1.1 Background to the Study

One of the most serious problems confronting the world today is the problem of food shortage and diet deficits (FAO, 2010). A significant proportion of the population of the        developing countries cannot afford the traditional diet such as yams which they cherish highly. Instead economic circumstances force them to depend almost entirely on cereal crops and tubers like cassava. Emphasis has always been placed on increased food production without giving much thought to the marketing of the food items. Production is never complete until the food items get to the consumers in the form, place and time they desire. The need for effective    marketing of farm products has never been more pressing than it is today as a result of increase in population (Oguoma, 2010). This is born out of the current inflation and economic recession facing both the developed and developing countries. The less developed countries appear to be worse off because of the dual nature of their problem that of inefficient production methods and poor methods of marketing what has been produced. (Asumugha, Njoku, Okoye, and Akinpelu, 2009).

One of the outstanding problems facing developing countries is that of inability of     increasing food production to keep pace with demand. The major means of encouraging farmers to increase food production is the provision of proper and adequate incentives to them usually expressed in the size of their farm income. This can be achieved through a well-integrated   marketing system. Unfortunately much attention has not been paid to the marketing sector which plays as an important role in any economy like the actual production of goods and      services (Migpap and Audu, 2012).

Production refers to the process of creating an economic good or service from two or more other goods or services (Essang, 1981). Yam production therefore refers to the general processes that are involved in the cultivation and distribution of yams.

Marketing has been defined in various ways by different scholars and professional bodies. The London Institute of Marketing (1966) cited in Kotler (2000), defined it as the management function which organizes and directs all those business activities involved in assessing and converting consumer purchasing power into effective demand for specific products or services and moving them to the final consumers.The American Marketing Association defined marketing as the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services to the consumers (Kotler, 2000). The Japan Marketing Association (2007) defined marketing as the movement of goods and services from the producer via the wholesalers and retailers to the final consumers.

The following scholars have defined marketing at different times thus; Olukosi and    Isitor (2005) defined it as the route taken by a product as it moves from the producer to the    ultimate consumers. This is a combination of transportation, storage and organization of persons who play some parts in the transfer of goods and services from the producer to the consumers, (Olukosi and Isitor, 2005:72). Similarly, Gadde and Snehota (2009) saw marketing as the process of bridging the gap between production and consumption (Gadde and Snehota, 2009:17). Also Rajan (2009) stated that marketing involves the creation of utility, form, time, place, processing, storage, transportation and exchange of ownership.

On the definition of structure of marketing Onakomaiya (1975) expressed that, it is   concerned with the organization and channels involved in the distribution and exchange of goods and services. Also Hays (1998) defined the structure and pattern of marketing as the    spatial location of commodities, the channels of distribution and the organization of markets. Similarly Adalemo (1975) maintained that the pattern of marketing is centred on the periodicity and marketing rings involved in exchange of goods and services. In his own view, Arene (2008) stated that agricultural marketing involve legal, physical and economic services that make it possible to move products from the producers to the consumers at an agreeable price to both for effecting a change of ownership or possession.

Bosena, Bekabil, Berhan and Dirk (2011) researched on food crop production in       Ethiopia and explained the structure of marketing as the overall performance of the conduct of trading activities. In this study, our definition of structure and pattern of yam production and marketing therefore refers to the processes of cultivation, transportation, storage, organization of markets, channel of distribution and exchange of yams between the producers and the      consumers.

Yams belong to plant species of the genus Dioscorea. It is a native of the warmer       regions in both Northern and Southern hemispheres. This thick tropical vine tuber is popular in Africa, the West Indies, parts of Asia, South and Central America  (Onwueme, 1978; Ngale, 2008). There are over 150 species of yams grown throughout the world. In the year 2008, the global yam production was approximately 48.7 million tonnes, out of which 76 per cent were grown in Africa (Ngale, 2006; FAO, 2010). Nigeria produced about 70 per cent of the world’s total yam production (FAO, 2010). Nigeria is the highest producer of yam in Africa and about two-third of the production comes from Benue State. (Benue State Agricultural and Rural     Development Authority, 2005). Other yam producing countries include Corte d’ Ivoire, which produced 10.2 percent, Ghana 8.0 per cent, Republic of Benin produced 4.3 per cent.





  • Background of the Study

Sediments are fragmented loose earth particles which are detached, entrained and deposited within fluvial channels. They can exist in organic and inorganic form with varied shapes and sizes. Mostly, they originate from weathering activities. Running water is the most dominant method of transportation (solution, suspension, saltation, and traction)(Mcl,1996); followed by other surficial geomorphic processes such as mass movement, runoff processes and mechanisms of soil erosion (Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project,1963; Environmental Response Team (ERT)/U.S EPA1999; Edward et al. 1999; Joshua and Oyebanjo,2010). They are also from erosion activities going on within a drainage basin at different magnitude-localized or site specific and broad or diffuse scale (Sear, et al, 2003; Tamene, 2005).

River sediments exhibit some location differences because their composition is indelibly molded by the environment where they are deposited, though a common attribute of river sediments is that they function as a habitat at every level-from the least level of accumulation in a river bed down to deep sea because of their oxygen content which encourage anthropogenic activities (Garrison, 1999; Steven, et al 2015)

In a drainage basin, volume of sediment that passes through a channel in a given time is a function of many variables: cross-section of the channel and flow velocity (Singh, 2004); precipitation rate, land use pattern, clogging of the river channels (Jeje, 2001; Iloeje, 2004; Aper, 2007); undulating topography and soil erosion (Eze, 2008); textural class and clasts size of soil(White ,2001); land use pattern ( Sun et al,2014; Shi, et al 2014;); prevailing earth surface processes(Junsheng et al , 2015); human interventions ( Haifango et al,2015 ) and  velocity of the river transport ( Leopold ,1964 ) e.t.c. This is because when the transport capacity of a river is overcome by the volume of sediment being conveyed, it leads to an accelerated deposition of sediment (Meyer et al. 1969; Haan et al. 1994; Manoj et al. 2010) which is pivotal to myriad of environmental challenges that obtains in a drainage basin.

Aptly, researchers (Gray et al, 1997; Leal, 2009; Kroes et al, 2010; Moulin et al, 2011; Gellis et al, 2014; Batson et al,2015) stated that excessive sediments amount to sedimentation, contamination of water quality, siltation of water resource facilities, poor function of irrigation schemes, high cost of maintenance of facilities and management of river resource channels, reduced  light penetration thereby endangering the aquatic organisms and flooding e.t.c. Conversely, paucity of river sediments impedes the formation and development of wetlands-cum- flood plains, slowed processes of soil formation and scouring of river beds.

Given that sediments are resources (SedNet,2009) and our drainage basin is located within sedimentary rock formation  geographically positioned in the humid tropical region where there is intense surficial geomorphic processes orchestrating from the fluvial processes (Ofomata and Umeuduji,1994), the  nexus of this research is designed to characterize the stream sediments of Anambra drainage basin in the rainy and dry season.  Thus, this present study will also provide insight on the implications of seasonality on sediments and such knowledge will go a long way in forestalling problems associated to overbank processes and sedimentation which drainage basins at the tropics are exposed to.  Furthermore, our findings on the sediment characteristics at the rainy and dry season will provide a vista for the achievement of safe settlement planning for the rural basin dwellers inhabiting the drainage basin because they will be better informed on the best management options to adopt with respect to seasons. Thus, this will be effective in the formulation of basin management policies and improved understanding of textural and fluvio- geomorphic processes operating within the basin surrounding. This is because sediments originate mostly from soil erosion, runoff activities, anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic activities that present day environmental geo-hazards thrive on (Turner, et al. 1990; Eswaran et al. 2001; Manoj et al. 2010).

Following the above, river sediments study has been the focal point  of most discussion but its characterization in-terms of seasonality has not been really anchored on. Researchers has tilted towards sediment -transport, particle size, sources, fluxes, e.t.c and undermined the aspect of seasonal characteristics. This study is set out to unravel the sediment characteristics of Anambra drainage basin in order to bridge the existing academic gap.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Sediments ranging from consolidated to non consolidated have generated a lot of research interest mainly because sediments are resources (SedNet 2004;2009); facilitates the development of geomorphic features- terrain, floodplain, sand bars, delta, marshes, alluvium plains, landform and soil formation (Walling,2006); fundamental in maintenance of the  morphological dynamics both at the river channels and stream beds, thresholds of sediment delivery at the different segements and conveyance capacities, substrates for tidal channels, inter-tidal flats, marsh plains formations (Fagherazzi 2012; Mariotti and Fagherazzi, 2013); provide insight about pollution status or contamination level of a river ( Yu et al,2000; Iwegbe et al,2007). They are also source of vital information and data for management of environmental problems pertaining to overbank processes and achievement of goals pertaining to distributive and efficient river water resource utilization through the design and construction of hydraulic structures such as dams, canals and irrigation schemes (Edward et al,1999). Sediment analysis provides a platform for advocacy on clean river environment, management, controls or standards on activities involving river sediment (Gray, et al, 1997).

Anambra basin exists within the Benue rift structure located in the West African Rift system (Fairhead and Okereke, 1987; Genik, 1992) and is the centre piece of most earth science studies in Nigeria because it is a hydrocarbon province (Okeke, 2014; Agagu et al, 1982; 1985; Akaegbu and Schmitt, 1998; Akande et al, 1988 and Nwajide, 2005). Interestingly, consolidated sediment -Ajalli sand stone has been focused in most researches (Simpson, 1954; Reyment, 1965; Hogue and Ezepue, 1977; Ladipo, 1986; Adekoya et al, 2011; Odigi and Amajor 2008; Adeigbe et al, 2009; Odumoso et al, 2013) whose contribution defined the depositional environment of our basin.

Unfortunately, surface stream sediments characteristics of the Anambra drainage basin have not occupied a prominent place in recent researches within our study area. Thus, the surface stream sediments have largely been untested and therefore not documented. Other available literature within the basin under study tilted towards: evaluation of  surface rock and hydrocarbon potential of Anambra basin Ugochukwu(2010); hydrodynamic flow  and formation pressures in the Anambra drainage basin(Uma and Onuoha 1997); depositional environment of Campano-Maatrichtian sediment in Anambra basin(Adeigbe et al, 2009); depositional environment of the Mid –Maatrichtian sediment Ajali sand stone in Anambra basin (Odumoso et al ,2013); heavy metal in water column of Anambra river (Ezeonyejiaku,2010); PAHs in freash water  media; factorial effects  and human dietary  exposure risk assessment( Obiakor et al ,2014) which did not take cognizance of the sediment dynamics with respect to space and time. Since most of the existing studies orient towards other scientific enquires with little or no address to the sediment with respect to its elemental composition -trace or micro metallic composition, despite the continuous perturbation of the tranquility of our river by earth surface processes and man’s successive socio-economic activities which has grossly resulted to some unexpected impact, this present study is therefore considered very vital.

Physiographicaly, Anambra drainage basin lies entirely within a weakly consolidated cretaceous, tertiary and quaternary sedimentary rock formation with high susceptibility to sediment yield. Up till now, the surface stream sediment spatio –temporal variation has not been studied despite the fact that our drainage basin is located within the humid tropical region characterized with intense rainfall and our study area is traversed by a maze of rivers prone to overbank processes. This has made the basin vulnerable to flooding risks, sedimentation, menace of soil erosion, and other vagaries of environmental hazards associated with cycles of fluvio-geomorphic processes. To the above end, we concluded that a study on seasonal characteristics of the stream sediment is considered critical in understanding the sediment geo-chemical composition. An insight on the seasonal characteristics (dry and rainy season) of the stream sediment is important in basin planning and in the development of appropriate basin policy which is a fundamental aspect of river basin management. This study is therefore designed to give premium to the elemental composition of the stream sediments, sediment grain size distribution, physical characteristics of the basin regolith, sources of stream sediment, basin form and its implications

Strengthening the timeliness of this research, is the fact that, spatio –temporal changes of stream sediment is gaining currency (Alliot et, al, 2003; Lansard et al 2009, Cathlot et al,2010; Bourgeois et al 2011, Pastor et al,2011 b, Cathalot et al,2013; Paulo, et al 2015 ), however, to the best of our knowledge within our study area , there is apparently a limited research within the domain of stream sediment spatio-temporal analysis. Conversely, there is therefore no front to disaffrim that a new study which will utilize appropriately spatial and temporal sampling prcedure to present a holistic description of the basin understudy is not crucial at the moment. In this context, this study is anchored on examining the stream sediment characteristics of the Anambra drainage basin at the rainy season and dry season.




The study was aimed at examining the spatial pattern of industrial production subcontracting in Onitsha Metropolis Anambra State Nigeria. Data were collected from documentary materials, questionnaire, in-depth interviews and field observation and were analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation, nearest neighbour analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study revealed that production subcontracting by firm size was more prominent in small and medium scale industries than large scale industries with 36.7%, 53.3%, and 10% respectively. The result of the nearest neighbour analysis revealed that the pattern of distribution of industries in the study area generally was relatively clustered while relatively dispersed within the industrial groups.The PCA analysis performed on 15 variables of factors influencing the location of industries  reduced them to 5 components namely availability of economic cost elements, influence of infrastructural facilities, family ties, influence of cluster/agglomeration economies, and influence of government policy. The underlying dimensions together explained 74.12% of the total variance leaving 25.88% of the total variance unexplained. The factors influencing the use of production subcontracting by industries revealed that subcontracting factors such as  reducing operational cost, concentrating on core business function, improvement in quality of service, and increased flexibility respectively were the major factors influencing production subcontracting in the study area while the factors influencing the selection of subcontracting partners revealed that high quality of service, high degree of mutual trust, good reputation, location and lower cost respectively were the major factors influencing the selection of subcontracting partners in the study area. The analysis of benefits and problems of production subcontracting revealed reducing cost of operation, improving service quality, enhancing core business capacity and releasing key internal resources respectively were the most commonly accepted benefits while subcontracting limitations such as  disclosure of commercial secrets, interest conflicts, decrease compatibility of innovation and unfulfilled orders respectively were the most commonly observed problems limiting production subcontracting in the study area. The study recommended that a code of business behaviour encompassing a body of laws and principles guiding this production process be established in the study area. This will help the firms to makerational decisions or to seek redress once there is a bridge of contract.



An industry is a group of businesses that produces similar products or provides similar services (Comanor, 2004). A firm on the other hand is anindustrial unit or entity carrying out a portion of business which involves the manufacturing and processing of items as well as the creation of new commodities under a single management (Beaker and Dietz, 2004). An aggregation of this unit of production called firm which produces similar products or services is known as an industry (Ikejiofor, 2012).

Manufacturing however is the production of goods for use or sale using labour, tools, machines, chemical and biological processes or formulations (Norrie, 1999). Manufacturing may also refer to a range of human activities, from handcraft to high technology but most commonly applied to industrial production in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale (Bailey, David and Soyaung, 2009).

The success of industrial production or manufacturing largely depends on the establishment of useful linkages between industries (Khac, 2013). Industrial linkage is the interrelationship among various industrial activities through the input-output relationship or the economic value chain. Industrial linkage according to Mayhew (2009) can also be referred to as vertical disintegration, which is the various diseconomies of scale or scope which have broken a process into separate companies each performing a limited subset of activities required to create a finished product.In the views of Hussian (2004), Industrial linkages usually come in the form of alliance, clustering and networking. An industrial alliance is formed by firms coming together in some contractual arrangement. The well known types of contractual arrangements include; subcontracting, licensing, joint venture, strategic alliance and consortium (Hussian,2004).Production subcontracting which is a type of industrial linkage based on alliance is a work contract that seeks to outsource certain typesof work to other companies (Teresia, 2011). It has been observed that over the past 50-60 years, the world has seen major changes in the composition of its production process, falling transportation and composition cost, coupled with rapid technological changes, intensified competition and economic librations have facilitated the process of global economic integration (African Development Report, 1998). This has in turn enhanced international trade flows, and especially trade of intermediates products through subcontracting.

Subcontracting is a step down from general contracting, which is contract overseeing a much broader project in many cases. It is expected to create gainful employment and alleviate poverty through sustained facilitation of young industries and inter-firm linkages (Gakure, Kimemia, and Waititu, 2014). Industrial production subcontracting in the views of Holl (2007) is geared towards increasing production and employment in small and medium scale industries, upgrading the manufacturing processes, improving productivity and international competitiveness of all local produce.

In Nigeria, industrial production subcontracting; a strategic positioning of industrial activities started in the early 1960s, the post-independence period (Ajayi, 2007). The earliest stage in the adoption of production subcontracting as an industrial production technique in Nigeria was characterised by insignificant growth and rapid growth thereafter. Production subcontracting became very important after the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986, and it is perceived by industrialist as very important in reducing the cost of production (Ajayi, 2007). Production subcontractors are concentrated in Lagos, Ikorodu, Sagamu and Ibadan in the Southwest; Jos, Kaduna, Zaria, Kano, and Sokoto in the north; and a few other locations such as Benin, Owerri, and Port-Harcourt in the south and Ilorin in the (middle belt).

The process of production subcontracting is important in identifying the spatiality in the distribution of manufacturing industries through a network of inter-firm relationships. It is also important in identifying the industrial agglomeration that is, the development of clusters of industries in a particular geographical centre as well as an industry’s investment decisions (Grossman and Heplman, 2005). The need to study industrial production subcontracting arises because the arrangement plays different roles in different industries and in different geographical areas.

Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigateindustrial production subcontracting in Onitsha metropolis in Anambra State, Nigeria in order to understand the benefitsof production subcontracting to industrial activities in the study area. 


Around the world, large companies try to become smaller in terms of employment (downsizing). Most companies now rely on others to look after some of their internal operations such as external security, transportation, distribution, logistics and operations. Manufacturing was long seen as a core activity, in a number of industries it still is but in sectors such as textiles, and clothing, rubber and plastics, metallic products, motor vehicles, leather, chemical industries etc, with highly standardised production processes and great differences in the labour-capital and skill intensiveness of the different stages that make up these processes, it is now common to subcontract parts or components of an operation to independent firms so as to enable the industry to focus on its core activities (Holl, 2007). Industries resort to subcontracting because it helps them spread risks, lower costs, gain access to key technologies reduce working capital and adjust their level of production more flexibly by passing on the burden of idle overheads to the development of industries most especially small and medium sized subcontracting firms as globalisation and new technologies challenge supply system in mature industries (Holl, 2008). For example, Chrysler and Ford subcontracted most of their minicompact and subcompact cars and only produce less than one-half of the value of all their vehicles (Gilley, 2000). Conversely, new industries maybe setup to supply established firms with certain parts, materials or components leading to the production of a product in a subcontracting arrangement or linkage. Some of the small and medium sized industries have developed in and around the larger industries leading to production cost reduction, employment generation and ensuring a certain standard regarding quality of output and delivery times.

In recognition of these facts, industrial production subcontracting has received little attention in the empirical research in Nigeria and indeed Onitsha metropolis. Most of the studies on industrialisation in the study area have focused mainly on the characteristics of industries- firm size, ownership, and firm type (Nwaocha, 1985), Industrial input- optimization of energy and manpower (Kajogbola, 1997), Industrial Management (Ekechukwu, Madu, and Nwanya, 2011) and Technological capacity of Industries (Muogbo,2013). The importance of these variables on the performance, growth, and development of industries cannot be over emphasized or ignored but in addition, there is the need to address the linkage relationship among industries in the area through industrial production subcontracting in order to establish the network of inter-firm relationship among industries in the area.

The few known studies on production subcontracting in Nigeria, however are the works of Ajayi (1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2007), Arimah (2002), Oyeyinka (2004), Alarape (2007) and Makinde, Abdulganiyu and Dikko (2011). These works focused on production subcontracting in manufacturing industries in Nigeria while the work of Makinde, Abdulganiyu and Dikko (2011) focused on subcontracting in construction industries in Nigeria. Ajayi (2002 and 2003), posited that production subcontractors are concentrated in Lagos, Ikorodu, Sagamu and Ibadan in the Southwest; Jos, Kaduna, Zaria, Kano, and Sokoto in the north; and a few other locations such as Benin, Owerri, and Port-Harcourt in the south and Ilorin in the middle belt. This position is arguable. This is because his work left out oldand prominent industrial areas in Nigeria such as Aba in Abia State and Onitsha and Nnewi in Anambra State all inNigeria. Onitsha metropolis for instance is one of the fastest growing industrial and commercial cities in the South-eastern Nigeria with an appreciable number of industries and a host of emerging ones. Some of these industries are located in Harbour Industrial layout, Bridge head industrial Layout, Fegge layout, Awada industrial layout etc.The industrial configuration of Nigeria has gone beyond the traditional: Lagos-Ibadan-Benin axis; Jos-Kano-Kaduna triangle and Port Harcourt-Enugu axis (Ajayi, 2007) to include the Nnewi district (Oyeyinka 2003) and the Onitsha nucleus with a significant upsurge in manufacturing activities.

Moreover, much of the previous works had concentrated on the country as a whole and as a result may not give detailed account of production subcontracting arrangements in a local scale hence, the need to study industrial production subcontracting in Onitsha metropolis.





1.1 Background of the Study

Industry is an important segment of the economy, the collapse of which will result in the collapse of the economy (South East Queensland (SEQ), 2001; Judy, 2002; and Slogett and Wood, 2005).  The activities involved and the result of industrial processes permeate all aspects of society because it is all-encompassing.  It improves trade balance because home-grown products, substitute imports, thus saving valuable foreign exchange (Ekholm, 2003), and the more the foreign exchange earned the better for the nation (Cortright, 2001a, Inamura, 2003, Gates, 2006).

Industry generates benefits such as the creation of wealth via the multiplier effect, prosperity, employment and is a vital component in foreign trade.  Industrial activities can operate and export to gain more foreign exchange that structurally diversifies the economy, which grows faster and becomes more resilient. It is one of the processes of spatial transformation especially with migration and information flows. There has been traditionally wide support for the leading role of manufacturing in generating wealth and income, which in turn can support expansion in other sectors (Mano and Otsuka, 2000; Feldman, Aharonson and Baum, 2006). Development is based upon growth, which results from further industrialization and increased industrial production.

The location or the locality where an industrial plant situates is accepted to be significant in the processes of economic change.  In location of industries, assembly, processing, and shipment are vital because input materials are collected to a point where processing takes place, and production and shipment of the outputs to areas of consumption.  For instance, the preferred location of each individual producer is that where demand is large or supply of inputs is particularly convenient.  In general, this is the location chosen by other producers (Krugman, 1991a).  Such agglomeration is a strategy whereby producers ease the tasks of transactional interaction because proximity translates into lower costs and wider opportunities for matching needs and capabilities and only by close agglomeration can the industrializing country/region usually afford the necessary infrastructure   (Mano and Otsuka, 2000; Galan, Benito and Vicient, 2006; and Feldman et al, 2006;). Also, manufacturers are attached to a region by the fact that such agglomeration can sustain a well-developed transport network and a wide range of specialized technical and financial services.

Furthermore, there are certain places in which it is most convenient for the exchange of commodities to take place.  These are great business centers or commercial towns.  There are special conveniences for exchange that have favoured their rise and growth, and the mere fact that a town lies about the middle of a densely populated district is likely to make it the most convenient place of exchange for the products of that district and for articles brought from more distant parts.  Thus, towns situated where a number of roads converge are likely to grow into more important business centers (Cortright, 2001a; Badri, 2007; and Wong, 2007).Therefore, it is only by studying industry as it is already located, and by investigating the principles which lie behind successful industrial location in an area, can we hope to guide its spread and progress spatially.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Geography is a science of location that is interested in the decoding spatial similarities and variations (Onyenechere, 2011). As a result, geographers are often concerned with the spatial distribution of phenomena and human activities including industries, and the processes which influence that distribution. Specifically, the processes which contribute to determine the location and distribution of industries are complex and dynamic (Grahame et al 2001; Sloagett and Woods, 2005; Badi, 2007; and Kefela, 2010).  Also, not all industries choose the same plant site because their production (costs) and market needs differ. The location problem is complicated by changes occurring over time.  For instance, a location because of high market demand may suffer a serious disadvantage when competitive industries begin to carve out that market (Rural Businesses Forum (RBF), 2007).

As a result of changes in location factors, the degree of industrial concentration fluctuates widely according to the type of industry, and industrial plants producing many different types of goods cluster in a region that provides the needed resources. Regions according to Stategy for Economic Vitality (SEV) (2002a), Sloagett and Woods (2003), Yang (2004), Agboli and Ukaegbu (2006), and RBF (2007) that provide such better location opportunities will attract industries and growth away from regions with less favourable initial conditions. In this regard, access to individuals or designated firms, whether physical (via transport) or non-physical (via information links) is vital.  Access is considered in terms of costs of production variables, reliability, and convenience. This is one of the many factors that promote regional disparity in location decision (SEV, 2002a; Sloagett and Woods, 2003; Mertins, 2010; and Onyenechere, 2011). At times a region may or may not possess all the location variables either as a result of geographical position/environmental conditions or due to spatial inhibitions in relation to variations in industrial location requirements. Again, the existence of active industry may make the location attractive to other industries since some industries may use the products or by-products of already established firms as their raw materials (Feldman et al, 2006). Conversely, new industries may be set up to supply established firms with certain parts or materials. As the nucleus grows, it becomes a center of concentrated earning power, and therefore, of purchasing power. As such, it becomes attractive to industrial location and a better market for the products of industries.  Therefore, location decisions are tied to the degree of availability of the necessary and required variables.  Moreover, in the recognition of importance of location of industrial activities, there is increase in research for better location decisions because location can either make or break a business.  However, many of such studies focus more on the characteristic descriptions and the effects of each of the location factors (Crafts and Mulatu, 2006; and  Ogbu, 2008, 2011) without adequate involvement of different industrial types in order to determine the relative position of each location factor in accordance with industrial types. In addition, studies abound on the cluster benefits in the more developed countries as in Europe, America, and China among the industrial plants and industrial pull towards regions where resources are available, but few of such studies and studies on the multiplier effect from the activities of industry exist especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

Moreover, researches by 20th Century geographers in Nigeria were based on the reasons (Location factors) for the concentration of industries in the Lagos – Ibadan axis, Port Harcourt-Aba-Enugu area, Kaduna- Jos-Kano triangle, and Benin-Sapele-Warri region. Also, shortfall exists in the various studies conducted in Nigeria in the 21st Century by Ikpeze, Soludo and Elekwa (2004), Ogunkola and Jerome (2006), Amsterdam (2009), Ugbajah (2010), and St. Mathew-Daniel (2012). These various studies mostly dwelt on the development of conducive environment especially on regulatory policies (Amsterdam, 2009; Ugbajah, 2010; Kashim, 2011), and infrastructure (Sambo, 2010; Musa and Ndawayo, 2011) for both local and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria. Other studies like that of Monday (2011) were on the factors that push industries out of Nigeria.

At regional levels in Nigeria, researches were mainly on the challenges and opportunities available for industrial development (Olokesusi, 2011) in the south western Nigeria. In the southeast of Nigeria, Majuk, Erim and Ajor (2010) studied location characteristics of speific (pottery) production activities, while Onyenechere (2011) was interested in the spatial distribution of informal economic activities in rural areas.  Therefore, studies pertaining to industrial locations in many parts of Nigeria were in such areas as factors in  the concentration of industries in four main areas of southeast, west, Niger delta, and north; industrial attractions through resource and infrastructural development; and factors in the locations of specific industries. Thus, few location studies exist on the new and emerging industrial areas like the 9th Mile. In addition, the few available studies on industrial areas like that of Areola and Okafor (1998), Alokan and Onyemelukwe(1994), Onyemelukwe(1983), and Okeke (1982) are old and cannot be relevant in assessing the present location conditions in modern industrial areas.

These circumstances make it desirable for the application of techniques such as Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in the location assessment of industrial plants at the new industrial area of the 9th Mile in order to detect the major location variables and issues on benefits and problems in contemporary industrial locations in the study area.





1.1   Background of the Study

Right from creation, communities have been faced with interminable occurrence of disasters. This is because “hazards of nature and vulnerabilities of socio-economic conditions” (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, SAARC, Disaster Management Centre, 2008: 126) coupled with “insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk” (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction [UNISDR], 2004:17) have made communities extremely prone to disasters. Regular floods are one of such disasters that have become part of people’s lives in various regions of the world, recurring with varying magnitudes and frequencies to which people have adapted for centuries (Rahman, 2014). The Holy Bible (Authorised King James Version AKJV) gives account of the destruction of the first world through the great floods due to the continuous rainfall for forty days and forty nights (Bible Society of Nigeria, 2004: Gen. Chap.7 V 10-23).

Schramm and Dries (1986:122) define flood as too much water in the wrong place, whether it is an inundated city or a single street or a field flooded due to a blocked drain. Flooding is a natural characteristic of rivers while floodplains are normal dry land areas along rivers.  Floodplains are integral part of a river system that acts as a natural reservoir and temporary channel for flood waters. If more runoff is generated than the banks of a stream channel can accommodate, the water will overtop the stream banks and spread over the floodplains.

Throughout human history, flood has been shown to be beneficial as well as a threat to mankind.  Floods have brought enormous wealth and prosperity to civilizations, and yet at the same time, they have caused tremendous losses and resulted in untold suffering for millions of people. Flood risk has been part of peoples’ lives in various regions of the world. The heavy settlements along the lower reaches of Egypt’s Nile, India’s Ganges, Bangladesh’s Brahmaputra-Padma, the Yellow River and Yangtze of China, and the Tigris and Euphrates of Iraq are examples of floodplain civilizations (Schramm and Dries, 1986: 122). Human populations are attracted to the floodplains for a number of reasons. Schramm and Dries (1986) noted that rivers deposit the topsoil (alluvium) picked up elsewhere on the floodplains thereby making the land very fertile.  Also floodplains are both flat and near water, so irrigation, ploughing and transport, usually aided by the river, are made easier. They therefore conclude that floodplains are desirable places to live, not only in agricultural societies, but also in industrial countries where the floodplains often host large capitals that use the river water for industry and its mouth as a harbor for shipping. Despite these benefits, flood remains a major threat to human development. Nott (2006) correctly points out that a flood event is not considered to be a natural hazard unless there is a threat to human life and/or property and concludes that it is the high human population densities that inhabit the floodplains that have made floods to become a major natural hazard.

Globally, flood is the most universal of natural hazards that have affected people since time immemorial. It occurs on every continent and is a potential threat wherever there is rainfall or coastal hazards (Schramm and Dries (1986).  According to Dewi (2007), “floods account for approximately 40% of natural disasters and may become more frequent and severe due to global warming”. For example, between 1982 and 1991, more than 20, 000 people died and 73, 000 000 suffered from flood effects (Febrianti, 2010). From the year 1990 to 2000, the death toll rose to 170 000 people around the world per year (Birkmann, 2006).

The rate and magnitude of floods have doubled over the years. The number of people at risk has been growing each year and the majority is in the developing countries with high poverty levels making them more vulnerable to disasters (Living with Risk, 2006).  For instance, EM-DAT data show that flooding caused the majority of disasters between 1994 and 2013, accounting for 43% of all recorded events and impacted more people than any other type of disaster, accounting for 55% of the total people affected (nearly 2.5 billion people) in the period 1994-2013 (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters [CRED], 2015).

Pilon (2001) pointed out that extreme flooding events are not relegated to the least developed nations, but can also devastate and ravage the most economically advanced and industrialized nations. In the last decade, there has been catastrophic flooding in China, Germany, Poland, the United States and elsewhere. However, when floods occur in less developed nations, they can effectively wipe out decades of investments in infrastructure, seriously cripple economic prosperity, and result in thousands of deaths and epidemics. This is because the poverty level of less developed nations affects the resilience and process of recovery from disasters. Grunfest, (1995) argues that due to high poverty levels, people have become more vulnerable because they live in hazardous areas including floodplains and steep hills. They have fewer resources which makes them more susceptible to disasters. They are less likely to receive timely warnings and even if warnings were issued, they have fewer options for reducing losses in a timely manner.

Countries that have learnt to live with the risk generally expect and welcome these floods since they enrich the soil and provide both water and livelihoods (Rahman, 2014). In South Asia, Bangladesh is one of such countries where almost the entire riverine part of the country is a highly fertile floodplain. In this country, the floods are welcomed every year because it would neither exist, nor be as productive as it is without the annual floods continually renewing and extending its landscape (UNISDR, 2004: 6). In Nigeria, Aguleri is a flood-prone community in Anambra State that has learnt to live with the flood and utilize it for their own benefits. Byrne (1997) reported that in this community, the period of flooding is not a time for suffering. Instead, it is a happy time because the people can travel in their canoes to see relatives and friends in the other flooded villages. Fish is plentiful and when the floods are finished, it is easy to make mud blocks to build new houses. The land is very easy to cultivate because the soil is soft for planting. On the other hand, flooding has caused tremendous losses and resulted in untold suffering for millions of people in rural communities such as Ikwo in Ebonyi State that have not learnt to live with the inevitable floods in a way that minimizes harm and loss.

The Report of the Nigeria Post-Disaster Needs Assessment of the unprecedented floods of 2012 indicates that floods are the most common and recurring disaster in Nigeria. The Report shows that the severity and spread of these floods are increasing.  The flood affected about twenty seven states of the Federation. The total amount of losses was estimated to be approximately N2.29 trillion. The impact of the flooding was also very high in terms of human, material, and production losses, with 363 people killed, 5,851 injured, 3,891,314 affected, and 3,871,53 displaced (National Emergency Management Agency, NEMA, 2013).

The Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA) has partitioned Nigeria into eight hydrological areas, designated as Hydrological Areas (HAs) I – VIII which serve as units for scientific assessments and management of water resources of the country (Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency [NIHSA], 2014).

Ebonyi State falls within the HA-VII termed East Lithoral. Ikwo Local Government Area (LGA) is one of the Local Government Areas in Ebonyi State that has been affected annually by seasonal flooding that has caused destruction of farmlands, farm crops and houses, displacement of people and destruction of the environment, injuries and loss of lives.  Reports of flood disasters in the affected communities produced by the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), Ebonyi State and the Local Emergency Management Committee (LEMC), Ikwo LGA from 2003-2014 show that about 222,251 persons have been affected by flood disasters and caused damages in agricultural and housing sectors alone estimated at N970,922,590.00. These were recorded mainly in Inyimagu, Igbudu, Ekpanwudele, Ndiagu Echara, Ndufu Echara, Alike, Ndiagu Amagu and Ndufu Amagu communities in Ikwo LGA of Ebonyi State.  These rural communities have received humanitarian relief periodically from the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and some development partners such as UNICEF to cushion the devastating effects of the flood disasters but the impact of the floods on the rural communities has not been empirically investigated. It is against this background that this study sets out to examine the impact of flood disaster on rural communities in Ikwo LGA of Ebonyi State of Nigeria with a view to formulating appropriate management and copping strategies.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The Third World Water Forum (2003) emphasized that in recent years, floods have become more frequent and of increasing severity resulting into loss of life, injury, homelessness, damage to infrastructure and environment as well as impacting on other critical sectors such as education, economy and agriculture. The incidence and magnitude of flood disaster in rural communities in Ikwo L.G.A. of Ebonyi is on the increase. Most of the communities in the affected area are crisscrossed by Ebonyi River and also located along the Cross River floodplains.

Available records show that flood disasters have affected about 222,251 persons and destroyed farm crops and houses estimated at N970,922,590.00.00 from 2003 to 2014 (Ebonyi State Emergency Management Agency, 2003; Ikwo Local Government Emergency Management Committee, 2004-2014). Efforts by government (National Emergency Management Agency [NEMA] and State Emergency Management Agency [SEMA]), and some non-governmental organisations such as the Nigeria Red Cross Society for some years have been concentrated on providing relief to cushion the effects of the floods on the people. Despite the quantum of resources expended periodically in providing relief to flood victims in rural communities of Ikwo LGA, the challenge posed by flood disaster in the area still persist. In other regions of the world that are faced with similar problems of flood disaster, a lot of studies have been conducted on the impact of floods on rural communities. The resulting recommendations of those studies overwhelmingly suggested the need for much greater investment in “flood- proofing” societies by learning to live with the inevitable floods in a way that would minimize harm and loss, rather than trying to prevent the powerful forces of nature (UNISDR, 2004: 6). While developed countries currently manage floods based on research evidence, the problems posed by flooding in rural communities in Ikwo LGA have not been empirically studied. The current relief-driven approach to mitigate the suffering of victims of flood disasters in the area is only a short-term measure.

This study therefore sets out to fill this gap by investigating the impact of flood disaster on rural communities in Ikwo LGA of Ebonyi State. The findings of this study would provide the potential to make floods less harmful to rural communities in Ikwo LGA in particular and other flood-prone communities in Nigeria in general as they will learn “to live with their land as well as from it” (UNISDR, 2004: xiii).




The study investigated the effects of industrial effluents discharges on stream water quality in Onitsha urban area of Anambra State. Effluents quality assessment was carried out on samples collected at eight (8) locations of the sampled industries while water quality assessment was carried out first on three (3) samples collected  upstream or at control sites  as well as on eight (8) samples collected at discharge locations in Onitsha urban area in 2015. The control sites were located upstream 500 meters before contact with discharge effluents. The physico-chemical and microbiological parameters analyzed were Temperature (T), pH (Hydrogen ion concentration), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Magnesium (Mg), Nitrate (NO3), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn), Sodium (Na), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Total Heterotrophic Counts (THC) and Total Coliform Group (TCG). The results of the analyses revealed significant concentration of many dissolved salts, heavy metals and pathogenic organisms in the water samples due to effluents intrusion. Discharged effluents deviate radically from the WHO(2011) standards: Temperature ranged from 290C to 360C,  TDS ranged from 0.7mg/l to 6.10mg/l, DO ranged from 35mg/l to 143.6mg/l, Turbidity ranged from 100ntu to 400ntu, BOD ranged from 2.06mg/l to 41.9mg/l, COD ranged from 2.08mg/l to 53.9mg/l, Mg ranged from 0.12mg/l to 3.09mg/. These values were above WHO (2011) standard limits for drinking water while others like pH which ranged from 5.5 to 12.0, Ca which ranged from 0.60mg/l to 8.24mg/l, Zn ranged from 0.01mg/l to 0.70mg/l, Na ranged from 0.14mg/l to 2.69mg/l, and Cu which ranged from 0.02mg/l to 1.68mg/l were below WHO (2011) recommended standards for drinking water. The microbiological parameters like Total Heterotrophic Counts and Total Coliform Groups are highly above WHO standards. The analysis revealed statistical significant differences between the water samples at control and the water samples at discharge locations. MANOVA was used as a test instrument in this study because it allows for maximum interactions between all the variables. Taken together the findings show that there are contaminations of the streams investigated by industrial effluents and that the stream waters are not safe for drinking purposes. Appropriate management measures were suggested to minimize effluents contamination of surface water in the study area.




Governments and organizations all over the world recommend industrialization as the quickest track to economic development (UNDP, 2010). The major advantages of industrialization as a short and quick path to economic development are the massive production of goods and services, short gestation of investments, high net worth yield of capital and near total economic independence (Uchegbu, 2002). In addition, employments are created by direct linkage and trickle down effects in the national economies (Ajayi, 2007). Industrialized countries generate more funds directly from their manufacturing industries which they use to procure other items needed in their countries. These advantages commend industrialization to all the countries of the world as a quick means to economic development (Uchegbu, 2002). Based on this, various countries create laws and policies that favour and promote industrialization (Bichi and Anyata, 1999).

But industrialization, though beneficial, has quite a lot of environmental problems that result from the manner of the production streams in the various industries, as each type of production process and the nature of the inputs in the production process, yield diverse types of industrial wastes (Uchegbu, 2002). Industrial wastes and effluents refer to the wastes that are generated from industries as a result of the production processes of the industries (Uchegbu, 2002). Industrial wastes and emissions contain toxic and hazardous substances most of which are detrimental to human and animal health (FEPA, 1991). Some of these substances are lead, cadmium and mercury (heavy metals), and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phenotic compounds. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1990 identified industrial waste as a major environmental problem requiring urgent attention in Nigeria and noted that many chemical industries in the coastal areas contribute to increases in the amount of chemical effluent load pollution in the Nigerian coastal waters.

Industrial wastes exist in three forms; – solid wastes, liquid and gaseous effluents (Uchegbu, 2002). Liquid industrial effluents are liquid wastes which are produced in the course of industrial production activities (Echiegu and Liberty, 2013). These wastes are residues of either uniform or diverse composition which have been found to be of various degrees of toxicity (Echiagu and Liberty, 2013).  There are, in many countries, policies and laws which guide and control the production and management of industrial wastes because of their hazardous nature (Uchegbu, 2002; Ubachukwu, 2012).

Nigeria has laws and policies on industrial waste production, control and disposal (Uchegbu, 2002).  The laws are the Federal Hazardous Waste Management Regulation of 1991; The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 2004; The Harmful Waste Act of 2004; The National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Acts of 2007 etc. According to Mozie (2011), the problem in Nigeria is not the absence of regulatory laws but the low obedience to and the poor or the near non-enforceability of the many environmental laws of the country.  The non-enforcement of the environmental laws over the years, has led to the improper disposal of industrial effluents and this has now become a major problem and a source of concern to both governments and industrialists in Nigeria (Mozie, 2011).

In many developing countries, such as Brazil and India, the disposal or discharges of effluents, (even when these are technologically and economically achievable for particular standards) do not always comply with pre-treatment requirements (Echiegu and Liberty, 2013). When this happens, the human society pays a great price for improper disposal of industrial wastes. In Amazon, Brazil for instance, Di-Mario (2004) reports that prospecting for gold has resulted in rivers and fish being severely contaminated with mercury used in the refining process in the country while Charles and Margaret, (1993) and Mason, (1998) also describe the effects of acetaldehyde and chloride discharged from a factory into Mina-Mata Bay in Japan in 1950s which killed many animals such as dogs, cats and pigs involved in the consumption of water extracted from Mina-Mata Bay in Japan.  In 1958, when the number of victims exceeded 50 people, 21 of whom died, a ban was placed on the sale of fish from Mina-Mata Bay, though there was no restriction on disposal of industrial effluent on surface waters. The effects of industrial effluents on surface water can remain a threat for long period of time because of bioaccumulation of toxins in animal or human tissues.

There is at present general lack of information on the effects of effluents discharged by these industries on the water quality of the streams crossing the urban areas in Nigeria. The choice of Onitsha for this study is based on the fact that many effluents producing industries are located in the urban area. Onitsha urban area is slopy which means that runoff water can easily drain the effluents and discharged them into nearby streams. The drainage pattern and topography make the available streams in the urban area vulnerable to pollution from industrial activities particularly by effluent discharges. Still, the urban residents depend on the urban streams for domestic and related purposes. See plates 1, 2 and 3.

Therefore, to effectively and properly protect the available streams and their uses in the study area, it is crucial to assess the effects of effluents discharge chemistry and translate the information (which is currently lacking) into reliable and sustainable management strategy that will guide urban planners, policy makers, stream end users and water resources providers to prevent or minimize harmful impacts of stream water contamination and ensure sustainability of fresh water resource availability for urban users and the ecosystems. Based on these therefore, this work seeks to characterize the liquid effluents discharged by industries in Onitsha urban area and establish their deleterious effects on the water quality of streams in the study area. Uchegbu (2002) reports high incidence of diseases and deaths in the study area and noted that the causes of such deaths may not be unconnected with the use of contaminated surface waters in the area for domestic and other purposes.