; 
a)     After harvesting, cassava deteriorates very fast than other roots and tuber i.e. it has poor post harvest keeping qualities. 
b)    Cassava is bulky to transport and storage. 
c)     Cassava, like some other crops e.g. sorghum contains some potentially toxic component,  referred to as cyanogenic glucoside or linamarine 
d)    Cassava has low protein content.           
Because of the above limitations, there are some myths that are being propagated by enemies of cassava. Some of these myths are
 i)      That cassava is an inferior food crops. This is lie being propagated about cassava. The propagation of this myth support their carat with the fact that cassava consume it for its high energy content therefore because cassava is an important source of carbohydrate and energy it is wrong to claim that it is an inferior food.
ii)    Another myth is that it is a woman’s crop. The reason for this myth is the believed that only women are involve in the cultivation and processing of cassava. It is known today however that men and women, children and adult are involved in cultivation and processing of cassava. 
iii)              That cassava is a dangerous and toxic crop. This is a lie too because cassava contains no toxin. 
Cassava only contains some cyanogenic glucosides e.g. linamarine which when hydrolyzed yield the toxic hydrogen cyanide. It should be noted that there are other crops apart from cassava e.g. sorghum which contain cyanogenic glucoside and these other crops are not been labeled as dangerous crop. within the past 30 years, however and mostly through the effort of IITA, cassava cultivars with low cyanogenic glucoside content have now been popularized. 
Consequently, this project is designed to achieve the following aim and objectives.  
i)       To collect samples of gari from Gari processing centres in Osun State.
ii)      To evaluate the nutritional and cyanogenic contents of Gari samples collected. 
iii)     To compare the results of evaluation with the standard.
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THE IMPORTANT OF NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND CYANOGENIC CONTENT OF GARI SAMPLES IN OSUN STATE

EFFECTS OF THREE SELECTED SPICES: ALLIGATOR PEPPER, CLOVES AND GINGER ON THE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF KUNUN-ZAKI

CHAPTER ONE     
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Kunun-zaki is a traditionally fermented non-alcoholic beverage that originates from the Northern part of Nigeria which can be produced either from millet, sorghum or maize. Kunun-zaki is a Hausa word meaning “sweet beverage,” It is now widely consumed in several parts of Nigeria owning to its refreshing qualities (Osuntogun and Aboaba, 2004). The beauty of the acceptability of kunun-zaki is the fact that it is acceptable by the two dominants religious groups (Christians and Muslims). This is because it is used as substitute for alcoholic drinks. This beverage has been found to be highly nutritious and medicinal (Goffa and Ayo, 2002). Kunun-zaki can be consumed at anytime of the day by both the adult and children. It can be taken as breakfast drinks or food complement.

It is also a refreshing drink that can be used to entertain visitors and serve as appetizer in social gatherings (Amusa and Ashaye, 2009). Kunun-zaki has poor keeping qualities which may be due to faulty processing and storage, since product is essentially a home based industry and at present, there is no large-scale factory production. This results to its proneness to microbial contamination by Lactobacillus fermentum and L. leichmannii which dominates its fermentation (Efiuvwevwere and Akoma, 1995). Food additives are used for various technological functions like improving the nutritional qualities, organoleptic properties and general acceptability of food. They also perform a variety of useful functions in food that are often taken for granted. For example, it helps keep food wholesome and appealing en-route to market.

Which can be some thousand of miles away from where it is produced or manufactured (US FDA, 1992)? Chemical or synthetic additives have been the major means of preserving foods for a long time. They are however limited in their ability to preserve foods without altering its quality parameters such as flavours, aroma and in many cases the chemical compositions. Complaints resulting from the use of synthetic additives ranges from mild one such as nausea, diarrhea and shortness of breath or even total shock after consuming such foods to life threatening disease such as cancer (US FDA, 1992).  As a result, the safety of some of these additives has become the public concern and the requirement for pre-market approval and monitoring of these substances has continued to make them issue of significance (Roller, 2003). 

There is a global concern about chemical residues in foods especially during storage. Consumers demand for food products with fewer synthetic additives and at the same time increased safety, quality and shelf life (Roller, 2003). Unlike in the past, consumers are more concerned about what they consume and the world is going more natural than it used to be. Many edible plants that contain complex compounds have been found to be having fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which can be extracted for use. Some have been identified and tests were conducted to establish their efficacy and suitability. There are high demands for minimally processed, fresh-like food products with high sensory and nutritional qualities. There is a growing interest in non thermal processes e.g. pulse field, dense gasses, high pressure technology for food processing and preservation (Ade-Omowaye, 2002).           


The quest for natural products has led to the introduction of ‘nutra ceuticals’ which is a term used for food or part of a food that allegedly provides medicinal or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of diseases. Stephen De Felice coined the term from ‘Nutrition’ and ‘Pharmaceuticals’ in 1989. The result is a word that refers to dietary or nutritional ingredients that promote optional health (Kalna, 2003). Quite a number of works has been done at maximizing the utilization of some natural additives, since they have been discovered to function quite well. The antimicrobial, antioxidative and preservative effect of a number of natural additives has been explored. Fruits, vegetable, spices, nuts, seeds, leaves, roots and bark have been exploited as natural sources of preservatives (Kalra, 2003).   
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EFFECTS OF THREE SELECTED SPICES: ALLIGATOR PEPPER, CLOVES AND GINGER ON THE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF KUNUN-ZAKI

EFFECT OF SPICES EXTRACT GINGER, EXTRACT GARLIC AND SALT CONCENTRATION ON THE MICROBIAL LOAD OF LOCUST BEAN SEEDS (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA)

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION
The high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several leguminous seed proteins as potential sources of vegetable protein for human food and livestock feed. Among the plant species, gain legumes are considered as the major source of directly proteins. They are consumed would wide, especially in developing and under developed countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural or religious factors (Esenwah and Lkenebomeh, 2008). Locust bean is proteins Protein-Eenergy-Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious problem facing most developing nations as a result of inadequate in take of good quality protein source such as meat, fish and poultry product, which are out of reach to many populaces due to poor economy increase in population pressure and others natural calamities such as drought and flood ladeji et al., 1995; Nordeide et al, 1996). In these nations about 60% of the population suffers PEM, which results to high rate of mortality, permanent brain damage and decrease in learning capability of children (Abdullahi, 2000). Apart from protein, legumes provide a high proportion of complex carbohydrates, starch, edible oil ,fibre (Pirman et al, 2001,  Chau et al; 1998).

African locust bean seeds are rich in protein and usually fermented to a tasty food condiment called dawadawa which is used as a flavour intensifier for soups and stews and also adds protein to a protein – poor diet. Among the leguminous plants used by man particularly in some African countries, is the African locust bean tree (Parkiabiglobosa). The seeds are well known for their uses in the production of local condiment commonly known as Dadadawa (Hausa) or Iru (Yoruba). Furthermore, Parkia biglolose is such plant legumes with an outstanding protein quality and its protein and amino acid composition has been reported (Nordeide et al., 1996; Ega et al., Glew et al., 1997; Cook et al., 2000; lockeett et al., 2000). However, much research work has been done on the effect preservative of soy-Iru with either salt or ginger but not on processed Iru parkia biglobosa with different species and salt. In locust bean spoilage is detercoration of food by bacteria then, locust been can be contaminated with pathojenic bacteria produce food intioxication and infection (Adams and Moss. 1999). Therefore, these is need to reduce the load and hamful effect of these pathogenic bacteria in locust bean in other to fit for consumption and to enhance its safety in consumer. This could be done by using different species extract (ginger, garlic, and salt-concentration in locust beans)

  
1.1     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i.    To determine the microbiological effect of ginger on processed Iru (Parkia biolobosa). 
ii.   To determine the microbiological effect of garlic on processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa). 
iii.  To determine the microbiological effect of salt concentration on processed Iru. 
iv.  To evaluate the best preservative in processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa). 
v.   To evaluate the no of bacterial load in processed. To evaluate the bacterial load in processed Iru with salt, ginger and garlic.
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EFFECT OF SPICES EXTRACT GINGER, EXTRACT GARLIC AND SALT CONCENTRATION ON THE MICROBIAL LOAD OF LOCUST BEAN SEEDS (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA)

STUDYING THE EFFECT AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

CHAPTER ONE 
1.0     INTRODUCTION 
Tigernut (cyperus esculentus) is an underutilized crop which belongs to the division magnolophyta, classliliosida, order – cyperales and family cyperaceae (family) and was found to be a cosmopholitan, perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant of her names of the plant are earth almond as well as yellow nut grass. (Codoemelan, 2003; Belewu and Belweu 2007). Tigernut has been cultivated since early times for the its small tuberous rhizornes which are eaten raw or roasted used as hogfeed or pressed for its juice to make a severage. Non – drying oil (usually called chufa) is equally obtained from the rhizome. (umerie and emebli 1998). The nut was found to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid, lin oleic acid. In Egypt, it is used as a source of food, medicine and perfumes (De varies, 1991). Tigernut is commonly known as earth almond, chufa and chew – fa and Zulu nuts. It is known in Nigeria as Aya in Hausa, Ofio, Imumu in Yoruba and Akiausa in Igbo where three varieties (black, brown and yellow) are cultivated. Among these only two varieties because of its inherent properties like its bigger size, attractive colour and flesher.

The yellow variety also yields more milk upon extraction, contains lower fat and more protein and possess less anti – nutritional factors especially polyphenols  (Oladele and Aina, 2007). Tigernut can be eaten raw, roasted, dried, baked or be made into refreshing beverage called Horchata De Chufa or tigernuts. Tigernut milk is a very nutritive and an energetic drink both for young and old. It is a tremendous high in starch, glucose and proteins. Also rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorus, vitamin E and C. Tigernut milk contain a large amount of oleic acid and is cardiac preventive. (Okezie and Bello, 1998). It defend the internal mechanisms and prevents both constipation and diarrhea. Tigers have long been recognized for their health benefits on the account of their high fibre and sugar contents. Cyperus esculentus (Tigernuts) is a perennial growing to 0.9m (3ft) at a fast rate. It is hardly to zone B. the flowers are harmaphrodise (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by wind (Perera and Hoover 1998).

Suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil suitable PH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in shade. It prefers moist or wet soil. Edible uses; tuber – raw, cooked or dried and ground into a powder (Juliano, 1992). They are also used in confectionary, a delicious nut – like flavour (Oladele and Aina, 2007) but rather chewy and with a tough skin. They taste best when dried. They can be cooked in barley water to give them a sweet flavour and then be used as a dessert nut. A refreshing beverage is made by mixing and ground tubers with water, cinnamon, sugar, vanilla and ice. The ground up tuber can also be made into plant milk with water wheat and sugar. An edible oil is obtained from the tuber, it is considered to be a superior oil that compares favorably with olive oil. The roasted tubers are coffee substitute (Torrie, 1996). The base of the plant can be used in salad. This probably means the base of the leaf steams.   
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STUDYING THE EFFECT AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

EXAMINATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAW AND COOKED WALNUT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION 
Nut crops such as walnut (juglas Nigra) and pecans (carya illinoenosis) have potential for small parts of Virginia. Growing and handling are specialized, and while marketing is hands oriented, demand can be good For fresh high quality nuts used both for eating out of hands and for cooking purposes (Carlson  Jones 1940) there are many different edible net species found and gathered in the wild such as hickory (Shell Dark – Shag Dark, Carya sp) chest nut (Juglan Cineralal) is another once plentiful native nut but because of chest nut Blight Diseases, it is now a rare found in the woods (Cornel Disnmic Johnson 1970) English walnut also called (Carpathan Peisan Walnut, Juglaus regia) almond  ( prunus amygida cus ) and nazdnut (corylvs avellena) represent significant activated and nut production, yet they are limited to specific adaptive areas. 

California the leading producer of English walnut as well as almonds, while Oregon growers produce 95% of all hazel/nuts (lmore in 1977). In the east, hazelnut are also retrend to as fiibrerts and there are several wild species found with a slumbly habits of growth. Nut production on Eastern filberts is variable and highly affected by weather conditions in the winter typically flowers (cat kins) open in late winter to yearly spring and thought frost tolerant, they can be damaged by hand freezing weather (Hamel,   Dictoskey 1975) Commercially sputhern pecan (also known as paper sheel type) is the most important nut crop for the Eastern US, followed by wild gathered natives black walnuts the pecan industry is centered in the south and south easts, with Creogia a leading state and in the Sothern plans, many acres are raised in Texas and okahlahoma and even as tarwest as new Mexico (Harloro , , Harrar,  Harden  white 1996) variety development for southern Pecans has been extensive and they are renow for their large size and very thin shells however as a starting  points, good site selection is imperative for success one must have an understanding of the frost potential and season growing length as related to the flowering and fruiting characteristics of the chosen variety. (Moerman 1998) Native black walnut are found in most part of the state there are a number of improved black walnut varieties selection from the wild and from limited breeding programes. 

In general, timber characteristics (fester growth) has been the focus of these programs dual use potential for black walnut varieties for timber and as a high quality net crop is an important characteristics. There are several outstanding black walnut varieties known for their nut qualities, including sparrow’s Emma  Rupert “Hay” and Lawik corp the latter is often used as an Purdue University have developed a lene of black walnut known for their faster growth for timber purpose as predictable nut bearing habits (Carlson  Jones 1940). The Northern pecan is a native of the olio, Wabash and upper Mississippi inver basins and in recent years a number of outstanding selection have been made from the world, this Northern pecan is know for its high ,quality nut meats houch has more oil content and better flavor than the southern types, they do however have been much smaller units in comparison (country man et al 1985) while Native (Southern) pecan are not as common in Nigeria as in the Midwest may find adaptability in many parts of the states, including middle and southern Premont regions, Northern pecans are noted for their cold hardness, later flowering to avoid frost, and reduced nut maturely periods as compound to the southern pecan (Chenoweth  1995 black walnut) the Northern pecan selection have fair to good nut size (through at best 50 – 60% of the southern pecan). 

In addition the widow for grafting is narrow, and the propagator needs to have on hand the scion (top) wood of the selected variety colour the sap begins to flow. Recently several keger nurseries have begun wider propagation of northern pecan and black walnut and certain named varieties are now available as poilted and pre grafter tries. (Fowels 1965) The objective of the work was to evaluate the chemical composition of walnut (C).
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EXAMINATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAW AND COOKED WALNUT