INFLUENCE OF THE LIBRARY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

        This study investigated into the Influence of the Uses of library on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin Metropolis.

        Two hundred respondents participated in the study. Four research hypotheses were generated for the study and t-test statistical method was used to analyses the data gathered with the questionnaire. The study showed that significant relationship existed between non-funding of university library and students performance.

        Also significant relationship existed between non-qualified staff and students’ performance, significant relationship existed between inadequate relevant resources and students’ performance and significant relationship exist between staff motivation and students performance. It was therefore recommended that qualified library staff must be well equipped with relevant equipment, the library should be well equipped while there should be opportunity for future development of the library.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS                                                          PAGE

TITLE PAGE                                                             i      

CERTIFICATION                                                       ii     

DEDICATION                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                          iv    

ABSTRACT                                                               vi    

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                             vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                      x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study                                                 1

Statement of the Problem                                        7

Purpose of the Study                                                       8

General Questions                                                   9

Research Questions                                                 9

Research Hypotheses                                               11   

Significance of the Study                                                 12

Delimitation and Scope of the Study                               12   

Definition of Terms (Operational Definitions)           13   

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Library Administration                                             14

Library Personnel Administration                            18

Manpower and Education                                        22

Personnel Problem in Academic Library                   27

Concept of Library Resource                                    31

Availability of Library Resources                              36

Summary of Review of Related Literature Review     38   

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                      40   

Population                                                               41   

Sample and Sampling Techniques                           41

Instrumentation                                                       42   

Validity of the Instrument                                        42   

Reliability of the Instrument                                    43

Administration of the Instrument                            43   

Data Analysis                                                           44

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results                                                                    45

Discussion of Findings                                            49   

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                                         53   

Conclusion                                                              54

Implication of the Study                                          55

Recommendations                                                   55

Limitations of the Study                                          56

Suggestions for Further Study                                         56

REFERENCES                                                         57

APPENDIX                                                               59

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:    t-test analysis comparing participants by Sex            45

Table 2:    t-test comparing participants by type of schools                46

Table 3:    t-test analysis comparing participants by discipline       47

Table 4:    t-test analysis on comparing participants by size             48

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        Efficient services acquisition within an academic institution is linked with the academic development and activity of the institution. The effective use of resources depends on the library with committees and towards concerned with forward planning. Library development strategies are linked to institutional areas and this enables the librarian to create core collections, provide for new courses and options and support selected research areas within agreed budgetary limitation.

        This measure of supports alone carries with it elements of planned insufficiency for areas less in need of supports such as these in declining teaching areas on these adequately covered in other local institutions or through systems of inter library  cooperation. On the face, such a system appears sensible and operationally sounds, but experience suggests that a clear understanding of academic priorities and objectives has not always been a strong feature of academic institution planning.

        It is possible therefore to fund the library operating in something of a vacuum, on the one hand being deprived of the guidance crisping from effective forward planning but on the other hand having no luck of rather desperate subjective advice from individuals and department. In such content, a well planned strategy for provision of resources has been extremely difficult to achieve.

        It is also the case that the majority of academic institutions have to content with number of organizational and administrative features, which have considerable input on librarianship. There is first the multi-site problem, which invariably splits the stocks between a number of libraries and course difficulties over duplication and proper administration and exploitation of materials. Secondly academic institution in recent offer new commences. Many of which are multi-disciplinary in nature, and this makes it difficult for the library to create collections along classic subject lines.

        Ayandibu (2000) stressed that the multi-site academic institutions such as polytechnic create demand for multiple provision of resources. Means have to be found to curtail spending on duplicate materials and these have included critical appraisal of all requests for additional of inter-site current awareness services designed to keep the academic user (students, lecturers) informed of contents pages even though resources themselves may be located else where.

        Ogunmilade (1995) also stressed that on issue of major importance in recent times to the librarians in Nigerian higher institutions of learning has been and continue to be question of how to effectively manage the library resources particularly in a period of socio-economic stress. This issue had been so critical that it continue to re-echo at the periodic meeting of committee of librarians of schools of education, polytechnic and universities. Moreover, the issue has been attracting prominent attention at National Conference on Researches Management in Nigerian Institution of Learning.

        The unique place of library in Nigerian Education System cannot be over-emphasized. Library is simply described as a special designated building stocked with prints and non-prints which are readily made available to the library users such as teachers, students, researchers, and the public at large through convenient booking, cataloguing and delivery system. This also described by Odetoyinbo (1993) as material on instructional and self-development centre which operates as an integral part of school environment. Today there has been a phenomenal increase in the number of library users in Nigerian Institution of Learning.

        The increase in the number of library users can be attributed to a number of factors which include prohibitive cost of textbooks in the market, non availability of some periodicals and reference materials in the markets and the inevitable need for other library services such as photocopying, binding of books and research report word processing of materials on computers, viewing motion pictures, film strips on other audio-visual materials, studying teaching machines, audio-visual tape of disc recordings.

        Library resources depreciate quickly as they are being subjected to daily use by numerous users. Funds for new materials and equipment are glossily inadequate to meet the escalating prices of these materials, and such no library can afford to replace its collection every few years. It is therefore expedient to find effective ways of managing the library resources so that they will last through many years of use.

        In Nigeria institution of learning, students depend greatly on the library to pursue different kinds of activities which include finding materials for writing reports, book reviews, debates or research papers, seeking information, finding answers to questions that may arise from the teaching process or for personal curiosity, recreational reading browsing through current magazines newspapers and learning to use the library car catalogue, bibliographies, reference books and periodical.

        It is therefore no superfluous remark that if the library is to successfully accomplish its lofty goals of servicing as information centre, a teaching and learning laboratory and to stimulate reading interest, reading habit recreational reading, reading for pleasure, concerted effort must be geared towards effective management of the library resources.

Statement of the Problem

INFLUENCE OF THE LIBRARY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

PREFERENCE FOR CYBER-COUNSELLING AMONG NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Abstract

The present study examined major and least prevalent counseling needs of students who enrolled various undergraduate programs in the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the Ankara University. Also, gender and grade level differences in those needs were investigated. A total of 400 students were surveyed. Findings indicated that while students had higher needs in academic, relational, emotional, and career issues; they reported less needs in self-defeating behaviors, sexual concerns, gambling problem, and excessive credit card spending. Moreover, significant gender and grade differences were found in some needs. Cyber-Counselling

Introduction

The number of students in higher education has been increasing every year in Turkey (MEB, 2009) and the total number of them reached 2.924 million during the 2008-2009 academic year (OSYM, 2009). To meet the increased demands for higher education, it becomes necessary to establish new universities around the country. Recently, fifteen state universities have been established and at present there are 139 universities, of which 45 are private. Today, it is obviously clear that the focus of universities is to provide educated and trained manpower to meet the demands of labor market. However, universities have responsibilities not only in cognitive and occupational development but also in personal, social, and psychological development of students. Since 1984, it is mandatory to establish student services to meet those needs in universities (RG, 1984). Cyber-Counselling

But, the student services, especially counseling centers, do not fulfill the tasks expected them due to lack of enough personnel and physical facilities, administration or organizational structure, lack of job descriptions, and work over loading (Güneri, 2006; Güneri, Aydõn, & Skovholt, 2003). Throughout the university years, students face with many difficulties which range from normal student problems (developmental or informational) to more severe psychological problems (Kitzrow, 2003). Student needs are influenced by individual and contextual factors and sometimes take a complex form including many problems (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton, 2003)Cyber-Counselling

PREFERENCE FOR CYBER-COUNSELLING AMONG NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

ADOLESCENTS ATTITUDE TO PARENTAL DISCIPLINE

Abstract

Transitional period or stage of physical and psychological human development creates in the adolescents a feeling of tension between dependency on their parents and the need to break away. Tension and behaviour disorder, disagreement increases as friends demonstrate a greater impact on one another, new influences on the adolescents that may be in opposition to parents’ values. All these conflicts create in parents mixed feelings and makes parenting a complex task, with specific parenting practices which are less important in predicting child well-being. Base on this the researcher was interested in investigating parenting styles and its influences on adolescents’ behaviour. Null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Review of literature was carried on accordingly. A sample of 627 respondents was selected for the study. The selection was done through the stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted. The hypothesis was tested under a 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that parenting styles significantly influence adolescents’ behaviour. Recommendations were made based on the result; that parents and adolescents should maintain cordial relationship and interaction to guide against behaviour misconduct and family conflict, leading to depression, anxiety, aggression and worries on the growing person

Introduction A thorough understanding of adolescence in society depends on information from various perspectives, including psychology, biology, history, sociology, education and anthropology. Within all of these perspectives, adolescence is viewed as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is the preparation of children for adult roles (Karson & Wilson, 2004).

It is a period of multiple transitions involving education, training, employment and unemployment, as well as transactions from one living circumstances to another. Hence, the end of adolescence and beginning of adulthood varies by country and by function. Adolescents Attitude

Furthermore even within a single nation, state or culture there can be different ages at which an individual is considered mature enough for society to entrust them with certain privileges and responsibilities. Such milestones includes driving a vehicle, having legal sexual relations, serving in armed forces or in a jury, purchasing and drinking alcohol, voting, enticing into contracts, finishing certain levels of education and marriage.Adolescents Attitude

Adolescence is usually accompanied by an increased independence allowed by the parents and legal guardians, including less supervision as compared to pre adolescence. Adolescence is a search for risk taking, without risk-taking, teenagers would not have the motivation or confidence necessary to make a change in society from childhood to adulthood. Risk taking potentials have lead so many to new found sexual attractiveness, drinking, drug use/addiction, negative attitudes or responses to elders, delinquency, depression, aggressiveness and examination malpractices. Adolescence makes a rapid change in one’s role within a family. Young children tend to ascertain themselves forcefully, but are unable to demonstrate much influence over family decisions until early adolescent (Grotevant, 1997) when they are increasingly view by parents as equals.Adolescents Attitude

The adolescent faces the task of increasing independence while preserving a caring relationship with his or her parents (Rawlins, 1992). When children go through puberty, there is often a significant increase in parent-child conflict and less cohesive familial bond. Arguments often concern minor issues of control, such as curfew, acceptance, clothing and the adolescents’ right to privacy (Steinber, 2001) which adolescents may have previously viewed as issues over which their parents had complete authority. Parents adolescent disagreement also increases as friends demonstrate a greater impact on one another, new influences on the adolescent that may be in opposition to parents’ values. Social media has also played an increasing role in adolescent and parent disagreement (Social Networking, 2012).Adolescents Attitude.

ADOLESCENTS ATTITUDE TO PARENTAL DISCIPLINE

POSITIVE PARENT-ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP

INTRODUCTION

Adolescence is a trying time for both child and parent. As children struggle to understand and deal with the physical, cognitive, psychological, and social changes they are experiencing, parents may feel their relationship has been turned upside down. Their child all of a sudden has become less willing to accept their advice, more independent, argumentative, and unwilling to acknowledge that a parent could have even the slightest clue about what they are going through. Given such changes, parents may worry that their adolescent children have come to value their relationship less and that they have lost considerable influence over the direction of their children’s lives. Research suggests otherwise. An examination of a national survey of teenagers in the United States provides evidence that the majority of adolescents respect, admire, and like their parents and enjoy the time they spend together. This evidence is encouraging. Studies in the U.S. and other nations report a link between quality parent-child relationships and several positive outcomes among teenagers

Parent-child relationships grow more complex during adolescence. Children undergo profound developmental changes during these years. For instance:1 · Their physical development progresses at a rapid rate. Changes in height and weight are common. Puberty leads to development of several secondary sexual characteristics. Brain development continues into late adolescence. It is not unusual for adolescents to feel awkward, compare their appearance to that of others, worry they are not developing at the same rate as others, and ask questions regarding sex. · Cognitively, adolescents develop advanced reasoning skills and abstract thinking skills. They become able to think about how they feel and how they are perceived by others. They are much more self-conscious and tend to believe everyone is watching them and is concerned about what they do and think.

POSITIVE PARENT-ADOLESCENT RELATIONSHIP

COUNSELLING FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS WITH TARGET CLIENTS (THE NIGERIAN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUTHS)

INTRODUCTION

The increasing rate of unemployment in Nigeria is fast becoming a popular subject matter. It is the ideal cynical mechanism, which accounts for why many crimes abound in the society. The quick excuse from most youth, who indulge themselves in anti-social crime, is unemployment. And for obvious reasons, it has also become the most appealing topic of deliberation in the country. This menace can be appropriately handled if entrepreneurial development is adequately encouraged through vocational education. Entrepreneurship as seen in this paper is the skill to develop new adventures or apply a new technique to an old business. It entails risks, identifies business opportunity, gathers resources, initiates action and establishes an organization or enterprise to meet such demand or market opportunity. This paper presents evidence that promoting entrepreneurship development through Vocational Education can be an effective way of tackling unemployment in Nigeria. The findings also showed that unemployment is a global problem in Nigeria and empowering the youth is a sure ways of diversifying the economic. conclusion and recommendation were also drawn from the study outlines the history and evolution of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to Poverty Reduction. As well as defining main concepts and key principles, it introduces the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework as a tool for analysing poverty. It also explains the need to research poverty at household level, as well as the importance of investigating internal power dynamics within households.

explores the different elements of the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in depth. It defines and illustrates key aspects of the Vulnerability Context and demonstrates how they affect livelihood assets and strategies. It also examines how Policies, Institutions and Processes enable or disable people’s livelihoods, while promoting an awareness of power relations throughout. Finally, it explains the difference between coping and adaptive strategies in terms of their impact on assets and outcomes.

provides practical guidance on how to conduct a Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis in the field. It outlines the links between the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach/Framework and participatory research methodologies and tools. In order to demonstrate best practice, it provides a step-by-step account of a FAO Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis, followed by a Questions and Answers session with the research consultant who conducted it.

explores practical ways to influence Poverty Reduction using the Approach and Framework. It explores some key mistakes made by development practitioners when designing projects and programmes, while offering some examples of Sustainable Livelihoods best practice in the field. It concludes with an in-depth interview with Oxfam Ireland’s Livelihoods Programme Co-ordinator.

COUNSELLING FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS WITH TARGET CLIENTS (THE NIGERIAN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUTHS)

A TOOL FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

The quality of guidance and counseling services provided to secondary school students in Kenya is paramount for it to have meaningful impact on students’ performance. The study was conducted to determine the quality of guidance and counseling services as a tool for improving students performance given by teacher counselors in public secondary schools in Voi district, Taita Taveta county.Quality Enhancement

The study sought to find out the level of training of teacher counselors, the extent of awareness of guidance and counseling services by students, the availability of necessary facilities and resources that aid in the provision of guidance and counseling services to the students and the impact of guidance and counseling services on the overall performance of students. A stratified random sampling was used to obtain the study sample; questionnaires for the students which had both closed and open ended questions, interview schedules for teacher counselors and head teachers were used to collect the data. The study was conducted in 6 public secondary schools distributed as 3 boys only schools, 2 mixed boys and girls school and 1 girls only school.

The target group in this study was 392 respondents comprised of 380 students respondents, 6 teacher counselors and 6 head teachers. Quantitative data that was collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics; mean, frequency distribution tables, percentages and charts. Qualitative data from the interviews were recorded and inferences made on the responses to establish the themes The study revealed that teacher counselors have the requisite training, however, they gave priority to their classroom work which is their core mandate; guidance and counseling is done when time permits.

The teacher counselor’s workload and teacher-teacher counselor roles conflict were identified as barriers in the provision of guidance and counseling services to the students. The study also found out that most of students were aware of the guidance and counseling services offered by the teacher counselors as they were able to identify issues they would present to a teacher counselor when need arises. Resources availability was also noted as inadequate in all the schools and little or no budgetary allocation for guidance and counseling department by school management, and as such, teacher counselors had to do with what was available.

The study also established that the guidance and counseling services offered by teacher counselors had some impact on the students. The study therefore recommends that; to ensure quality and to enhance the impact of guidance and counseling services offered to students in public secondary schools, a review of guidance and counseling policy should be put in place by the Ministry of Education Science and Technology such that professional guidance and counseling specialists who are not classroom teachers be employed and be deployed in public secondary schools to be in charge of the guidance and counseling department on a full time basis.

A TOOL FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE PREVALENCE OF UNRESOLVED GRIEF AMONG BEREAVED PARENTS IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING

ABSTRACT

The loss of an infant through stillbirth, miscarriage, or neonatal death is recognized as a traumatic life event. Predictors of development of complicated grief after prenatal loss include lack of social support, pre-existing relationship difficulties, or absence of surviving children, as well as ambivalent attitudes or heightened perception of the reality of the pregnancy. Risk of complicated grief was found to be especially high after termination of a pregnancy due to fetal abnormality. Studies have revealed that men and women show different patterns of grief, potentially exacerbating decline in a relationship. Although it is clear that prenatal loss has a large psychological impact, it is concluded that there is a substantial lack of randomized controlled studies in this field of research.

The loss of a child is recognized as a very difficult life experience, which can often cause complicated grief (CG) reactions that risk negatively affecting psychological and physical well-being. In a population-based sample, bereaved individuals who had lost a child showed the highest prevalence of CG. Perinatal loss is a relatively common occurrence which, in this article, refers to the death of an infant due to miscarriage, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In 2007 in the United States the infant mortality rate was 6.9 deaths per 1000 live births. Miscarriage, generally defined as an unintended termination of the pregnancy prior to 20 weeks of gestation, is the most common type of pregnancy loss. The overall prevalence is 15% to 27% for women aged between 25 and 29, increasing to 75% in women older than 45 years, with elevated risk for women who have lost a previous pregnancy. The death of a fetus after 20 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of over 500 g is referred to as a stillbirth. In these cases, the fetus has either died before or during labour, often unexpectedly or after an uncomplicated pregnancy. A relatively new issue that has emerged in the field of perinatal loss is that continuing development of prenatal diagnostics has increased diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, with relatively high corresponding termination rates. A European survey found average termination rates of 88% for Down’s syndrome as well as in cases of neural tube defects.Unresolved Grief

Although parents have not built up a relationship with their infant, grief after pregnancy loss does not differ significantly in intensity from other loss scenarios. As has been found in bereavement involving first-degree relatives, grief symptoms usually decrease in intensity over the first 12 months. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that in a normal grieving process, grief declines over a period of 2 years after the pregnancy loss. Perinatal losses have also been shown to have a substantial psychological impact on parents and families, and are associated with post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and sleeping disorders. Overall, high levels of CG are generally associated with a poorer state of mental health.Unresolved Grief

This article reviews literature on CG reactions to perinatal loss. Typical grief reactions and unique aspects of bereavement after perinatal loss are described, before a summary of the risk factors which influence grief outcome. The specific issue of termination of pregnancy due to abnormality is outlined and denser differences between fathers and mothers after prenatal loss are then addressed. Finally, clinical implications for parents after pregnancy loss are discussed.Unresolved Grief.

THE PREVALENCE OF UNRESOLVED GRIEF AMONG BEREAVED PARENTS IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING

COUNSELLING: A STRONG TOOL FOR CHECKING EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND COPING WITH EXAMINATION ANXIETY

ABSTRACT

Secondary school students³ perceptions of examination malpractices and examination ethics were assessed. The participants were drawn from Secondary Schools in the Benin Metropolis of Nigeria. The study revealed that majority of the students believed that their indulgence in examination malpractice was a common occurrence, which will be difficult to eradicate. Parents, teachers and school principals were found to encourage cheating in examinations. The study also revealed that majority of the students had a very wrong notion about examination ethics; believing that examination ethics entail among others sitting next to someone in order to copy from his/her paper in the examination hall. In all, counselling intervention strategies such as: school counsellors partnering with the school authorities and students to set up examination ethics clubs that will teach the virtues of hard work; school counsellors partnering with parents/ teachers associations and other significant others on strategies that would help to inculcate in them the virtues of responsibility were advocated.

Evidence abound of increasing incidents of examination malpractices by students at schools and colleges; which conflict with the core purpose of education ´ the training of the mind and character for the acquisition of practical and theoretical skills, knowledge and functional ideas for development; and the search for truth and knowledge and the creation and communication of ideas (Nanna, 1997; Peterson, 1988, as cited in Aaron, 1992).

In Nigeria, the first publicly reported case of examination malpractice occurred in 1914 when there was a leakage of question papers in the senior Cambridge local Examination.

Ever since, there have been cases of irregularities reported on a yearly basis. But, the outstanding years were 1963, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1977, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1991,1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 (West African Examination Council, 2004).Examination Anxiety

The major forms of examination malpractice reported are: Impersonation; bringing in foreign materials (books, calculator); substituting worked scripts, stealing, converting, misappropriating scripts; collusion in the examination hall (copying); mass\organized cheating involving assistance from teachers and outsiders; and insult\assault on supervisors\invigilators (Oluyeba & Daramola, 1992). Examination Anxiety This trend in examination malpractices is inimical to academic development and advancement and needs to be drastically addressed. Examination malpractice is an illegal or unethical behaviour by somebody in the process of testing an examinees ability or knowledge by means of questions (Ikupa, 1997).Examination Anxiety Oluyeba and Daramola (1992) remarked that examination malpractices include the following: examination malpractice is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a candidate or any-body charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination The role of counselling in dealing with examination.Examination Anxiety.

COUNSELLING: A STRONG TOOL FOR CHECKING EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND COPING WITH EXAMINATION ANXIETY

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS AND GENDER AMONG NIGERIANS

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between stressful life events and anxiety during the period of adolescence. It is known that stressful life events are commonly studied risk and environmental factors in the development of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. In addition, physical and psychological symptoms of anxiety are often associated with stressful life events. These events are related to the different experiences of conflict and disrupted communication in the family.

Subsequently, these events directly or indirectly affect the self-esteem and the self-image of adolescents during the period of adolescence. This research starts with the assumption that stressful life events predicted anxiety during the period of adolescence. Another assumption, in this research, is that females have higher level of anxiety compared with males. This study was conducted on a sample  of 160 participants (80 girls and 80 boys) students in the fourth year of secondary school. The instruments used in the research include: scale of stressful life events for children and adolescents – Stress-D, and the Scale for anxiety for children and adolescents – SCAD-62. The results showed that stressful life events were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (r= .962, p<.01). Also, the symptoms of anxiety are closely associated with medical (F,24,135= .871, p<.05) and family stressful events (F,24,135= 2.017, p<.05).

There were significant relationship between medical stressful life events and gender (p= .045), and social stressful life events and gender (p= .001). On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between academic stressful life events and gender (p= .944), and European Scientific Journal April 2016 edition vol.12, No.11 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e – ISSN 1857- 7431 333 family stressful life events and gender (p= .564). In conclusion, the results of the study show that females have higher level of anxiety compared with males (r= .985, p<.01). The results show that there is a significant relationship between specific types of stressful life events, including those related to physical health and family which discord the anxiety during the period of adolescence.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS AND GENDER AMONG NIGERIANS

USING SCHOOL SOCIETIES AS A MEANS OF VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

Vocational education in Nigeria is the product of an extended evolutionary process. Economic, educational, and societal issues have repeatedly exerted influence on the definition of vocational education, as well as on how, when, where, and to whom it will be provided. There are many legal definitions of vocational education (i.e., how vocational education is defined by law). These legal definitions are critical since they specify how, for what purpose, and to what extent federal monies may be spent for vocational education. All too often this legal definition is interpreted by state and local officials as the only definition of vocational education.Vocational Development

For the purpose of this article, vocational education is defined as a practically illustrated and attempted job or career skill instruction. As such, a variety of components fall under the vocational education umbrella: agricultural education, business education, family and consumer sciences, health occupations education, marketing education, technical education, technology education, and trade and industrial education. The vocational curriculum can be identified as a combination of classroom instruction–hands-on laboratory work and on-the-job training–augmented by an active network of student organizations. Vocational preparation must always be viewed against the backdrop of the needs of society and of the individual. While meeting the demands of the economy, the abilities of individuals must be utilized to the fullest. Meeting the internalized job needs of individuals is a crucial objective of vocational education.Vocational Development

The first formalized vocational education system in America can be traced to apprenticeship agreements of colonial times. The first education law passed in America, the Old Deluder Satan Act of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, set specific requirements for masters to teach apprentices academic as well as vocational skills. During the colonial period the colonies frequently cared for orphans, poor children, and delinquents by indenturing them to serve apprenticeships. As apprenticeship declined, other institutions developed to care for these youngsters. By the mid-1880s vocational education in the form of industrial education was synonymous with institutional programs for these youth. The children of defeated Native American leaders were sent to the Carlisle Pennsylvania Indian School, and the curriculum was job training.Vocational Development

After the Civil War Samuel Chapman Armstrong, the founder of Hampton Institute and the ideological father of African-American vocational education, tried to address the racial aspects of the social and economic relations between the former slaves and the white South. His vocational education programs emphasized the need for African Americans to be good, subservient laborers. The prominent educator Booker T. Washington, Armstrong’s prize student, took the same values and philosophical views as his former mentor. Washington held firmly to his beliefs that vocational education was the ideal route for most African Americans. W. E. B. Du Bois, also an influential African-American educator, strongly objected to Washington’s educational program. He accused Washington of teaching lessons of work and money, which potentially encouraged African Americans to forget about the highest aims of life.

The first land-grant college provisions, known as the First Morrill Act, were enacted by the U.S. Congress on July 2, 1862. The statute articulated the appointment of public lands to the states based on their representation in Congress in 1860. The Morrill Act was one of the first congressional actions to benefit from the post– constitutional amendments.

By the late 1860s Morrill Act funds were being distributed to the states, with the intention that they would foster educational opportunity for all students. Following the Civil War, the expansion of the land-grant college system continued, with its implied focus on educational opportunities. However, with the close of the army’s occupation to the old South, funds from the Morrill Act began to flow systemically to schools offering only all-white education. Congress attempted by various legislation to force racial equality, including equality of educational opportunity.

However, the U.S. Supreme Court initiated a series of interpretations of the post—Civil War constitutional amendments that ultimately defeated these various legislative efforts. Culminating with its 1882 decision finding the first Civil Rights Act unconstitutional, the Supreme Court held that the Fourteenth amendment only protected against direct discriminatory action by a state government. What followed was a period of nearly seventy-five years when only modest gains were made in higher educational opportunity for minorities. Congress did pass a second Morrill Act (1890), which required states with dual systems of education (all-white and nonwhite) to provide landgrand institutions for both systems.

Basing their jurisdiction on the 1882 Supreme Court decision, Congress acted to curb direct state-sponsored discrimination. Eventually, nineteen higher education institutions for African Americans were organized as land-grant institutions. These institutions were founded to raise the aspirations of a generation of children of former slaves and to ensure that high quality higher education was provided for Americans of all races. While efforts persisted throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to reduce the funding to these colleges, the schools continued to function based on land-grant funds.

USING SCHOOL SOCIETIES AS A MEANS OF VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

SCHOOL COUNSELORS’ ROLES IN PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN NIGERIA

Introduction

One of the leading causes of premature death in the last twenty years has been the scourge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The disease, AIDS, was first heard of in 1981. Within twenty years, it spread to all continents of the world and remains a great killer to which no man has found a solution. In 1988 alone, about 5.8 million new cases occurred, bringing the total number of people living with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/AIDS by December, 1998 to approximately 33.4 million. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2007) estimates that there are now 40 million people living with HIV or AIDS worldwide. Since the beginning of the epidemic, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people worldwide. It has replaced malaria and tuberculosis as the world’s deadliest infectious disease among adults and is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Fifteen million children have been orphaned by the epidemic. Young people worldwide are the sub-group most affected while about Department of Educational Foundations and Councelling, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Depratment of Local Government Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Department of Accounting & Business Education,University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

half of new HIV cases are occurring in people aged 15-24. According to Okonofua (1999) it is no longer news that the Human Immuno- deficiency Virus is now well established in Nigeria. Although the virus was first identified in Nigeria in 1988, over 4 million Nigerians were estimated to have contacted the virus by the end of 1998. This makes Nigeria the second country in Africa with the heaviest burden of the disease, in terms of absolute number of those afflicted, second only to South Africa.

The disease has now permeated the entire Nigeria society. It affected men and women in urban and rural areas, as well as adolescents, commercial sex workers, traders, high profile politicians and socialites, servicemen and women, truck drivers and students. Indeed, everyone must feel vulnerable to the disease, which is fast rampaging the most productive age groups in the Nigerian population. Several thousands have died from the disease, and this has brought untold hardship and disorganization to many Nigeria families.

In Nigeria, the burden of HIV/AIDS on the citizenry is alarming. Statistics on the spread of the disease show that Nigeria records about 1,400 new infections every day. This figure represents one new infection per minute. By October 1998, it is believed that Nigeria records about 571,036 cases of HIV infection. In the hierarchy of the world’s most infected AIDS nations, Nigeria is said to occupy the 27 position, constituting 8.9 percent of global infection and 12.5 percent of the African HIV/AIDS burden.

Professor Debo Adeyemi, one time health minister in Nigeria, describes the spread of HIV/AIDS as alarming. According to him, about 25 million adults in Nigeria are already infected with the disease. He reasons that with his figure, assuming that there are no new cases of infection, fatality from the disease will surpass the totality of deaths recorded from the Nigeria civil war by the year 2010.

The disease up till now has got no cure despite many years of drug and vaccine research activities.

Although few drugs are now available that could prolong the lives of infected persons through reduction of the load of the virus and improvement in the number of white blood cells. Such drugs are, however, very expensive, globally, and quite scarce in Nigeria. Good nutrition and prompt treatment of presenting diseases can also prolong the life of an infected person. Thus, the only effective way of controlling HIV/AIDS, presently, is by prevention, with education as the main thrust of this approach.

How counsellors react to a counsellee and how they communicate these feelings are of critical importance in counselling. Adolescents come to the counsellor for help and understanding. They bring to the counsellor confused feeling, ideas, fears and hopes with which they are struggling. The counsellors attitudes toward them determine in large measure the extent to which they will attempt to cope constructively with their problems and undertake positive actions. If the counsellor demonstrates a genuine acceptance of these adolescents, they will feel that they are received.

Inadequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among adolescents, particularly secondary school students calls for a study that will assess the role of school counselors in the prevention of the disease. This study specifically investigated the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Osun State and assessed the precautionary measures taken by secondary school students against the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This was with a view to assessing the role of school counselors in the prevention of the pandemic among secondary school students in Osun State.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of the study are to

(a) investigate the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Osun State;

(b). assess the precautionary measures taken by secondary school students against the transmission of HIV/AIDS;

(c). appraise the activities of school counsellors in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.

SCHOOL COUNSELORS’ ROLES IN PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN NIGERIA

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF NIGERIAN SINGLE PARENTS

Abstract

The study investigated the impact of marital conflicts on the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents in Lagos metropolis. The sample comprises 150 senior secondary two students randomly selected with the use of stratified random sampling technique from five secondary schools in five selected Local Government Areas of Lagos metropolis. It is envisaged that this study would benefit couples and those contemplating marriage as it will expose them to other experiences thereby giving them insight into marital problem solving mechanisms. Society at large will also benefit from this study because their awareness level on marital conflicts and the consequences on adolescents would have been raised since a better family makes a better society. Researchersconstructed questionnaire was administered on the respondents to test the three hypotheses formulated for the study. Independent t -test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical techniques were used for data analysis. The findings showed that there is a significant impact of marital conflicts on the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents. Psychosocial adjustments did not significantly differ due to gender but on the other hand Psychosocial adjustments significantly differ due to marital conflict. Marital conflicts Significantly affect adolescents’ perception of marriage as an institution.

INTRODUCTION

Marriage is the socially acceptable union between a man and a woman. It means the coming together of two totally different individuals as husband and wife who agree to plan and set up their own family. Osarenren (2002) viewed marriage as usually a union between an adult male and an adult female. Marital conflicts come in different forms like spouse battering, spousal abuse, sexual abuse, marital irresponsibility, incest, rape, subtle struggle for control between the couple and other abusive behaviours. There is concern about the rising rate of unresolved marital conflicts, which often lead to marital instability, further leading to divorce, desertion, single-parenthood and legal separation. Thus, unresolved marital conflicts oftentimes lead to failed marriages. Marital conflicts are often caused by childlessness, forced marriage, incompatibility, communication gap, interference by in-laws, finances, infidelity, sex of children, lack of appreciation etc. Therefore, when marital conflicts occur regularly, it may have adverse effects on the psycho-social adjustment of adolescents who are the products of such marriages.

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF NIGERIAN SINGLE PARENTS

COUNSELLING STRATEGIES FOR ADDRESSING MILITANCY AND SOCIAL RESTIVENESS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This paper offers a critical account of the amnesty programme introduced by the Nigerian state in 2009. It examines the impact and limitations of the amnesty as an instrument of peace building, and emphasizes the need for wider reforms that address underdevelopment and poverty in the Niger Delta region. The paper argues that the amnesty programme is a laudable effort but is by no means a silver bullet. It is better understood as a specific response to a resource-driven conflict that requires a broader, comprehensive resolution.

Nigeria’s resource wealth has been a major driver of conflict in the past 40 years. The Niger Delta region has been plagued by simmering grievances that blossomed over time into a popular insurgency against the Nigerian state and multinational oil companies (MOCs) (Ukiw, U. 2011. “The Nigerian State, Oil and the Niger Delta Crisis”. In Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the Complex Politics of Petro-violence, Edited by: Obi, C. and Aas Rustad, S.17–27. London: Zed Books. ; Obi CI. 2006. Youth and the Generational Dimensions to the Struggle for Resource Control in the Niger Delta: Prospects for the Nation-State Project in Nigeria, Dakar: CODESRIA.Obi, CI. 2010. Oil Extraction, Dispossession, Resistance and Conflict in Nigeria’s Oil-Rich Niger Delta. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 30(1–2): 219–236.

Indigenous communities have been adversely affected by oil extraction, with destruction of local livelihoods and severe environmental pollution.While it is commonly believed that the amnesty programme has promoted stability in oil production, there are underlying socio-political contradictions that undermine its effectiveness and credibility. This paper offers a critical account of the amnesty programme in Nigeria. The analysis is located within a narrative of the overarching political economy dynamics in Nigeria which are influence violence, underdevelopment and poverty in the Niger Delta region. The paper argues that the amnesty programme should be complemented with wider reforms that tackle the root causes of the Niger Delta crisis.

The next section provides a review of the amnesty programme which examines its objectives and operations. This is followed by a critical discussion of the limitations and weaknesses in the approach to amnesty in Nigeria. In conclusion, the paper identifies wider reforms that are needed for lasting peace, security and development in the Niger Delta.

COUNSELLING STRATEGIES FOR ADDRESSING MILITANCY AND SOCIAL RESTIVENESS IN NIGERIA

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL’S LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND THE COUNSELLORS’ MORALE

Abstract

This study of four suburban schools, two high schools, and two elementary schools, investigated how the leadership behaviors of the principal can affect the morale of the teaching staff. Questions answered included the role of participatory management and its relationship with the level of morale, differences between elementary and secondary teachers in their preference for certain leadership behaviors, differences in principal’s perceptions of his/her leadership behaviors and the perceptions of teachers, differences in principal’s perceptions of the level of morale of the staff and the perceptions of teachers, and identification of behaviors of the principal that contribute to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction of the teaching staff.

The methodology used was survey, interview and observation. data was collected through the academic year, 1987-1988. Data sources included recorded observation by the researcher, interviews of principals and teachers, and questionnaires completed by principals and teachers.

Significant findings of the study include:

(1) The school whose teachers perceived themselves to have the highest morale was the school whose teachers also perceived themselves to have more participation in the organization of the school.

(2) The only difference between secondary and elementary teachers in their preference for certain leadership behaviors was that secondary teachers preferred more control over the review of overall policies.

(3) In all schools the principal perceived the character of the relationship between principal and teachers as more participative than what teachers perceived.

(4) In all schools the principal perceived the level of morale higher than what teachers perceived.

(5) Characteristics and behaviors of the principal that teachers stated made their jobs more satisfying were support for teachers’ concerns, positive feedback and encouragement, concern for the school’s success, visibility, dedication toward the achievement of success of the school, involving teachers in decision-making, good communication, consistency, pleasantness, honesty, consideration, and strength of character.

(6) Characteristics and behaviors of the principal that teachers stated made their jobs dissatisfying included a lack of visibility, a lack of teacher involvement in decision-making, being too directive, being unsupportive of teachers’ concerns, not listening to teachers’ input, making snap judgments, being inconsistent in judgement, and a lack of communication and enthusiasm.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL’S LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND THE COUNSELLORS’ MORALE

SCHOOL COUNSELLOR AND PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME

ABSTRACT

Grassroots education is imperative if economic development is to be actualized. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the primary school teachers’ perception of the Universal Basic Education (UBE). This study attempted to find out the primary school teachers’ perception of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme and their perceived contribution towards the success of the programme. It further examined how favorable perception towards the scheme could be a catalyst in the successful implementation of the UBE. To accomplish this task, two research questions and a hypothesis were raised to guide the study.School Counsellor

The opinion of one hundred and eighteen (118) teachers, out of four hundred and forty-seven teachers (447) that constituted the population of the teachers in Esan West Public Primary Schools was obtained. The respondents were randomly selected. The questionnaire was used for data collection. A 1-4 Likert-type scale ranging from Strongly Agreed to Strongly Disagreed was used to score the responses of the subjects. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, means, standard deviation and chi- square (X2). A significant difference existed among primary school teachers in their perception and operation of the UBE scheme.School Counsellor

The result revealed that 58% of the respondents had favorable perception of the UBE programme. And since perception affects our attitude towards a programme, this positive response will go a long way in enhancing the implementation of the UBE scheme, which invariably will contribute immensely to economic growth and national development.School Counsellor

Education lies somewhere in between pure public goods and pure private goods. Though education could be financed privately and even provided privately, not all the benefits of educations could be confined to those who paid for it and it is not possible to exclude the less educated from the various spillovers generated by the more educated (Ndagi, 1977). Education is regarded as quasi-public good.

Usually, there are budget cuts and we are given less to spend and each naira is buying less educational goods and services because of inflation. A process of tackling the economic problems of development would entail a political development – a development in the way power is distributed in the region, in what institutions have, what functions and how community participates in the entire process. As Dr. Kwame Nkruma’s dictum asserts “seek ye first the political kingdom and all others will be added unto it”.

Education is a basic necessity for good life, economic development and natural development. Globalising world economy is a farce until education is globalized. It has been observed in many quarters that no nation could become stable, prosperous or achieve a sustainable development and enduring democratic rule without an educational citizenry.

Each year, about 130 million primaryschool-age children are denied access to education. Two-thirds of them are girls (UNICEF, 1999). More than 150 million children start primary school but drop out of school before they have completed five years of education (UNICEF, 1999). It is estimated that one in five individuals in the developing world will still be illiterate in 2010 (UNESCO, 1997). Less than two percent of children with disabilities in developing countries are included in formal education (Walkins, 2000).School Counsellor

From the foregoing, it is quite clear that there is a global campaign for education. It has been observed that there is no universally accepted definition for the word “education” right from Plato to the present day. The definition varies according to the individual perception of life or his sociopolitical and the culture of the community. Nevertheless, there are components of education, which are common to all societies and cultures. Based on the above observations, education has been defined in many ways.School Counsellor

Ehiametalor (1985) defines education “as the acquisition of knowledge, the aggregate of all processes through which a person develops ability, skills, attitudes and other forms of behaviour with posilive value in the society in which he lives”. Majasan (1995) sees education as a life long process, which enhances the individual’s quality of life, builds up his personality and enables him to contribute effectively to the development of his society at any stage of his life career. Dewey (1924) defines education as:School Counsellor

A process of fostering, nurturing, cultivating a process. All these words mean that it implies attention to the condition of growth. We also speak of rearing, raising, bringing upwards which express the different levels which education aims to cover. Etymologically, the word education means just a process of leading or bringing up. When we have the outcome of the process in mind, we speak of education as shaping, forming, molding activity – that is shaping into the standard form of social activity.School Counsellor

Education, therefore, entails more than acquisition of knowledge, it is the aggregate of one’s ability, skills, attitudes, values, perception and acceptable pattern of behaviour by the society. Apart from parents who are involved in the process of moulding of the child, the teachers have important roles to play.School Counsellor.

SCHOOL COUNSELLOR AND PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME

TEACHER’S ATTITUDES TOWARDS FEMALES AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

Abstract

This paper looked at one aspect of societal attitudes towards vocational education by conducting a survey involving 200 parents in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. The result of the survey clearly showed that although parents recognize the employment value inherent in vocational education, they are still prepared to accept the superiority of socially prestigious and white-collar professions over technical related occupations. Simple percentages and frequencies were used to obtain data for this study. The paper concluded by examining the implications of these findings for guidance and counselling services in Nigeria.

Introduction

Innovations relating to vocational education have been introduced as a way of reducing “waste’ of talent often associated with conventional schools. The rationale or vocational needs would provide a more productive stimulus to the economy. In Nigeria, for example, the New National Policy on Education (2004) has not only advocated the integration of productive work into learning but also stipulated the establishment of multi-purpose vocational centres in order to facilitate the training of artisans, craftsmen, technicians, etc. In spite of the growing awareness of the need for skill training in development efforts, there seems to be lack of adequate information on the concept of linkage between education and working life; for instance, the implications of innovations and policy formulations concerning vocational education programmes in the context of individual.

TEACHER’S ATTITUDES TOWARDS FEMALES AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

EFFECT OF RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY ON THE LEVEL OF GENERAL AND EXAMINATION ANXIETIES AMONG STUDENTS

INTRODUCTION

An abundance of research has shown that large transactional distance between geographically dispersed learners and supporting staff in Open and Distance learning institutions contribute to students’ feelings of isolation, low self efficacy and reduced level of motivation which culminates to poor academic performance. This study, therefore, examined the impact of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in fostering self-efficacy amongst academically at-risk learners in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). A pre-test and post-test control group quasi experimental design with 2x2x2x2 factorial matrix was adopted for the study. Stratified random and Probability Proportional to Size sampling techniques (PPS) were used to draw one hundred and thirty-five respondents (Males=68; Females=67) with age range of between 22 and 51 years ( x =16.17; SD=1.01) from first-year NOUN undergraduates in South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

The experimental group was treated with nine sessions of one and half hour using REBT, while the control group was not treated. General Self Efficacy (GSE) scale (r=0.81) was the outcome measure. Analysis of Covariance and t-test for independent samples were used to test the four null hypotheses at 0.05 alphas. The findings revealed that REBT was effective in fostering self-efficacy in the treated group (F (1,130) = 54.11, P <0.05 when compared with their counterpart in the control group. Males have superior treatment gains ( x =40.11) over the female participants ( x =33.03). Participants educational level and age significantly influenced study outcomes (t=25.55; df=133, P=3.14, <0.05) and (t=4.64; df=133, P=1.77, <.05). The outcome of this study provided insight into the viability and potential of REBT in fostering self-efficacy in academically – at-risk learners. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Students Counsellors should continuously update their skills on the use of REBT and other psychological intervention in order to assist NOUN students become self actualized academically.

EFFECT OF RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY ON THE LEVEL OF GENERAL AND EXAMINATION ANXIETIES AMONG STUDENTS

THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON THE MANIFESTATION OF DEPRESSION

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression among adolescents is an uncommon and frequently unrecognized issue in pediatrics. children and adolescents however suffer from both depression and associated symptoms.

Methods: The study was carried out among adolescents in secondary schools from two states; Enugu and Ebonyi metropolises within the age range of 9-18 in Enugu metropolis. The instrument employed for data collection was a structured self-administered questionnaire developed from the Goldberg Depression Questionnaire, a Screening Test for Depression. It is particularly suited for students in this age group. The families were assigned socio-economic classes using the recommended method (modified) by Oyedeji.

Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of several levels of depression among adolescents attending secondary schools in two states.

Results: A total of 453 adolescents who are attending secondary schools from two states were recruited in this study. Depression is non-existent before the age of 10 years according to this study. The prevalence of moderate depression was lowest (2.3%) at the age of 10 and highest at (6.2%) the age of 13. The prevalence of severe depression was lowest (1.9%) at the age of 11 and highest (7.4%) at the age of 12. Female gender is a risk factor for depression. Children whose parents are separated showed higher incidences of depression in all the spectra studied.

Conclusion: Adolescents exhibit different levels of depression with a female preponderance.Cultural Influence

INTRODUCTION

Depression is defined as a state of low mood and aversion to activity.It is noted that several controversies characterize the literature on depression in adolescents. For instance, some studies noted that children and young adolescents did not have the psychological structure (e.g., superego functions) to truly experience depression. Indeed, the classic characterization of adolescence as a time of “storm and stress” led many researchers to view depression during adolescence as a normal developmental stage. In fact, most adolescents progress through life without undue emotional turbulence.

Cultural Influence

In contrast, it is known and documented that children and adolescents do indeed suffer from both depressive symptoms and depressive disorders. In fact, adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive disorders.Cultural Influence

As unrecognized as depression is among the adult population, it is even more so among children and adolescents. Studies have estimated that depression affects up to 8.3% of older adolescents in the United States.In addition, it is noted that on any single day about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression.  In the long run, the numbers are even higher, for example, one in five adolescents have experienced depression at some point. In primary care settings, the rates of depression are as high as 28% for adolescents.Cultural Influence.

THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON THE MANIFESTATION OF DEPRESSION

THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT ADMINISTERED ON STUDENTS BY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

Abstract

The study evaluated secondary school teachers’ perception on the effectiveness of physical punishment as a disciplinary measure in selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Osun State. This was with a view of exploring the effects of physical punishment in encouraging or discouraging secondary school students from delinquent and violent acts.

The quantitative data for the study was collected from 230 teachers in 12 purposively selected secondary schools through simple random sampling technique. The quantitative data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Qualitative data collected through In-depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were analysed using the TextBase Beta. The study revealed that there was no significant relationship (F^sup -val^=.145, P≤0.05, X^sup 2-val^=.243, P≤0.05, and t^sup -val^=.135, P≤ 0.05 respectively) between teachers’ demographic attributes such as (age, level of education and sex) and their perception. It was also revealed that teacher’s length of service had no significant influence (X^sup 2-val^=.713, P ≤ 0.05) on their perception. Also, there was a significant relationship (r^sup -val^ .000, P ≤ 0.05) between teachers’ perception and frequent adoption of physical punishment. However, the Qualitative analysis showed the influence of religion on teachers’ perception, (King Solomon, in the Book of Proverbs [13:24] ), (Proverbs 22:15, KJV) and (Proverbs 23:13, 15, KJV). In conclusion, physical punishment was perceived as an effective disciplinary measure for correcting and maintaining discipline among secondary school students as well as, in molding and shaping their cognitive and psychosocial growth and developmental ability.

Introduction

In Nigeria today, acts of delinquency and violence among secondary school students have become a major problem, which both the school system and the society at large are contending with. These problems appear in form of destruction of school and public properties, cheating in examinations, alcoholism, drug abuse and addiction, sexual offences, stealing, truancy, rudeness, fighting, bullying, verbal abuse, and defiance of constituted authorities, just to name a few. Consequently, effective disciplinary techniques are needed to curb such negative conducts and to maintain discipline in secondary schools. However, the major issue that parents and teachers should consider in relation to discipline is how the measures used can contribute to a high level of positive socialisation and character development in children.

Counselling Implications

The aim of all forms of discipline of children must be to develop good characters in the form of social conscience. The various disciplinary measures adopted by the schools are yet to achieve their aims. Often, secondary school students are involved in cases of violence and delinquencies, which are reported by the media. These disciplinary measures are deficient either because they are not appropriate or in the techniques of their application and administration. Therefore, this study involves an evaluation of the perception of secondary school teachers on the effectiveness of physical punishment as a disciplinary measure in selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Osun State.Counselling Implications

Statement of the Problem

There is no consensus of opinions about the effects of physical punishments on students. While a school of thought views it as harmful and negative, another sees it as corrective and positive. However, at various times different forms of physical punishment have been adopted in secondary schools as disciplinary measures and yet, the deserved ends are not usually achieved. Even the efforts of the families, the government and some stakeholders in the education industry towards controlling the negative and anti-social acts involved by secondary school students have not yielded positive results.

THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT ADMINISTERED ON STUDENTS BY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

THE COUNSELLOR AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Overview of research activity

The Counselling and Health Psychology Research Group generally conduct research with an applied focus.

Members of counselling team are particularly interested in methodological issues and provide support and input to one another regarding the research process as well as dissemination. They have an extensive range of research expertise in counselling as evidenced by the below subject areas:

Self-image

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Facial disfigurement following trauma

Young women’s experiences with negative body image

The other woman’s experience of extra-dyadic relationship

& also eating disorders noted below.

Sexuality

Existing as a transsexual

Gay/bisexual men’s use of club drugs

Construction of BDSM among trainees

& also CSA noted below.

Trauma

Adult relationships following CSA

Sense of self following CSA

Help-seeking in adult male survivors of CSA

Self-harm in You-Tube images

Hope within self-harm

Therapists’ experiences of working with people who self-harm

& also Ireland abuse noted below.

Psychological concerns within families

Parents’ experiences of having a child in therapy

Mothers’ experiences of adult daughter in therapy

Fathers’ experiences of raising a son with challenging behaviours

Rumination after bereavement

& also couples issue, families re. diabetes noted below & CSA noted above.

Psychological impact of health-related concerns

Couples’ experiences when one suffers from an eating disorder

Diabetes – family social support and self care

Mothers’ experiences of being told child is overweight

Adult cancer patients in therapy

Altruistic kidney donors

Trauma symptoms following childbirth

Persistent primary nocturnal enuresis

Older male carers for partners with dementia

Young adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder

Growing older with HIV.

Social and Cultural Issues

Institutional abuse of children in Ireland

Resilience of survivors of Irish institutional abuse

South-Asian therapists’ experiences of matching services

Ghanaian psychologists working with clients with traditional belief systems

Indigenous people from Mexico who have been wrongly imprisoned

Engaging military veterans in therapy

Workplace bullying

Male prisoners’ constructions of help-seeking research

Therapists’ experiences working with prisoners

Experiences of counsellors working with Iraqi refugees in Jordan

Craving in pathological gamblers.

Practitioner identity and development

Wounded healer

Burnout

Mindfulness for CBT practitioners

Therapist attire in psychotherapy

Therapist disclosure to eating-disordered clients

Humour – with psychotic clients

Impact of domestic violence on therapists’ intimate relationships

Therapists’ experiences of sexual harassment from clients

Therapists’ experiences of self within different approaches

Therapists’ experiences of self within sessions

Impact of therapists’ life experiences on clinical practice

Choice of psychological professional with older adults

Therapists’ emotional experiences in working with anorexia.

The health psychology team focus their research on health service evaluation and improvement, the understanding the effectiveness of health psychology interventions and the experience of illness and well-being. The team has a strength and applied expertise in evaluating innovative approaches and policies designed to improve health and well-being in community, work and hospital settings.

Together the health psychology team has combined experience of using a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods including action research, interpretative phenomenological analysis, grounded theory, discourse analysis, randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews.

The Counselling and Health Psychology Research Group is particularly focused on making sure that its research has impact. For example, in the case of Pires-Yfantoudas’s work on how to support patients with musculoskeletal conditions through motivational interviewing techniques, her results were disseminated through blogs to widen access to the research findings. Sykes’s research on pregnancy sickness (experienced in approximately 80% of singleton pregnancies) has led her to become a trustee of the Pregnancy Sickness Support Charity, with remits in deciding the charity’s research strategy and managing the data that the charity collects. Willig contributed to the prestigious American Psychological Association (APA) Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology which represents the latest authoritative guide to research methods in counseling psychology.

Achievements and news

The health psychology team has presented at two important health psychology conferences this year. The Annual Division of Health Psychology Conference and the 8th International Society of Critical Health Psychology Conference. Amongst the presentations, were findings from a qualitative study exploring healthcare professionals’ experiences of patient reported stress a study looking at paramedics’ discourse in pain management to people with dementia and the results of a brief mindfulness- based intervention to help resist chocolate.

The Biopsychosocial Understandings of Hyperemesis Gravidarum Conference was hosted by the health psychology team this year. The conference was a great success with speakers from around the world attending to present the latest research and developments in the care and management of women with Hyperemesis Gravidarum. MSc and undergraduate health psychology students formed part of the conference committee contributing to its success and gaining valuable work experience.

The health psychology team values its collaborations with external organisations working at the front line of healthcare service delivery. For example, the team is working in collaboration with the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital to explore the beliefs and attitudes to work return amongst patients suffering with chronic pain. This multi-phase project will inform future service development for patients with chronic pain, building on expertise from multidisciplinary teams, consisting of experienced health psychologists and specialist healthcare providers.

The counselling team’s purpose is to showcase its activities, to encourage collaboration and facilitate joint publications involving both members of staff and graduates. In addition, the counselling team aims to establish links with researchers in other institutions in order to create a platform for collaboration and integration.

The counselling team holds monthly meetings at which researchers present their work-in-progress. As a result of meetings held during 2012-13 two journal articles and one conference presentation have been produced by alumni.

The counselling team welcomes presentations by researchers external to City University London and has benefited from the input of the following visitors during 2012-13:

Dr Catherine Nelson,Counselling PsychologistMaggie’s LondonCharing Cross Hospital

Elizabeth Hughes, PhD student in Psychosocial Studies at Birkbeck (under the supervision of Stephen Frosh)

Ryan Kemp

Consultant Clinical Psychologist

Addictions Lead Psychologist

Central & North West London (CNWL) NHS Foundation Trust

Chair: Faculty of Addictions (British Psychological Society)

Andrea Calsamiglia, Research student in Social Psychology PhDUniversitat Autonoma de Barcelona,Open University

Teaching

The health psychology team run two courses in health psychology.

The MSc Health Psychology is designed for those looking to start, or progress in, a career in the rapidly-changing healthcare space.

The MSc is professionally-focused and innovative, and you will complete the course with both the practical and critical skills you need to stand out. Our goal is to equip you for employment with a range of skills that you can put into practice to further advance your career.

The Professional Doctorate in Health Psychology Training Course is the stage two component of health psychology training to be completed by aspiring health psychologists with the view of pursuing a career in health psychology, offering services to the public.

The Professional Doctorate in Health Psychology provides the trainee with all of the competencies of the health psychologist as well as a development of individual skills and experience.

The ultimate aim of the course is for the trainees to be able to both competently and confidently practice in health psychology and produce an original piece of research that contributes to the knowledge of applied health psychology.

The course aims to provide professional and academic training that will enable trainees to work as health psychologists in a broad range of settings, including the NHS, charities, industry, government, private practice and academic and research settings, among others.

THE COUNSELLOR AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY