EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Punica granatum seed ON TRITON-X100 INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA IN RATS

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed on Triton X-100 induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Triton X-100 and the rats were later treated with aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed at different dosage levels (50,100 and 200mg/kg body weight) and 10ml/kg/day of standard drug (Astrovastatin) for seven days. Another group received 0.9% Normal saline (1 ml/kg/day). Animals were euthanize by anaesthetization at the end of the experiment to harvest serum used for the biochemical analysis. Aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed extract prevented triton- induced increase in serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.05) and reversed the elevated serum LDL/HDL ratio comparably to Astrovastatin, The results demonstrated the amelioration of triton- induced hypercholesterolemia in rats by aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed. Consequently, we can hypothesize that the part of Punicagranatum seed mediated therapeutic effects is associated with its antiatherogenic/hypolidemic component.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of study

Hypercholesterolemia is a lipoprotein metabolic disorder characterized by increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols or decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). It was reported to be one of the most important risk factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis that lead to cardiovascular diseases (Rerkasem et al., 2008). Hypercholesterolemia poses a major problem to many societies as well as health professionals because of the close correlation between cardiovascular diseases and lipid abnormalities (Matos et al., 2005; Ramachandran et al., 2003).Hypercholesterolemia is highly prevalent in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. It ranges from 60% among apparently healthy Nigerians to 89% among diabetic Nigerians (Oguejiofor et al., 2012). Clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive reduction of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels could reverse atherosclerosis and decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (Brown and Jessup, 1999; Ichihashi et al., 1998).

Punicagranatum commonly known as pomegranate is a member of monogeneric family, punicacae and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin (Facciola, 1990).Punicagranatum can be divided into several anatomical compartments including seed,juice,peal,leaf,flower,bark and root each possessing interesting pharmacological and toxicological activities. Punicagranatum has extensively been used as a traditional remedy against acidosis,microbial infection,diarrhea (Kim and Choi, 2009).Punicagranatum seeds have also been shown to contain estrogenic compounds,oestrone and oestradiol (Kim and choi, 2009).The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy astringent pulp (Stover and Mercure, 2007). Punicagranatum is known for its high antioxidant capacity, it has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries (Syed et al 2007). Punica granatum products have also been reported to possess among others anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial and protective effects on liver function and lipid glucose metabolism(Medjakovic and jungbauer, 2013).According to Al-Muammar and khan 2015, the routine supplementation of Punica granatum may prevent or even correct obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

1.2      Justification of study

            Hypercholesterolemia is a problem faced by many societies since it constitutes one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and its complications, acute infraction of themyocardium or hypertension (Robbins, 1991; Gerhardt and Gallo 1998; Gomeset al., 1998). In view of the adverse effects associated with hypercholesterolemia, the quest for natural products with lipid-lowering potential and with minimal or no side effect is needed.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study

The main aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum seed on triton X-100 induced hypercholesterolemia in male albino rats.

In order to achieve the aim, the following  specific objectives are followed.

  1. To estimate total phenol content in aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed.
  2. To estimate invitro radical scavenging of power aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed using 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as substrate.
  3. To estimate inhibitory power of aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed on lipase enzyme activity.
  4. To induce hypercholesterolemia in rats using Triton X-100.
  5. To study the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum seed on serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.
EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Punica granatum seed ON TRITON-X100 INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA IN RATS

ANTIBIOTICS SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF DIFFERENT BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH WOUND SEPSIS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL)

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial associated with wound sepsis of patients attending University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Teaching Hospital. Wound swabs were collected from a total number of Hundred patients with different kinds of wound (surgical wound, burn, ulcers and pressure sores) and cultured, of which 72 samples showed bacterial growth. Six different species of bacteria were isolated. Staphylocococcus aureus (47.2%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.85%), Escherichia coli (15.3%), Staphylococcus epidemidis (5.6%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (5.6%). The antibiotics susceptibility test of these bacterial isolate was performed using the Kirby- bauer dist diffusion method. Gantamycin and Sreptomycin shows high effectiveness to all the isolate except Staphylococcus epidermis and Klebsiella with pefloxacin and ceftadine respectively showing sensitivity to them. Resistance were shown amongst Ampicillin, contrimoxazole and Tetracycline. This study has revealed Gentamycin as the only antibiotic to which most bacterial isolate from infected wounds were sensitive to. Ampicillin and penicillin were effective against Streptococcus pygenes while zinacef and ceftazidime shows high effectiveness against Klebsiella pneumonia.

KEYWORDS: wound infection: antibiotics susceptibility profile: staphylococcus aureus: gentamycin.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction

             A wound results following disruption of the skin which can be intentional or accidental (Giacometti, 2000).Wound infections cause a burden of disease and morbidity for both the patient and the health services. To the patient it causes pain, discomfort, inconvenience, disability, financial drain, and even death due to complications such as septicemia. It causes financial strain on the health services due to the required high cost of hospitalization and management of the patients.

             A number of factors contribute to wound infection; however microorganisms are the major cause with bacteria being the most prevalent (Obuku, 2012). Early recognition of wound infection and appropriate management is important. Antibiotic therapy and surgical management are the cornerstone measures whereby antibiotics offer adjuvant treatment. Wound infection can be caused by single bacteria or multiple microorganisms. Surgical site infections are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections after urinary tract infections (Perencevich,2003)              Most surgical site infections occur in ambulatory patients after discharge from the hospital and

therefore beyond the hospital infection control surveillance programs (Cosgrove, 2003). Prolonged preoperative hospital stay and exposure to diagnostic procedures has been associated with increased rate of surgical site infection. In clean surgical procedures, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen while Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common gram negative bacilli.

            A number of studies indicate an increase in antibiotic resistant microorganisms in surgical patients. Resistant bacteria causes severe infections that are expensive to diagnose and difficult to treat. The mechanism by which resistance develops is complex and can result in multi-drug resistant bacterial strains due to simultaneous development of resistance to several antibiotics. Determination of local bacterial sensitivity patterns to antibiotics is important in providing a guide for antibiotic selection.

            There are factors that increase the risk of wound infection which include patient characteristics such as; age, obesity, malnutrition, endocrine and metabolic disorders, smoking, hypoxia, anaemia, malignancies and immunosuppressants (WHO, 2007). Other factors are the state of the wound which includes nonviable tissue in the wound, foreign bodies, tissue ischaemia, and formation of haematomas, long surgical procedures, and contamination during operation, poor surgical techniques, hypothermia and prolonged pre-operative stay at the hospital.

             Wound infections can be prevented by restoring blood circulation as soon as possible relieving pain, maintaining normal body temperature, avoiding tourniquets, performing surgical toilet and debridement of the wound as soon as possible, administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for deep wound and high risk infections (WHO, 2007). High risk wounds include contaminated wounds, penetrating wounds, abdominal trauma, compound fractures, wounds with devitalized tissue; high risk anatomical sites such as hands and feet. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be started two hours before the surgical procedures.

            Establishment of the causative microorganism is important and treatment should be initiated based on the bacterial sensitivity patterns. Topical silver dressings have been used to treat infected wounds however; there is no evidence for their efficacy due to multiple microbial aetiologies. (Vermenlen, 2007). To achieve optimum antimicrobial therapy, the biofilm load should be reduced to enhance drug concentration at the wound site (Strup et al, 2013).

             Bacterial wound infections are a common finding in open injuries. Severe and poorly managed infections can lead to gas gangrene and tetanus which may cause long-term disabilities (Bjarnsholt, 2013). Chronic infection can cause septicemia or bone infection which can lead to death. Sepsis associated encephalopathy increases morbidity and mortality especially in the ICU patients (Maramattom, 2007).

             Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized burn patients in patients with burn over more than 40% of the total body surface area, 75% of all deaths following thermal injuries are related to infections (Vindence,2005). The rate of nosocomial infections is higher in burn patients (WHO, 2007)due to  various  factors like nature of burn injury itself, immunocompromised  status of the patient (Preuitt,2008), age of the patient, extent of injury, and depth of burn  in combination  with microbial factors such  as type and  number of organisms, enzyme and  toxin  production, colonization  of the burn wound site, systemic dissemination of the colonizing organisms(Preuitt,2004). Moreover the larger area of tissue is exposed for a longer time that renders patients prone to invasive bacterial sepsis. In extensive burns when the organisms proliferate in the eschar, and when the density exceeds 100,000 organisms per gram of tissues, they spread to the blood and cause a lethal bacterenia. Therapy of burn wound infections is therefore aimed at keeping the organisms’ burden below 100,000 per gram of tissues which increases the chances of successful skin grafting.

            The denatured protein of the burn eschar provides nutrition for the organisms. A vascularity of the burned tissue places  the  organisms  beyond  the  reach  of  host  defense  mechanisms  and  systemically  administered  antibiotics  (Canton,2002).  In addition, cross-infection results between different burn patients due to overcrowding in burn wards.  Also  thermal destruction  of  the  skin  barrier  and  concomitant  depression  of  local  and  systemic  host  cellular  and humeral  immune responses  are  pivotal  factors  contributing  to  infectious  complication  in  patients  with  severe  burn  (Maramattom,2007).  Burn wound infections are largely hospital acquired and the infecting pathogens differ from one hospital to another. The burn wound represents a susceptible site for opportunistic colonization by organisms of endogenous and exogenous origin; thermal injury destroys the skin barrier that normally prevents invasion by microorganisms. This makes the burn wound the most frequent origin of sepsis in these patients (Anguzu, 2005). Burn wound surfaces are sterile immediately following thermal injury, these wounds eventually become colonized with microorganisms, gram-positive bacteria that survive the thermal insult, such as S. aureus located deep within sweat glands and hair follicles, heavily colonize the burn wound surface within first 48h (Oduyebo, 2008).                    Topical  antimicrobials  decrease  microbial  overgrowth  but  seldom  prevent  further  colonization  with  other potentially  invasive bacteria and  fungi. Gastrointestinal  and  upper  respiratory  tract  and  the  hospital environment ( Hansbrough,2007). A susceptible site for opportunistic colonization by organisms of endogenous and exogenous origin; Following colonization,  these organisms start penetrating  the  viable  tissue depending  on  their  invasive capacity, local wound  factors and  the degree of the  patient  s  immunosuppression. If sub-eschar  tissue is  invaded,  disseminated infection  is  likely  to  occur,  and  the  causative  infective  microorganisms  in  any  burn  facility  change  with  time Individual organisms are brought into the burns ward on  the wounds of new patients. These organisms then persist in the resident  flora  of  the  burn  treatment  facility  for  a  variable  period  of  time,  only  to  be  replaced  by  newly  arriving microorganisms. Introduction of new topical agents and systemic antibiotics influence the flora of the wound (NCCLS, 2000). The aim of the present study was to obtain information about the type of isolates, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of bacterial wound infections in burn patients.

             Most wound infections can be classified into two major categories; skin and soft tissue infections although they often overlap as a consequence of disease progression. Infections of hospital acquired wounds are among  the  leading nosocomial causes of morbidity a4nd increasing medical expense .Routine surveillance for hospital acquired wound infection is recommended by both the centers for disease control and prevention and surgical infection  society .

            The most useful classification of wound from a practical point of view is the rank and wakefield classification (Russell et al., 2004) which classified wounds into tidy and untidy wounds. Tidy wounds are inflected by sharp instrument and contain no devitalized tissue. Examples are surgical incisions, cut from glass, knife and machete. Skin wounds will usually be single and clean cut. Untidy wounds results from crushing, tearing, avulsion, vascular injury or burns and contain devitalized tissue skin wounds will often be multiple and irregular.

            Open wounds can be classified into a number of different types according to the object that caused the wound. Types of open wound include: incision or incised wounds, laceration, abrasions (grazes) puncture wounds and gunshot wounds, penetration wounds and gunshot wounds. Closed wounds have fewer categories but are just as dangerous as open wounds. The types of closed wounds include: contusion, hematoma, crushing injuries. Bruise, contusion and Hematoma: a closed blunt injury may result in a bruise or contusion. There is bleeding into the tissue and visible discoloration where the amount of bleeding is sufficient to create localize collection in the tissue, it is described as hematoma.

Puncture wounds and Bites: puncture wound is an open injury in which foreign materials and organisms are likely to be carried deeply into the underlying tissues. A major danger is that they may give rise to an abscess. They are caused by an object puncturing the skin such as nail or needle.

ANTIBIOTICS SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF DIFFERENT BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH WOUND SEPSIS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL)

THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM GROUNDNUT

ABSTRACT

This project was done to extract and characterize groundnut oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using  groundnut (i.e. ‘’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction /leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………. i

Certification……………………………………………………ii

Dedication……………………………………………………… iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………….. iv

Abstract………………………………………………………… v

Table of contents………………………………………………. vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction……………………………………………………..1

Background of study…………………………………………….1

Problem of statement…………………………………………….4

Objectives of study………………………………………………5

Significance of study…………………………………………….5

Justification of study…………………………………………….6

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review………………………………………………7

Preamble……………………………………………………….7

Importance of oils………………………………………………8

Proximate composition of oil…………………….…………….10

Moisture content …………………………….…………………11

Ash content………………………………………………………11

Crude protein……………………………………………………12

Crude fat…………………………………………………………12

Crude fibre………………………………………………………13

Carbohydrate…………………………………………………….13

Concept of vegetable oil extraction………………………………14

The role of moisture and temperature in oil extraction………….14

Traditional extraction of vegetable oil………………….………..16

Solvent extraction of vegetable oil/leaching method…………….17

Solvent characteristics……………………………………………18

Mechanical expression of vegetable oil…………..………………22

Quality oil assessment……………………………………………23

Objective method of assessing oil quality………………………..24

Properties of oil…………………………………………………..25

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………………………………..28

Raw materials and equipment used……………………………….28

Equipments…………………………………………………………29

Reagent ……………………………………………………………29

Oil extraction and separation experiments…………………………29

CHAPTER FOUR

Result and discussion………………………………………………31

Experimental results……………………………………………….31

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation……………………………………37

Appendixes…………………………………………………………..39

References……………………………………………………………42

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION
  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.

Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy, 1994).

According to Rajagopal et al. (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of engine and level of blend of the oil;  groundnut oil i.e. , Ijiliji, or Azamu is found mainly in the South-East of Nigeria and is not an exception. This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable. Fossil fuels are not only costly in terms of price but are also costly to the environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result. Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.

Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand.

THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM GROUNDNUT

MICROBIAL PROFILE OF SUYA IN LAGOS

MICROBIAL PROFILE OF SUYA IN LAGOS

ABSTRACT

Suya is a popular spicy meat product in Nigeria. Ready-to-eat suya samples were collected from four popular ‘suya spots’ serving at least 250 consumers within ikeja, lagos State, Nigeria. Microbial analysis of the samples was carried out and the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. The total viable counts for the samples ranged from 1.4 x 105 to 3.9 x 103 and 1.1 x 105 to 3.2 x 103 on nutrient agar and chocolate agar respectively. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas recorded maximum percentage of occurrence. The result revealed that suya sold in the area were microbiologically unsafe and below acceptable standard for human consumption

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification                                                                                                     i

Dedication                                                                                                     ii

Acknowledgement                                                                                        iii

Abstract

Table of contents                                                                                                    iv

List of Tables                                                                                                v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                                                            1

1.1 Objectives                                                                                                 4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review                                                                                     5

2.1Suya meat                                                                                                 5

2.2 Preparation of suya                                                                                      5

2.2 Meat spoilage

  1. 4 Factors that affect the growth of microorganisms in meat

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods

Sample Collection:

Pre-treatment of samples

Determination of Total Viable count

Gram Staining

Motility test

Catalase Test

Oxidase Test

Urease Test

Methyl Red (MR)-Voges Proskaeur(VP) Tests

Indole Test

Starch Hydrolysis

Coagulase Test

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results and Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Meat is the flesh of animals which serves as food; it is obtained from sheep, cattle, goat and swine (Hamman, 1997). Meat is a major source of protein and have valuable qualities of vitamins for most people in many parts of the world, thus they are essential for the growth, repair and maintenance of body cells which is necessary for our everyday activities.

Meat could be traced back to human history, then when primitive men use raw flesh of dead animals, but as man developed, he domesticated as well as wild animals. Beef have been the major supply of meat in Nigeria as a result of extensive and semi-intensive cattle production system in Nigeria by Fulani and Hausa people of the northern Nigeria. (Umoh, 2004).

Suya meat is a boneless lean meat of mutton, beef, goat or chicken meat staked on sticks, coated with its sauces, oiled and then roasted over wood using a fire from charcoal. It is a popular, traditionally processed meat product that is served hot and sold along streets, at clubs, picnics centers, and restaurants and within institutions. Suya meat is one of the intermediate moisture products that are easy to prepare and highly relish which is a mass consuming fast food and its preparation and sales are usually not done with strict hygiene condition because they are still done locally.

Due to the chemical composition and characteristic, meat are highly perishable food which provides excellent source of growth of many hazardous microorganisms that can cause infection in human and also lead to meat spoilage and economic loss. The most important bacteria meat spoilage is caused by lactic acid bacteria which is physiologically related group of fastidious and ubiquitous gram-positive organisms, these includes many species such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus.

Since meat has a high nutritive value, microorganisms could easily grow on it. The possible sources of contamination are through slaughtering of sick animals, washing the meat with dirty water, handling by butchers, contamination by flies, processing close to sewage or refuse dumps environment, spices, transportation and use of contaminated equipment such as knife and other utensils. (Igyor and Uma, 2005).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

MICROBIAL PROFILE OF SUYA IN LAGOS