Title Page……………………………………………………………………





Table of Content…………………………………………………………….

Chapter One: INTRODUCTION……………………………………….

  1. Background of the Study………………………………………………..
  2. Statement of Problem……………………………………………………
  3. Objectives of the Study………………………………………………….
  4. Research Question………………………………………………………
  5. Significance of the Study……………………………………………….
  6. Scope of the Study……………………………………………………..
  7. Limitations of the Study………………………………………………..
  8. Definition of Related Terms……………………………………………



2.1 Brief Thematic History of Corporate Governance…………………

2.2 Corporate Governance in the Public Sector: The Role of Risk


2.3 Corporate Governance Standard and Control Mechanism in


2.4 Challenges and Codes of Best Practices Corporate on Corporate


2.4.1 Code of Best Practices on Corporate Governance………………

2.5 Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Good Practice


2.6 The Principles of Good Corporate Governance for Listed


2.7 Board and Management Training …………………………………

2.8 Summary of Reviewed Literature………………………………….


Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………

3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………..

3.2 Methods of Data Collection…………………………………………..

3.3 Sources of Data Collection……………………………………………

3.4 Population and Sample of the Study………………………………….

3.5 Sample Size Determination…………………………………………..

3.6 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis………………………….



4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………

4.2 Data Presentation……………………………………………………

4.3 Data Analysis………………………………………………………..

4.4 General Data Analysis……………………………………………….




5.1 Summary of Findings………………………………………………..

5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………

5.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………

5.4 Area For Further Study………………………………………………




          In the recent time there have been an increasing number of high profile corporate failures around the world, has sparked off a lot of enquiry as to the reasons why well-established and respected organization failed. Actually, corporate failure today is a global issue, on the international science  the global economic crisis  had  resulted to the collapse of large companies like Euron, world com, Rank Xeror, paronglat, Bank of credit and commerce internation (BCCI) and  large-scale  crisis that rocked almost every financial institution, capital market and public organization etc.

          In Nigeria, corporate failure is very rampant in the oil market, financial services  sector  some years back and even at present. A lot  of banks and listed companies shut down be cause of one problem or another is  nebulous. Soludo (2006) Limited that by  1998 a total  of 26 banks have been liquidated  and at the time of consolidation in 2005. 11 banks were already dead literally. He further said that, outside  the banking institution, creative accounts of African petroleum where it concealed debts in execss of N20 billion, over valuation of shares of involving Bankolans  securities and others are signals of impending doom for these companies. What there is the cause of corporate failure  in both local and international listed and unlist, quoted and unquoted, police and  private companies?

          John clutter buck in Al-Faki (2006:5) high righted that companies that failed shared some  common characteristics and they includes 

  1. Leadership of the company is  vested in an individual who combines the office of chairman and Chief Executive with domineering tendency.
  2.   President violation and non—compliance with internal control of the company by the company b y the chief Executive.
  3. Optimistic {or even distorted} rather than prudential financing reporting
  4. Irregular board meetings, often without adequate information given in advance.
  5. Mineral disclosure in the accounts of the company.

Thus it is the combination of these factors that undermine the ability of companies to withstand economic down turn thus leading to a collapse. In Nigerian listed companies scenario issues such as lack of probity, transparency, integrity and accountability, inflation of balance sheet with unearned income, weak capital base, unskilled and inefficient management, window dressing of account and poor environmental as well as incentive almost contributed to dissolution or winding- up of many companies.Uche {2001b} identified certain reasons that results to early indigenous bank failures in Nigeria as, “mismanagement, and accounting incompetence. What then is the  adequacy of bank and listed companies legislations in controlling and regulating the practices in these industries. The question is pertinent, because in spite of the existing legislation, a number of failures and winding- up have been recorded in the industry.

In an attempt to design codes that will be appropriate to quell these irregularities, global phenomenon termed “corporate Governance” came into being. Today it has become a contemporary issue  which has dominated the interest of all business, legal and government circles,corporate governance is the set of processes, custorms,policies, laws and institution affecting the way a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. Corporate governance also includes the relationships among the many stakeholders involved and the goals for which the corporation is governed. The principal stakeholders are the “shareholders, management, and the board of directors. Often stakeholders include labors {employees} . customers, creditors {eg,banks bondholders},suppliers, regulators and their community at large. Therefore, corporate governance is a multiceted subject. An important theme of corporate governance is to ensure the  accountability of certain individuals in an organization through mechanisms that  try to reduce or eliminate  the principal-agent problem. There has been received  interest  in the corporate goanance practices of modern corporations since 2001, particularity due to the high-profile collapses of a number of large United States firms such as “Enron corporation and MCI Inc. (Dignam and  Lowry, 2006:15).





University libraries are established to support teaching, learning, research and community service mandate of their parent institutions. Libraries are the knowledge-house of an educational institution and also a place where information in print and in other forms are collected and arranged to serve all ages and interests. The study examined library service quality as a determinant of users’ satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo state using Kenneth Dike Library in University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria as case study.

Survey research was adopted, Kenneth Dike Library in University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria was purposely selected because of the accessibility. The population of the selected libraries was 25,000 according to the administrative department. The study used Morgan’s table for sample size to determine the appropriate sample size for the study population, the sample size for a population of 25, 000 at 5% margin of error is 378. A validated questionnaire was employed to collect data. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and the inferential statistics of Pearson correlation were used for data analysis to show the relationship betweenlibrary service quality and user’s satisfaction. Hypothesis were tested at 5% level of significance.

The study showed that Photocopying and printing services, user education programme, volume of text books   and reference books, personalized assistance rendered by the library staff are service available in the academic library; Users are satisfied with the facilities and equipments of academic libraries in Oyo State; Users are satisfied with the attitude of staff of academic libraries in Oyo State; Quality service has positive and significant impact on user satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo State; Inadequate fans, air conditions in libraries are some of the major challenges of the libraries.

The study concluded that service quality has positive and significant effects on users satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo State. In line with the findings of the study, it was recommended that; Library management should take cognizance of informational needs of undergraduate and postgraduate students as they have different reasons for visiting the university library; Adequate attention should be given to the provision of services such as book borrowing service, inter library loan service, weekend library service, commencement of night library service, printing and binding services; There is the urgent need of additional air conditioners and fans; The library management should sustain the high level of user satisfaction by improving on providing current and relevant information resources, modern facilities and befitting services that would meet the needs and expectations of users.

Key words: Library, Service, quality, Library Service Quality, Users’ satisfaction, academic libraries



1.1          Background to the Study

 Library is derived from the Latin word “libet” which means a book. A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources that can be assessed by a defined community. Library provides physical or digital access to materials and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space or both. A library can also be described as a place set apart to contain books, periodicals and other materials for reading, viewing, listening, study or reference. A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation or a private individual.  A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, cassettes, videotapes, audiobooks, e-books, DVDs, databases and other format. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.

There are four main types of libraries namely public library, academic library, special library and national library. Public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and funded from public sources. Furthermore, academic library is a library which is associated or attached with any educational institutions to support its educational programmes. Academic library is further sub-divided into three categories namely university library, college library and school library. In addition to these, special library is a kind of library established, supported and administered by a business firm, private corporation, government or any interest group to meet the information needs of its members or staff in pursuing the goals of the organization. A national library keeps all documents of and about a nation under some legal provisions and thus represents publications of and about the whole nation.

Library services are regarded as social services which are bound to stimulate the reading habit of the society, including people in the academic environment. Library services present a picture of remarkable variety and play a vital role in the education, economic, cultural and recreational life of the entire population. A university library is known to carry out the following services – circulation services, inter-library loan services, reference and information services, current awareness services, selective dissemination of information,  user education, literature searching, compilation of bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services, knowledge management services, preservation and conservation services, bindery services, information literacy services, information media literacy, archiving services, preservation services, bibliographic services, consultancy services, photographic and reprographic services, publication of guides to the libraries, compilation and maintenance of statistics, electronic library services, translation services, statistical data analysis services, internet services, book editing services and book and support.

The extent to which library service quality are assessed depends on the availability of information resources rendered and the utilization of facilities by library users. The currency and relevancy of the information resources properly arrange on shelves, the usefulness of its catalogs and finding tools in providing access to its collection, the ability and cooperation of library staff to use the facilities to bring these information resources and services to the attention of the users, the attitude of the staff in rendering services are some of the requirements necessary for measuring service quality. Library service quality focuses on how well services are delivered, compared to user’s expectations. Library service quality assesses whether services rendered conforms to the expectations of users. Libraries that meet or exceed expectations are considered to have high library services. The fact remains that any library is in the business of offering services to its users. For library to be functional, the services it provides should correspond with the needs of its users because the user is very reason for the existence of the library and it ensures that the service so provided are exploited to the maximum. Any library that want to improve its services to meet the views, opinions and perceptions of users must solicit the help of users to identify its areas of weaknesses in order to improve upon them.

Satisfying users’ needs in the university libraries has been the primary objective of both the library and librarians.  Every year, new students come to the university with different needs and expectations. Besides, new technology, databases and more innovative systems for accessing information, have made the library more complicated and challenging for librarians and users alike.  The unfriendly treatment from library staff towards user and the difficulty in being able to identify these resources also create problems for users. The inability to easily identify the specific uses of library services because of the new technologies, inadequacy and non-functioning of some library facilities and the difficulty to assess information sources can all contribute to user dissatisfaction. University libraries today are bedeviled with the challenges of infrequent or non-use of resources largely because of inadequate awareness, perceived lack of relevance, lack of time, distance, lack of skills in the use of electronic resources, having personal books and/or borrowing books from friends, access to the internet from home, slow internet, noisy and inappropriate study areas, inadequate collection, poorly managed information resources, unhelpful disinterested staff and unfriendly users conveniences couple with other competitive sources of information that seem to be threatening the role of university libraries.

Therefore, it has become necessary for university libraries to adopt a more strategic approach besides the initial ones been used in order to know their users’ perception since libraries exist purposely to serve users. Hence, there is need for university libraries to understand their users’ needs and satisfy them.

1.2         Statement of Problem

University libraries are established to support teaching, learning, research and community service mandate of their parent institutions. Libraries are the knowledge-house of an educational institution and also a place where information in print and in other forms are collected and arranged to serve all ages and interests.   It has been empirically observed that there are some forms of dissatisfaction among users of libraries and this study is interested to find out reasons for the dissatisfaction. Empirical evidences revealed that there are complaints from users about the quality and quantity of materials available, findings numbers of materials in the catalogue cabinet but the book may not be found on the shelf, poor ventilation, entrance areas and library location unsuitable for learning.  The study therefore attempt to examine the impact of library service quality on user satisfaction using Kenneth Dike Library as case study.

1.3         Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the influence of library service quality on user satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo State.

The specific objectives are to:

  1. Find out the library services provided by academic libraries in Oyo State.
  2. Determine the services that are in high demand by academic libraries in Oyo State.
  3. Ascertain users satisfaction on academic libraries in Oyo State.  
  4. Determine the likely challenges that can threaten library quality service in academic libraries in Oyo State.

1.4      Research Questions

This study is carried out to provide satisfactory answers to the following questions:

  1. What are the services provided by academic libraries in Oyo State?
  2. What are the services that are highly demanded by users of academic libraries in Oyo State?
  3. To what extent are users of academic libraries in Oyo State satisfied with the service quality of the libraries?
  4. What are the possible challenges that can devalue library quality service of academic libraries in Oyo State.

1.5     Research Hypotheses

The null hypothesis guiding the study will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

H1:   Library service quality has no significant impact on user satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo State.

1.6           Significance of the Study

It is highly believed that the study will provide tremendous benefits to librarians, university management, students of library sciences, users of libraries and the general academic community.  

The study through its findings will inform librarians on the need to strive to improve their quality of services to users as it is a well-known fact that the libraries exist basically because of users.

Through the findings of this study, libraries will be able to know the key attributes or criteria that are greatly determines users satisfaction, the areas where they are performing and the areas that needs improvement.  

University management will be informed on the need to adequately equip their libraries to global standard. University management will be prompted to take quick actions on how to develop their libraries to make it highly resourceful for teaching, learning, research and community service.

This study is also beneficial to researchers who are interested to carry out further studies on the subject matter as it serves as a body of reserved knowledge that can be consulted by researchers in their subsequent research undertakings.

1.7           Scope of the Study

The study examined library service quality as a determinant of users’ satisfaction in academic libraries in Oyo state using Kenneth Dike Library in University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria as case study. The population of study comprised 25, 000 students of University of Ibadan. The postgraduate students are 14, 480  in number and  However, using the Morgan table to determine the sample size at 5% error of margin, the sample size of the study comprised randomly selected 378 students of University of Ibadan who are library users.

1.8           Operational Definition of Terms

Library:  This refers to a building or room containing collection of books, periodicals and other resources for use or borrowing by the public or members of an institution.

Academic Library:    This is a library which is associated or attached with any educational institutions to support its educational programmes. It is a designated place, whether physical or digital set aside to house scholarly research materials supporting academic, university, college and curriculum.

Information Resources:  This refers to the data and information asset of a library.  Typical examples of information resources include books, databases, radio, television, magazines, journals, etc.

Library Service: This refers to an experienced and comprehensive help or aid a library offers its readers. Examples of library services are but not limited to referral, reference, circulation, borrowing, inter-library loan, online public access catalogue, etc.

Library Service Quality: This refers to an assessment of how well library services such as referral, photocopying, reprographic, borrowing, inter-library loan, online public access catalogue and internet facilities amongst others, conforms to the expectations of library users.

User Satisfaction:  This is a measure of how the services supplied by an academic library meet or surpass the expectations of users. Users tend to be satisfied when library services offered to them exceed their expectations. On the contrary, there is low user satisfaction, if the library services rendered to users is far below their expectations.




This study examined and analysed the impact of agriculture on economic growth in Nigeria. It adopted the secondary data sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria covering the period 1985 to 2010. The study employed the modern Time Series of the Ordinary Least Square to test for the relationship between agriculture and economic growth in Nigeria. The results derived infer that there exists a significant relationship between agriculture spending and economic growth. The null hypothesis stated for this study does not hold. What this implies is that agriculture revolution is a determinant to economic growth. Thus, it is important that thegovernment placed greater emphases on this sector by increasing budgetary allocation to agriculture in Nigeria in other meet the recommendations of both Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and African Union (AU). It is recommended that  more funding be provided  for agricultural universities in the country to carry out more research on all aspect of agricultural output, such as livestock, crops, fishing and forestry, crop preservation and also establishment of more research institutes to improve seedling production, encourage the use of irrigation farming system and provision of storage facilities for seasonal products as means of improving the country’s agricultural output.  Further recommendations include the need for the Central Bank of Nigeria to come out with stable policy guideline to enable the commercial banks disburse loans to farmers at a very lower interest rate, in order to help them expand their production capacity. More so, the need for government to encourage more exportation of agricultural output as this in turn will enhance external foreign exchange earnings and improve the competitiveness of Nigerian agricultural produce in the international markets.



1.1     Background to the Study

The term Agriculture is derived from the Latin words, “ager,” meaning field, and “Cultura”, meaning cultivation. This suggests that the earliest form of production agriculture was crop production (Are, Igbokwe, Asadu, Bawa, 2010; Erebor, 2003). It may be noted that Agriculture is more than crop production. It also includes animal production, processing of primary products (or value addition) and marketing of produce and products. Erebor (2003) defines agriculture as the art and science of cultivating the soil, processing crops and livestock products for man, and the process of selling excess crop and livestock.

Meanwhile, (Kricher,1997) defines agriculture in a more advanced way by saying that, agriculture or farming is the simplification of nature’s  food webs and the rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. To simplify, agriculture involves redirecting nature’s natural flow of the food web. The natural flow of the food web is the sun provides light to plants convert sunlight into sugars which provide food for the plants (this process is called photosynthesis). Plants provide food for herbivores (plant-eating animals) and the herbivores provides food for carnivores (meat-eating animals).  This simple illustration of food web provides the basis for analyzing the impact of agriculture on economic growth.

In literature, economic history provides us with ample evidence that agricultural revolution is a fundamental pre-condition for economic growth, especially in developing countries. Development economists have focused on how agriculture can best contribute to overall economic growth and modernization. Todaro and Smith (2003) look at Lewis theory of development, and reported that the underdeveloped economy consisted of two sectors. These sectors are the traditional agricultural sector characterized by zero marginal labour productivity and the modern industrial sector. In Rostow’s linear stages of economic growth, agricultural revolutions is a pre-condition for take-off and take-off stages

The importance of a vibrant and robust agriculture is reminiscent on its role in providing employment opportunities for the teeming population, eradicates poverty and contributing to the growth of the economy. The linkage between agriculture and economic growth is well documented in literature (Ogen, 2007; Okongwu, 1986; Atte and Muhammed- Lawal, 2006 to maintain few). According to Izuchukwu (2011), agriculture has been the backbone of the economy in Nigeria providing employment and source of livelihood for the increasing population,it accounts for over half of the GDP of the Nigerian economy as at independence in 1960.

 However, the role it plays in the regional and economic development of the country has diminished over the years due to the dominant role of the crude oil sector in the economy. With the increasing food demand in Nigeria, the country has available natural resources and potential for increasing the volume of crop production towards meeting the food and nutritional requirement of the rapidly increasing population and guarantee food security in the country. Therefore, the source of national wealth is essentially agriculture.

Unquestionably, the neglect of agriculture in Nigeria owing to the discovery of oil has retarded the growth of the economy for the past decades.  The effect of this neglect could be felt in the poor quality of life of people as  average Nigerian was quoted as living in US$ 1 per day; if translated to Naira, this amount to N165 day at present. It may not be wrong to say that such a remark is a political cover. The faces we see daily on our streets and those we may not be able to see because of their inability to muster enough strength to walk up to the street as a result of several days of hunger and starvation, or even food associated ill-health and avoidable deaths of tens of people everyday, a better, more sincere and realistic assessment of the situation would be put an average income at US $0-0.5 per day. Studies in literature reveal that seven out of every 10 Nigerians live in abject poverty; hardly able to feed, cloth or house themselves. It is an indisputable fact that Nigeria and her sub-Saharan African neighbors have been dubiously christened by the world political and economic powers as citadels of hunger, poverty, ignorance, diseases, misery, debts, filths and crises. This unquestionable imagery will for long remain indelible in the world’s archives unless a reasonable step is taken by people and Government of this doomed sector of the global village. It is against this backdrop that the study seeks to assess the impact of agriculture on economic growth.

1.2     Statement of the problem

Besides oil, the major strength of the Nigerian economy is its rich agricultural resource base, its human resource and its huge markets. However, these resources have to be effectively mobilized so as to diversify the economic base and reduce dependence on oil and import. The economy remains vulnerable to external shocks emanating from fluctuation in the world prices of crude oil and the rising prices of imports. The resulting external and internal in balances are manifested in the adverse balance of payment position, unemployment and low capacity utilization in virtually all sectors as well as the deteriorating purchasing power of the populace (Atte and Muhammed- Lawal, 2006).

The contribution of agriculture to the Nigerian economic growth is very low compared to what it used to be in the past 14 years. Nigerian agriculture to a large extent still possesses the characteristics of a peasant economy that was prominent in the pre-independence period. Given the information above, this study seeks to assess the impact of agriculture on economic growth in Nigeria from 1985-2010

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of agriculture on economic growth in Nigeria.

However, the study will:

1.     Examine the effect of agricultural practice in Nigeria on agricultural productivity.

2.     Assess the impact of budgetary allocation and agricultural policies on agricultural productivity.

3.     Estimate the trend of growth of agricultural sector in Nigeria since 1985 up to 2010.

4.     Determine the relationship between agriculture and economic growth in Nigeria.

1.4     Research Questions

The following questions will guide the study.

1.     What is the growth of Agricultural sector between 1985-2010?

2.     To what extent has budgetary allocation and agricultural policies affected agricultural productivity in Nigeria?

3.     Is there any significant relationship between agriculture and economic growth in Nigeria?

1.5     Hypothesis of the study

The hypothesis of no significant difference will be used to estimate the relationship between agriculture and economic growth.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The study is relevant in a true sense that it will help to promote agriculture in Nigeria. The study will help bring radical transformation for national growth, especially through its effect on rural incomes and provision of resources for transformation into an industrialized economy. This present study will help policy makers and government to address the challenges of climatic change, global recession and dwindling revenue which threatens food security. The Nigerian populace will benefit from this study because agricultural revolution will be able to provide the quality and quantity of food.

Industrial and Manufacturing firms will also benefit from steady supply of raw materials and provide large markets for industrial products. Government will benefit because the study will help it to put political will in promoting agriculture in order to achieve full economic growth in Nigeria. 

1.7     Brief Methodology

The study relied on secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 1985 to 2010 reported in their statistical bulletin. It adopted the descriptive and analytical statistics to analyse the data employing different econometric methods such as unit root test, co integration and Error Correction Model among others with the support of E-view statistical package.  The Ordinary Least Square was utilized to test the relationship between agriculture and economic growth in Nigeria.

1.8     Plan of Study

This study was divided into five chapters. Chapter one covers the introduction of the study, the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, research questions and hypothesis among others. The review of relevant and related studies covering the theories that explain the relationship between agriculture and economic growth are in Chapter two, while Chapter three discusses and explains the analytical framework and methodology adopted for the study. Chapter four concentrated on the empirical result and discussion of the study and Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations on the basis of the study’s findings.




Taxation is one of the major fiscal policies the government of any nation such as Nigeria can use to achieve economic stability and in the financing of capital expenditure. Various taxes are levied upon the income, wealth or gain of an individual, family and business firm by the government for the purpose or benefits of the general public. Tax by a simple definition is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a tax payer which could be an individual or a legal entity from the point of view of the student researcher by a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Thus, taxation cannot be regarded as a voluntary payment or donation but an enforced contribution exacted pursuant to legislative authority. In modern taxation system such as Nigeria, taxes are levied, in money which could be use for myriads of functions or purpose such ay a expenditure on public order, protection of lives and property, economic infrastructure cures such as roads, public works, social engineering and the operation of government itself (Carrol, et al 2000). Against this back drop, this project examines the effects of multiple taxation on business survival in Nigeria.



1.1 Background of the study

Taxation is one of the major fiscal policies the government of any nation can use to achieve economic stability and in the financing of capital expenditure. Various taxes are levied upon the income, wealth or gain of an individual, family and business firm by the government for the purpose or benefits of the general public. Tax by a simple definition is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a tax payer which could be an individual or a legal entity from the point of view of the student researcher by a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Thus, taxation cannot be regarded as a voluntary payment or donation but an enforced contribution exacted pursuant to legislative authority. In modern taxation system such as Nigeria, taxes are levied, in money which could be used for myriads of functions or purpose such an expenditure on public order, protection of lives and property, economic infrastructure cures such as roads, public works, social engineering and the operation of government itself (Carrol, et al 2000).

The taxes collected by the government no doubt emanate from varying sources ranging from personal income tax, company income tax, capital gain tax, property tax, education, tax, task but to list a few.
The Nigerian government in attempt to raise revenue and enhance the economic development of Nigeria has subjected many firms to multiple taxations which they are mandated or made compulsory to pay irrespective of the sector the business firms operate or else take the wrath of the law A survey carried out by the Manufacturers Association of Nigerian (MAN1) and (Centre for International Private Enterprise ICIPE) identified multiple taxation as the bane of private sector business growth in Nigeria (Anyamvu, 2012). The survey established the relationship between multiple taxations in the pilot state across the three tiers of government and re-affirmed its negative effects to private sector growth and businesses in Nigeria. According to the survey, it was established that multiple taxation could lead to divestment as well as jeopardize foreign direct investment coming into Nigeria, while adversely affecting the Competitions of existing businesses and their survival, Moreover it was also established that currently most businesses in Nigeria consider the tax environment as unfriendly and disincentive to business, stressing that it engenders loss of man hour to both the government and private businesses.

According to Osagie (2012) tax environment inNigeria especially the policy on multiple taxation increases the cost of doing business in the country. As a matter of fact, some business including manufacturing companies have shut down production while in some cases, have relocated their factories to other West African countries which are considered to be more investment friendly. Against this back drop, this project examines the effects of multiple taxation on business survival in Nigeria. In recent time the world economy has developed tremendously and this has been linked with activities of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), especially in developing countries. A Study carried out by the Federal Office of Statistics shows that in Nigeria, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises make up 97% of the economy (Ariyo, 2005). Although smaller in size, they are the most important enterprises in the economy due to the fact that when all the individual effects are aggregated, they surpass that of the larger companies. The social and economic advantages of small and medium scale enterprises cannot be overstated. Panitchpakdi (2006) sees SMEs as a source of employment, competition, economic dynamism, and innovation which stimulates the entrepreneurial spirit and the diffusion of skills. Because they enjoy a wider geographical presence than big companies, SMEs also contribute to better income distribution. Over the years, small and medium scale enterprises have been an avenue for job creation and the empowerment of Nigeria’s citizens providing about 50% of all jobs in Nigeria and also for local capital formation. Being highly innovative, they lead to the utilization of our natural resources which in turn translates to increasing the country’s wealth through higher productivity. Small and medium scale enterprises have undoubtedly improved the standard of living of so many people especially those in the rural areas (Ariyo, 2005). However, the mortality rate of these small firms is very high. According to the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) Nigeria, 80% of SMEs die before their 5th anniversary. Among the factors responsible for these untimely close-ups are tax related issues, ranging from multiple taxations to enormous tax burdens etc. In many government policies, small and medium scale enterprises are usually viewed and treated in the same light as large corporations. However, their size and nature makes them unique. Therefore, in dealing with small and medium scale enterprises, these unique qualities need to be considered. In levying of taxes for these enterprises in particular, issues that need to be considered are how these tax policies can be designed to bolster the growth of SMEs and the most effective ways to administer them. The importance of SMEs as a mechanism of economic growth arid development is often ignored. They are perceived as minute establishments that have minimal effect on the state of the economy. However, if favorable environment is created for these SMEs to grow through proper regulation, the SMEs sector has the highest propensity to transform our economy. In the same light, taxes are important for the government as they are the major source of funds for government expenditure. Income obtained from taxation of individuals and businesses are used to run governments as well as provide infrastructure such as good roads, water supply, and electricity which are essential for the smooth running of these businesses that are mainly manufacturing companies and as such rely on these commodities to survive. However, Holban (2007) posited that taxation can contribute to development and to welfare through three sources; It must be able to generate sufficient funds for financing public services and social transfers at a high level of quality, it should offer incentive for more employment and for an efficient and lasting use of natural resources, finally it should be able to reallocate income. But in the case of SMEs, tax must be done in such a way that puts their income and need for survival into consideration. it is expedient that enough profit is allowed them for the purpose of expanding their businesses. The tax policy must be one that will not encourage SMEs to remain in the informal sector or to evade or avoid tax payments. More so, many small firms in Africa, including Nigeria, choose to remain in the informal sector because the perceived benefits outweigh the perceived costs. Firms rarely see their tax contributions at work and the compliance costs are high, thus discouraging compliance. The government is also discouraged from collecting taxes from small firms, because the cost of monitoring and collecting tax from small businesses by revenue authorities, whose resources are usually scarce, sometime outweighs the revenues generated by small businesses (Stem and Barbour 2005).

Taxation can simply be seen as a compulsory transfer or payment of money from private individuals, institutions or groups to the government. It may be levied upon wealth or income in the form of surcharge on prices. Taxes therefore are a proportion of the produce of land and labour of a country placed at the disposal of the government. Multiple taxation on the other hand, is the imposition of different types of taxes that could have come under one major tax form on the people by the government.’ At times some of the taxes are christened levies. However, within the context of this work, all compulsory payment made by individuals and institutions to the government … are regarded as tax. – Taxes generally provide basis for government revenue, which help them in carrying out their functions. This is why Ojo (1996) defined tax as a means by which government appropriate part of private sector’s income and expenditure as its revenue for the purpose of meeting recurrent expenditure and creating public capital formation towards the development and growth of goods and services-of the economy. A good tax possesses the following qualities: fairness, convenience, simplicity, and minimum cost of collection and minimum distortions. Musgrave (1980) noted that taxes should be chosen so as to minimize interference with economic decisions in otherwise efficient markets. Imposition of excess burden _ should be minimized. Again, a good tax system- should permit efficient and non-arbitrary administration and it should be understandable to the taxpayer.


Government in order to meet up with its responsibilities of providing social infrastructures and other development projects for her citizens imposes taxes on her citizens. This is done by the different tiers of Government-Federal, States and Local Governments with respect to their fiscal powers (Tax Powers). However, the rate at which the governments concerned increase the existing taxes should be a thing of concern to economic agents. While the Federal Government is clamoring for a stable general price level, increased rate of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), increased employment opportunities, through the establishment of small-scale enterprises; the state and local governments are busy introducing new taxes and increasing the rate of the existing taxes. It is in view of this that the researcher intend to investigate the effect of multiple taxation on growth and development of small scale enterprise in Nigeria.


The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of multiple taxation on growth and development of small-scale enterprise in Nigeria. But to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
i) To ascertain the impact of multiple taxation on business survival in Nigeria.

ii) To ascertain the relationship between multiple taxation and the growth of businesses.

iii) To investigate the consequences of multiple taxation on the profitability of small-scale enterprise

iv) To ascertain the impact of multiple taxation on the non- survival of small-scale enterprise.


To aid the completion of this study, the following research hypotheses are formulated by the researcher

H0: Multiple taxation has no significant impact on business survival in Nigeria.

H1: Multiple taxation has a significant impact on business survival in Nigeria.

H02: There is no significant relationship between multiple taxation and the growth of small-scale enterprise in Nigeria

H2: There is a significant relationship between multiple taxation and the growth of small-scale enterprise


It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the joint tax board and the federal inland revenue service in assessing and collection of taxes from small scale enterprise so as to minimize double or multiple taxation. The study will also be useful to state board of internal revenue and local government revenue collectors, as the study seek to remind them of the nemesis of multiple taxation on small scale enterprise. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.


The scope of the study covers the effect of multiple taxation on the growth and development of small scale enterprise in Nigeria. But in the cause of the study; the researcher encounter some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover


Tax: A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, or evasion of or resistance to taxation, is usually punishable by law.

Taxation: Taxation refers to compulsory or coercive money collection by a levying authority, usually a government. The term “taxation” applies to all types of involuntary levies, from income to capital gains to estate taxes.

Small Scale Enterprise: Sometimes called a small business, a small-scale enterprise is a business that employs a small number of workers and does not have a high volume of sales. Such enterprises are generally privately owned and operated sole proprietorships, corporations or partnerships.

1.8 Organization of the study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.




This research dealt with the influence of rewards on workers performance in an organization. Employers are continually challenged to develop pay policies and procedures that will enable them to attract, motivate, retain and satisfy their employees. Subjects for this study consisted of one hundred workers of Central Bankof Nigeria, Abuja. The data for the study were gathered through the administration of a self-designed questionnaire. The data collected were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and all the findings were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result obtained from the analysis showed that there existed relationship between extrinsic rewards and workers performance while no    relationship existed between intrinsic rewards and workers performance. On the basis of these findings, implications of the findings for future study were highlighted.


Title Page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Approval Page                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                        iv

Acknowledgement                                                                           v

Abstract                                                                                            vii

Table of Content                                                                             viii

List of Tables                                                                                   xii


1.1     Background of Study                                                              2

1.2     Statement of Problem                                                            3

1.3     Objective of Study                                                                 4

1.4     Research Hypothesis                                                              5

1.5     Significance of Study                                                             5

1.6     Scope of Study                                                                       6

1.7     Limitations of Study                                                              7

1.8     Historical Background of Central Bank of

Nigeria (CBN)                                                                        7

1.9     Definition of Key Terms                                                        10


2.1     The Nature of Motivation in an Organization                       20

2.2     Motivation and Performance                                                 24

2.3     Historical Views of Motivation                                             26

2.4     Need – Based Approaches to Motivation                              26

2.5     Need Hierarchies                                                                    27

2.6     Maslows Theory                                                                     27

2.7     Alderfer’s ERG Theory                                                                   28

2.8     Acquired Needs                                                                      30

2.9     Process-Based Approaches to Motivation                                      30

2.10   Expectancy Theory                                                                 31

2.11   Implications for Managers                                                     33

2.12   Equity Theory                                                                         34

2.13   Reinforcement – Based Approaches to Motivation              35

2.14   Reinforcement Contingencies                                                35

2.15   Providing Reinforcement                                                       36

2.16   Goal Setting Theory                                                               37

2.17   Enhancing Motivation Organizations                                    37

2.18   Effects of Organizational Rewards                                        36

2.19   Interventions for Enhancing Motivation                               39


3.1     Source of Data Collection                                                      40

3.1.1  Primary Source of Data                                                                   40

3.1.2  Secondary Sources of Data                                                    41

3.2     Personal Interview                                                                  41

3.3     Questionnaire                                                                         41

3.4     Text Book                                                                               42

3.5     Reliability and Validity                                                                   43

3.6     Subject                                                                                    43

3.7     Research Instrument                                                               44

3.8     Procedure                                                                                44



4.1     Analysis of Questionnaire                                                      46

4.2     Test for Hypothesis                                                                57


5.1     Summary of Findings                                                             63

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              65

5.3     Recommendation                                                                             66





Table 1:      Length of Service                                                                   46

Table 2:      Sex                                                                                47

Table 3:      Do you think pay is a motivator?                                 47

Table 4:      How would you rate the effect of existing

relationship and working conditions on

workers productivity?                                                   48

Table 5:      Religion                                                                        49

Table 6:      Would you say that a cordial employer/

employee relationship will result in improved productivity.                                                 49

Table 7:      Would you say that an increase in salary will

motivate you to work harder and produce more?        50

Table 8:      My performance depends on the satisfaction of my

 needs by the bank                                                        50

Table 9:      Does the bank involve the employee in decision

Making                                                                          51

Table 10:    Educational qualification                                             51

Table 11:    How would you consider your pay in relation to

the satisfaction of your basic human needs?               52

Table 12:    What has kept you working with this bank?                53

Table 13:    Does your job motivate you?                                       53

Table 14:    Do you think that productivity / performance could

 only be increase by increase in salary?                       54

Table 15:    Is a good working environment prerequisite

 for an improvement in performance?                         55

Table 16:    Do you think that benefits like Medical

allowance, dressing allowance and lunch

allowance, merit award can boost workers moral?      55

Table 17:    Do you think that a good working environment

enhances working efficiency, job satisfaction

 and dedication to the job?                                           56

Table 18:  Do you think that productivity and performance

level could be aggravated if workers are motivated    57



As a result of the powerful force of technology, which is driving the world towards a converging commonality, we have seen various changes in the world’s economic expansion. One of the changes that brings the most challenge not only to the   international firm but also the domestic one is the emergence of a global market. In order to be successful in the long term, managing people is one of the most crucial tools for a global business in today’s competitive world. Specifically, for an international organization, human resource becomes a more and more important factor to reach its goal. The word” Human Resource Management (HRM)” has been used widely and increasingly in recent decades as a vital approach to create a successful organization, however the more worldwide the firm, the greater the complexity of the international HR requirement. In order to maximize the benefit from the performance of the employees, the employer must develop strategies to manage and improve their human resources so that they can perform their best. To create an effective strategy, the employer needs to understand that there are many factors that affect the employee’s behavior within the organization. One of the key factors that has an impact on the performance of an individual in the organization is their rewards. Thus, this report will focus on the rewards of the individual within a contemporary organization. This report will enable the employer to answer why it is their responsibility to reward the employees and explain how to improve and maximize the efficiency of their staff’s performance.


Many organization are suffering from lack of good remuneration which is one of the policies an organization can adopt to increase their workers performance and thereby increase the organizations productivity. This could create problems in terms of affecting the growth of the organization. With the present global economic trend, most employers of labour have realized the fact that for their organizations to compete favourably, the performance of their employees goes a long way in determining the success of the organization. The performance of employees in any organization is vital not only for the growth of the organization but also for the growth of individual employee.





In all the areas of organisational behaviour, the handling and management of emotions and behaviour seem neglected. These are required for organisations to survive otherwise personal tensions and conflicts may result. People experience great difficulties in copying with fierce even outrageous impulses. Researches have been conducted on organisational behaviour, managing behaviour and challenges/prospects of managing behaviour in organisations. Such researches provide general guideline to managers on ways of structuring organisations for effective management of behaviour. Literature is less clear on the extent to which organisational behaviour can influence employee behaviour and management in the banking sector. This has become a problem for business managers on how to determine and encourage positive behaviour in banking industry where relationship between customers and workers are more personal and direct-oriented. This study summarised the literature on the selected organisational behaviour variables and employee management and the findings connecting the two concepts. The empirical study focused on the selected organisational behaviour variables. Methodology adopted for the research was survey system that involved the application of questionnaires and interviews to generate data on the subject of study. The study was done in nine (9) money deposit banks in SouthEast Nigeria. The population of the study was 2,571 and using Freund Williams’ formula, a sample size of 553 was established and proportionally allocated through the aid of Bowley’s method. Analysis of data was done first through the determination of frequency distribution of the variables. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses to determine the relationship/influence each organisational behaviour variables of motivation, communication, leadership style, group membership and organisational culture has on employee behaviour and management generally and job satisfaction, creativity, absenteeism, group norms and socialisation respectively. Probability level ofacceptance was 0.05. Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the reliability of instrument using Likert 5 – point scale; the population mean (µ) cut-off point of 3.00 was established and the findings revealed that motivation, leadership style, communication, group membership and organisational culture had positive significant relationship with job satisfaction, creativity, absenteeism, group norms and socialisation respectively and consequently affect employee behaviour and management. In conclusion, the study suggested that managers in the Nigerian banking sector should strive to identify the role each independent variable plays in employee management having established the existence of positive relationship between the two variables. The study recommended that managers in the Nigerian banking sector should encourage innovation and creativity as motivators, embrace transformational leadership style, transferring and operationalization of information should be effectively done, encourage group formation and adopt flexible and adaptive culture so that the gap between enacted and actual culture is bridged. This research has contributed to knowledge by submitting that the management of the banking sector and other service and non-service organisations can use the results of this study as a guide in behaviour management.


Declaration      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgements    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of tables   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

List of figures –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xiv


INTRODUCTION    –           –                       –           –           –           –           1

1.1 Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2 Statement of Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.3 Objectives of the Study                            –           –           –           –           6

1.4 Research Questions           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.5 Research Hypotheses     –           –           –           –           –           8                     

1.6 Significance of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.7 Scope of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

1.8 Profile of Selected Service Organisations used for the Study     –           9

1.9Contextual Definition of Terms     –           –           –           –           –           13

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16



2.0 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.1 Conceptual Framework     –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.1.1 Over View of Organisational Behaviour           –           –           –           19 Individual Level of Organisational Variables –           –           –           20 Implications for Managers      –           –           –           –           –           20 Group Level Organisational Behaviour Variables      –                       21 Implication for Managers        –           –           –           –           –           22 Organisational Level of Organisational Behaviour Variables 22 Implication for Managers        –           –           –           –           –           23 Performance Management      –           –           –           –           –           23 Implication for managers        –           –           –           –           –           24

2.2.1 Concept of Motivation  –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.2.2 Concept of Group          –           –           –           –           –           –           27 Types of Groups         –           –           –           –           –           –           27 Formal Groups         –           –           –           –           –           –           27 Informal Groups      –           –           –           –           –           –           28 Why do People Join Groups? –           –           –           –                       28 Group Cohesiveness   –           –           –           –           –           –           29 Sources of Group Cohesiveness         –           –           –           –           30 Group Norms  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32 Why Norms are Strongly Enforced    –           –           –           –           33 Balance Theory of Group Formation  –           –           –                       33

2.2.3 Overview of Leadership Style   –           –           –           –           –           34

2.2.4 Concept of Communication       –           –           –           –           –           35

2.2.5 Concept of Organisational Culture        –           –           –           –           37

2.2.6 Implication for Managers           –           –           –           –           –           39

2.2.7 Challenges of managing behaviour        –           –           –           –           40

2.3 Theoretical Framework     –           –           –           –           –           –           42

2.3.1 History of Nigerian Banking Industry   –            –           42       

2.3.2 Theory of Leadership     –           –           –           –           –           –           43 The Nature of Leadership       –           –           –           –           –           44 Sources of Leader Influence on Followers     –           –           –           45 Sources of Influence on Leader’s Behaviour –           –           –           46

2.3.3 Theory of Group Conformity and Deviance     –           –           –           47 Group Conformity      –           –           –           –           –           –           47 Group Deviance          –           –           –           –           –           –           48 Theory of Sociotechnical Systems Approach to Work Design           49 Theory of Social Psychological Approach to Work Design for

            Groups            –           –           –           –           –           –           –                       50 Factors Influencing Work Group Effectiveness         –           –           51 Individual versus Group Work Design           –           –           –           53 Group Performance and Decision Making     –           –           –           54 Group Performance  –           –           –           –           –           –           54 Group Decision Making       –           –           –           –           –           56

2.3.4   Theory of Motivation and Performance                                  –           57 Motivation      –           –           –           –           –           –           –          57 Nature of Human Needs         –           –           –           –           –           59 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory      –           –           –           –           60 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation           –           –           64 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  –           –           –           –           –           65 Equity Theory of Motivation  –           –           –           –           –           67 Methods of Restoring Equity –           –           –           –           –           67 Money as a Motivator –           –           –           –           –           –           68 RensisLikert Theory of Motivation    –           –           –           –           69 Linking groups in organisations        –           –           –           –           69

2.4 Empirical Review            –           –           –           –           –           –           70

2.4.1Managing Behaviour and motivation                 –           –           –           71

2.4.2 Group Membership and Managing Behaviour   –           –           –           73

2.4.3 Leadership Style and Behaviour Management  –           –           –           75

2.4.4 Communication and Behaviour Management   –           –           –           76

2.4.5 Organisational Culture and Behaviour of Employees   –           –           78

2.5 Summary of the Review of the Related Literature          –           –           79

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           82



3.1 Introduction          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           87

3.2 Research Design   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           87

3.3 Types and Sources of Data           –           –           –           –           –           87

3.4 Tools for Data Collection –           –           –           –           –           –           87

3.5 Population of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           88

3.6 Sample size Determination           –           –           –           –           –           89

3.7 Techniques for Data Analysis       –           –           –           –           –           90

3.8 Validity of Research Instrument  –           –           –           –           –           91

3.9 Reliability of the Research Instrument     –           –           –           –           91

3.10 Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           93

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           94



4.1 Data Presentation  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           95

4.2 Data Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           96

4.3 Test of Hypotheses           –           –           –           –           –           –           108

4.4 Discussion of Findings     –           –           –           –           –           –           121

MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS  –           –           –           –           –           129

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           132




5.1 Summary of Findings       –           –           –           –           –           –           134

5.2 Conclusion            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           135

5.3 Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           136

 Contributionto Body of Knowledge –           –           –           –           –           137

Areas for Further Studies       –           –           –           –           –           –           139

BIBLIOGRAPHY     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           140

APPENDICES           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           146


Table 3.1    Population of the Study   –     –           –           –           –           88`      

Table 3.2    Sample Size of the Study –             –           –           –           90

Table 3.3    Pearson – Product+ Moment Correlation Coefficient

                 Indicating the reliability of research instrument    –           92

Table 4.1.1 Demographic characteristics of the Respondents      –           95

Table 4.2.1    Determination of the extent to which motivation leads to

    Desirable behaviour of employees in Nigerian banking industry-  96

Table 4.3   Mean and Standard Deviation for table 4.2.1   –           98

Table 4.2.2 Determination of the effect of leadership style on employee

            Behaviourin Nigerian banking industry         –           –           99

Table 4.4   Mean and Standard Deviation for table 4.2.2.           –           100

Table 4.2.3   Establishment of the effect of communication on employee

                Behaviourin Nigerian banking industry         –           –           101

Table 4.5   Mean and Standard Deviation for table 4.2.3      –           –           –           103

Table 4.2.4 Determination of the effect group membership has on employee

                  Behaviour in Nigerian banking industry       –           –           104

Tale 4.6   Mean and Standard Deviation for table 4.2.4        –           –          –           105

Table 4.2.5 Determination of the effect organisational culture ha on the

                  Behaviour of employees in Nigerian banking industry    –           106

Table 4.7 Mean and Standard Deviation for table 4.2.5              –           107

Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Employee Job satisfaction  –           108

Table 4.8.1 Correlation    –           –           –           –           –           109

Table 4.8.2 Model Summary   –          –           –           –           –           109

Table 4.8.3 ANOVA  –                –           –           –           –           –           109

Table 4.8.4 Coefficient                –           –           –           –           –           110

Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics of Employee Absenteeism   –           111

Table 4.9.1 Correlation                 –           –           –           –           –           111

Table 4.9.2 Model Summary   –         –           –           –           –           111

Table 4.9.3 ANOVA  –                –           –           –           –           –           112

Table 4.9.4 Coefficient               –           –           –           –           –           112

Table 4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Employee Creativity      –  –           113

Table 4.10.1 Correlation          –           –           –           –           –           114

Table 4.10.2 Model Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           114

Table 4.10.3 ANOVA        –           –           –           –           –           –           114

Table 4.10.4 Coefficient         –           –           –           –           –           115

Table 4.11 Descriptive Statistics of Employee Group Norms     –           116

Table 4.11.1 Correlation      –           –           –           –           –           117

Table 4.11.2 Model Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           117

Table 4.11.3 ANOVA       –           –           –           –           –           –           117

Table 4.11.4 Coefficient           –           –           –           –           –           118

Table 4.12.2 Model Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           119

Table 4.12.3 ANOVA         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           120

Table 4.12.4 Coefficient         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           120

LIST OF FIGURES                                                

Figure 2.1 A Job Performance Model of Motivation –             –           26

Figure 2.2 Factors contributing to Group Cohesiveness       –           31

Figure 2.3 Balance Theory of Group Formation               –           –           34

Figure 2.4 Self-managing Work- Group Model         –           –           51

Figure 2.5 Model of Interpersonal/Relationship Factors among

  Group Members        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

Figure 2.6 Circular Process of Motivation of Employees   –           58

Figure 2.7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs       –           –           –           –           –           61

Figure 2.8 Continuum of Satisfaction – Dissatisfaction     –           65

Figure 2.9 Likert’s Linking-Pin Model            –           –           70                               



1.1 Background to the study

In all the areas of organisational behaviour, the handling and management of emotions seem more neglected. This is needed for organisations to survive otherwise personal tensions and conflicts may result. People experience great difficulties in copying with fierce even outrageous impulses. The Dutch historian Huizinga (1924) writes about the more ferocious and rather unpredictable shifts of behaviour in Medieval Europe. There undoubtedly were norms and agreements to regulate behaviour and mutual interactions. Bernard du Rosier (1404 – 1475) in his effort to propagate other rules of conduct in organisations emphasised on keeping behaviour, emotions and temper under control continuously. Van(1994) noted that during the period of capitalism, the problems of organisationswere discipline, behaviour management and coordination of employees. Factory regimes were based on a tangled combination of coercion from the side of organisations and willingness or motivation on the workers’ part. Bringing people together in one space implied the danger that they would get in each other’s way, that arguments could erupt as a result of differences in behaviour or that they would over indulge in other activities detrimental to the growth of the organisation. Conformance with the individual regime was indirectly threatened by corruption of the moral in the free time (Van, 1994).

However, with the emergence of Scientific Method by Taylor, the founder of Scientific Organisational Design (1856 – 1915) emphasis shifted to imposition of discipline on the activities of subordinates. He explained how employees managed to restrict production by ‘soldiering and loafing’. He contended that applying individual training, better communication pattern, desirable organisational culture, forum for interaction and association and other measures could gradually overcome the tendencies of soldiering and loafing. His experience provided a good impression on how personal power can be replaced by more ‘neutral’ mechanisms of control.

In today’s increasing interdependent companies and organisations – within the context of the global free-market economy, managers need to understand the synergistic roles played by organisational behaviour forces in influencing behaviour.Multinationals are reorganising in response to the changing environment, hoping to capitalise on opportunities for growth. With emphasis on international business and global economy, there is a search on for a new breed of employees and managers. Such employees know how to conduct business across international borders, is often multilingual, thinks with a world view and is able to map out strategies that keep organisations on business track.

 Competition in banking businesses today has made managers in the sector to realise that managing behaviour is complex and challenges innovation, economic growth and corporate sustainability. Consequently, Susmeta (2013) states that managers need to know individual differences among employees since individual differences have direct effect on behaviour stressing that  people who perceive things differently behave differently; people with different attitudes respond differently to directives and that people with different personalities interact differently with bosses, co-workers, subordinates and customers. He further states that knowledge of individual differences helps to explain why some people embrace changes and eventually become successful and others are fearful of it; why some employees are productive only when they are closely monitored while others are naturally productive; why some employees learn new tasks more effectively than others and how organisational behaviour variables can be applied to explain the influence they impact on behaviour and performance.

In this context therefore and considering the critical role of banks in the economy, attempts are made to evaluate how these individual differences impact on the behaviour of workers in this important sector. An understanding of employee behaviour may be required for optimising corporate objectives of the organisation. Attainment of corporate objectives is a function of the effectiveness and efficiency of organisation members. In this context, Bagraim, Cunningham, Potgieter&Viedge(2007) submit that the effectiveness of any organisation is determined by the quality of its members and therefore the procedure adopted in deciding the quality of employees required, establishing those with requisite experience and qualifications to apply and eventually selected are critical.  Consequently, Feldman and Arnold (1983) agree that the process of selecting new organisation members is thought of as a matching process with two simultaneous goals. The organisation seeks to match as closely as possible its own needs with the capabilities of the prospective member. This assertion justifies the rigorous recruitment exercise often experienced in Nigerian banking industry.

Managers are team players empowered by the willing and active support of others who are driven by conflicting self-interests. Acting on those conflicting self-interests are divergent and unpredictable behaviours influenced by certain variables. Organisational behaviour is concerned with the study of behaviour for better understanding, prediction and control, Fieldman and Arnold (1983). Naturally, behaviour of organisation members is influenced by a combination of organisational variables of individual, group, organisational and environmental factors such as motivation, communication, leadership style, group membership, organisational culture among others. Employees are complex combination of attitudes, beliefs and needs. Their minds and brains are complex and have parallel processes running at the same time and driven by some proxies that directly or indirectly compel them to behave in a particular direction.

Fieldman and Arnold (1983) also observe that managing behaviour in organisation is a lot more difficult because future managers are not prepared for the world they will enter, and that new manager’s expectations often exceed reality, displaying feelings of frustration, anxiety, under-utilisation and disappointment. Emphases are on theory rather than the synthesis of theory and practice that prepare managers for the challenges of the actual world. Social systems and social behaviour (and in the case of organisations, individual and group behaviour) can be defined and explained in terms of values, norms, communities and ensuring individual roles. In this context, Fararo, (2001), highlights a number of theoretical propositions derived from behavioural psychology thus:

    i.      Behaviour is the result of the benefits it yields. This means that a set of actions taken         in an environment describe our behaviour which therefore are modelled in line with     the outcomes of earlier made decisions.

   ii.      Social behaviour is an exchange process.  From this perspective, it is defined as a   social interaction between behavioural systems.  It is termed “action and reaction”        (Fararo, 2001). It is grounded in the benefits by an individual from another          individual’s behaviour and it takes the form of sociability, cooperation and             competition.

The theoretical principles accounting for individual and group behavioural differences that have continued to pose challenges to managers especially in service organisations in the words of Homans as cited by Schneider (1995) are formulated thus:

i.          The success principle: the more frequent an action’s reinforcement, the greater the likelihood of that action being repeated.

ii.         The principle of stimuli similarity: similar situations yield general reinforcing effects.          In effect, if a certain stimulus was used in an action reinforce previously, the more           future stimuli resemble that specific stimulus, the greater the chances of identical or         similar performance actions to the one previously reinforced.

    iii.    The value principle: the more the results of an action are valued, the greater the      chances of repeating that very action.

    iv.    The deprivation/sufficiency principle: this means that the more frequent a reinforce is        applied, the less valuable the latter becomes to an individual.

    v.     The aggressive/approval principle: if the reward or punishment received for certain action contradicts the individual’s expectation, there may be emotional reaction and          the likelihood of increase in aggressive behaviour. However, at the end, the results   may be positively valued – the aggressive principle. On the other hand, if the reward   for a specific action meets or even exceeds the individual’s expectations or an action         is not punished as expected, the chances of valuing the results of the resultant      behaviour and,            hence, of repeating it increases – the approval principles.

All these variations, differences and dynamism in behavioural pattern of organisation members are serious challenges to management as well as attainment of corporate objectives of organisations most especially banking industry considering the pivotal role it plays in economic development of a country. Bagraim, Cunningham, Potgieter&Viedge (2007) explain that the study of organisational behaviour provides a guideline that both managers and workers can use to understand the many forces that influence behaviour, and make correct decisions about how to motivate and coordinate people and other resources to achieve optimum performance. It leads to better understanding of peers, supervisors and subordinates within the organisation. Better still, the understanding of the dynamic interaction between the various components leads to personal growth and knowledge for one’s own benefit. Robbins and Judge (2010) agree that organisations consists of components that are independent of each other and are grouped into three levels of individual, group and the structure and design of the formal organisation.  Understanding how these levels influence behaviour is relevant in banking industry where customer relationship is presumed to be more on one-on-one basis. Nigerian banking sector has been undergoing series of transformation and consolidation to strengthen it and since the behaviour of the workers is critical to the survival of the industry, it becomes important to evaluate the influence certain behaviour variables have on the behaviour of bank workers in the Nigerian banking sector.

On the performance and growth of banking industry in Nigeria, Ekanem (2003) asserts that the banking industry in Nigeria has expanded rapidly with productivity rising sharply since 1996. This growth over the years in the sector has been organically and intrinsically linked with the growth of employees who are veritable source of competitive advantage (Omojafor, 2012). In the midst of this expansion and rapid growth of the banking sector are the challenges of managing the diverse workforce associated with the complexity of behaviour to sustain the growth. These behaviours have significant impact on performance and productivity. The first task of a manager is to identify the critical behaviours – the 5% to 10% of the behaviours that may account for up to 70% or 80% of the performance in the area in question (Luthans, 1985).

In a 4-P model of strategic results (people, product, process and productivity) Kreitner and Kinicki (2003) stress the importance of day-to-day continuous improvement in all aspects of organisational endeavour to cope with the more demanding customers and stiffer competition. The banking industry in Nigeria has been faced with enormous challenges that affect performance, management and reliability. The 24 banks in Nigeria today that are referred to as consolidated banks emerged after the recapitalisation initiative of the Central Bank of Nigeria in 2005 after raising the minimum capital requirement for each bank to N25 billion. Banks constitute an important vehicle for economic growth and sustainable development in Nigeria. To sustain this important role requires effective management of their employees which can be made possible by understanding their behaviour. Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organisational objectives in an efficient and ethical manner (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2003). From the stand point of organisational behaviour, the central feature of this definition is ‘working with and through others’.

Considering the importance of behaviour management to the survival of organisations, there is a dearth of empirical studies on the influence of organisational behaviour on the management of employees in the Nigerian Banking Industry. There is a problem of the difficulty in establishing the extent to which employees in the Nigerian banking sector can be managed through the application of organisational behaviour variables to obtain desirable behaviour. This is the gap this research intends to fill. Therefore, the central focus of this study is to identify the influence organisational behaviour variables of motivation, leadership style, communication, organisational culture and group membership have on managing behaviour in Nigerian Banking Industry. This is critical and therefore supports the objectives of this research.

1.2 Statement of the Problem





1.1 Background of the Study

Quality has been an important part of human activities since the emergence of human history. Before now, manufacturing was essentially conducted by the cottage industry and heavily relied on craftsmen. The manufacturers were merely in seller’s market; however, the trend has changed from seller’s market to the buyer’s market. The consumers have become more aware of the variety of products in the market. Thus, customers are the focus of  manufacturing such that every organization  has to study what customers needs are and satisfy them in order to remain in business by offering products of desired quality.  Arora (2009) stated that quality of goods are determined by customers, customers become a key factor that can create competition among organizations and this make firms to focus more on quality to sustain their competitive advantage. This is because effective quality determines the rate of productivity and thus become an important factor in organization and also contributes to the growth of the economy.

Meanwhile in the light of increasing complexities and the change from local to global tiers of market places, there have been constant pressures applied on the management to improve competitiveness by lowering operating cost and improving logistics. The customers are becoming increasingly aware of rising standards, having access to wide range of products and services to choose from. There is an ever-increasing demand for quality product and/or services and this global revolution had forced organizations to invest substantial resources in adopting and implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) strategies.A   mélange   of terminology evolved from private consultants and government offices. In no particular order of succession, Deming, Crosby and Juranexperienced various levels of success with disciplined approaches aimed at dramatically improving quality of products and services and of having the effect of dramatically improving productivity and other organizational attributes (Westbrook, I993). Total Quality Management refers to a total commitment to quality. 

Shankar (2012) views, TQMas a management approach of organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of members and aiming at long term success through which customer satisfaction and benefits to members of the organization and society at large. In fact the focus of any organization that aspires to be a quality oriented must be to achieve a corporate culture of quality in everything it has or does- its people, processes and products as well as services.Quality is far from being a novel idea. The concept of quality control entered into management in the 1930’s, it found its expression mainly in two areas:- inspection of finished products or services and statistical sampling. Two things have changed since then:- (i) quality has now become universally defined in terms of customer perceptions and expectations rather than in terms of production specifications as was the care in the past and (ii) relative increase in customer requirements m terms of quality.Quality is a measure of customer satisfaction. It refers to the combination of a product, process, or .service that determines the products quality to satisfy specific needs. A business philosophy that embodies the belief that management process must be focus on integrating systems, the idea of customer driven quality through the organization ( Zikmund, 2013).

Savolainen (2000) posits that Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach which aims at incorporating awareness of quality in all organizational process. Many organizations are striving for quality products and services that will meet or exceed customers’ expectations, as a result of this, there are production systems that will be put in place to assure the transformation of input into quality output. Pheng and Jasmine (2004) point out that with the adoption of TQM that there are the benefits of higher customer’ satisfaction, better quality products and higher market shares. Thus customer satisfaction is one of the prime objectives of Total Quality Management and it is the most widely discussed approach to directing organizational efforts towards the goal of customer satisfaction. Ogboro and Obeng (2000) reiterate that TQM theory is based on, continuous improvement, top management leadership and commitment to the goal of customer satisfaction, employee empowerment and customer focus.

Thus, the Total Quality Management (TQM) is about people and their attitudes to work in the process of creating and managing change and values in the organization.  It is not about techniques and procedure as such. It includes them, and it needs them. However, it is people who actually use them, inspired with a simple idea that the purpose of work is to provide customers with something that will delight and make them want to keep paying for your salaries, by buying/patronizing their products or services you provide. It is focused on a belief that customers (people that use the products or services) have the ultimate say in the kinds of products or services put out to them and that if brewing output does not meet their expectations, they have a choice to switch to other products which can effectively compete with others. And that, your customer can as a matter of fact determine how well you perform in a competitive market. Because it is important that your business stay afloat and competitive all the time, it is expedient that we take a critical look at the fundamental factors that influence product efficiency, that is; human resources; those individuals in the system who operate your machine, computers, carryout instructions on what is to be done and at what time, who in fact assist the organization in achieving its corporate goals.

Total Quality Management can usefully viewed as a cycle; first of all customer needs must be identified and addressed. Their needs are basically what they say they are, not necessarily what the organization would like them to be; and the brewing organization should seek to provide their customers with exactly what they want, delivering the right services at the right time (Thompson, 1990). In satisfying these needs, the brewing organization should seek to improve the quality of their operations in term of people, systems and technology or overall performance. Improving people can be relatively inexpensive, but it requires that they are seen and treated as a key resource. Total Quality Management therefore should start with the strategic leader who must emphasize a commitment to it, but it must spread throughout the brewing organization. Hence, these factors prompt this study to investigate the impact of TQM on organizational performance in brewing industry.

1.2       Statement of Problem

Total quality management is a style of management that gives everyone in the company responsibility for delivering quality to the final consumers. Quality being described as a fitness for purpose or as a delight to the customer’s needs.TQM views each task in the organization as fundamentally a process in a customer-supplier relationship with the next process. The aim at each stage is to define and meet the customer requirements in order to maximize the satisfaction of the final consumer at the lowest possible cost. Incompetence on the part of employees could result to poor quality output. This undermining of the product quality affects the standard, organization repute, quality control and patronage.

However, over the years organizations have witnessed different negative impacts because of sub-standard products or fake adulterated ones. If products are not of the required specifications, this could make the products un-competitive both at national and international markets. Money spent in the production may not be recovered or waste of resources and returns on investment will fall drastically. Often, lives are lost as a result of the consumption of products produced below specifications or sub-standard. Also inferior products affect the customer health and satisfaction. The organizations corporate image and profitability are also affected negatively, due to non adherence to total quality management principles. It is against this backdrop that this study intends to examine the impact of total quality management on organizational performance with focus on organizational profitability.

The above situation if not corrected, customers will shift their loyalty to other products ofother organizations. Anorganization reputation can quickly be lost. As one executive said‘if you ship an inferior product, your employees will disengage and your customers will depart’. Organizations cannotachieve financial success, there will be high level of tension and anxiety, productivity and effectiveness’ drop and the bottom line suffer.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of total quality management on organizational performance. However, the specific objectives were tailored:




TITLE ……………………………………………………………………………….. i

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………….. ii

CERTIFICATION  ……………………………………………………………. iii

DEDICATION  ………………………………………………………………… iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………….  v

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………….. vii

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………… x

          CHAPTER ONE


1.1    Background of the Study  ………………………………………… 1

1.2    Statement of the Problem ……………………………………….. 6

1.3Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………. 8

1.4    Research Questions ……………………………………………….. 9

1.5    Research Hypotheses …………………………………………….. 9

1.6Significant of the Study …………………………………………….. 11

1.7Scope of the Study …………………………………………………… 12

1.8Limitation of the Study ………………………………………………. 12

1.9Definitions of Terms ………………………………………………….. 13

          CHAPTER TWO


2.1    The Concept of Total Quality Management ……………. 17

2.2Some contributions of TQM ………………………………………. 19

2.3Customer Focus and Satisfaction ……………………………… 24

2.4Principles of TQM…………………………………………………….. 27

2.5Tools for TQM ………………………………………………………….. 28

2.6Benefits of TQM to Organizations ……………………………… 32

2.7Implementation of TQM Programme in an

          Organization  ………………………………………………………… 33



3.1    Research Design  …………………………………………………. 34

3.2    Area of Study ……………………………………………………….. 35

3.3Population of Study ………………………………………………….. 36

3.4Sample and Sample Procedures ………………………………. 36

3.5Instrument of Data Collection  …………………………………… 37

3.6Validity and Reliability of the Study  …………………………… 38

3.7Method of Data Collection  ………………………………………… 38

3.8Method of Data Analysis……………………………………………. 39

          CHAPTER FOUR


4.1    Data Presentation …………………………………………………. 41

4.2Presentation and Analysis…………………………………………. 42

          CHAPTER FIVE


5.1    Summary of Findings ……………………………………………. 57

5.2    Conclusion  …………………………………………………………… 58

5.3    Recommendation  ………………………………………………… 59

          BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………… 60

          APPENDIX …………………………………………………………… 62


This study is an attempt to examine the Impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on organizational productivity, A Case Study of Ama Brewery, 9th mile Enugu. The research further focuses on the approach adopted by organizations that has implemented the concept and the rate of success achieved. These is a prove that effective TQM implementation can improve their competitive abilities and provide strategic advantages in the market place. The effects of not participating in TQM implementation by all management levels, challenges disrupting the TQM implement in an organization and failure to organize frequent employee training have been a big problem. This research work tries to ascertain the impact of TQM implementation in the organization, level of management involvement, challenges disrupting the implementation, impact of employee training and TQM principles application to goal attainment. It is through the questionnaire method and oral interview that data are collected from aforementioned organization. References were made to journals, related books, internet and magazines when writing this project. The aforementioned organization agreed that TQM have impact in organizational productivity. It is not all management levels in Ama Brewery contribute in TQM implementation. The failure to organize frequent employee training have been a major setbacks to their organization, while some management challenges disrupt TQM implementation in the organization. They should engage in frequent employee training inorder to increase the level of individual and organizational competence. All management levels should join hands in TQM implementation so that quality will be attained. Researches can be made for further informations on all related textbooks from foreign country.

                                      CHAPTER ONE



          Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a world-wide topic in the twenty-first century. Having its roots partly in the USA and partly in Japan, it was primarily adopted by some Japanese companies in the decades immediately after world war II with the greater successes of Japanese companies during the 1980s.

          Companies all over the world found that it was necessary to have good quality management practices in order to stay competitive (Lagrosen, 2002). Total Quality Management is an enhancement of the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. Total quality management (TQM) as a management approach of an organization is centred on quality based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success. This is achieved through

customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and society.

          In other words, TQM is a philosophy for managing an organization in a way, which enables it to meet stakeholders need and expectations efficiently and effectively without compromising ethical values (ISO, 8404, 1994). TQM has been widely implemented throughout the world. Many firms have arrived at the conclusion that effective TQM implementation can improve their competitive abilities and provide strategic advantages in the market place. (Anderson, Fornell & Lehmann, 1994) several studies have shown that the adoption of TQM practices can allow firms to compete globally (Easton, 1993), (Ernst and Young, 1996; Womack & Roos, 1990). Several researchers also reported that TQM implementation has led to improvements in quality, productivity and competitiveness in only 20 – 30% of the firms that have implemented it (Benson, 1993). According to a survey of manufacturing firms in Georgia, the benefits of TQM are improved quality, employee participation, teamwork, working relationship, customer satisfaction, employee, satisfaction, productivity, communication, profitability and

market share (Dale, Zairi, Vanfder Wiele & Williams, 2000).

          A study conducted by Rategan (1992) indicated that a 90% improvement rate in employee relations, operating  procedures, customer satisfaction, and financial performance is achieved due to TQM implementation. However, Burrows (1992) reported a 95% failure rate for initiated TQM implementation programs; Eskildson (1994), Tomow and Wiley (1991) reported that TQM implementation has uncertain or even negative effects on performance. Longenecker and Scazzero (1993) indicated that achieving high product quality and pursuing successful TQM implementation are highly dependent on top management support.

          Total quality management is seen as a holistic approach to managing project. It includes continuous improvement, training and re-training of staff, customers satisfaction, top management support, defect-free product at first attempt, elimination of rework, cost effectiveness etc.

          Haris and McCaffer (2002) stated that total quality management consists of all activities that managers perform to improve their quality and policy such as quality planning,

quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. It is a process of getting assurance and quality rid of poor quality from production rather than getting rid of poor quality products. Total quality management (TQM) is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in continual efforts to improve quality and achieve customers satisfaction.

          Continuous improvement is the philosophy that seeks to make never ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs. The three key philosophies in TQM according to Telsang (2004) are;

-Continuous improvement is never-ending push to improve.

-Involvement of everyone in the organization goal of customers satisfaction.

-Constant training of employees on the methods and concepts of quality.

          According to Bamiscile (2004), quality can be measured by clearly laid down requirements Newlove (1987) and Pateman (2004) used the concept of conformity with requirement as the definition of quality in productive

organization. All team members who perform quality functions should endeavour to produce quality products at first attempt. This will ensure clients satisfaction and save cost for rework. Quality affects all aspects of the organization and has dramatic cost implications. The most obvious consequence occurs when poor quality creates dissatisfied customers and eventually leads to loss of business.

          Even though there are disadvantages associated with ISO,9000 implementations, the benefits cannot be discounted.

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of TQM





The study is aimed at evaluating the Impact of Structure and Technology on Employee Behaviour in organisations, using a selected service oriented organisation and a manufacturing organisation namely: Diamond Bank Plc and Nigerian Breweries Plc in Enugu State.

The two major objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which structure and technology influence employee behaviour and to determine how the application of good structure and technology could improve employee behaviour.

The primary and secondary sources were used to obtain information for the study. The questionnaire was structured in five point Likert scale type format, in line with the objectives set out to achieve the study.

In calculating the sample size, the researcher applied the statistical formula for selecting from a finite population as formulated by Yamane (1964:280). The researcher chose to use the stratified sampling method so as to give a fair representation to the designated organisations and also by using the proportionality formula to allocate the sample size. The Chi-square (X2) statistical test method was used to test the hypotheses for the study.

Findings indicate that the extent to which structure and technology influences employee behaviour is high and that the application of good structure and technology would result to improved employee behaviour by designing structures which achieve a balance between cooperation and competition, which combine team behaviours and individual motivation.

Conclusively, organisations are set up for specific purposes, to achieve set goals and objectives. People join organisations because they believe that their personal goals could be met, while they strive to achieve the organisations objectives. Structure and technology provides the framework of an organisation and makes possible the application of the process of management.

Based on the findings, the study recommended that management of organisations should design their structure and technology to have significant effect on the management and functioning of the organisation in such a way as to help employees work together effectively by clarifying employee’s responsibilities and how their efforts should mesh through job descriptions, organisation charts and lines of authority.

                                              TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                               ii

Certification                                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                                           iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                              v

Abstract                                                                                                               vi

Table of Contents                                                                                     vii

  1.        Chapter One: INTRODUCTION
  2. Background of Study                                                   9                   
  3. Statement of the Problem                                                                            10
  4. Objectives of the Study                                                                              11
  5.  Research Questions                                                                       12
  6. Research Hypotheses                                                                                 12
  7. Significance of the Study                                                                          13
  8. Scope of the Study                                                                          13
  9.  Limitations of the Study                                                                       13
  10. Definition of Terms                                                                                14
  11. Historical Background of Diamond Bank Plc                                         14
  12. Historical Background of Nigerian Bank Plc                                            16

 References                                                                                                                18

  •  The Concept of Organisation Structure                                           19
  •  Types of Organisational Structure                                         20
  • Impact of Structure on Employee Behaviour                                     23
  • Technology Generally Defined                                                                  24
  •  Types and Characteristics of Technology                                               26
  • Impact of Technology on Employee Behaviour                                      28
  • Structure and Technology in an Organisation                          30
  • Effects of a Deficient Organisation Structure and Technology          33

     References                                                                                             35

3          Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                              37

3.2       Sources of Data                                                                                              37

3.3       Population of the Study                                                         37

3.4       Determination of Sample Size                                                     38

3.5       Description of Instrument used for Data Collection                40

3.6       Data Analysis Techniques                                                                40

3.7       Validity of the Instrument                                                            41

3.8       Reliability of the Instrument                                                        42

            References                                                                                                      43


4.1       Introduction                                                                                    44

4.2       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                     44

4.3       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                49



5.1       Introduction                                                                               58

5.2       Summary of Findings                                                                         58

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      58

5.4       Recommendations                                                                          59



                                                 CHAPTER ONE



An organization is established to achieve set goals and objectives. For it to realise this, its work has to be divided among its members. Some structure and technology is necessary to make possible the effective performance of key activities and to support the efforts of staff members. Structure and technology provides the framework of an organization and its pattern of management. It is by means of structure and technology that the purpose and work of the organisation are carried out.

The structure of an organisation is usually depicted in the form of an organisation chart. This will show, at a given moment in time, how work is divided and the grouping together of activities, the levels of authority and formal organisational relationships. The organisational chart provides a pictorial representation of the overall shape and structural framework of an organisation. Some charts are very sketchy and give only a minimum amount of information. Other charts give varying amounts of additional detail such as an indication of the broad nature of duties and responsibilities of the various units. Organisation charts are useful in explaining the outline structure of an organisation. They may be used as a basis for the analysis and review of structure, for training and management succession, and for formulating changes.

The functions of structure and technology, the activities and defined relationships within it, exist independently of the members of the organisation who carry out the work. However, personalities are an important part of the working of the organisation. In practice, the actual operation of the organisation and success in meeting its objectives will depend upon the behaviour of people who work within the structure and who give shape and personality to the framework.

The human relations writers are critical of the emphasis on the formal organisation. The favour a structure in which there is increased participation from people at all levels of the organisation, greater freedom for the individuals, and more meaningful work organisation and relationships. The view of the human relations writers represents more of an attitude towards organisation than specific proposals, but it reminds us of the importance of the human element in the design of structure and technology. Managers need to consider how structural design and methods of work organisation influence the behaviour and performance of members of the organisation.

The quality of the relationship between line and functional managers lies at the heart of achieving both the compliance to rules and ability to work with the principles behind them. If the relationship is good, and trust and respect high, then both sides understand the importance of each other’s role. Line management knows they will always be pressing to drive harder on performance, but understand the functional roles are there to help create, and strengthen the boundaries they must cross.

The overall function and direction of a work organisation is determined by the nature of its corporate strategy. Strategy provides goals, objectives and guidelines for the structure & technology and operations of the organisation. Organisations play a major and increasingly important role in the lives of us all. The power and influence of a business organisation must also be tempered by decisions relating to its broader social obligations and ethical responsibilities.  

Also, the structure and technology of an organisation affects not only productivity and economic efficiency but also the morale and job satisfaction of its workforce, hence the impact it has on its employee behaviour. Getting the structure and the technology right is the first step in any organisational plan. Structure should be designed, therefore, so as to encourage the willing participation of members of the organisation and effective organisational performance.

It is important to bear in mind that there are many variables that influence the most appropriate organisation structure and system of management, including situational factors and the contingency approach. Changing patterns of work organisation, the demand for greater flexibility and the multi-skilling challenge, and managerial processes such as delegation and empowerment also have a major interrelationship with structure and influence decisions on structural design and technology.

While recognising that there is clearly no one right organisation, there is nevertheless, in the final analysis, an underlying need to establish a framework of order and system of command by which the work to be undertaken is accomplished successfully. This demands that attention be given to certain basic principles and considerations in the design of organisation structure and technology, or in reviewing the effectiveness of an existing structure and technology.





Problem solving technique is a veritable tool for today’s management to utilize for optimal result. This research work used the Impact of Problem Solving Technique on Performance of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria as it investigates on skills in problem solving on customer satisfaction, evaluate whether there is a significant relationship between decision making styles on employee satisfaction, ascertain the usefulness of brainstorming guide on net profit margin and To assess employees assertiveness and self confidence in achieving profit via problem solving technique. The population size of the organization under study was 320 after the use of a statistical tool called Taro Yamane was used to determine the sample size and questionnaire prepared and administered. The first hypotheses indicates that Skill and Customer satisfaction were positively and significantly related (x2=17.96**> x2 Tab=9.487). This means if the Skill is effective, it will have a great impact on Customer Satisfaction. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that “Skill have significance on customer satisfaction in Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria” the second hypotheses indicate that Decision Making styles and Employee satisfaction were positively and significantly related (x2=15.78**> x2 Tab=9.487), This means if decision making is effective, it will have a great impact on Employee satisfaction. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that “There is a significant relationship between decision making style of problem solving and employees  satisfaction at Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria”,  the third hypotheses indicate that there is a correlation  between Brainstorming Guide aids return on Investment as they were related (r=0.551**, p<0.000). This shows that Brainstorming can contribute or aid Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria’s return on investment. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that ‘Brainstorming guide in problem solving does aids return on investment of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria and  the last hypotheses show that there is a tie Correlation between Assertiveness/Self confidence and Profitability as they were related (r=0.614**, p<0.000). Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that ‘Assertiveness and self confidence in problem solving impact positively on the profitability of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria. The research findings which show that problem solving technique skills impact on customer satisfaction in the organization, there is significant relationship between decision making styles of problem solving and employees satisfaction, brainstorming guide in problem solving does aids return on investment and Assertiveness and self confidence in problem solving does impact positively on the profitability. The following recommendation put was put forth, that Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria and other hospitality firms must imbibe the spirit of research in their decision making. The use of haphazard method of decision should be totally disallowed and problem solving technique must be adopted, furthermore, the success of any firms largely depends on their workforce. There should be proper human resource and personnel management efforts. The workers of the firm must be adequately motivated and remunerated to build enhanced performance.  Finally, there should be care and precaution in the application of problem solving technique because of the quantitative analysis that may be involved. A little mistake in the improper utilization of these techniques can lead to organizational failure.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Approval                                                                                                                     ii

Declaration                                                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                                        v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Content                                                                                            vii

List of Table                                                                                                        viii

Test of Hypotheses Table                             ix                                                                                                                                                        


  1. Background of the Study                                                                               1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                                                               4
  3. Objectives of the Study                                                                                  5
  4. Research Questions                                                                                         6
  5. Research Hypotheses                                                                                      6
  6. Significance of the Study                                                                               7
  7. Limitations of the Study                                                                                 7
  8. Scope and Delimitation of Study                                                                   8

1.9       Conceptual Definition of Terms                                                      8

            References                                                                                                       12


  •       Conceptual Framework                                                        13       
  • Historical Framework on Performance                                    13
  • Concept of Performance Management                                        14       
  • Concept of Organization                                                                                15
  • What is Performance Management                                                 16
  • Performance Evaluation and Motivation                               18
  •  Performance Problem Solving                                                                     19

2.2.1        Problem Solving                                                                     21      

  •     The Problem at Transcorp Hitlton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria       21
  •  Theoretical Framework                                                                                21
  • Gestalt Theory                                                                                 21

2.3.2         Performance Theory: Understanding Theories                  24     Goal Theory                                                                               24      Control Theory                                                                        25      Social Cognitive Theory                                                            25      Reward Management                                                               26  

2.4            problem solving technique                                                            26

2.4.1        Strategic Reward Characteristics and Critical Evaluation          26   

2.4.2        Recurring Problems at Transcorp Hilton Hotel                            27

2.5           Empirical Review                                                         34 

2.6          Summary of the Literature Review                                            35  

2.7          Critique of the Literature Reviewed                         35

   References                                                                                                        38


  •       Research Design                                                           40
  • Sources of Data                                                               40

3.2.1    Primary Data                                                                        40

3.2.2    Secondary Data                                                                    41              

  •       Area of study                                                                      41
  •  Population of the Study                                                                  41
  • Sampling Techniques                                                                        42
  • Sample Size                                                                                                      42
  •  Allocation of Sample Size                                                          44
  • Research Instrument for  Data Collection                                       45
  •  Questionaire                                                                            45
  • Oral Interview                                                                                                    45
  • Observation                                                                                 46
  • Questionaire Administration and Collection                                    46
  • Methods of Analyzing the Data                                                                    46
  • Decision Rule                                                                                                 47

3.12     Validity of Research instrument                                                    47

3.13      Reliability of Research Instrument                                                48

             References                                                                                                     50


  • Data Presentation                                                                                            51
  • Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                     68
  • Discussions of Findings                                                                                  73                   


  • Summary of Findings                                                                                     74
  • Conclusion                                                                                                      74
  • Recommendations                                                                                          75
  • Suggestion for further studies                                                    76

Bibliography                                                                                                   78

Appendixes                                                                                                     81

Questionnaires                                                                                                 82


Table 3.1           Distribution of the Population of the Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja           42

Table 3.1           Using the Simple Frequency Table                          48

Table 4.1.1:       Questionnaire Distribution and Responses                              51

Table 4.1.2         on Gender Distribution of the Respondents                      52

Table 4.1.3        on Quallification Distribution of the Respondents                                     52

Table 4.1.4         on Position Level of the Respondents                           53

Table 4.1.5         on the Income of the Respondents                                      53

Table 4.1.6        on the Time Spent by the Respondents                                                       54

Table 4.1.7        Skills are Usefull in Problem Solving                54

Table 4.1.8         Skills have Challenges in the Course of applying it in Problem Solving    55

Table 4.1.9         Organisation needs to develop her Employees in Building

 Skills towards Problem Solving                       56                       

Table 4.1.10       Skills in Problem Solving have Significance on Customers

 Satisfaction in the Organisation                                                                   56                                                             

Table 4.1.11       Training and Development is a veritable Management Approach  needed by Personnel for Problem Solving in the Organisation                    57

Table 4.1.12       Decision making Styles creates an avenue for Solution to Problem of  An Organisation                                                 58

Table 4.1.13        Management of Organization must encourage Flexible Decision making to solve on the spot Problems                              58

Table 4.1.14      Decision making styles is rigid at one time and flexible at the other, so as to balance the varied employee diversity and help encourage their satisfaction                                                                                            59

Table 4.1.15      Decision Making Style is perceived to be effective and efficient in problem solving in the organization                         60

Table 4.1.16      Decision making styles adopted by the management of the

Organisation affect employee satisfaction                                                    61

Table 4.1.17      Decision making styles aids employee satisfaction                                       62              

Table 4.1.18      Brainstorming guide does aid problem solving in the organization             62

Table 4.1.19      Brainstorming guide is useful technique in problem solving

  needed at the various departments of the organization                                63

Table 4.1.20      Brainstorming guide in problem solving seemly aid net

Profit margin of the organization                                                     64 

Table 4.1.21      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence are needed in

Problem solving                                                                                             65

Table 4.1.22      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence in problem

solving, leads to customers repeat patronage                                                 66

Table 4.1.23       Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence enable management

 to ascertain feedback from problem solving action(s) and as well

from customer’s complaint(s)                                                                        67

Table 4.1.24      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence in problem solving

  positively impact on profitability                                                                  68


Table 1              Chi-Square analysis                                               69

Table 2              Chi-Square analysis                                                                 70

Table 3:             Product Moment Correlation Analysis                          71

Table 4:             Product Moment Correlation Analysis                               72



  1. Background of the Study

Problem solving is a constant feature of life, in individual(s), team(s)/group(s) and organization(s) etc. According to Armstrong (2012:495), who opine problem solving as the process of analysis and understanding a problem, diagnosing its causes and deciding on solution that solves the problem and prevents it being repeated. We will often have to react to problems as they arise in our homes and work places, but as far as possible a proactive approach is desirable, involving anticipating potential problem(s) and dealing with them in advance by taking preventive actions using the normal approach to problem solving steps, which requires logical creative thinking; such a logical approach is desirable but is not always easy because the situations where problems have to be solved are often messier with conflicting evidence(s), lack of data, political and emotional issues affecting those involved. In the event where it is possible to apply neat logical sequential methods, the principles of getting and analyzing what information is available, considering alternative solutions and making the best choice based on the evidence, and analysis of the context and an assessment of the possible consequences, remain the same. However, the purpose and reasons for problem solving technique is to ensure that if properly analyzed, such a mistake does not repeat again. Drucker (1995) cited in Armstrong (2012), points out that when trying to understand, the root causes of a problem you may have to start with an opinion based on events and facts. He assert that opinions are perfectly good starting point as long as they are brought out into the open at once and tested against reality and subjected  to hypothesis test analytically. Collaborating Follett’s (1924), law of the situation cited in Armstrong (2012) states that fact and event should rule in the end. According to Armstrong (2012:494), to improve problem solving technique skills is necessary to improve your analytical abilities, be creative, be simplistic and focus on implementation. He postulated twelve (12) steps of problem solving technique to include

  1. Define the situation
  2. Specify objectives
  3. Develop hypotheses
  4. Get the facts
  5. Analyze the facts
  6. Identify possible course of action
  7. Evaluate alternatives courses of action
  8. Weigh and decide
  9. Decide on the objective.
  10. Adopt a “means-end” approach where appropriate.
  11. Plan implementation and
  12. Implement

The bottom line is that there is no problem but only opportunity in other words  one should apply positive thinking to problem solving to change such issues to opportunities. Armstrong (2012:328), assert that the aim of performance, but which performance? Its scope is sometimes perceived as only extending to individuals and their managers. This is often described as a “performance management system” however while it may be assumed that using performance management process to improve individual performance will inevitably improve team and organizational performance this cannot be left to chance. Performance management should be applied to examine the organizations. Shield (2007:21) observed that: individuals result flow into group results, which in turn contribute to organization-wide results, but he also pointed out that collective behavior both arises from and shapes individual behavior. In this study, they are clearly interconnected, organizational performance practices will be considered in line with the topic of the study, which sees the organization as an entity. As Gheorghe and Huck (2007:19) cited in Armstrong (2012:328), noted, “Actively manager performance is simply running entire business as one entity. It’s a continuous cycle of planning, executing, measuring results and planning the next actions. In the context of a larger strategic initiative, that means of continuous improvements. The aim of managing organizational performance is to increase organizational capability for the capacity of an organization to function effectively. Armstrong (2012:328), it is about the ability of an organization to guarantee high levels of performance, achieve its purpose (sustained competitive advantage in a commercial business), deliver results and, importantly meet the needs of the stakeholders. It is concerned with the organization as a system and in line with the belief expressed by Coens and Jenkins (2012) cited in Armstrong (2012:328), that to focus on the overall “system” of the organization yields better results than trying to get individual employee to improve their performance.

Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja is a 670 room, 5star Hotel that provides luxury accommodation; Exotic cuisine fully equipped meeting rooms and leisure facilities to business travelers and tourists from all over the world. It is a global multinational corporation (MNC). However like all other MNC’s has its own problems which borders on equal employment opportunities, reward management, job satisfaction and stakeholder satisfaction.

1.2     Statement of the Problem




Privatization as an economic policy is of no doubt a good economic tool for development but in Nigeria, the policy has generated many controversies. Some Nigerians argued in its favour while others are antagonistic about its introduction in the country. This research work, therefore, sets out to examine the impact of privatization of public enterprises on poverty reduction Nigeria, using the telecommunication industry as a study.

Private sector-driven economy comes on the heels of the failure of government and its institutions to live up to their responsibilities. Evidence of government failure abounds but thickens with its direct engagement in the creation and supply of goods and services. Public companies are known to perform badly when compared with their private sector counterparts. With sharp reductions in government’s revenue, adequate subventions to these institutions could not be sustained. Some are closed down while a good number operate beneath installed capacity. Salaries of workers are not paid and many of them are disengaged. Privatization is seen as a solution to the problem of public enterprises. In other words, the size of the public sector needs to be reduced, allowing greater share to private sector. Even at that, some fears are entertained as to the workability of privatization in developing countries.

This study is divided into five chapters, chapter one looked at the background study of privatization and statement of problem. Also some hypothesis were formulated to serve as guides on the subject matter. Chapter two discussed the conceptual framework, the growth of telecommunication industry and the impact of privatization on the poor.

The research itself was designed to be descriptive, hence the survey research approach was adopted. Chapter three took care of the methodology used for collecting data, which involved questionnaires’ administration and secondary data collection. Chapter four handled data presentation, analysis and interpretation, the Chi – Square (X2) was used for testing the hypotheses formulated.

Finally, chapter five contains summary, recommendation and conclusion which will help the stakeholders to take a stand on the argument about governments’ privatization programmes in Nigeria. 


Title page                                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                                                    iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                        iv

Abstract                                                                                                       v

Table of Content                                                                                           vi

List of Tables                                                                                                 viii

List of Figures                                                                                                ix


1.1     Background of the Study                                                                       1

1.2     Statement of Problem                                                                          3

1.3     Objectives of the Study                                                                        4

1.4     Research Questions                                                                              4

1.5     Formulation of Hypotheses                                                                    4

1.6     Significance of the Study                                                                       5

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study                                                  5

1.8     Definition of Terms                                                                               6


          Literature Review                                                                                 7

2.1     Public Enterprise                                                                                  7

2.2     Privatization                                                                                        8

2.3     Poverty                                                                                               10

2.4     Privatisation of Public Enterprises in Nigeria                        12

  • Privatisation of Telecommunication Industry in Nigeria          23
  • Growth in Telecommunication Industry in Nigeria                   25
  • Impact of Privatization on the Poor in Nigeria            26

2.8     Benefits of Privatization in Nigeria                                                34

2.9     Challenges of Privatization in Nigeria                                                      39


3.0     Research Design and Methodology                                                         42

3.1     Population and Sampling Technique                                                       42

3.2     Data Collection                                                                                    44

3.3     Administration and Retrieval of Questionnaires                              44

3.4     Method of Data Analysis                                                                       45


4.1     Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation                           46

4.2     Data Analysis and Interpretation                                                            47


  • Summary of Findings, Recommendations and

Conclusion                                                                                           66

5.1     Summary of Finding s                                                                            66

5.2     Recommendations                                                                                68

5.3     Conclusion                                                                                           70

          References                                                                                          72



Table 1: Poverty level in Nigeria 1980 – 1997 …… …… ……. ……. ……….. …….   17

Table 2: List of some companies already privatized …… …  ……          23

Table 3: Distribution of responses to questionnaires

   Administration    ……… ……… ……… ……… …… …….. …… …… ……..     50

Table 4:  Distribution of responses to question 1 …….. … …… ….    51

Table 5: Distribution of responses to question 2  …. ………. …….    51

Table 6: Distribution of responses to question 3  …… …….. …….. …….. ………    52

Table 7: Distribution of responses to question 4  ….. …… … …….     52

Table 8: Distribution of responses to question 5 … …. ……. ……. ……     53

Table 9: Distribution of responses to question 6 …… … ….. ……. …..      54

Table 10: Distribution of responses to question 7 …… ……. …….. ….      55

Table 11: Distribution of responses to question 8 ……… …… ….. ..     57

Table 12: Distribution of responses to question 9 …… ……. ………      59

Table 13a: Distribution of responses to question 10 … ……. …… ….     59

Table 13b: Distribution of responses to question 10    ……… ……..      60

Table 14:  Distribution of responses to question 11 …. …….. …….. …     61

Table 15a: Distribution of responses to question 12    …… …          …..     62

Table 15b: Distribution of responses to question 12 ….. …… …….    62

Table 16:  Distribution of responses to question 13 …… …….. ….. …….. ……     63

Table 17:  Distribution of responses to question 14 ….. …..  …….  …    64

Table 18:  Distribution of responses to question 15 …… …….. …        65

Table 19:  Distribution of responses to question 16 …… ..  ……. …     65

Table 20:  Distribution of responses to question 17 ………. ….….       66

Table 21:  Distribution of responses to question 18 ….. . …… ….        67

Table 22:  Distribution of responses to question 19 ….. ….. ….. ……       68

Table 23:  Distribution of responses to question 20 …… … … ……        69


Figure 1: Normal distribution curve for hypothesis one …. …. …. ….      58

Figure 2: Normal distribution curve for hypothesis two ……. ……. …..      60

Figure 3: Normal distribution curve for hypothesis three ….. …… …… …      63

                                             CHAPTER ONE


Privatization (the transfer of government owned share-holding in public enterprises to private shareholders) is one of the revolutionary innovation in economic policies of both developed and developing countries (Igbuzor 2003: Chambers 2008).The ultimate goal of any credible and legitimate government is to ensure sustained improvement in the standard of living of the citizenry. Towards this end, Nigerian government found it necessary to design a developmental plan that will facilitate effective mobilization, optimal allocation and efficient management of national resources. To achieve this aim, public enterprises were established across the country to carry out these obligations. Towards the end of 1980, the public enterprises which had grown too large began to suffer from fundamental problems of defective capital structures, excessive bureaucratic control and intervention, inappropriate technologies, gross incompetence and blatant corruption (Aboyade, 1974). With the deep internal crises that included the high rate of inflation and unemployment, external debt obligation and foreign exchange misalignment, Nigeria and many other African countries were strongly advised by the World Bank and I.M.F to divest (privatize) their public enterprises as conditions for economic assistance (Nwoye,1997).

          This economic policy (Privatisation) is a product of neo-liberal economic reforms that became popularised and globalised through the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (I.M.F). As an innovative economic policy, Privatisation started in Chile under the Military Government of General Augusto Pinochet in 1974 and was adopted in Britain between 1986 and 1987 as a central part of economic policy shift (Hanke, 1987). Privatization in Nigeria started in 1986 as an integral part of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) (F.G.N, 1986: Ndebbio, 1991).

Prior to this period, the Nigerian state has participated actively in public enterprises (Nwoye, 2003). This trend continued until 1988 when privatization programme was officially launched (Anya, 2000; Igbuzor, 2003). The Federal Government privatized 89 Public Enterprises (PEs) between 1988 and 1993 in the first phase while 32 enterprises were privatized in the second phase which ran from 1999 to 2005 (Mkpuma, 2005). It was envisaged that privatisation would improve operational efficiency of our inefficient public enterprises (PEs), reduce government expenditure, increase investment and employment as well as ensure job security in Nigeria (Subair and Oke, 2008; Jerome, 2008).

          Surprisingly, since the official introduction of privatisation in 1988, the policy has been a subject of intensive debate and has remained highly controversial in Nigeria (Nwoye, 2010). Most Nigerians hold divergent views on the contribution of the privatization programme to the Country’s economic development in its two decades of existence in Nigeria. Therefore this study attempts to convey the message that privatisation is in the interest of the masses both in terms of poverty alleviation and enhancement of national development, through a careful study of Nigerian telecommunication sub-sector.




Abstract                         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xii



1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of Problem              –        –        –        –        –        5

1.3     Objectives of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4     Research Questions                 –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5     Research Hypotheses              –        –        –        –        –        7

1.6     Significant of the Study           –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.7     Scope of the Study                  –        –        –        –        –        8

1.8     Limitations of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        –        9

1.9     Definition of Operational Terms       –        –        –        –        10




2.1              Concept of Decision Making   –        –        –        –        –        12

2.2    Types of Decisions Making     –        –        –        –        –        13

2.3     Key Factors in Decision Making       –        –        –        –        15

2.4     Why Make Better Decisions    –        –        –        –        –        16

2.5     The Decision‐Making Process –        –        –        –        –        18

2.6              Decision Quality            –        –        –        –        –        –        28

2.7     Organisational Decision Making       –        –        –        –        29

2.8     Organisational Decision Making Models    –        –        –        31

2.9     Complexity of Organisational Decision Making  –        –        33

3.10            How Much Do Organisational Decisions Cost     –        –        35

2.11   Smart Organisation                 –        –        –        –        –        37

2.12   How Organisations Make Good Decisions –        –        –        39

2.13   Best Practices in Organisational Decision Making         –        –        40




  • Introduction                            –        –        –        –        –        47
  • Research Design            –        –        –        –        –        –        47
  • Sources Of Data            –        –        –        –        –        –        48
  • Instruments for Data Collection        –        –        –        –        49

3.5      Population of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        50

3.6     Sample Size Determination     –        –        –        –        –        50

3.7     Sampling Procedure                –        –        –        –        –        53

3.8     Validity and Reliability of Data and Test Instruments  –        54

3.8.1 Validity of Measurement         –        –        –        –        –        54

3.8.2   Reliability of Data                  –        –        –        –        –        54

3.9     Questionnaire Design and Administration –        –        –        55

3.10    Data Treatment Technique(S)          –        –        –        –        –        55






5.1     Introduction                            –        –        –        –        –        83

5.2     Summary of Major Findings   –        –        –        –        –        83

5.3     Conclusion                     –        –        –        –        –        –        84

5.4     Recommendations                   –        –        –        –        –        –        84

5.5     Area of Further Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        86


Appendix I



Table 4.1:  Questionnaire Distribution      –        –        –        –        58

Table 4.2:   Gender Distribution of the Respondents    –        –        59

Table 4.3:   Marital Status of the respondents     –        –        –        59

Table 4.4:   Educational Qualification                 –        –        –        60

Table 4.5:      Employee on equity salary enhance workers performance.    61

Table 4.6:   Remuneration and workers performance.   –        –        62

Table 4.7:   Salary significantly affect workers    –        –        –        63

Table 4.8:      Overtime decision attach with money motivate workers.         63

Table 4.9:   Promotion decision based on merit enhances

workers performance                        –        –        –        64

Table 4.10: Promotion based on qualification encourage

workers performance                        –        –        –        65

Table 4.11: Promotion decision based on active service enhance

workers  performance                       –        –        –        66

Table 4.12: Ability to stick by their decision promote firm

performance.                                     –        –        –        67

Table 4.13: Effective training of employees increase their

productivity                                      –        –        –        68

Table 4.14: Training and development increase job satisfaction

and morale among employees           –        –        –        69

Table 4.15: Training and development reduce employees

discrepancy among workers performance            –        –        70

Table 4.16: Training increase employees motivation and

organisation profitability.                 –        –        –        71

Table 4.17: Employee involvement in decision making have a

positive return on company investment.    –        –        72

Table 4.18: Employee involvements in goal setting enhance

performance                                      –        –        –        73

Table 4.19: Employee involvement reduces product failure.   –        74

Table 4.20: Employee involvement in decision making increase

workers sense of belonging               –        –        –        75


Figure 1: Key Decision making Groups      –        –        –        –        14     

Figure 2: Element of quality decision      –        –        –        –        28


The purpose of this research work is to highlight the impact of management of decision on workers performance. In today’s world, organisations are faced with thousands of decisions daily, and how they make these decisions will have a huge impact on their financial status (Forrester, 2003:44). These decisions set the tone for the entire organisation in terms of image, profits and customer service. That is why it is very important that organisations adopt best practices and execute good judgment when it comes to making decisions.Specifically, the study aimed to pursue the following objectives: to determine the effect management remuneration decision on workers performance, to identify the influence promotion decision on workers  performance, to ascertain the how   employees involvements in management decision affect  workers performance, to  evaluate the effect of effective decision making of training and development on workers performance. The study had a population size of 1,210, out of which a sample size of 303 was realised using Taro Yamene formula at 5% error to tolerance and 95 % level of confidence. Instrument used for data collection was primarily questionnaire and interview. The total numbers of 303 copies of the questionnaire were distributed while 283 copies were returned. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s moment correlation coefficient, chi-square (x2) and Z- test statistical tools. The findings indicate that Management decisions on worker remuneration significantly affect workers’ performance in manufacturing firm. Promotion positively influence workers performance in manufacturing firms, Employees involvements in management decision significantly affect workers performance in manufacturing firms, Training and development significantly affect workers. The study concluded that organizations are faced with thousands of decision on a daily basis, and how they handle and process these decision could have a substantial impact on their financial status and Wellbeing of workers. The study recommends that Organizations should make quality decision not considering the financial implication.




In today’s world, organisations are faced with thousands of decisions daily, and how they make these decisions will have a huge impact on their financial status (Forrester, 2003:44). These decisions set the tone for the entire organisation in terms of image, profits and customer service. That is why it is very important that organisations adopt best practices and execute good judgment when it comes to making decisions. Because the right decision at the right time could help organisations achieve great success whereas a wrong decision could end up costing them dearly (Capgemini, 2004:12).

The most important job of any manager is making decisions. It is also the hardest and the most critical. With decisions valued in their millions (Forrester, 2003:97) a bad decision can damage a image of organisation (Hammond et al., 2006:86). Fragmented and inaccurate data causes executives and managers to make delayed and flawed decisions costing millions (Forrester, 2003). Finding the right data at the right time and analysing it fast enough remains a challenge for businesses as poor decisions can be very costly (Teradata, 2004:54).

Managers within organisations are often making bad decisions, solving the wrong problems and ignoring uncertainty (Forrester, 2003:32). According to (Forrester, 2003:65), managers make bad decisions and find it hard to decide because of decision biases, they don’t want to give anything up nor do they want to make mistakes. That is why they procrastinate and only make decisions when events force them to. Managers often solve the wrong problems because they lack a structure for making decisions. As a result, they don’t generate value creating alternatives, they look for quick and partial solutions and they fail to seek out all the necessary data or clarify objectives (Forrester, 2003:12). Managers also tend to ignore uncertainty they focus on a single outcome, such as the most likely case, and take refuge in ambiguity or imprecise language. Managers use the complexity of uncertainty as an excuse for not deciding (Forrester, 2003:75).

Decisions play a vital and crucial role within large organisations, and how they react could very well have a substantial impact on their financial standing. Failure to make the correct decision could lead to huge financial loss, while on the other hand making the right decision could help achieve a financial gain. The importance of the correct decision being made cannot be signified. Therefore, all of the factors affecting decision making need to be considered when deciding on a course of action.

The organizational decision making process involves proper and efficient implementation of strategic plans and methods to achieve desired organisational objective. Let’s examine some key areas that affect the overall process.

Often one difficulty facing an organization is that multiple divisions are involved in the overall decision making process. Making a decision can have different implications for each respective division. Gaining agreement from all stakeholders can be a challenge. When a companies overall strategy depends on the support of all business units, organization wide support is crucial.

Key strategic evaluation and planning is crucial. This planning needs to address the overall strategic goals of the organization but also the end effects that impact workers outside of the decision chain. Organizational dysfunction and worker resistance can result if proper thought and attention is not directed towards front line efforts. Organizational change professional deal specifically with these issues. Unifying the company at all levels is very important. A failure to calculate and anticipate the implications of key decisions can derail a companies goals and objectives.

Organizational change management and planning processes seek to address the implications that a change in one input can have on the corresponding output. The evaluation and process evaluation that comprises part of the change management approach seeks to measure and anticipate the effect strategic decisions will have on company resources and labor. This permits the careful monitoring and benchmarking to adjust process as required to more closely align organizational objectives with desired outcomes.

With the businesses of today facing shortened product lifecycles, organizations are facing intense competitive pressures to build market share to stay ahead of rivals. Process changes, the introduction of new and improved disruptive technologies are forcing companies to adapt new business goals and objectives in shortened timeframes. This places corresponding stresses on all levels of the organization. As business units are forced to respond to top level management goals, flexibility has become a modern day requirement.

Organizational change management is a growing discipline to help managers become better positioned to understand how the decision making process can affect individuals at a cognitive level. Performance improvement is intimately linked to this. As companies transition into the future, change management is expected to become increasingly important.





This study investigated the impact of labour turnover on the performance of selected deposit banks in Enugu Metropolis. There has been the problem of high rates of resignation and dismissal in deposit banks. The objectives of this study are: to identify the cause (s) of labour turnover in Enugu Metropolis, to assess the extent to which labour turnover affect the workload and effectiveness of the remaining bank employees in Enugu deposit banks, to examine the impact of labour turnover on the profitability of deposit banks in Enugu Metropolis and to ascertain the effectiveness of policy used by deposit banks to reduce labour turnover. Survey research design was adopted for the study because questionnaire and oral interview were used as the research instrument for data collection. Out of the 19 deposit banks in Enugu, 4 was purposively selected with a total population of 787 employees and a sample size of 265 drawn from Yamane’s formula at 5% error of tolerance and 95% level of confidence. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were tested using Chi-square while hypotheses 3 and 4 were tested using Z-test statistical tools. The findings show that: poor remuneration is the main cause of labour turnover in deposit banks (X2c = 30.629 > X2t = 21.03), labour turnover has a positive and significant effect on employees’ workload and effectiveness (X2c = 40.750 > X2t = 21.03), labour turnover has a negative impact on profitability of deposit banks (Zc = 2.299 > Zt =1.96) and policy of collective bargaining has a negative and significant impact on labour turnover reduction (Zc = 2.671 > Zt 1.96). The study concluded that dealing with labour turnover calls for collective and continuous efforts of all employers, employees and stakeholders of selected deposit banks in Enugu Metropolis. The study recommended that: Nigerian banks should enhance remuneration of staff in order to reduce labour turnover and cost, they should make sure that most of their staff are exposed to different job descriptions so that staff can work in another department when there is labour turnover, there is need to select the right and capable candidates that can render quality services to customers in order to reduce loss of personal account and good communication should be improve by allowing staff to freely air their mind without threat from their superior.

                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration Page                                                                                                ii

Approval Page                                                                                                 iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                 v

Abstract                                                                                                           vi

List of Tables                                                                                                           x


1.1       Background of Study                                                                       1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                            6

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                               7

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                       7

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                    7

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                              8

1.8       Operational Definitions of Terms                                          

            References                                                                                                                  9


2.1       Introduction                                                                                               11

2.2.1    Labour Turnover                                                                                   11

2.2       Conceptual Review (Concepts)                                                              11

2.3       Theoretical Review (Theories)                                                          14 

2.3.1    Theories of Labour Turnover and Productivity                                       16

2.4       Empirical Review                                                                              17

2.5       Theoretical Framework/Conceptual Framework                                  18                                              

2.5.1    Classification of Labour Turnover                                             20    

2.5.2    Factors Impacting on Labour Turnover                                22       

2.5.3    Desirable and Undesirable Labour Turnover          23   

2.5.4    High Labour Turnover                                                                 24          

2.5.5    Turnover Cost                                                                       24              

2.5.6    How to Calculate Labour Turnover Cost                       25                                                        

2.5.7    Some of the Difficulties Encountered during the Replacement of New Employees 26                                                                            

2.5.8    Causes of Labour Turnover                                  27                        

2.5.9    Reasons for Labour Turnover                                                29                                                                    

2.5.10  Consequences of Labour Turnover         31                                                                   

2.5.11  How to Solve Labour Turnover Rate   33                                                                             

2.5.12  Tips for Reducing Labour Turnover                                         34                                                                           

2.5.13  Useful Tips to Improve Employee Morale and Retention in an Organisation            35

2.6       Summary of the Reviewed Related Literature                             37

2.7       Knowledge Gap in the Reviewed Related Literature                       38       

            References                                                                                       40      


3.1       Introduction              46                                                                               

3.2       Research Design                                                 46                                                                                                

3.3       Sources of Data Collection                                                              46         

3.4       Population of the Study                                                                     46    

3.5       Sample Size Determination                                                      48

3.5.1    Sampling Technique                                                                        49

3.6       Description of research instrument                                              49

3.7       Validity of Research Instrument                                                           50

3.8       Reliability of Research Instrument                                       50       

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                           51                     

References                                                                                                                  52       


4.1       Introduction                                                                                        53       

4.2       Presentation of collected Biographical Information of Respondents’ (Section A)    53       

4.2       Presentation of Questionnaire Analyses (Section B)                                                  55

4.3       Test of Hypotheses                                                                          62

4.4       Discussion of Result                                                                          68

            References                                                                                                                  70



5.1       Summary of Findings                                                             71

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                     72

5.3       Recommendations                                                               72

5.4       Suggested Areas for further Research                                                   73

5.5       Contribution to Knowledge                                                74       

5.6       Limitations of the Study                                                      74

            Bibliography                                                                                                               75

            Appendix I:     Questionnaire 

            Appendix II:   Oral Interview Guide    

                                                    CHAPTER ONE


1.1       Background of the Study

For an organization to perform effectively does not depend only on the available technical resources, but also on the quality and competence of its employees. Meaghan (2002) states that employees are extremely crucial to the organization since their value to the organization are essentially intangible and not easily replicated.

Every organization has to bear in mind that the difference in the levels of productivity of two or more organizations depends on the contribution of existing employees. For an organization to be successful, employee satisfaction should not be overlooked, because, it is the prerequisite for staff retention. According to Abassi and Hollman (2000), managers must recognize that employees are major contributors of organizational competitive advantage and as such for the competitive advantage to be maintained, labour turnover should be discouraged by management.

Labour turnover is the movement of employees in and out of an organisation.  It can also be seen as the rate at which an employer gains or loses employees.  Owen (2004) opines that labour turnover measures the movement of workers in and out of employment with a particular firm. The issue and interest in measuring such movement arouse when working for an employer (rather than self-employment in craft or agricultural production) became the norm. Labour turnover is measured typically in terms of the separation rate (quits, layoffs, and discharges per hundred employees on the payroll).

High labour turnover can be seen as a devastating phenomenon to any organisations both public and private, whether big or small. Labour turnover affects both firms and employees. Organisations suffer the loss of job specific skills, disruption in production and incur the costs of hiring and training new workers. Employees, on the other hand, experience unsteady salary, unemployment, as a result of moving from one job to another in search of higher pay jobs, new job-specific skills and different career prospects. Some authors were concerned over the high rates of labour turnover in the early part of the century and conducted many studies to understand the causes and consequences of labour turnover (Douglas 1918; Lescohler 1923 and Slichter 1921). Some of these studies focused on the irregularity in labour demand which resulted in seasonal and cyclical layoffs. Others interpreted the high rate of labour turnover as an indication of worker dissatisfaction and labour relations problems. It was seen that labour turnover was costly for the firm (in terms of increased in hiring and training expenditures) and for the workers (in terms of irregularity of income flows). Many studies sought and identified why workers quitted their jobs less frequently was as a result of altered employment relationships (Owen 1995b; Ozanne 1967; and Ross 1958). In the United States, these changes in employment practices began in a few firms around the turn of the 20th century, intensified during World War 1 and became more widespread in the 1920s. These employment practices were sometimes attempts to appraise workers and to prevent unionization. However, others have suggested that the changes in quit behaviour in the 1920s were the result of immigration declines (due to implemented quotas) and slack labour turnover markets (Goldin 2000; Jacoby 1985). Labour economists have also noted that providing various form of deferred compensation (pensions, wages which increases with seniority, etc.) can increase worker effort and reduce the costs of monitoring workers.

High labour turnover can be harmful to a company’s productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice (trainee) workers (Hutchinson and Berunvides, 1997). Experts are needed for recruitment, selection and training of new employees whenever there is reduction in the work force (key employees); lots of money that is involved pose a challenge to any organisation to handle high labour turnover. Apart from the negative parts of labour turnover, there are little benefits attached to it, such as the opportunity of being able to replace poorly performed workers with more educated, experienced and skilled workers and the idea of waste reduction (unnecessary expenses caused by improper utilisation resources).

Newstrom and Davis (1997) define turnover as the proportion of employee leaving a job during a given time period. It is the sum of job turnover, which relates to expansion and contraction of establishments or firms and the movement of workers into and out going of jobs in establishments or firms. Workers leave firms and firms hire other workers to replace them regardless of whether firm itself is growing or declining. Grobler; Warnicks; Carrel; Elbert & Harfierd (2006) define staff turnover as the movement of employees out of the organisation, that results from resignation, transfers out of the organisational units, discharges, retirement and death. These authors distinguished between avoidable and unavoidable turnover, without clearly indicating the different between these two types of turnover. However, they mentioned that staff turnover is linked to job satisfaction, with the inevitable result that organisations mostly concerned with the reasons why employees wants to leave an organisation. Staff turnover can be described as the frequent or amount of voluntary termination (Gordon, 1991).

The historical analyses of labour turnover have relied upon two types of data. The first type consists of firm-level data on turnover within a particular workforce or governmental collections (through firms) of data on the level of turnover within particular industries or geographic locations. If these turnover data are broken down into their components (quit, discharges and layoffs), a quit rate model can be employed to analyse the worker-initiated component of turnover as it relates to job search behaviour (Parsons, 1973). The second type of turnover data is derived using employment records or governmental as the source for information specific to individual workers. Analyses of this type of data typically employs a “hazard” model that estimates the probability of a worker’s leaving a job as a function of individual worker characteristics (Carter and Savoca, 1992; Maloney, 1998; Whatley and Sedo, 1998).

In the United State, for the period of December, 2000 to November, 2008, the average total non-seasonally adjusted monthly turnover rate was 3.3%. However, rates vary widely when compared over different periods of time or different job sectors. For instance, during the period of 2001 to 2006, the annual turnover rate for all the industrial sectors averaged 39.6% before seasonal adjustments, during the same period the leisure and hospitality sector experienced an average annual rate of 74.6% (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2008). This corroborates the findings of Joseph (1972) which states that labour turnover cost American industries $11 billion a year. This figure includes items like recruitment, hiring, training of replacements.

There has always been labour turnover in the Nigerian banking industry but it became more pronounced after the introduction of bank consolidation by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) that took place from July 2004 to December 2005 (Okafor, 2009). Under this policy, deposit banks were mandated to raise their equity capital to N25 billion through windows like mergers and acquisition, sourcing funds from the capital market or private placement in order to strengthen them. This process resulted to reduction of deposit banks from 89 to 25 in the year 2007 and later to 20 in 2011 with the attendant massive job loss. Some deposit banks that could not meet up with the requirements of the Central Bank of Nigeria were closed down. The survived ones laid off their staff and this escalated the number of job seekers in the country. Furthermore, in developing countries, labour turnover increases the rate of unemployment due to lack of job, many job seekers roaming around in search of job in the face of little or no job and in the same vein, countries that have high unemployment rates are likely not to have high labour turnover. Workers may find it difficult to leave their present jobs because they know there are many job seekers waiting for the slightest opportunity to be employed.

The Nigerian banking industry has witnessed new and different physical change in the recent years as a result of the restructuring programme channeled towards resolving the existing problems of the industry by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The Central Bank of Nigeria has seen the weakness in banking system characterized by insolvency, persistent illiquidity, poor assets quality, unprofitable operations, weak corporate governance, over dependency on public sector deposits, weak capital base, late or non-publication of annual accounts and among others.  These might make it impossible for deposit banks to meet all employees requirements (such as high pay, job security, opportunity for advancement an achievements, job satisfaction, incentives and among others) which can trigger the movement of employees from one organisation to another. Due to the above weaknesses, the former governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Soludo (2004) at the special meeting with the Bankers Committee initiated bank consolidation and pointed out why mergers and acquisitions should be taken seriously as an instrument for enhancing banking efficiency, size and development.

The banking industry specifically has experienced lots of labour turnover in the recent years, especially, after the 2005 bank reform exercise introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). This move was prompted by the weak and fragile capital base of most Nigerian banks which predisposed them to collapse at the slightest loan default. Consequently, CBN increased the minimum share capital of banks to N25billion to strengthen them. This resulted in reduction of deposit banks from 89 to 24 under Soludo in 2007 and later to 20 under Sanusi in 2011 with the attendant massive job loss and loss of customers’ loyalty.

Before now, Nigeria had 89 banks with many banks having capital base of less than US$10million and about 3,300 branches. Recently, Nigeria banking industry has undergone remarkable changes over the years in terms of the number of institutions, ownership structure as well as depth and breadth of operations. These changes have been influenced largely by challenges posed by deregulation of the finance sector, globalization of operations, technological innovations and adoption of supervisory and prudential requirements that conform to international standards.

According to Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) annual report (2007), there was 24 deposit banks in Nigeria at the end of 2007 and out of these 24 banks, 4 were rated sound, 17 were rated satisfactory, 2 marginal and 1 was rated unsound. In the year 2012/13, it was further reduced to 22 deposit banks.

The main aim of initiating bank consolidation by the CBN was to make deposit banks strong and reliable. When deposit banks are strong and reliable, the issue of labour turnover might be reduced with the intention that some factors that contributed to labour turnover have been reduced as low as reasonably possible. In the side of employees, they might be rest assured of their regular salary pay, job security, opportunity for advancement and achievement etc. and the idea of employees moving from one organisation to another may not be there. This in turn can be of a good advantage to deposit banks because as employees are retained there might be no room for the organisations to suffer disruption in production or loss of job specific skills that will make them spend money for hiring and training new workers. High labour turnover boost a threat in the reputation of commercial banks; people might be scared to put in their money in such bank and those that have already have account with them might decide to withdraw all their money due to fear of unknown. This can cause bank runs which might make it difficult for banks to be able to operate effectively.

Kelvin, Joan, and Adrian (2004) state that although there is no standard framework for understanding employee’s turnover process as a whole, a wide range of factors has been found useful in interpreting employee turnover. In line with this, there is need to develop a fuller comprehension of labour turnover, the factors that triggered the push and pull of employees in an organisation, and its effect on performance of workers in Nigeria deposit banks. Due to upsurge in competition in the banking industry, Nigerian banks should note that their competitive advantage can be affected if they experience high rate of labour turnover. This is based on the fact that employees’ skills and knowledge as intangible assets cannot be copied by rivals just like tangible assets or products. The most common way by which rivals can have access to the skills and knowledge of an organisation is where there is labour turnover and as such the employees leave the organisations and join the rivals (Owomoh and Korankye, 2012).

1.2       Statement of the Problem 





Title Page                                            –           –           –           –           –           –        i

Certification                                        –           –           –           –           –           –        ii

Approval Page                                    –           –           –           –           –           –       iii

Dedication                                          –           –           –           –           –           –       iv

Acknowledgments                              –           –           –           –           –           –       v

Table of contents                                –           –           –           –           –           –       vi

List of tables                                       –           –           –           –           –           –       viii

Abstract                                              –           –           –           –           –           –       x



1.1       Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –        1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                   –           –           –           –           –        3

1.3       Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –        3

1.4       Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –        4

1.5       Research Hypotheses              –           –           –           –           –           –        5

1.6       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –        6

1.7       Scope  of the Study       –           –           –          –            –        6      

1.8       Limitations of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –        6

1.9       Operational Definition of Key Terms        –           –           –        7         





  •      The Concept of Job Satisfaction  –         –           –           –           –           10
  • Job Satisfaction Theories           –           –           –           –           –           11
  • Dimensions of Job Satisfaction  –           –           –           –           –           17
  • Determinants of Job Satisfaction      –           –           –           –           23

2.5     Model of Job Satisfaction         –           –           –           –           27

2.6     Definition of Organizational Commitment     –        –        –        28

2.7     Types of Employee Commitment                   –        –        –        29

2.8     The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment

(Personal Determinants)    –        –        –        –        –        31

2.9     Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Teachers         34

2.10   Summary Review of Related Literature          –        –        –        –        37



3.1       Research Design           –           –           –           –           –           47       

3.2       Sources of Data     –           –           –           –           –           –           47

3.3       Area of Study              –           –           –           –           –           47

3.4       Description of Research Instruments        –           –           –           48

3.5       Population of the Study               –           –           –           –           49

3.6       Sample Size Determination    –           –           –           –           50

3.7       Validity of the Research  Instrument –              –           –           55

3.8       Reliability of the Research Instrument                 –           –           55     

3.9       Data Treatment Technique(s)     –           –           –           –           57



4.1       Questionnaire Distribution       –           –           –           –           60

4.2       Test of Hypotheses       –           –           –           –           74

4.3       Discussion of Results            –           –           –           –           85



5.1      Summary of major findings     –           –           –           –           89

5.2      Conclusion     –           –           –           –           –           89

5.3      Recommendations               –           –           –           90

5.4       Contributions to Knowledge  –           –           –          –           –           –           90

5.5      Suggested Area for Future Research  –           –           –           92




Table 4.1      Sex Distribution         –           –           –           –           61       

Table 4.2      Marital Status of Respondents          –           –           –           61

Table 4.3      Education Qualification            –           –           –           61

Table 4.4      Class Size                                              –           –           –           –           62

Table 4.5      Years of Experience        –           –           –           –           62

Table 4.6      Respondents Age            –           –           –           –           63

Table 4.7:     Job satisfaction and organizational commitment         –           63

Table 4.8:     Supervision and job satisfaction     –           –           –           64

Table 4.9:     Content of work itself and job satisfaction            –           64

Table 4.10:   Salary and job satisfaction               –           –           –           65

Table 4.11:   Non-financial Benefits/rewards and job performance   –           65

Table 4.12:   Pay and work            –           –           –           –           66

Table 4.13:   Salary Scale and Performance on the Job             –           66

Table 4.14:   Attractive benefit packages and performance on the job          –           67

Table 4.15:   Employee recognition and organizational commitment             –           67

Table 4:16:   Qualification or additional credentials and promotion              –           68

Table 4.17:   Input and employee promotion            –           –           68

Table 4.18:   Tenure and promoting employee           –           –           –           –           69

Table 4.19:   Cordial employee-employer and job satisfaction           –           –           69

Table 4.20:   Employees setting of goal and job satisfaction                         –           –           70

Table 4.21:   Good output of Teachers and school authority                         –           –           70

Table 4.22:   Participative leadership style and employee employer relationship       71

Table 4.23:   Class size and working environment           –           71

Table 4.24:   Learning material and organizational commitment        –           –           72

Table 4.25    Length of period thought and organizational commitment       –           72

Table 4.26:   Clean environment and organizational commitment     –           –           73

Table 4.27:   Age and Employee commitment              –           –           73

Table 4.28:   Gender and organization commitment –             –           74

Table 4.29:   School moral policies and job satisfaction                –           74

Table 4.30:   Condensed outcome of the four question administered for testing hypothesis one                                       –           –           –           –           75

Table  4.31:   Descriptive Statistics    –           –           –           –           76

Table 4.32:   Condensed outcome of the four questions administered for    

Testing    hypothesis two                       –           –           –           –           78

Table 4.33    Descriptive Statistics      –           –           –           –           78

Table 4.34:   Condensed outcome of the four question administered for testing      hypothesis three                                     –           –           –           –           80

Table 4.35    Descriptive Statistics                   –           –           –           81

Table 4.36:   Condensed outcome of four question administered testing

hypothesis four                                      –           –           –           –           82

Table 4.37    Descriptive Statistics           –           –           –           –           82

Table 4.38:  Condensed outcome of the four questions administered for testing hypothesis five                                       –           –           –           –           84

Table 4.39   Descriptive Statistics      –           –           –           –           84


The purpose of this research work is to highlight the impact of job satisfaction on organization commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu State.  Specifically, the study aimed to pursue the following objectives : to analyse the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu state, to determine the extent to which regular payment and increase of salary affect job satisfaction, to examine the degree to which promotion impacts on organizational commitment, to evaluate the extent to which employee-employer relationship enhances job satisfaction, to examine the relationship between working environment and organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu state. The study had a population size of 1,462, out of which a sample size of 314 was realized using Taro Yamene Formula at 5% error to tolerance and 95% level of confidence . Instrument used for data collection was primarily questionnaire and interview. The total numbers of 314 copies of the questionnaire were distributed while 304 copies were returned. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study.  Five hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, chi-square (X2), and Z-test statistical tools. The findings indicate that there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisational commitment. There was positive effect of payment and increase of salary on job satisfaction. There was significant impact of promotion on organizational commitment. There was positive relationship between working environment and organizational commitment. The study concluded  that teachers of secondary schools in Enugu state cherish promotion, improvement of salaries, welfare package and conditions of services, however these desires of teachers were far-cry. The study recommends that to ensure job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees, there should be proactive measures which among others are increase in salary scale, best teacher of the year, conducive environment and the preparedness on the school administration to beef up the needed job satisfaction. 

                                             CHAPTER ONE



An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organization will make sure there is a spirit of cooperation, sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. People are not only an indispensable component but also an integral part of the sphere of influence. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the fundamental source of its   improvement (Adeyeme, 2004:89)

In recent years, there has been an increase in publications pertaining to organizational commitment and job satisfaction amongst various occupational groups. Evidence attesting to this is the vast array of literature related to antecedents and consequences of both organizational commitment and job satisfaction among employees(Aamodt, 2007:168 and Bagraim, 2006:126 ).

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been found to be linked to increase in productivity and organizational effectiveness (Buitendach and de Wite, 2005:27).It is further linked to have an influence on whether employees will have a propensity to remain with the organization and maintain higher levels commitment. This explains why Yousef (2008:184) notes that job satisfaction and organisational commitment are inversely related to such withdrawal behaviours as tardiness, absenteeism and staff turnover

Locke and Lathan (1999:146) see job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction is as a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that be can viewed as important. In the educational sector, teachers generally cherish promotion, improvement in salaries and welfare packages as well as good conditions of service. Collectively, these strengthen organizational commitment.

In Nigeria, Borishade (2004:81) argues that aforementioned conditions are rare to come by, hence, there is a problem. This problem could be traced to the transitions the educational system is undergoing. It has really passed through different periods ranging from operations of the system by British administrators to ownership of schools by religious bodies. At these two periods, teachers were held at a very high esteem, they were regularly paid, promoted, sent on training and retired with dignity. At this period too they were conceived as role  models, because of the state of the nation which was then seen as backward, antiquity and primitive, schools were few, pupils were few and teachers were equally few and therefore management were easier. Again the missionary had direct sponsorship from their mother country, therefore provision of infrastructural facilities and maintenance of teachers was adequate. Over the years, it was obvious that the introduction of European education which carried with it the European values was relegated to the background African values and culture knowing that education is the major vehicle through which society transmits, propagates values and culture in any society.

The ownership and management still in the hands of missionaries raised a lot of agitation in the minds of Africans which led to the indigenous ownership and management of schools, that is taking away schools from the missionaries, this move intensified after the Nigerian civil war since most of the missionaries have gone, the government of the day naturally took over the ownership and management of schools both to harmonize the operation and curriculum and to achieve the expected goal. The end of Nigeria civil war there was an increase in the awareness of the need for education more children went to school, increase in the number of schools and the number of teachers, but with paucity of resources for provision of infrastructural facilities and general maintenance of schools and teachers. It was difficult to keep schools to the standard they were during the missionaries. Since the management of small unit can never be compare to management of larger unit it becomes more complex and difficult to manage and maintain teachers adequately as it was during missionary era

This state was further buttressed by Evans (2005:417) who identifies factors such as teacher’s low salaries and low status, growing class sizes and changes in the education system as causes of the endemic dissatisfaction within the profession. It is on this background that the research seeks to examine the impact of   job satisfaction on organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu State.





Declaration                                                                                                                  i

Approval                                                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

List of Tables                                                                                                              vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      viii


1.1       Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                       7

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                  8

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         9

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                             10

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                         10

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                      11

1.8       Limitations of the Study                                                                   12

1.9       Operational Definition Terms                                                                 12

1.10     Profile of the Organizations Studied                                                      14

            References                                                                                                      19


2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                     21

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                            61

2.3       Empirical Review                                                                              70

2.4       Summary of Reviewed Related Literature                                      78

2.5       Gap in Literature                                                                               79

            Reference                                                                                                        81


3.1       Research Design                                                                              88

3.2       Sources of Data                                                                                              88

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                        89

3.4       The Sample and Sampling Technique                           89

3.5       Description of Research Instrument                                        91

3.6       Method of data Analyses                                                                     92

3.7       Validity of Instrument                                                                     92

3.8       Reliability of the Research Instrument                                             92

3.9       Decision Rule                                                                                                  93

            References                                                                                                      94


4.1       Data Presentation                                                                               95

4.2       Test of Hypotheses                                                                             106

4.3       Discussion of Findings                                                                       113



5.1       Summary of Findings                                                                        116

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                     116

5.3       Recommendations                                                                              117

5.4       Contribution to Knowledge                                                               117

5.5       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                           118

            Bibliography                                                                              119

            Appendices                                                                                     127


Table 4.1:        Return Rate of Questionnaire                                               95

Table 4.2:        The Impact of Technology on Productivity                  97

Table 4.3:  Impact of Organizational Information, Communication and Technical Knowledge on Market Share                                              99

Table 4.4:     Impact of Organizational Information and Communication

Processes on Shareholders’ Welfare                                                      101

Table 4.5:        Impact of ICT Systems on Organizational Growth      103

Table 4.6:        Impact of the rise of ICT on Profitability                 115

Table 4.7:      Summarised Regression Results for Hypothesis One    107

Table 4.8:        Pearson Correlation Results for Hypothesis Two     108

Table 4.9:        Pearson Correlation Results for Hypothesis three        110

Table 4.10:      Summarised Regression Results for Hypothesis Four      111

Table 4.11:      Summarised Regression Results for Hypothesis Five    112


This study was prompted by the desire to ascertain the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on organizational performance of Brewery Industry in South-East, Nigeria. It sought to: determine the impact of technology on productivity in brewery industry South-East, Nigeria, assess the impact of organizational information, communication and technical knowledge on market share in brewery industry South-East, Nigeria, assess the impact of organizational information and communication processes on shareholders’ welfare of brewery industry in South-East, Nigeria, ascertain the impact of ICT systems on organizational growth of brewery industry in South-East, Nigeria and establish the impact of the rise of ICT on Profitability of brewing industry South-East, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design method, population of the study was 995 staff comprised of the four functional brewing firms in South-East, Nigeria. Sample size of 553 was obtained using Freund and Williams formular. Proportionate Stratified Sampling Technique was used to select respondents in each of the brewing firms. Data were collected using designed questionnaire on a 5-point likert scale. The questionnaire was validated using content validity. The reliability test was carried out using a test retest method and Cronbach’s alpha was adopted, giving a coefficient of 0.94, indicating a high degree of items consistency. The study employed Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and Linear regression to test the hypotheses at 5% level of significance. The study found that Technology had significant positive impact on Productivity of brewery industry in South-East, Nigeria (r = 0.957, p < 0.05); Organizational information, communication and technical knowledge had significant positive impact on market share of brewery industry in South-East, Nigeria (r = 0.904, p < 0.05); Organizational information and communication processes had positive impact on shareholders’ welfare of brewery industry in South East, Nigeria (r = 0.908, p < 0.05); ICT Systems had significant positive impact on organizational growth of brewing industry in South-East, Nigeria (r = 0.905, p < 0.05); Rise of ICT had a significant positive impact on Profitability of brewery industry in South-East, Nigeria (r = 0.879, p < 0.05). Based on the findings, this study has emphasized that the implementations and effective use of ICT in organizations bring about competitive advantage. The use of ICT has a great impact on organizational performance as it helps to provide a platform for growth of brewing industry. In other words, ICT is known to improve organizational operations, growth and competitiveness. From the literature review and the cases studied, it was certain that there are a number of advantages associated with the use of ICT. Therefore the effective use of ICT in many organizations would assist in creating several opportunities. The study recommended that Brewing industry should create strategic alliance with other international breweries, so as to gain new and practical knowledge. Organisations should be involved in upgrading their technology such as ICT, new programmes, new method of production, delivery and should embrace change. Appropriate Organizational information, communication and technical knowledge should be adopted. Modern ICT Systems should be adopted in the brewing industry.



  1. Background of the Study

Information Communication Technology (ICT) refers to a wide range of computerized technologies that enables communication and the electronic capturing, processing, and transmission of information. These technologies include products and services such as desktop computers, laptops, hand – held devices, wired or wireless intranet, business productivity software, data storage and security, network security etc (Ashrafi and Murtaza, 2008). With the use of ICT, businesses can interact more efficiently, and it enabled businesses to be digitally networked (Buhalis, 2003). With the use of ICT, the time constraint, and distance barrier to accessing relevant information is eliminated or drastically reduced hence it improves coordination of activities within organizational boundaries (Spanos, Prastacos & Poulymenakou,2002).

The rise of the information industry has gone hand in hand with the developments of the electronics industry. Since the Second World War this has been spearheaded by the USA and lately also by Japan. The year, 1983, the European Economic Community(EEC)has realized its growing dependence on the USA and Japan and it has initiated a major programme for the development of the information industry in Europe (Miller, 1984).

The term ICT originated as Information Technology (IT) until recently when it was thought that the communication component ought to be highlighted because of its significance. It was then that the concept transformed to Information and Communication Technology ICT (Olusanya and Oleyede, 2003).

The nature and scope of information and communication required by managers at different levels in an organization vary considerably. Organizations require different types of information and communication systems to meet their needs. Therefore, information is the result/product of processed data. Communication has to do with the process of the transfer of the information which is the processed data and the output of the data processing system from the sender to the receiver through a medium in the communication system (Nwachukwu, 2006).  

Organizations are encountering significant changes in their business practices due to the emergence and widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICT’s) over the last two decades. In the early 2000s,businesses around the world were spending well over $2 trillion on information technologies per annum (Carr, 2003).

Since the early years of the 20th century, the world has been experiencing a revolution known as information technology. Some consider it to be the most fascinating development since the industrial revolution around the mid-18th Century (Tom, 1991). This revolution is changing our daily lives at home and at work, in shops and banks, in schools, colleges and universities. It is changing the way people think, communicate and behave. Today, the world has become a global village with the internet, mobile phones and satellite networks shrinking time and space, bringing together computers and communications; resulting in new ways of communication, processing, storing and distributing enormous amounts of information (Werthner and Klein, 2005). Advancement in chip, satellite, radio, and optical fiber technology have enabled millions of people around the world to connect electronically regardless of national or international boundaries. This explosion in connectivity is the latest and the most important wave in the information revolution (Evans & Wurster, 1997). The twenty-first century witnessed advances from an automation to an era of digitization (built on zeros and ones). It started with computer technology which changed from mainframe to personal computer to net personal computers. Along with these changes, there were changes in soft wares. As network started, there was a convergence of telecommunication with computer. The nature of data transmission using telecom and subsequent development of wireless phone and mobile has revolutionized the information processing system (Gupta, 2007).

Similarly, there is a shift in business models to move beyond automation to innovation. The potential of information system (IS) is to exploit the power of people’s creativity. O’brien (2008) suggests the cascade model in the evolution of information management. The adoption of (ICT) consists of a series of jumps.Emerging economic trend is based on several layers such as social organization, entrepreneurship, knowledge creation, workforce skill sets, infrastructural tools, and natural resources. The important change in the third industrial revolution is occurring in retailing. It is moving from national to global and this transition is more turbulent than earlier industrial revolutions.

Today’s business environment is very dynamic and undergoes rapid changes as a result of technological innovation, increased awareness and demands from customers. Business organisations, especially the manufacturing industry of the 21st century operate in a complex and competitive environment characterized by these changing conditions and highly unpredictable economic recession. ICT is at the centre of this global change curve. Laudon and Laudon, (1991) contend that managers cannot ignore Information Systems because they play a critical role in contemporary organisation. They point out that the entire cash flow of most fortune 500 companies is linked to Information System.The application of information and communication technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to any organisation has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all organization and indeed a prerequisite for local and global competitiveness. ICT directly affects how managers decide, how they plan and what products and services are offered in the manufacturing industry. It has continued to change the way manufacturing firms and their production are organized worldwide and the variety of innovative devices available to enhance the processes and quality of product delivery.

Information and Communication Technology has been defined as “a broad based technology (including its methods, management and application) that supports the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information” (French, 1996). Therefore, Information and Communication Technology has found its niche in every sphere of Nigeria’s polity.

Nworgu (2007) states that ICT industry appears to be making significant in road into the Nigeria society. Prior to 1999, ICT resources and facilities were grossly limited in the country. Only very few wealthy Nigerians had access to these facilities and services. Internet facilities and services were rare to come by and the facsimile (ie. Fax) remained for a long time, the only means available to Nigerians for transmitting and receiving data or documents to other parts of the world. Public awareness of ICT and its application was low.

A significant milestone in the development of the ICT industry in the country is the formulation of a National Information Technology Policy (NITP), which was approved in March, 2001 by the Federal Executive Council. With the enactment of this policy came the establishment of an implementing agency-the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in April 2001. This agency is charged with the responsibility of implementing Nigeria’s IT policy “as well as promote the healthy growth and development of the IT industry in Nigeria (Isoun, 2003).

The brewing of beer is one of the oldest applications in biotechnology; the oldest historical evidence of formal brewing dates back to about 6000 B.C. in ancient Babylonia. It was only at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century that brewing evolved to an efficient and well-controlled bioprocess. Increased understanding of brewing fermentation kinetics and mechanism led to design of new accelerated fermentation methods, which incorporate improved batch bioreactors ranging from open, relatively shallow tanks to large cylindroconical fermentors. Furthermore, advances were made in development of continuous beer fermentation processes attractive for many advantages, which continuous mode of operation offers as compared to batch operation such as greater efficiency in utilisation of carbohydrates and better use of equipment (Ronnie, 2000)

Since the beginning of the 20th century, many different systems using suspended yeast cells have been developed. The excitement for application of continuous beer fermentation led to development of various interesting systems especially during the 1950 and 1960’s. These systems can be classified as: (i) stirred versus unstirred tank reactors, (ii) single-vessel systems versus systems consisting of a number of vessels connected in series, (iii) vessels which allow yeast to overflow freely with the beer (“open systems”) versus vessels which have abnormally high yeast concentrations (“closed” or “semi-closed systems”) (Hough, Briggs, Stevens, and Young,1982).

However, these continuous beer fermentation processes were not commercially successful due to many practical problems, such as increased risk of contamination (not only during fermentation but also during storage of wort in supplementary holding tanks required for usually batch upstream and downstream brewing processes), variations in beer flavour and poor understanding of the beer fermentation kinetics under continuous conditions (Ronnie, 2000). One of the well-known exceptions is successful implementation of a continuous beer production process in New Zealand by Morton Coutts (Dominion Breweries) still in use today (Hough, Briggs, Stevens, and Young,1982).

The Nigerian breweries industry has evolved over the years from mere production of bottled drinks to a diversified industry. The industry is a large segment of the food and beverages sub-sector currently accounting for half of the growth in the manufacturing sector, which grew 22 per cent in 2013 as against 14 per cent in 2012. Specifically, the food and  beverage sub-sector’s growth accelerated to 12 per cent in 2013 as against 7 per cent in 2012.The industry, which has now become a major growth driver of the economy is currently growing faster than the telecommunications, oil and gas and agricultural sectors (Aderinokun, 2015). 

In terms of the contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), the manufacturing sector represents nine per cent of GDP in 2013 as against the four per cent in the preceding year. The improvement in the manufacturing sector was attributed mainly to the activities in the food and beverages sub-sector, which has the breweries industry playing a significant role (Aderinokun, 2015).  The principal activities of the breweries industry include the production, packaging and sales of alcoholic and malt beverages. It has two players dominating its landscape namely Nigerian Breweries Plc and Guinness Nigeria Plc but there are others that are playing on the fringes. But SABMiller, a South African brewery giant, has joined the market with its  acquisitionof International Breweries in 2012. SABMiller has a strong track record of building market share as a new entrant, and appears happy to be a loss leader to gain a dominant position in the Nigerian market (Aderinokun, 2015). 

The brewery industry is highly capital intensive and this accounts for the reason why the ownership structure is either public and/or state-owned with/without foreign partnership. The technology for the industry, spare parts and expert technicians are not available in the country and therefore highly dependent on foreign exchange. Guinness for example has Diego of Ireland as its foreign partner (Nigeria Breweries, 2016).The ban on importation of barley in 1987 necessitated the industry to settle for local substitute of maize and sorghum as raw materials for its production. The resultant plant conversion to accommodate the new raw material input-mix cost Nigerian Brewery a whopping sum of 100million naira! (Nigeria Breweries, 2016).One of the major challenges facing the industry is the maintenance of equipments and machinery. The players commit huge financial resources in technology and upgrades in order to remain competitive (Nigeria Breweries, 2016). Against the above background, this study seeks to investigate on the impact of Information Communication Technology on organizational performance of brewing industry in South East, Nigeria.

1.2       Statement of the Problem




Attempts at attracting foreign direct investment in Nigeria have been based on the need to maximise the potential benefits derived from them, and to minimise the negative effects their operations could impose on the country.  To this effect, the federal government of Nigeria has over the years, been employing different incentive measures, both fiscal and monetary, for the purposes of attracting investors to develop the economy. How successful have these incentives been?In this study, impact of incentive measures on the flow of foreign private investments: the study of Nigeria’s tax incentive policy measures (1995 – 2005) the researcher set out achieve four objectives to assess the Nigerian tax environment; to examine the incentive regimes of the federal government of Nigeria; to study the trend of foreign private investment in the country, with the objective of ascertaining its economic impact; and finally, to appraise the effect of the various incentives on foreign private investment in Nigeria. The research found that there are several built-in incentives to attract foreign private investments into Nigeria; that the manufacturing and agricultural sectors were more favoured in the incentive measures; that the incentive measures were able to boost the inflow of foreign direct investments; that this increased inflow however, could not translate to visible improved living standards, nor reduce inflation and the unemployment status of the nation.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                                                       v

Table of Contents                                                                                                        vi


  1. Background of Study                                                                           1
  2. Statement of Problem                                                                              2
  3. Objectives of the Study                                                                          3
  4. Hypotheses Formulation                                                                3
  5. Scope of Study                                                                                    4
  6. Limitations of the Study                                                                          4
  7. Significance of the Study                                                                              4
  8. Definitions of Terms                                                                              5

References                                                                                                            6


2.1 Taxation – A Theoretical Overview                                                           7

2.1.1 Objectives of Taxation                                                                                       7

2.1.2 Principles of Taxation                                                                            7

2.1.3 Features of a Good System                                                                               9

2.1.4 Classification of Taxes                                                                           10

2.1.5 Effects of Taxation                                                                                11

2.2 Nigerian Tax System                                                                                 12

2.2.1 A Historical Overview of Nigerian Taxes                                            12

2.2.2 Tax Administration                                                                                15

2.3 Incentives                                                                                                              17

2.3.1 Administration of Incentives                                                                 18

2.4 Foreign Direct Investment                                                                          18

2.4.1 Factors that Influences Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)               19

2.4.2 Appraisal of Policies and Incentives for Inflow of FDI                            20

 References                                                                                                                 26


3.1 Research Design                                                                                           28

3.2 Sources of Data                                                                                                    28

3.3 Methods of Data Collection                                                                      29

3.4 Population and Sample Size                                                                29

3.5 Techniques of Data Analysis                                                                       29

References                                                                                                      30


4.0 Introduction                                                                                             31

4.1 Data Presentation                                                                                         31

4.2 Data Analysis                                                                                                        43

4.3 Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                  52

References                                                                                                      56


5.0 Introduction                                                                                                57

5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                              57

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                            60

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                       60

Reference                                                                                                                    62

Bibliography                                                                                                               63


Table 4.1a: Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Origin (N million)           32

Table 4.1b:Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Type of activity

Table4.1b(Contd.):Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Type of Activity (N million)                                                                  35

Table 4.1c: Flow of Foreign Private Capital in Nigeria                                    36

Table 4.1d: Nigeria’s Balance of Payment                                                      38

Table 4.1e: Inflation Rate                                                                            39

Table 4.1f: Nigeria Gross Domestic Product at 1984 Constant Factor Cost (N million)       41

Table 4.1g: Registered Unemployed and Vacancies Declared                    42

Table 4.1a: Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Origin (N million)           44

Table 4.1b:Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Type of activity (N million)                                                                                           45

Table4.1b(Contd.):Cumulative Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria by Type of Activity (N million)                                                                                     46

Table 4.1c: Flow of Foreign Private Capital in Nigeria                                    48

Table 4.1c: Flow of Foreign Private Capital in Nigeria                           51

Table 4.3a                                                                                                               53

Table 4.3b                                                                                                          54


  1.                                     INTRODUCTION

According to Medupim (2002:1), foreign private investment accounted for 70% of the total industrial investment, in Nigeria, at independence.  This also constituted over 90% of investment in such basic industries as chemical production, and vehicle assembly plants and no less than 90% of other manufacturing sub-sectors.  Foreign Private Direct Investment (FPDI) dominated banking, insurance and mining before the indigenization programme (Ukeje, 2003:285).

However, the indigenization programme of 1972 and 1977 drastically reduced foreign private investment in Nigeria.  Ever since then, there have been concerted efforts by the FederalGovernment of Nigeria to industrialise and attract Foreign Direct Investment, over the years.  This is because, according to Okafor (1983:53), direct foreign investment often means much more than capital inflow.  It also constitutes a source of new product ideas, technology, professional expertise, etc.  These efforts take the form of incentive schemes, which come in different forms.  But common in African and the company income tadx relief, import duty relief, and all other tax incentives (ibid).

Howbeit, in order to attract enough foreign private investment, the macro economic environment must be attractive to foreign investors also.  Issues like industrial infrastructure, sizeable internal market, and political stability together with a friendly tax environment, all culminate to influence foreign private investment into any country.

The Nigerian scenario is such that, since after the indigenisation programmes, successive governments have been trying very hard to woo foreign investments into the country.  This was crystallised by the Federal Government repealing the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree (NEPD) of 1977, in the year 1995, and in its place promulgated the Nigerian Investment Promotion Decree (NIPD) No 16 of 1995, and the Foreign Exchange Decree No 17 of the same 1995.

All with the intention of liberating the economy, as to open it up to foreign direct investments.

Added to the above were the carving out of Industrial Zones, and Export Promotion Zones.  Various tax incentives have also been put in place, coupled with the relaxation of fund repatriation.  The deregulation of the economy, and the privatisation of the non-performing public corporations, has also been embarked upon.

To what extent then, has all these moves been fruitful? The aim of this research is to investigate how incentive measures are used by government for attracting Foreign Private Investment in Nigeria and the extent of its success.  To accomplish this, this project paper is presented in five chapters – chapter one introduces it, chapter two deals on the review of related literature, while the methodology of the research is presented in chapter three.  Chapter four handles the data presentation, analysis and the testing of hypotheses.  Chapter five summarises the findings of the research, draws conclusions and makes recommendation.





The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations, as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital.  In the economy where uncertainty is the only certainty, knowledge is becoming a reliable source of sustained competitive advantage. Knowledge is becoming basic capital and the trigger of development.  However, this study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Employee Training and development on the operations of New Generation Banks with emphases on Guaranty Trust Bank Plc. The major problem of this study is that employee training and development within our organization are undeveloped. They are mainly performed occasionally and not connected with organizational strategy not do they have strategic significance and mostly employees are not selected or nominated on merit or on base of training needs for the organizations. However, the objective of the study is to assess and evaluate the impact of employee training and development in the operation of New Generation banks with reference to Guaranty Bank Plc as a tool adopted to improve on its employee performance.  Hypothesis are formulated such that when analyzed may give possible solutions to the research questions.  Datas are analysed through the use of descriptive, fractions, percentages, and chi-square test. Major findings indicate the employee training and development are crucial in effective and efficient operation of new generation banks. It is recommended among others that employee training and development should articulate the corporate strategic objective and plan of the organization to sustain at this ever changing innovative and competitive business environment.


Title Page:………………………………………………………..                i

Approval Page:………………………………………………….         ii

Certification Page:………………………………………………         iii

Dedication:………………………………………………………..               iv

Acknowledgment:………………………………………………..               v

Abstract:……………………………………………………………..    vi

Table of contents:………………………………………………….     vii


  • Introduction:………………………………………………….     1-3
  • Statement of Problems:……………………………………     3-4
  • Objectives of the study:……………………………………    4-5
  • Research Questions:………………………………………..    5     
  • Formulation of Hypothesis:……………………………….     6
  • Significance of the study:………………………………….    6-7
  • Scope/Delimitation of the study:………………………..      7
  • Conceptual Definition of terms:………………………….      9-10
  • History of the case study:………………………………..      10-12


  • Literature Review…………………………………………….    13

2.1    The concept of Employee Training and Development

        Programme……………………………………………………    13-15

  1. Objectives of Employee Training and Development

Programme……………………………………………………    15-18       

  • The Need for Employee training and development  Programme……….   18-19
  • Identification of needs for employee training and ….     

Development…………………………………………………..   19-20

  • Techniques for determining Employee Training and ….

Development Needs…………………………………………..  20-25

  • Types, Methods and Techniques of Training and

Development Programme……………………………………. 25-31

2.7    Evaluation of Employee Training and Development

 Programme…………………………………………………….. 31-33

2.8    Problem Associated with Employee Training and Development

 Programme……………………………………………………….       33

2.9    Benefit of Employee Training and Development

 Programme………………………………………………………..      34

2.10  Impact of Employee Training and Development

 Programme on the Operations of Banks……………………        34-35

2.11  The Role of Training Institutes in Employee

Training and Development……………………………………….35-37


  • Research Methodology……………………………………………38 
  • Research Design…………………………………………………..38
  • Research Population………………………………………………38
  • Validation of Instrument………………………………………….39
  • Administration of the Instrument………………………………39
  • Sample Size………………………………………………………….39
  • Source of Data………………………………………………………40-41
  • Method of Data Presentation :………………………………….41
  • Techniques for Data Analysis………………………………..41-42


4.0    Data Presentation and Analysis……………………………….       43

4.1    Analysis and Interpretation of Data………………………….        43

4.2    Questionnaire Administration/ Responses…………………..43-56


  • Summary of Research Findings/ Conclusions/

Recommendations………………………………………………..      57

  • Summary of the Research………………………………………57-59
  • Conclusion………………………………………………………….      60
  • Recommendation ………………………………………………..60-61


Appendix ………………………………………………………….65

Questionnaires…………………………………………………….      66-68




          Changes in technology, especially information technology, generate knowledge spreading up at tremendous speed, as well as its quick obsolence. In the period between 1900 and 1950, the amount of human knowledge doubled, and since then it has doubled ever 5 to 8 years. Knowledge is becoming obsolete so quickly that all of us need to double our knowledge every 2 to 3 years in order to keep with the changes.

          On the other hand, the increasing complexity, turbulence and uncertainty of the environment require different and greater knowledge. Modern business requires more than more knowledge and skills that are still inadequately present in the formal school education, i.e. the gap between business requirements and the knowledge acquired at school is growing. The period of mass producing is over and the customers are very selective. Increased consumer demands require new solutions and knowledge. Due to increasing competition, the organization is required to constantly revise its product and service mix, managerial methods, and to increase productivity. Modern conditions of dynamic competition, sophisticated information technology, knowledge economy, market globalization, have changed the relation to importance of human resources in organization. These conditions actualize the human capital as the strategic resource of every organization. Difference between the organizations exists exactly due to the difference between human capital, i.e. the organizations human resources, ways of their management and development. 

This was acknowledged by Nwankwo (1991: 212) when he said that “it is not enough to get good human resources in the door, they have to be developed to enable them remain motivated and productive and to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction.  Therefore, the next stage in human resources management, after the selection, and induction in the job, is staff development to ensure that the individuals are properly equipped with skills and knowledge to carry out the job.  It improves activities ranging from simple job training for lower level employees to long-term development of seminar executives”.

          In a more and more global, complex and turbulent environment, knowledge is the only reliable source of competitive advantage. Traditional factors of manufacturing as the soil, labor and capital did not disappear, but their significance is not primary anymore. Knowledge is viewed as the key of realization of a competitive advantage. And therefore the question of where the corporative knowledge is located, how to release it and develop to achieve organizational goals has become very important. Since the organizational knowledge is largely located inside the human mind, i.e. the head of employees, as carriers of knowledge and activities, human resources are becoming the key factor of business success. Organizational development is always conditioned by human knowledge and skills.  That is why; contemporary organizations pay more and more attention to the development of their employees.

Thus according to Haycox 2011 in his submission to proposed that proper training is one way to develop a company culture that embraces excellent customer services.   Also Ituwe (1982: 183) maintained that “people would no longer be satisfied to chant bank slogans that do not measure with services”.

Thus, employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges, and the management of human resources is taking central role in modern management.  Through the process of employee training and development, the management of human resources provides constant knowledge innovation, creates conditions for mutual knowledge and experience exchange and proactive behaviour, in this way contributing to competitive advantage and satisfaction of all participants in business procedures.

          However, the determination of the impact of the employee training and development programme in the operations is necessary for proper appreciation and application of the programme by banks especially the new generation bank that spend huge sums of money on the programme.  All these are geared towards helping banks to operate with a competent, skilled and dynamic work force that can meet current standards, thus leading to optimal realization of organizational goals and objectives.  It is under this premises that the project was undertaken to study the impact of employee training and development programme in the operation of Guaranty Trust Bank Plc.





TITLE ……………………………………………………………………………….. i

DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………….. ii

APPROVAL …………………………………………………………………….. iii

DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………….. v

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………. vii

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………… xii

LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………… xiii

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………… xiv

          CHAPTER ONE


1.1    Background of the Study …………………………………………  1

1.2Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………  5

1.3    Objective of the Study …………………………………………….  5

1.4    Research Questions ……………………………………………….  6

1.5    Research Hypotheses…………………………………………….. 6

1.6    Significance of the Study………………………………………… 7

1.7Limitations of the Study………………………………………………. 8

1.8Scope of the Study …………………………………………………….. 9

1.9Contextual Definition of Terms……………………………………. 9

          CHAPTER TWO


2.1    The Components of CRM ……………………………………..  14

2.1.1           Key Customer Focus ……………………………………  15

2.1.2           CRM Organization ………………………………………..  17

2.1.3           Knowledge Management ……………………………..  19

2.1.4           Technology Based CRM ………………………………  20

2.2    The Impact of CRM on Organizational

Performance …………………………………………………………  22

2.2.1Impact of Key Customer Focus on

Organizational Performance …………………………  24

2.2.2Impact of CRM Organization on

  Organizational Performance…………………………   27

2.2.3Impact of Knowledge Management on Organizational

Performance ………………………………………………..  30

2.2.4Impact of Technology Based

CRM on Organizational Performance ……………  33

2.3Measuring CRM ……………………………………………………….  36

2.3.1 CRM Measurement Frameworks and

Metrics …………………………………………………………  38

2.3.2Traditional Financial Analysis of CRM  ……………………  39

2.4The Real Options ……………………………………………………..  41

2.5CLV and Customer Equity Measurements  ………………..  44

2.6The Balanced Scorecard ………………………………………….  49

2.7CRM Measurement Scale Development  …………………..  53

2.8Operational and Strategies Benefits of CRM ……………..  55

2.8.1Top Management ………………………………………………….  58



3.1    Research Approach  …………………………………………….  61

3.2Sample Size ……………………………………………………………..  63

3.3Questionnaire Design and Administration  …………………  63

3.4Sources of Data ……………………………………………………….  64

3.4.1 Primary and Secondary Data………………………… 64

3.5Data Analytical Technique ………………………………………..  65

          CHAPTER FOUR


4.1    Data Presentation  ………………………………………………..  67

4.2Data Analysis and Interpretation ……………………………….  73

4.3Test of Hypotheses  …………………………………………………  76

          CHAPTER FIVE


5.1    Summary of Findings ……………………………………………  78

5.2    Conclusion ……………………………………………………………  81

5.3    Recommendations  ………………………………………………  82

5.4Suggestions for Further Research  ……………………………  83

          BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………..  85

          APPENDICES  ……………………………………………………..  95

                                     LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:Sample Characteristics ……………………………………..  67

Table 2:Distribution Statistics and Construct reliability…….. 69

Table 3:Discriminate Validity  …………………………………………  71

                                    LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:Structural Model for CRM …………………………………  73


Customer relationship management (CRM) is a comprehensive business and marketing strategy that integrates technology, process and business activities around the customer. CRM is assumed to lead to bottom line benefits for the organization. Advances in information and communication technologies have provided an effective platform to deliver electronic CRM functions. Despite widespread agreement that CRM can have a direct and indirect satisfaction, loyalty, sales and profit, the significance of CRM and its features in influencing customer satisfaction has not been well researched in construction firms. The thesis examines the critical success factor of CRM implementation by using a questionnaire survey to obtain data from 68 building material suppliers. Using a structural model and the evaluation technique of partial least squares the analysis revealed that CRM technological initiatives are successful when adequate top management support and accurate knowledge management capabilities, supported by a suitable information technology structure, measured by technological readiness are in place. Construction organizations who are considering the implementation of CRM technological initiatives. The need to justify the impact of CRM on organizational performance in the boardroom has never been more important. Shareholders expect value for their investments; organizations have invested large sums of money in people, processes and technology in order to imbibe the CRM culture. The promises of CRM are enormous. Yet, various organizations cry out for help over lost investments and damaged relationships. Is CRM promising too much or perhaps are the executives expecting more than they can get? Literature suggests that in order to justify the investments of CRM, there is the need to develop a universally accepted holistic framework for the measurement of CRM activities is the lack of a universally acceptable definition of CRM. The concept of CRM is multi faceted involving investments in people, processes and technology to various degrees.

                                      CHAPTER ONE



          Traditionally, `many organizations were structured around their products and service’. Emphasis was on the delivery of a good mist of the 4Ps – product, price, place and promotion. The focus was on exchange, once this was achieved, organizations were sure to remain in business. Needless to say, this was the era of transaction marketing.

          In the late 1990s however, most organizations began to realize that the 4Ps were no longer sufficient to remain in business. Products were easily copied to desired standards, price and easily matched, Product accessibility was no longer an issue and mass Promotions were no longer as effective. In many cases, customers and consumers had become more sophisticated and less responsive to the traditional marketing pressures – particularly `advertising’. This as a result of the availability of more choice, partly as a result of globalization of markets and new sources of competition. Also, many markets had reached the matured stage of their lifecycle

(Christopher, Payne and Ballantyne, 2002). The response to these changes in the business environment was that organizations began to transform themselves as well as adopt a more customer focused orientation. This lead to the emergence of relationship marketing.

          To some schools, relationship marketing is used synonymous with customer relationship marketing. This view defines relationship marketing as a management approach that enables organizations identify, attract and increase retention of profitable customers by managing relationships with them (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003). To other schools, customer relationship management involves the use of information technology (IT) in the implementation of relationship marketing strategies (Wilson et al, 2005). Customer Relationship Management is often times referred to by its acronym – `CRM’ and will henceforth be referred to as such in the present study.

          The CRM philosophy focuses on a pan-company orientation in which the specific capabilities of an organization are focused around creating and delivering value to targeted market segments in the expectation that this would developed into a relationship such that the organization is able to determine, fulfil and even predict the needs of the customer while attaining customer loyalty so as to increase profits over time (Rigby et al 2002). Thus, successful CRM activities are expected to enable organizations gather customer data swiftly, retain existing customers, identify the most valuable customer’s overtime, increase customer loyalty, acquire new customers and grow relationships with existing customers thereby placing the organization in a better financial position for the future.

          To obtain the benefits of investing in such IT applications there is a need for construction organizations to better understand and be aware of the bottom-line financial returns of business automation initiatives (Love and Irani, 2004). Moreover, having knowledge about customers and what their requirements are is deemed to be a critical for long term business success (Nargundkar and Srivastava, 2002). Yet only a small percentage of businesses have basic information about their customer (McKeen and Smith, 2003; Kale, 2004). In recognizing the need to be more customers centric many businesses have adopted CRM applications to

gather, organize, understand, anticipate, and respond to the constant evolution of customers’ requirements and demands (Reinatz and Chugh, 2002). Effective CRM is assumed to lead to bottom line benefits fro the organization. Advances in IT have provided an effective platform to deliver CRM functions. Despite widespread agreement that CRM can have a direct and indirect impact on customer.

          Many businesses operating the construction industry have been trying to respond to the demands being imposed on them by utilizing IT applications such as CRM and ERP, but immediate benefits and improvements in business performance have not been forthcoming: the `Red Queen’ syndrome. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to provide material suppliers operating the construction industry with underlying knowledge to overcome the `Red Queen’ syndrome often associated with enterprise applications such as CRM and ameliorate their chances of obtaining improvements in business performance.





The main objective of this were (1) to identify how government regulations help in the growth of small-scale industries in Nigeria; (2) To examine the impact the impact of the government regulations in the growth of the small-scale industries (3) To make recommendations on any lapses in government regulations for the growth of small-scale industries in the country and (4) To fill a research gap on the merit and demerit of government regulations in the growth of the small-scale industries in the country. To enable the research to make his findings, it was hypothesized that (1) the greater the number of small-scale industries in Nigeria, the greater their role in rural transformation (development); (2) The positive impact of government regulations of small-scale industries would be possible when the have access to loanable funds for Expansion, and (3) the greater the inadence of bureaucratic corruptive, the higher the failure of the small-scale industries’ access to loanable funds for development. In the methodology, the researcher utilized samples, used respondents from Plateau, Nasarawa, Abuja, Benue for our survey.  The chi-square was used for data analysis, while the popular questionnaire of Yes-No type were used to measure the response in the questionnaire.

The findings were that:

  1. Government regulations have both negative and positive impaction the growth of small-scale enterprises in Nigeria.
  2. Bribery and corruption practices by bankers and government officials negate the ideas of granting loans to the small-scale industries for development of our communities.
  3. Small-scale entrepreneurs should have access to investment capital in order to get Nigeria economy out of the woods.
  4. There should be an equity investment scheme that should require each bank in the country to set aside 10% of its profit before tax annually to make equity investment in small-scale industries.
  5. Banks should be involved in the running of small-scale industries to ensure judicious utilization of funds disbursed to small-scale industries.
  6. The peasants must be assisted through loan and expert advice in the need to invest in small-scale industries for rural development.
  7. The federal and state governments should provide infrastructure and social services in order to give some logistic support for the growth of small scale industries.
  8. Major companies that are beneficiaries of major contract in Nigeria should be encourage by government to give priority to SMEs with relevant competence when giving our sub-contract.
  9. Too operate a business in Nigeria as of now, you need to purchase your own power generator, sunk your own borehole for water and other necessary infrastructural facilities.  Government should improve the performance of these infrastructure to reduce the high cost of doing business and thus ensure the survival of SMEs.
  10. The number of government approving agencies should be streamlined while unstable exchange rates, high interest rates and un-cooperative attitude of government official should be addressed.


Title Page

Certification Page




Table of contents

List of Abbreviations

List of Tables


1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Objectives of the Research

1.4       Research Hypothesis

1.5       Significance of the research

1.6       Limitations of the research



2.1       Legal Environment of Business in Nigeria

2.2       Political Environment in Nigeria and Business growth

2.3       Government regulatory Agencies and the Growth of Business

2.4       International Environment and the Growth of SSIs in Nigeria.

2.5       The classification of Business Enterprises in Nigeria and the SSIs.

2.6       Small-Scale Industry and Ambiguous concept.

2.7       Re-organization of Development Finance Institutions and the Funding of SSIs in Nigeria

2.8       Commercial Banks and Assistance to SSIs in Nigeria

2.9       Measures by Government to enhance the access of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises to Institutional Credit.

2.10    Yar’Adua’s Administration and the funding of SMES in Nigeria

2.11    Problems of SME operators and Adequate Collateral Securities

2.12    Government and the Expansion of Incentives to SME

2.13    The UNPP Assistance in SME Development in Nigeria (Programme Achievements).

2.14    UNPP Assistance to Nigerian SMEs and their capacity Building

2.15    UNPP Assisted Proigramme in Nigeria and the SME’s operational, Financial, and Management Issues.

2.16    Impact of UNDP Assisted programmes in Nigeria on the SMES

2.17    Characteristics of small-scale Business in Nigeria

2.18    Problems of Small-Scale Business

2.19    Delegation of Authority in SSIs

2.20    The Role of SSIs in the Nigerian Economy

2.21    Nigeria’s Indigenization Policy and the Growth of SSIs in the country

2.22    Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and the growth of SSIs in Nigeria.

2.23    Privatization, Commercialization and their impact on the Growth of SSIs in Nigeria.



3.1       Scope of the study

3.2       The Target population

3.3       The sample size

3.4       Research Design

3.5       Sampling method

3.6       Techniques for Data Analysis

3.7       Operational Definition of Terms



4.1       Government policy

4.2       Testing of Hypothesis



5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendations




BI                                Bank of Industries

CBN                            Central Bank of Nigeria

DFI                              Development Fund Institutions

FEAP                          Family Economic Advancement Programme

GATT                         General Agreements on Tariffs and Tr

GCCC                         Government Cash Counter-part Contribution

G7                               Group of Seven Most Economically Development Country

ILO                             International Labour Organisation

IMF                             International Monetary Fund

NACB             Nigeria Agricultural Credit Bank

NASSI                        National Association of Small Scale Industry

NBCI                          Nigeria Bank for Commerce and Industry

NCGS                         National Credit Guarantee Scheme

NERFUND                 National Economic Reconstruction Fund

NIDB                          Nigerian Industrial Development Bank

NGOS                         Non-governmental Organisations

NSE                            Nigeria Stock Exchange

NPDF                          Nigeria Project Development Facility

OPS                             Organized Private Sector

PSO                             Private Sector Organisation

SAP                             Structural Adjustment Programme

SSPP                           SAP Standard Policy Package

SEMS                         Stock Exchange Management Systems Sopt

SME                            Small and Medium Enterprises

SMEDFUND             Small and Medium Enterprise Development

SON                            Standard Organization of Nigeria

TG                               Trade Groups

UAC                           United African Company

UNDP                         United Nations Development Programme

USD                            United States Dollar           




Nigeria is a mixed economy with a positive leaning towards a free-market economic system. The provisions of the Nigerian constitution (1999) summarize the objectives of this economic system, namely that:

  1. The state shall control the national economic in such a manner as the secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every citizen on the basis of social justice and equality of status and opportunity;
  2. The state shall manage the major sectors of the economy (defense, currency, banking, import, export, military, aviation, railways, active part in other resources, agriculture, industrial development, etc)
  3. The state shall, without prejudice to the right of any person to participate in areas within the major sector of the economy project the right of every citizen to engage in any economic activities outside the major sectors of the economy.
  4. The state shall direct policy towards ensuring:
  5. The promotion of a planned and balanced economic development;
  6. That the material resources of the community are harnessed and distributed as best as possible to serve the common good;
  7. That the economic system is not operated in such a manner as to permit the concentration of wealth or means of production and exchange in the hands of few individuals or of a group; and,
  8. That suitable and adequate shelter, suitable and adequate food, reasonable national minimum living wage, old age care and pensions, and unemployment and sick benefits are provided for all citizens.

It can be seen that the above national economic objective provide a marriage between the two principal economic systems- the market economy and the command economy. It provides checks and balances to ensure that the abuses and disadvantages of either system are minimized or completely eliminated. The question that remain however, is a statement of how for these laudable economic objectives have been achieve in Nigeria.

It can be stated categorically that the state, through legislation, has been in full control national economy and that individual citizens have been free to engage in private enterprises, but the combination have not been such that has granted maximum welfare, and happiness, for the majority of people nor has to provided suitable, and reasonable food, clothing or shelter for all citizens. There has been concentration of wealth and means of production in the hands of few individuals so that the majority of people are writing in the pangs of abject poverty, hunger, ignorance, disease and death (A.U Inegbenebor and Essosa Bob Osaze (199:13-14).

The reasons for this colossal failure in realizing the promises of the economic objectives are to be found more in the political than in the economic arena. Political instability military interregnum, tribal politics and selfishness of leaders, general misrule, among many other political ills, have combined to thwart the notable constitutional economic objectives. Governments have been run in such a way as to create massive economic inequalities and disaffection among the populace. The economy has witnessed excessive money supply as the government mint rolled out the fifty, hundred, two hundred and five hundred naira currency notes in the billions. Combined with the very high tastes of the few rich for foreign ensured a very how and continuously dwindling  naira value.

Nigerian business have been the worse for all these. An unstable political system has left the business scene highly assess have had to fold up or drastically reduce capacity utilization. Lacking of continuity and stability from all business sectors, economic growth has steadily been in the decline, especially when measured in real terms.

Another aspect of the setting of this research is the development of business (history) in Nigeria. Every human society develops some means of producing and distributing the goods and services that it needs. The history of business in Nigeria can be conveniently divided into pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial periods. In the pre-colonial era, several complex civilizations had developed in the forest zone of the west coast of Africa and the Sudan. The civilizations, especially Ghana, Songhai, Mali, Kanem-Bornu, Ife, Oyo and Benin kingdoms built their economic on conquest, agriculture, craft industries and trading between Sudan and North Africa, the trans-Saharan trade in gold, Ivory, Kolanuts, salt, cloths and slaves flourished for several centuries. Other trade routes also developed along major rivers such as the Chad Basin area, Senegal, Niger, and Volta Rivers as well the Niger-Delta (pr the oil Rivers protectorate).

Along the trade routes, major commercial centres such as Timbuktu quickly developed. Market squares became characteristics features of the major cities of the kingdoms. In these commercial centres, local merchants emerged as intermediaries between producers in the interior and buyers at the terminus of the trade routes. These merchants performed the typical functions of middlemen including control of the trade, Identification and selection, machinery sourcing conduct of market studies and preparation of feasibility studies.

Again, the central role which government ascribed to small-scale industrial activities in its strategy for economic restructuring and growth informed its decision to utilize United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) technical assistance to supplement key components of the national programme during the 4th country programme 1992-1996. UNDP support was targeted at the five component areas considered essential for an enterprise to perform effectively. It assisted in improving the regulatory framework for policy, planning and institutional development to ensure that the new private sector led growth strategy with the active participation of small-scale industries/industrialists is properly articulated and implemented government’s efforts at industrial infrastructure facilities development.

However, the economic policy Blueprint released by the Obasanjo administration to guide economic reinvention and reengineering for the period 199-2003 apportions high priority to agriculture, manufacturing, small/medium enterprises and the informal sectors as key instruments for achieving the targeted goals enumerated in the policy (Business Time, July 19,- 15, 2001, P.6).

There is little doubt that it has been fully realized and acknowledged; that an energized and fully functional small-scale industrial scale-sector has the potential of transforming the industrial base of the country as well serve as the propellant for the much needed economic rejuvenation.

The contribution of SMEs to the industrialization process is still generally low in Nigeria compared to countries with similar backgrounds in South East Asia Latin America. Although efforts have been made by many successive governments, right from independence to promote SMEs in the industrialization process, the development of the sub-sector has been constrained by a number of factors, both internal and external.

According to Chief Kola Jamodu, the minister of industry these factors include:

  1. Unstable macro-economic environment;
  2. Inconsistent character of policy measures
  3. Poor implementation and coordination of efforts on SMEs;
  4. Absence of suitable institutional mechanism;
  5. Poor Infrastructural facilities; i.e. roads/railway systems, water supply electricity telecommunications, etc and
  6. Lack of effective financial support systems (Ibid).

In addition to the fore-going, the SMEs in Nigeria was also handicapped by their peculiar internal characteristics, which manifest in the following forms of state-owned enterprises was very poor. The enterprises became a major drain on government revenues. With this background and the adoption of the structural Adjustment programme in 1986, government decided to privatize or commercialize many of its business ventures.





This research work titled “Globalisation: The Role of Multinational Corporations in Nigeria” was necessitated by the controversy about the role of multinational corporations in Nigeria.  Hence, this study will attempt to resolve this controversy by determining their contributions to the econ9omic and technological development of the country.

The research work is divided into five chapters.  Chapter one introduces the topic under discussion.  Here effort was made at giving a brief but general history of globalization, the activities, operations and roles of MNCs in Nigeria.  The problem of the study was stated as well as the objectives.  Also in this chapter, the research questions were formulated and terms defined.

Chapter two reviews some literature of relevance to the study.  Chapter three discusses research methodology, where the procedure for data collection and analysis were stated.

The data collected from the field were presented, analysed and interpreted in chapter four.

Chapter five is the concluding chapter.  Here, the findings of the study were highlighted and discussed. A summary of the study was given, recommendation was made and a conclusion of the findings drawn.  The suggestions for areas of  further study/research was made.


Title page                                                                                                                    ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                                       v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of contents                                                                                       vii


  1. Background of the study                                                                                1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                                                               7
  3. Objective of the Study                                                                                   8
  4. Research Question                                                                                          9
  5. Research Hypothesis                                                                                       9
  6. Scope of the Study                                                                                         11
  7. Limitations of the study                                                                                 11
  8. Significance of the study                                                                                12
  9. Definition of terms                                                                                         14

References                                                                                                      14


  • The Concept of Globalization                                                            15
  • Brief History of Multinational Corporations in Nigeria                    17
  • Inducement factors into Multinational Corporations                21
  • Entry Strategies into Multinational Business                         22
  • Environmental Factors affecting MNCs                              22
  • Globalised Economic Environment                                      
  • Social and Cultural Environment                                                               26
  • Political and Legal Environment                                                              29
  • Technological Environment                                                                      31
  • Application of Managerial Functions in Globalisation of MNCs   31

2.7.1    Planning in the MNCs                                                                               32

2.7.2    Organisation of the MNCs                                                                       33

2.7.3    Staffing of the MNCs                                                                               33

2.7.4    Controlling in the MNCs                                                                          35

2.8       Management Policies and Strategies of the MNCs                                 36

2.9       Benefits of MNCs to host countries                                                       36

2.10     Criticisms of Globalisation and MNCs in Nigeria                                 38

2.10.2  Summary of the Review of the Related Literature                                40

References                                                                                             43    


  • Introduction                                                                                                    45
  • Research Design                                                                                             45
  • Population of the study                                                                                  46
  • Sampling procedure                                                                      47
  • Sources of Data                                                                                              48

3.5.1    Primary Data                                                                                           48

3.5.2    Secondary data                                                                                   49

3.6       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                  49

3.7       Validity of Data                                                                                              49

3.8       Reliability of Data                                                                                          50

            References                                                                                                      51


  • Introduction                                                                                                    52

4.2       Presentation of Data                                                                         52

4.3       Interpretation of Data                                                                  53-60

            References                                                                                                      61



  •     Summary of findings                                                               62

5.2      Discussions                                                                                                      63

5.3       Recommendations                                                                             65

5.4       Conclusions                                                                                     67

5.5       Suggestions for further studies                                                       68

            Bibliography                                                                                                   70




Globalization refers to the process of the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across international boundaries. It is principally aimed at the transcendental homogenization of political and socio-economic theory across the globe. It is equally aimed at “making global being present worldwide at the world stage or global arena”. It deals with the “increasing breakdown of trade barriers and the increasing integration of World market (Fafowora, 1998:5). In other words, as Ohuabunwa, (1999: 20) once opined:  Globalisation can be seen as an evolution which is systematically restructuring interactive phases among nation

ns by breaking down barriers in the areas of culture, commerce, communication and several other fields of endeavour.

Globalisation, according to Ohiorhenuan (Ibid), is the broadening and deepening linkages of national economies into a worldwide market for goods and services, especially capital. As Tandon (1998B: 2) once opined, globalisation seeks to remove all national barriers to the free movement of international capital and this process is accelerated and facilitated by the supersonic transformation in information technology. It is principally aimed at the universal homogenisation of ideas, cultures, values and even life styles (Ohiorhenuan 1998: 6) as well as, at the deterritorialisation and villagization of the world. Expanding this argument, Gordimer (1998), argued, that it is principally concerned with the expansion of trade over the oceans and airspace, beyond traditional alliances which were restricted by old political spheres of influence. Thus, it presupposes the “making or remaking” of the world (Diagne and Ossebi. 1996) by creating “a basic change in the way in which major actors think and operate across the globe” (Biersterker, 1998). In other words, it connotes “the rapid expansion through giant multinational companies of capitalism and their “blood sapping principles” of “liberalisation”, “commercialisation”, privatisation” and “undemocratic and property-based democratisation” to several areas of the world including where it had hitherto been resisted or put in check” (Madunagu, 1999, 53).

Multinational Corporations

Oxford Dictionary of economics (2003:310) defines Multinational Corporations as a firm conducting business in more than one country, through branches or subsidiary companies. The Penguin Dictionary of economics (1980:315) defines Multinational Corporations as a company, or more correctly, an enterprise, operating in a number of countries and having production or services facilities outside the country of its origin. A commonly accepted definition of an MNCs is an enterprise producing at least 25 per cent of its world output outside its country of origin.

The ways Multination Corporations are conceptualised have important implications for the claims of stakeholders. This is more so in view of the growth of huge multinational corporations (MNCs) worldwide and the implications of their operations in different jurisdictions. This work focuses on non-shareholding stakeholders, employees and the community in particular; whose position in relation to the corporation as this work  demonstrates is largely dependent on the conception of the corporation. The work examines the role of MNCs in Nigeria against the background of the dominant theoretical construct of the corporation in the country. The work argues that because of their enormous economic power, which has been a subject of considerable debate, the dependency of the economy of the host country on their operations, their shareholding structure and because of the nature of the resources they exploit MNCs cannot justifiably be construed as private actors. This research further shows the consequences of the conception on corporations whose home states is in the E.U and therefore are largely construed as social institutions but when operating in an environment like Nigeria assumes a different role. 

The Multinational Corporations take its principal decision in a global context and thus, often outside the countries in which it has particular operations. The rapid growth of these corporations and the possibility that conflict might arise between their interest and those of the individual countries in which they operate have provoked much discussion in the recent years. While Multinational Corporations present some legal and organizational problems, many firms find it worthwhile. It brings them closer to the suppliers and the markets, they also take advantage of international difference in resource and cost, the benefits and development can be spread over wider markets, and it gives a wider spectrum  of risks. Multinational operations also improve their bargaining position in negotiating with national suppliers’ government, and trade unions.

          During the past three decades, the would had witnessed the growth of an economic phenomenon. The Multinational Corporations (MNCs), hick and through one of exporting, licensing, franchising, joint venture, foreign branch or wholly owned subsidiaries.

          While the MNCs is not new, its importance, power and consequences have come to be appreciated fully only recently. For instance, consider the role of Multinational oil companies in the economic systems of the world in general and Nigeria in particular. According to Megginsion, et al (1988:603), “MNCs are more than just giant business firms, for they tend to have social, and even political effects as well as economic ones in their host countries: Kinard (1985:490) could not agree with this view more, when he said that, huge corporations like MNCs, play not only economic roles but also, important political and social roles in their environments.

          For obvious reasons multinational business has its own peculiarities. It involves different countries. Hence, it is influenced by different environmental factors in these countries. Therefore, international business management or multinational management is equally peculiar and challenging. Multinational manager have to formulate or device separate policies and strategies to survive in different environments.

          Though it is the responsibility of a country’s government, like that of development, but government’s resources more often than not, appear inadequate to discharge those obligations, effectively. And Megginson, et al (1988) maintain that “MNCs are more than just giant economic units. In many cases, they are nearly a form  of government, richer, and more powerful than some of the countries in which they operate. For example in a typical year, the combined sales of Exxon, general Motors and Royal Dutch and Shell Group exceeded the GNP of most industrialized nations of the world”. Hence, it is not out of place, for society to expect and press these MNCs to assume a key role in the socio-economic development of their host countries. At least if for nothing else, they should endeavour to live up to their corporate social responsibilities.

          These social expectations and demands and other intricate issues in multinational business, as stated earlier; pose great challenges to the management of MNCs. For example, any disruption to their operations as a result of crises between the company and the host country/community, like the Ogoni-Shell dispute, will be detrimental to especially the interest of the company and the other interest groups. Therefore, multinational managers have to strike a rather difficult balance between meeting societal expectations and demands.

          Multinational corporations have been praised by many people as agents of social, economic and technological development of their host countries. On the other hand, however; other people feel and regard MNCs as instruments of exploitation in their host countries. These two views are based on the extent to which the MNCs have met the societal expectations and based on the extent to which expectation and demands, in their environments.

          There are many of such corporations operating in Nigeria. They are mainly American, European, or Asian corporations and they are into high technology areas such as Agriculture, construction, Mining, Manufacturing etc. some of them are Cocoa-cola, Mobil, Julius Berger, Pfizer, Shell ITT, Glaxo, Klm etc. Expectedly, there are diverse opinions regarding their impact or role in the country. Therefore, this research intends to present a clearer picture of their actual role Nigeria.