THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ANTENNA BOOSTER

ABSTRACT

Wi-Fi signals are susceptible to signal loss as they travel hence Wi-Fi users are rarely completely satisfied with the signal strength offered by the off-the-shelf Wi-Fi cards, routers and access points. This project research intends to introduce a device which can provide Wi-Fi users with high signal strength and at a lower cost in order to enable them have a seamless, uninterrupted and reliable communication. This project includes the steps for Biquad antenna construction, steps for the construction of a Wi-Fi booster circuit and the working of the Wi-Fi booster system as a whole.

This project includes in its beginning chapter an introduction into what an antenna booster is and its applications. Also the aims and objectives of the project and the scope of the project are discussed in this chapter. The succeeding chapter looks at the history of Wi-Fi antenna boosters and their various types. Chapter three of this project describes the equipments and software used for the construction process of both the biquad and the booster circuit. Chapter four of this project describes the testing and operation of the system as a whole. The last chapter of this project gives a conclusion of the research carried out, problems encountered and recommendation.

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ANTENNA BOOSTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF RUNGE KUTTA ALGORITHM IN SOLVING A RADIOACTIVE DECAY EQUATION USING MICROSOFT EXCEL

ABSTRACT

This project describes a differential equation of radioactive decay is numerically solved using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. In order to properly   estimate the quality of such methods, knowledge of the accuracy of the decay simulation is required. Here we consider the use of an EXCEL spreadsheet to tackle these drawbacks. In doing so, we employ the concept of relative row, relative column and fixed column in the spreadsheet to obtain the solution of systems of ODEs by the RK4 method. it is found that the way suggested here is faster than applying a scientific calculator and the solution obtained is  significantly more accurate. I have numerically obtained the number of undecayed nuclei as a function of time. I haved displayed the numerical values graphically as well as in the form of data tables.

     CHAPTER ONE

   BACKGROUND STUDY

1.0      INTRODUCTION

Numerical solutions to engineering or science problems have historically been carried out using procedural programming languages. This is not efficient from a pedagogical perspective because students typically must put more effort into learning the language itself than they put into solving problems (Qureshi et al., 2013).  For example, the numerical solution of a boundary value problem in one dimension using finite difference techniques generally involves the creation of a system of linear equations and the conversion of that system into an equivalent matrix equation that then can be solved. Many students find this process confusing, so, for instance, a simple change such as modifying the boundary conditions often takes substantial effort to incorporate into a working solution.

The difficulty here is that students become bogged down in forcing the algorithm to fit a structure required by the procedural language, rather than implementing the change in a more natural way. Modern computational tools can alleviate this difficulty, easing the programming effort required and allowing students to spend more time focusing on the performance of the algorithms and on the behavior of the resulting solutions (Chandio and Memon, 2010).  Students are able to implement algorithms in a more convenient format, removing some of the steps typically required in reaching a solution and thus allowing more effort to be spent comparing various algorithms and studying the behaviors of the equations themselves (Abraham, 2007).

One example of a tool with which equations are easily solved is the spreadsheet,which is particularly well-suited to the numerical solution of both differential and integral equations.

There are many physics problems that involve first order Odes. For example resistance, inductances, electrical circuits and radioactive decays  (Boyce and DiPrima, 2001). Ordinary differential equations also appear in numerous problems in population biology and engineering giving mathematical descriptions of some phenomena. The numerical analysis of differential equations describes the mathematical background for understanding numerical methods giving information on what to expect when using them.

For studying numerical methods as a part of a more general course on differential equations, many of the basic ideas of the numerical analysis of differential equations are tied closely to theoretical behavior associated with the problem being solved (Glaser and Rokhlin, 2009). Differential equations can describe nearly all systems undergoing change and are essential parts of many areas of mathematics, from fluid dynamics to celestial mechanics. They are used by mathematicians, physicists and engineers to help in the designing of everything from bridges to ballistic missiles.

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) are one of the most important and widely used techniques in mathematical modeling. However, not many ODEs have an analytic solution and even if there is one, usually it is extremely difficult to obtain and it is not very practical ( Amen  et. al., 2004).

1.2      AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1.2.1            AIM

To solve the radioactive decay equation numerically using the runge-kutta algorithm and compare same with its analytical solution.

1.2.2  OBJECTIVES

The specific learning objectives are:

(a) To develop a microsoft excel code to implement the RK4 algorithm for the radioactive decay equation.

(b) To plot the numerical solution side-by-side the analytical solution.

(c) To compare graphically relationship between the analytical and the numerical solutions.

1.3     LIMITATION

The limitation of analytical techniques to solve the nonlinear differential equations has impeded the use of numerical methods for obtaining an approximate solution of the problem (Garewal, 2000).

IMPLEMENTATION OF RUNGE KUTTA ALGORITHM IN SOLVING A RADIOACTIVE DECAY EQUATION USING MICROSOFT EXCEL

EXAMINATION OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BUILDING MATERIAL IN KATSINA STATE USING GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY (A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT BLOCK)

Abstract


Twenty Concrete Blocks from (20) different Local Governments in Katsina state was measured using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with NaI (TL) detector. Three naturally Occurring Radio nuclides and their activity concentrations were determined, are 40K 226Ra, and 232Th.
Their activity Concentrations ranges from 40K 46.11 ± 826.59 to 46.11± 8.55 Bq/kg, (226Ra) ranged from10.19 ± 2.43Bq/kg to 75.09 ± 4.98 Bq/kg and (232Th) ranged from 2.77 ± 9.59Bq/kg to 123.49 ± 9.35Bq/kg respectively. The highest value also determined from 40K was (826.59 ± 4.82Bq/kg), the highest value of 226Ra was 75.09 ± 4.98Bq/kg , the highest value for (232Th) is 123.49 ± 9.35 Bq/kg respectively. The Radium Equivalent mean value was obtained from the measurement ranged from (34.8 ± 1.59 to 411.26nGT/h), The absorbed dose rate in air with its mean value was obtained, ranges from (147.16 ±3.55nGy/h). The limit set in the OECD report (370Bq/kg) and UNSCEAR, 2000 (24 to 160nGy/h). The annual effective dose obtained, ranges from 0.04 ± 0.001 to 0.20 ± 0.0001mSv/y, with mean value 0.187 ± 0.0005mSv/y. Recommended limit 0.460 mSv/y set
by ICRP, 2007 for terrestrial radiation. The evident that the Results give lower value when compared with 1mSv/y for Public exposure (ICRP, 2007).


Table of Contents


Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of content (TC) – – – – – – – – vi
List of tables (LT) – – – – – – – – – x
List of figure – – – – – – – – – xi
List of abbreviation – – – – – – – – xii


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0: Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.1: Background of the study – – – – – – 1
1.2.0: Natural Radioactivity in the Environment – – – – 4
1.2.1: Potassium -40 (40K) – – – – – – – 4
1.2.2: Uranium Decay Series – – – – – – 4
1.2.3: Thorium Decay Series- – – – – – – 5
1.2.4: Radon – – – – – – – – – 5
1.3.0: NORM in Building Materials – – – – – 5
1.4.0: Component of Cement Block – – – – – – 7
1.4.1: Sand – – – – – – – – – 7
1.4.2: Cement – – – – – – – – 7
1.4.3: Gravel Aggregate – – – – – – – 8
vii
1.4.4: Concrete – – – – – – – – 9
1.5.0: Statement of the problems – – – – – – 9
1.6: Aims and Objectives – – – – – – – 10
1.7: Significant of the Study – – – – – – 11
1.8: Scope and Limitation of the study – – – – – 11
1.9: limitations – – – – – – – – 11
1.10: List of local Government in Katsina State – – – 12


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0: Literature review – — – – – – – 14
2.1: History – – – – – – – – 14
2.2: Sources of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) – 16
2.2.1: Cosmic radiation – – – – – – – 16
2.2.2: Terrestrial radiation – – – – – – – 18
2.2.3: Man-made sources – – – – – – 19
2.2.4: Members of the public – – – – – – 19
2.2.5: Occupationally exposed individuals – – – – – 20
2.3: NORMS Isotopes – – – – – – – 20
2.4: Health Risk of Norms – – – – – – – 21
2.4.1: Standard and regulations of radiation exposure – – – 23
2.5: Types of Radioactive decay – – – – – – 25
2.5.1: Alpha particles decay – – – – – – – 25
2.5.2: Beta decay – – – – – – – – 26
2.5.3: Gamma decay – – – – – – – – 26
viii
2.6: Gamma – ray interaction with matter – – – – – 26
2.6.1: Photo electric effects – – – – – – – 27
2.6.2: Campton scattering – – – – – – – 28
2.6.3: Pair Production – – – – – – – 29
2.6.4: Biological effects of Radiation – – – – – 29
2.6.5: Radium – 226 (226Ra) – – – – – – 30
2.6.6: Potassium-40 (40K) – – – – – – – 31
2.6.7: Thorium-232 (232Th) – – – – – – – 32
2.6.8: Cancer Treatment – – — – – – – 33
2.7.0: Review on related literature – – – – – – 33


CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.0: Materials and Method – – – – – – 38
3.1.0: Material – – – – – – – – 38
3.2.0: Method of making cement blocks – – – – – – 38
3.2.1: Size and structure of cement blocks – – – – – 39
3.3: Samples Collection – – – – – – – 40
3.4: Samples preparation – – – – – – – 41
3.5: Energy Calibration of Sodium Iodide Thallium – – –
Gamma spectroscopy system – – – – – – 44


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.0: Result and Discussion – – – – – – – 46
4.1: Experimental Result – – – – – – – 46
ix
4.2: Activity analysis – – – – – – – 50
4.2.1: The radium equivalent – – – – – – 50
4.2.2: Absorbed dose in Air – – – – – – – 50
4.2.3: Annual Effective Dose Rate – – – – – – 51
4.3: Statistical analysis of the samples- – – – – – 53


CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0: Conclusion and Recommendations – – – – – 59
5.1: Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 59
5.2: Limitations – – – – – – – – 59
5.3: Recommendations – – – – – – – 60
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 61
APPENDICES – – – – – – – – 65


x
List of Tables
Table 2.1: The world wide average annual effective doses for the various sources. 18
Table 3.1: Sample collection industries and their respective locations 41
Table 3.2: weight of the Samples 44
Table 4.1: Activity concentration of radionuclides concrete block
measured in CPS – – – – – – – 47
Table 4.2: Activity concentration of radionuclides in concrete block
measured in Bq/kg – – – – – – 47
Table 4.3: Calculated values of radium equivalent, absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose from the samples – – – – – 52
Ta ble 4.4: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 40K across the twenty
Samples – – – – – – – – 54
Table 4.5: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 226Ra across the twenty Samples – – – – – – – – 54
Table 4.6: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 232Th across the twenty Samples – – – – – – – – 55
Table 4.7: The correlation among the concentration of the three radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) – – – – – – 55
Table 4.8: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 40K and 226Ra) 55
Table 4.9: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 40K and232Th) 56
Table 4.10: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 226Ra and232Th) 56
Table 4.11: summary statistics of the twenty (20) samples – – – 57
Table 4.12: two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the Samples and
Concentration of the three radionuclides – – – – – 57


xi
List f Figures
Figure 1.1: Map of Katsina State showing all local governments were the samples collected – – – – – – – – – 12
Figure 2.1: the mechanism of photoelectric absorption and the emission of fluorescent X- rays – – – – – – – – 28
Figure 3.1: A typical Building using Cement blocks (Size: 9 inch.) – – – 40
Figure 3.2: Some of the sealed samples – – – – – – 42
Figure 3.3: Gamma ray spectrometer used in the analysis – – – 40
Figure 3.4: Typical Gamma ray spectrum output (MAESTRO SOFT WARE) – – – – – 45
Figure 4.1: Graph of measured activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th – – – 49
Figure 4.2: Graph of absorbed dose against sample number – – – – 53


xii
List of Abbreviation
UNSCEAR – United Nation Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation
IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency
ICRP – International Commission for Radiological Protection
NORM – Natural occurring radioactive material
TENORM – Technological enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials
238U – uranium – 238
232Th – Thorium – 232
40K – potassium -40
222Rn – radon 222
226Ra – radium -226
β – beta
α- alpha
Mev – mega electrovolt
113Cd – cadmium -113
114 Ce- caesium -114
Kev- kilo electron volt
NaI (TI) – sodium iodide (thallium)
nGy/h –nano gray per hour.

EXAMINATION OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BUILDING MATERIAL IN KATSINA STATE USING GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY (A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT BLOCK)

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIOGRAPHERS AND PATIENTS: INFLUENCE ON SERVICE DELIVERY AND PATIENT SATISFACTION.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Communication is vital to good patient care in any discipline in the health domain and there is a lot that has been written concerning communication problems in the general practice of Radiology. Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. (Adams and Smith,2003). Interpersonal communication between radiographers and patients plays an important role in the success of radiographic exams.

Some of the patients routinely respond differently from the instructions given by the radiographer during exposure, resulting in delays or having to repeat the examination altogether. Ineffective communication during radiological procedures has many ramifications which include poor quality radiographs, inconclusive examinations, patient delays among others. Often radiographic procedures have to be repeated, which in turn increases the radiation dose to which the patient is exposed and escalates the costs of the examination

    Effective verbal communication includes the display of professional conduct, an attitude of respect toward other professionals and the patient and the responsibility to act as a patient advocate through all aspects of the patient’s care. Radiographers are frequently responsible for acting as patient advocates, taking patient histories, providing instructions for fasting before contrast studies and explaining post examination care clearly in a way and language the patient will understand.

Thus, it is important that Radiographers give explicit instructions, answer questions promptly and completely, coordinate patient care efficiently and work together with the patient. This responsibility includes being thorough in their questioning and ensuring the patient understands all instructions. Meyer 3 suggested asking specific instead of general questions, such as “Are you taking any prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications or any herbal supplements?” instead of “Are you taking any drugs?” When a patient is unable to answer questions or comprehend instructions, the patient’s family or guardian should be involved in both the history-taking and the decision-making processes. By encouraging family participation, feelings of stress and frustration toward staff are reduced and system dysfunction is less frequent. Like anyone else, radiographers can be unhappy, short-tempered, rushed and interrupted, ignorant on some subjects, or charmless.

         Evidence is that healthcare fails without a conscious informed effort of communication which is the personal and professional responsibility of everyone concerned with the care of the sick. Kaushal, K. (2007).

 Improved communication between patient and healthcare providers results in patients who are happier with their overall healthcare experience. L.F.and Strife, L.J. (2011).

        Patients want to play an active role in discussing their treatment, and they want to understand the benefits of different diagnostic and therapeutic options. They need to have their questions answered.10 Patients also express a desire to have interactions that feel personal, caring, and respectful. They want medical professionals (Radiographers) to relate to them as people. 

Although research has been conducted on the attitudes of radiographers towards their patients, but no research has been done on effective verbal communication especially in Enugu metropolis. This study aimed to assess the level of verbal communication between radiographers and patients, to identify barriers to effective verbal communication and patient’s reaction to towards effective verbal communication. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Communication amongst people is what brings people closer to each other or far away from each other; When it is been done properly can really determine the good relationship and vice versa. In the hospital scenario, where radiographers and the patients are involved, effective communication will determine whether the patient would visit the hospital some other time or not. The problem of effective communication might be that there are no trained radiographers in terms of relating with patients no matter their wildness. Finally, several research has been carried out effective communication but not even a single research has been carried out on the effective communication between radiographers and patients; influence on service delivery and patient satisfaction.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to examine the effective communication between radiographers and patients; influence on service delivery and patient satisfaction. Other specific objectioves of the study include:

1.          to determine the effect of effective communication on patients.

2.          to determine the factors affecting effective communication between radiographers and patients.

3.          to determine the extent to which effective communication improves patients satisfaction and service delivery.

4.          to proffer possible solutions to the problems.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.          What is the effect of effective communication on patients?

2.          What are the factors affecting effective communication between radiographers and patients?

3.          What is the extent to which effective communication improves patient’s satisfaction and service delivery?

4.          What are the possible solutions to the problems?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0:    Effective communication between radiographers and patient has no significant effect on service delivery and patient satisfaction.

H1:        Effective communication between radiographers and patient has a significant effect on service delivery and patient satisfaction.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

         The study on effective communication between radiographers and patients will be of immense benefit to the entire radiographers in the sense that it will enable them to understand communication pattern to be used with the patients, in that all the patients are having different temperament and perceptions. It will also enable them to relate properly with the patient about any diagnosis in their body such that when they are being told it will not frighten them so much that they become so instabilised. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

         The study on effective communication between radiographers and patient is limited to service delivery and patient satisfaction.

         The study on effective communication between radiographers and patients is limited to service delivery and patient satisfaction.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

EffectiveIn producing a desired or intended result

CommunicationThe imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.

Radiographerradiographer is an Allied Health professional who uses x-rays to produce radiographs of patients in order to help diagnose the patient’s medical condition.

PatientA person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment.

InfluenceThe capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

Service DeliveryThe act of providing a service to customers

Satisfaction Fulfilment of one’s wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIOGRAPHERS AND PATIENTS: INFLUENCE ON SERVICE DELIVERY AND PATIENT SATISFACTION.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A CEILING FAN REMOTE CONTROL

ABSRACT

This paper work contains details of the design and construction of a remote control fan regulator. The system simply consists of an infrared (IR) remote transmitter with a coverage range of about 7 meters. The infrared signal from the remote transmitter is picked by an IR sensor which then feeds and signal amplifier which amplifiers the signal to a level capable of activating a counter. The output of the counter is fed through a transistor switch to activate the fan coil via electro mechanical relays which connect the appropriate winding to the fan motor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Declaration

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Aims

1.4     Significance of study

1.5     Methodology

CHAPTER TWO:        LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0     History of fan

2.1     Types of Remote Control

2.2     Component Review

2.2.1 Diode

2.2.2 Capacitor:

2.2.3 L.E.D:

2.2.4 Voltage Regulator

2.2.5 Relays

2.2.6 Attracted armature type relay:

2.2.7 The 555 Timer 1C

2.2.8 Resistor

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Design and Construction

3.1     Working Principle

3.2     Circuit Diagram

3.3     Circuit Design Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Testing       

4.1     Result

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion, conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Discussion

5.2     Enclosure Construction    

5.3     Assembling

5.4     Conclusion

5.5     Recommendation

Reference

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig: 2.1: Reference trajectory

Fig 2.2:  Error signal

Fig 2.3: Mechanical manipulator

Fig 2.4: Pulse-coded signal

Fig 2.5: Space-coded signal

Fig 2.6: Shift-coded signal

Fig 2.7: The figure above show how a remote control sends command to a television set

Fig 2.8: Diode

Fig 2.9: Voltage regulatory

Fig. 10: Power transistor

Fig 2.11: Relay internals

Fig. 2.12: Timing Interval Circuit.

Fig. 2.13: Resistor image

Fig 2.14: Components of a typical linear power supply

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A.C           Alternative Current

D.C          Direct Current

VAC        Alternative current voltage

VRM        Actual supply voltage

VDC         Direct current voltage

Ω               Ohms

µƑ              Micro farad

LEDS        Light emitting diodes

VF            The maximum forward voltage drop

VCC          The supply voltage

RLED       The LED current limiting resistor

IC              Collector current

IB               Base current

VB              Base voltage

CHAPTER ONE

 1.0    INTRODUCTION

The first remote control, called “lazy bones” was developed in 1950 by zenith Electronics Corporation (then known as zenith Radio Corporation). The device was developed quickly, and it was called “zenith space command”, the remote went into production in the fall of 1956, becoming the first practical wireless remote control device .org/wiki/ Remote control).

Remote control facilitates the operation of fan regulators around the home or office from a distance. It provides a system that is simple to understand and also to operate, a system that would be reliable and easy to maintain and durable irrespective of its usage. It adds more comfort to everyday living by removing the inconvenience of having to move around to operate a fan regulator.

 Today, remote control is a standard on electronic products, including vicars, cable and satellite boxes, digital video disc players and home audio players. In the year 2000, more than 99 percent of all TV set and 100 percent of all VCR and DVD players sold are equipped with remote controls.

The average individual these days probably picks up a remote control at least once or twice a day.

Basically, a remote control works in the following manner, a button is pressed. This completes a specific connection which produces a code line signal specific to that button. The transistor amplifies the signal and sends it to the led which translates the signal into infrared light. The sensor on the appliance detects the infrared light and reacts appropriately.   

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A CEILING FAN REMOTE CONTROL

FACTOR THAT DETERMINE THE IMPROVEMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KADUNA STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            Technical education dates back to the primitive days of man’s development in Nigerian when he realizes that he has to explore his environment. In order to ease his problems or difficulties associated with is means of livehood such as hunting, farming, building, trading, weaving, carving, black-smiting leather works and other related crafts. So as to improve on his way of life, which way direct towards making the individual functional in the society.

            Fafunula (1974) said “functionalism was the guiding principle the emphasis of African education was social responsibility and job orientation” The apprenticeship of the individual was usually done under ones parents or master craftman until proficiency was achieved. Since then, man in Nigeria has tried to improve this education to help him solve most of his numerous difficulties within a limited time scope with accuracy and economy.

            Traditionally, this type of education continued from one generation to another with very little or no modification commonly referred to as “ Traditional Education” This continued till the arrival of the Christian missionaries and Islamic scholars that brought about Christian/western Education and Islamic education respectively both having their aims and objective which neither individed technical education nor technological development. The situation was further aggravated by the colonialists who were all out in their system of education to produce administrators, clerks and those who with carryout their assignment with ease of communication as such education was geared towards “ white collar” rather than “ blue colar jobs. The turning point towards technical education started when offices were filled up anf the white-collar job became very hard to come by anymore. Technical education as well as electrical/electronics as a subject. The national policy on education (1998, which described technical education as the types of education which is designed and directed towards, the acquisition of practical, applied skills and scientific knowledge in order to prepare the individual towards self sustenance and further studies.

            Skill which the back borne of vocational/technical education is most required for the success of the training itself by both the teacher and the learner, taking a very close observation at technical education it would be seen that they are closely related as technical education imparts that knowledge and skill required while technician is the application of the acquired knowledge and skills.

            Electrical/Electronics as a subject in Technical education has sill requirements for effective teaching and learning as well as putting it into practice, which is transformed inputs into outputs.

            Technician is a person who is trained or skilled in the technicalities of a subject. A technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principle.

            Skills every electrical/electronic technician need although this career route nay be attractive to a lot of people, there are some electrical/electronics technician requirements that cannot be taught in a classroom or during an apprenticeship.

It is important to consider whether you have the following skills necessary to be good at the job, other wise your safety and the safety of those around you may be in jeopardy:

1.        Mechanical aptitude:- it might seem obvious but not everyone has an innate sense of mechanics. If you have always enjoyed taking things apart to see how they work and are successfully able to put them back together, electrical work might be a good fit. On the other hand, if a simple do it yourself project leaves you frustrated, this might not be the right career path for you. Being comfortable around electrical/electronic work and being confident in your own abilities is a must.

2.        Problem solving skill:- Diagnosing and repairing electrical/electronics problem is a large part of a technician’s job. Once the apprenticeship is over, you will be largely on your own to respond to issues and find their solution. Understanding an overall electrical/electronic problem and investigating ways to fix it is a critical component of this job. Learning how to identify the relative strengths and weaknesses; of alternative solutions to problems is another vital skill for a successful career as an electrical/electronics technician.

3.        Reading comprehension:- Many work orders are assigned to electricians through written communications, either on paper or though Email. Interpreting these work orders and writing a summary of your own work are important components to ensure job details are followed properly and so other electrician can understand your methods should they work on the project after you.

Statement of the problem

The goals of the National policy on Education (1998) cannot be fully realized without the development of appropriate skills. With the rapid and recent developments in the electrical/electronics world and information technology, the need to have more skilled electrical/electronics technicians to take care of these products for their maintenances for effectiveness in a necessity. This has to be met with the seriousness. It deserve so as to avoid future problems and this is pivoted on skill needs of the electrical/electronic technician.

A short teaching experience revealed poorly developed skills in graduating students of a technical college and further inquiry into the reasons revealed that either the skills were wrongly taught or not even taught at all. This boil down to either the technician does not know the skills, he does not know how to teach the skills or cannot even remember the skills to be taught. This study is aimed at determining and analyzing those factors that are directly or indirectly militating against the skill improvement need of electrical/electronics technician. It will go a long way in disclosing certain factors or problems that would have contributed or would have affected the practical skill improvement need to those electrical/electronics technician. These problem areas will be highlighted with the hope of helping the authorities concerned to set the necessary machinery in motion in a bid to arresting the ugly situation.     

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out factor that would enhance the skill improvement needs electrical/electronics technicians in technical colleges in Kaduna state and specifically to:

i.          Determine the status of electrical/electronics technicians.

ii.         Find out how electrical/electronics technician manage their workshop.

iii.       Determine the availability of electrical/electronics practical materials.

Significance of the study

            The findings of the study would be useful to the various levels of Government, federal, state and local including technician of electrical/electronics, public and private establishments. Technician of skills would be greatly improved specially, the expected as well as the needed skills will be imparted to the student. The students will gain from these skills and later apply this in life. The future maintenances and servicing of the products of technological development in the near future and the hanging world which requires diverse skill when they are self employed or in industries.

            The industries (private establishments) where these students would later work are also in the list hence those who would be fortunate to be employed in industries would exhibit these skills thereby reducing initial losses due to lack of skill and anxiety.

The Government (Public establishments) at all levels is also in the list of beneficiaries of this study. There would be rise in Gross Domestic product (GDP) of the nation as many individuals would be well equipped to be on their own and in industry.

Research Questions

The following research question have been formulated to guide the researchers in the study:

1.        What are the status of Electrical/Electronics technicians?

2.        How do Electrical/Electronics Technicians manage their workshop?

3.        How available are the Electrical/Electronics practical materials             provided in the workshop?

Scope and Delimitation

The study will be delimited to the skill improvement needs of Electrical/Electronics technicians in technical colleges in Kaduna state. This study will focus on the status of the Electrical/Electronics technicians how the technicians manage their workshops and to as well determine the availability of electrical/electronics practical materials.

FACTOR THAT DETERMINE THE IMPROVEMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KADUNA STATE.

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS METHOD USED IN MEASURING THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Gravity is one of the most extensively studied phenomena in nature. At the macroscopic level, the observation of the interplay of the gravitational force and finite mass systems is commonplace. The trajectory of a falling object, orbits of celestial bodies, and motion of a pendulum all exhibit explicit dependencies on gravity. In lay terminology, gravity is generally described as a force by which systems with mass attract one another. However, as elucidated by Einstein in his seminal works on general relativity, it is now known that gravity’s influence extends to massless systems, such as light, and even space itself (Albert Einstein, 1909). Needless to say, a proper understanding of this ever-present phenomenon is vital for the development of a complete description of the observable universe and nature itself.

          The first documented effort towards a quantitative description of gravity was the product of Sir Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke in 1666. Newton, spurred on by the suggestion of Hooke that gravity was an attractive force whose magnitude depended on the inverse square of the distance between interacting systems, began by investigating planetary motion. Through observations of bodies in the solar system, Newton developed and empirically confirmed a number of mathematical relations that ultimately served to validate the previously a-priori inverse square law

          One of the first experimental ventures into measuring the gravitational constant was performed by Henry Cavendish in 1798. Following after the work of geologist John Michell and Francis John Hyde Wollaston, Cavendish developed an apparatus to measure the nearly imperceptible gravitational attraction between a pair of small and large lead spheres. Cavendish’s device consisted of a torsion balance – a wooden rod suspended by a thin wire – with two small lead spheres at the ends. A significantly larger spherical lead mass was then positioned near each small sphere. The attraction between each large and corresponding small sphere caused the balance to rotate, thereby precipitating the twisting of the thin wire. After twisting through a particular angle, the torque induced on the balance by the gravitational attraction was balanced by the oppositely-directed torsion torque. Measurement of this angle, along with the imparted torque, allowed for the calculation of G.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Gravity is one of the most important aspects of physics; gravity plays a significant role in our daily lives. However there is a variation in the measurement of Newton’s universal gravitation G; this could be as a difference in location where the experiments are being conducted. It is to this regard that the researcher desired to carry out a comparative analysis on the measurement gravitational constant G using different methods

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to compare various method used in measuring the gravitational constant G. Other specific objectives of the study are:

1.   to measure the gravitational constant G using simple pendulum

2.   to measure the gravitational constant G using beam balance

3.   to investigate on the factors affecting the measurement of the gravitational constant G

4.   to determine the difference in measurement of the gravitational constant G using simple pendulum and beam balance

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

1.   to measure the gravitational constant G using simple pendulum

2.   to measure the gravitational constant G using beam balance

3.   to investigate on the factors affecting the measurement of the gravitational constant G

4.   to determine the difference in measurement of the gravitational constant G using simple pendulum and beam balance

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on various method used in measuring the gravitational constant G will be of immense benefit to the entire physics departments in the tertiary institutions in Nigeria in the following ways:

1.   to will educate the physics students and lecturers on the various method used in the determination of gravitational constant G using beam balance and simple pendulum method

2.   it will compare the both methods to determine the level of accuracy in comparism with the gravitational constant G

3.   the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on Newton’s law of universal gravitation

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study on various method used in measuring the gravitational constant G will consider only the use of beam balance and simple pendulum method for the experiment

1.7 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

This section deals with the organization of the research work in chapters; the chapter one of the research work will cover the background of the study, the statement of problem, the aims and objectives of study, significance and the scope of study, the chapter two will deal with the review of related literature on the gravitational constant G. The chapter three of the research work will cover the areas of materials and method. The chapter four will cover the area of experiment and discussion of results while the chapter five will cover the summary, conclusion and possible recommendation for the research work.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Gravity: Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light are brought toward one another. 

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS METHOD USED IN MEASURING THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT

EFFECTS OF PRACTICAL THEORY ARRANGEMENTS ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF PHYSICS STUDENTS’ IN THE CONCEPT OF SIMPLE PENDULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKET LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Abstract

The study aimed at comparing effects of practical-theory arrangements on the achievement of physics students in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To guide the study, two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated. The design adopted for this study was pretest-post-test control design. The sample size of one hundred and seventy-five (175) respondents was used. The study used criterion sampling technique to select the two (2) schools. The instrument used for the data collection was Physics Achievement Test (PAT) using the concept of simple pendulum. The instrument was validated by an expert; and the reliability coefficient of 0.96 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation computation was obtained. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation in tables. The results of the analysis showed that students taught the concept of simple pendulum theoretically before practical achieved significantly better than those taught the same concept practically before theory. There was however no significant difference between the achievement of male and female students taught the concept of simple pendulum theoretically before practical. The researcher recommended among others, that in-service training programmes for Physics teachers in the form of seminars, workshops and conferences should be encouraged and the focus on proper teaching arrangements of the concept; and that Physics teachers should adopt the method of integrating practical work with theory.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Science Education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. The learners may be children, college students or adults within the general public; the field of science education includes work in science content, science process (the scientific method), some social science and some teaching pedagogy (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/science_education).Science Education is an integrated field of study which considers both subject matter of science disciplines such as Biology, Chemistry, Physics among others as well as a process involved in the teaching and learning science (Okeke, 2007).Science Education emphasizes the teaching and learning science processes and principles.  This is intended to lead to fundamental and applied research in the sciences at all level of education to achieve a common goal.

            Godwin, Adrian &Johnbull(2015) opined that science education is a tap root upon which the bulk of the present day technological breakthrough is build. Ogunleye (2010) observed that science education is a dynamic human activity which concerned with understanding the working of our world. To improve the knowledge of students   and also develop their skills, science education has been seen to be important. It embodies all education processes aimed at providing unlimited opportunities for learners to understand and utilize necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes required to operate effectively in a scientific and technological society.

            Physics is the study of matter and energy and how they affect each other (Adeyemo, 2010). It is an ancient and broad field of science. Physics is not just for rocket scientist, we are surrounded by physics at all time and whether we realize it or not we use physics every day.

            Emenalo (1980) sees physics as a single subject or discipline of great power and elegance, capable of providing the essential elements in the intellectual and cultural development of individual at all levels. Physics is one of the science subjects taught at secondary school level of the Nigeria Educational System (Isola, 2010). The Federal Ministry of Education FME(2008) regards physics as a crucial subject for effective living in the modern age of science and technology. This means that it is necessary that every student is given an opportunity to acquire some physics concept, theory, principle and skills. These concept, theory, principle and skills are clearly explained in the objectives of physics education enshrined in the new secondary school physics curriculum (2008).

            According to National Policy on Education Federal Government of Nigeria(2013), the objectives of physics education are to: provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society; acquire basic concepts and principle of physics as a preparation for further studies; acquire essential scientific skills and attitudes as a preparation for technological application of physics; and stimulate and enhance creativity.

            Folorunso (2006) reported that in Nigeria, the attainment of this designed goal which ought to be status quo of science learning and achievement is marred by poor teaching arrangement in classroom.

            The current shift in emphasis in science curricula objective reflecting student-centered process approach to science is a radical departure from the traditional emphasis on the teacher-centered product approach. This new trend requires that the students should be actively involved in the learning process through adequate and meaningful hand-on-activities during every classroom instruction in science.

            However, research reports show that contrary to the demands of the new science curricula in Nigeria, science teachers still decide to split science instructions into theory and practical (Njoku, 2004). The practical work is never attended to until the final few weeks to public examinations. According to Ekpo (1999) any effort to separate science into practical and theory lesson amount to perpetuating a dichotomy which is anti-thesis of true science. Reports show that such attempts have resulted in most schools in Nigeria shifting practical work until the second term of the final year (Ekpo, 1999; Galadima, 2003). The results have been students’ persistent poor achievement in physics in particular and science in general.

            Onwioduokit (2013) pointed out that students’ performance in physics in senior certificate examination from 2002 – 2012 hence always been below average.

            Many reasons has been adduced for the observed low level achievement in senior secondary school examination by physics students, this include among others students attitude towards physics (Kaya & Boyuk, 2011). Poor thinking and learning environment and lack of modern equipments Adegoke (2010)and poor teaching methods adopted by many physics teachers in explaining a concept (Bassey, 2013).

            However, the federal government of Nigeria through National Policy on Education (2004) emphasized practical based and child-centered learning, as opposedto theoretical aspect of teaching that students simply obtain information from teacher without building their engagement level with the subject being taught (Boud & Feletti, 1999). The approach is least practical and more theoretical and memorizing (Teo & Wong, 2000). It does not apply practical-based learning to encourage students to learn real life problems based on the applied knowledge since the teacher controls transmission and sharing of knowledge, the teacher may attempt to maximize the delivery of information while minimizing time and effort. As a result, both interest and understanding of students may get lost. To address such shortfalls, Zakaria, Chin & David (2010) specified that teaching should not merely focus on dispensing rules, definitions and procedures for student to memorize, but should also actively engage students as primary participant.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

For the past years, the achievement in physics among senior secondary school students in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), National Examination Council (NECO) and Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) standardized examination have not been encouraging.

            Teaching of physics is by no means a simple task as learning on the part of students; depending on the way a concept is presented to the students and the way they are actively interacting with the learning experiences.

            Unfortunately, teaching and learning of physics concept in senior secondary two (SS2) class has been a major challenge which prevents many students to choose some physics oriented courses in the higher institutions of learning.

            Worried arising from this incessant trend in students’ achievement in sciences, many researchers have sought to find out the reason for the downward trend in achievement of senior secondary school students.

            Hence, there is need for changing of the teaching arrangement of physics concept to what will promote meaningful learning, problem-solving and critical thinking for a diversity of students.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to compare achievement of senior secondary two (SS2) physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum practically before theory and those taught the same concept theoretically before practical.

            Precisely, the specific objectives of the study are to:

1.                  Compare the mean achievement scores of SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum practically before theory and those taught the same concept theoretically before practical.

2.                  Compare the mean achievement scores of male and female SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum theoretically before practical.

1.4       Research Questions

1.               What is the difference between the mean achievement scores of SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum practically before theory and those taught the same concept theoretically before practical?

2.               What is the difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum theoretically before practical?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study thus:

1.               There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum practically before theory and those taught the same concept theoretically before practical.

2.               There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female SS2 physics students taught the concept of simple pendulum theoretically before practical.

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.                  The study will help the students to develop a high level content achievement in physics at the senior secondary school level of achievement through proper presentation of lesson.

2.                  The study will provide relevant information for future research on related issue.

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

This study was strictly delimited to the achievement of students taught the concept of simple pendulum practically before theory and those taught the same concept theoretically before practical. It was also delimited to senior secondary two (SS2) physics students in 2017/2018 session. It was delimited to the concept of simple pendulum and delimited to Secondary Schools in Eket Local Government Area.

1.8       Limitation

It was limited to public Holidays declared by the Federal Government of Nigeria.

1.9       Definition of Terms

The following terms were operationally defined.

Laboratory Mode: This is practical-theory arrangements adopted by a teacher to teach concept in physics.

Achievement:         This is scores obtained by the students using Physics Achievement Test (PAT) on the concept of simple pendulum.

Simple Pendulum: This is an object that has a small mass also known as the pendulum bob which is suspended from inextensible thread.

Students:                 This refers to person or group of person that attends Secondary Schools for the purpose of acquiring skills and knowledge

Physics:                   The scientific study of the properties of matter and energy and their relationship e.g. optics, mechanics and electricity.

Gender:         This refers to either being male or female.

EFFECTS OF PRACTICAL THEORY ARRANGEMENTS ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF PHYSICS STUDENTS’ IN THE CONCEPT OF SIMPLE PENDULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKET LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF LIQUID WASTE GENERATED BY BRITISH AMERICAN TABACCO COMPANY USING INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS (INAA) TECHNIQUES

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Environment is a surrounding atmosphere or condition for existence. Some environment are cleaner than others and that is a healthy environment, sadly some places are not. This is cause by pollution and littering.

One of the major pollutants which affect the environment is water pollution. A great number scientific paper deal with water pollution and changes driving from it. They speak for the fact that the “sewage- question” has become a central problem of humanity.

The expression “water pollution” seems to be clear to all. Nevertheless, it is worth determining its real meaning as this has charged in the course of time. Felfoldy’s (1972) precise definition is the following: “Water pollution is every impact which changes the quality of our surface and subsoil water to such a degree that is suitability either for human consumption or for the support of man’s natural life processes will decrease or cease”.

As such the tobacco industry which comprises of people and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, advertisement and distribution of tobacco and tobacco related products waste discharge can add to the pollution to the environment.

The tobacco plant roots absorb essential element (Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Cd, Al, Mn and others) from the soil and diffused them up to the leaves. (Hosseini and Amirabdi Nucl. Meth. Phys Res. B190/11O/(1996). (Curtis and Rabl, 1996).the tobacco industry in Zaria discharged different pollutants in to the environment, but here we are limiting our work on the impact of the liquid waste discharged in to the environment from the company. During the preparation some of these elements contained in the tobacco leaves are being washed away together with the disposed liquid waste, from the industry in to the environment.

This liquid wastes pass through different drainages in to the Kubani Kabama and Galma rivers which form the major sources of water supply to Zaria township. It is suspected that over the years, the quantity of water from the river had gradually deteriorated as a result of domestic and industrial discharged in to a river leading to increase incidence of water related diseases (e.g typhoid) in Zaria.

The availability of nuclear research facilities,  (NNRR-1)in CERT offers unique possibilities for the determination of the elements contain in the liquid waste discharged from tobacco to the environment.

1.2     The nature of the environmental impact assessment

The team “environmental assessment” describes a technique and process by which information about environmental effect of a project is collected both developer and from the sources and taken into account by the planning authority in forming their judgements on whether the development should go ahead.

1.3     ENVERONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)

In essence, EIA is a process, a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development actions in advance. The emphasis, compared with many other mechanisms for environmental protection, is on prevention. The processes involve the following steps which are describes below:

·       Project screening narrow the application of environmental impact assessment to those projects that may have significant environmental impact. Screening may be partly determined by the EIA regulation operating in a country at the time of the assessment.

·       Scoping seek to identify at an early stage, from all off a projects possibly impacts and from the entire alternative that could be addressed, those that are crucial significant issues.

·       The description of the project or development action includes a clarification of the purpose and the rationale of the projects and understanding of its various characteristics include stage of development, location and processes.

·       The description of the environmental baseline includes the establishment of both the present and future state of the environment, in the absence of the project, taking in to account change resulting from natural events and from other human activities.

·       The prediction of impacts aims to identify the magnitude and other dimensions of identified change in the environment with a project/action, by comparison with the situation without the project/action’

·       The evaluation and assessment of significance assesses the relative significance of the predicted impact to allow a focus on the adverse impacts.

·       Mitigation involves the introduction of measures to avoid, reduce, remedy or compensate for any significant adverse impact.

1.4     THE PURPOSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

·       An aid to decision- making.

Environmental impact assessment is a process with several important purposes. For the decision- maker, for example a local authority, it provides a systematic examination of the environmental implications of a proposed action, and some time alternatives before a decision is taken. The Environmental Impact Assessment can be considered by the decision-maker along with other documentation related to the planned activity.

·       An aid to the formulation of development action.

Many developers no doubt see EIA as another set of hurdles to jump before they can proceed with their various activities in the permission process. It can be an aid to the formulation of development actions, indicating areas where a project can be modified to minimize or eliminate altogether its adverse impact on the environment.

  1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEACH.

This research work intends to

·       Check if the purification plant that is supposed to be in this industry prevents the disposing of these toxic elements in to the environment by providing a treatment to capture the unwanted substances.

·       To compare the result to be obtained with that of drinking water quality standard use in Nigeria.

1.6    JUSTIFICATION

Pollution contributes to illness of dwellers in this environment and entire people at large. In this case the wastes which converge on the river affect aquatic animals which people consumed. Famers around that area use the river which the discharge enters for irrigation during dry season. From investigation the people in this environment suffered from many diseases e.g. lung related problems, typhoid e.t.c

1.4   STATEMENT OF RESEACH PROBLEM.

          Irradiation of liquid waste from the industry using INAA technique would provide result of the analysis of the waste and hence provide types and concentrations of the hazardous element that may be contained in the discharged liquid sample.

          The result to be obtained may also help us to know some causes of illness the dwellers in that environment suffered from.

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF LIQUID WASTE GENERATED BY BRITISH AMERICAN TABACCO COMPANY USING INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS (INAA) TECHNIQUES

A STUDY ON THE COMPETENCY OF PHYSICS STUDENTS IN THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF BENIN)

ABSTRACT

This research was undertaken to determined Physics Students’ competency in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at the University of Benin. In carrying out this study the research data was obtained from two faculties of the University: Science and Education.

The sample was selected using twenty items questionnaires for section B and seven items- questionnaires for selection C based on the research questions raised. A total of fifty (50) Physics students were chosen as a sample size and the questionnaires were administered to both male and female students in the faculties of Science and Education.

Two  Null hypotheses were tested in this research and X2, Chi-square and percentages was used to analyze the data at 0.05 level of significance. From the study, the following findings were made:

There was a significant different in the level of competence in the use of information and communication technology by Physics students’ at the University, indicates that the use of ICT by Physics students at the University had positive impact on their academics and in favoured of the Physics students.

There was a significant different between male and female students competency in the use of ICT at the University, it also indicates that male students performed better than the female student in the use of ICT at the University.

There was no significant different in the competency base on faculties. Finally, there was a significant different in the level of encouragement of the University towards the use of ICT to Physics students. However, introduction of ICT by the University of Benin had positive impact on both the teachers and the students up to date in their knowledge and use of ICT.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that workshop and seminars should be frequently organized for students to serve as a forum of acquiring more experience and also keep them up to date in their knowledge and use of ICT in education.

A STUDY ON THE COMPETENCY OF PHYSICS STUDENTS IN THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF BENIN)

DOUBLE PENDULUM AND ITS APPLICATION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Pendulum that attach with another pendulum is called double pendulum. The area of dynamical system in physic and mathematics, a rich dynamic behavior of a strong sensitivity is exhibits from the double pendulum of simple physic system with initial conditions. Double pendulum has a difference types whether same mass or different mass that declare as m1 and m2 and same length or different length that declare as L1 or L2. It’s also have different angles. In Stickel (2009), a diagram of a double is shown in Fig. 1. The conservative system happens when double pendulum is friction-less that allows a conservation of energy, that is Energy in = Energyout. Furthermore, Stickel (2009) mentioned that double pendulum is two masses attached to rigid, mass less, rod with the base at a stationary location. In other words, the double pendulum become a linear system when angle is small and become non linear when angle is big.

Figure 1: Double Pendulum

To predict the behavior of double pendulum is very limited in certain regimes that is initial condition because the extreme sensitivity towards even small perturbations. In addition, Nielsen & B.T. (2013) said that the double pendulum is considered as a model system exhibiting deterministic chaotic behavior and the motion is governed by a set of coupled differential equations. This project we will use four types of methods to solve the double pendulum and its application which are Lagrangian Equation, Range-Kutta Equation, Hamilton’s Equation and lastly Euler Equation. In Stickel (2009), the Lagrangian is representation system of motion and can be used when system is conservative. Determine expressions for the kinetic energy and the potential when apply the Lagrange’s equation (S.Widnall, 2009). The general equation for this method is:-

() – () = 0 …………………………………………………….. (1)

Runge-Kutta equation is generally to solve differential equation numerically and it’s very accurate also well behaved for wide range of problems. Generally, the general solution of Runge-Kutta for double pendulum is:-

w0 = α ……………………………………………………………….. .(2)

wi + 1 = wi +  (mi + m2 + 2m3 + m4) ……………………………….(3)

Which is wi ≈ y(ti) computes an approximate solution. Hamilton’s Equation is used when to solve the trajectories of double pendulum. The formula of Hamilton’s is:-

–       =  ……………………………………………………………(4)

Lastly, Euler-Lagrange equations for θ1 and θ2 are:

 () =  ……………………………………………………………(5)

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

There have been series of studies on double pendulum that means it is a system that although the equations are known and you know of an instant in time the position and velocity of the pendulum exact, it is still not possible to predict how it will behave in the future. Secondly other studies have focused on double pendulum but not even a single study has been carried out on double pendulum and its application in Nigeria.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine double pendulum and its application. Other specific objectives of the study are:

1.  to provide a simple quantitative description of the motion of a double pendulum

2.  to determine the factors affecting the double  pendulum

3.  to determine the moment of inertia of the double pendulum

4.  to demonstrate each of the normal modes in a real double square pendulum

5.  to demonstrate the appearance of chaos in the double pendulum

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

1.   How can a simple quantitative description of the motion of a double pendulum be achieved?

2.  What are the factors affecting the double pendulum?

3.  What is the moment of inertia of the double pendulum?

4.  How can each normal mode in a real double square pendulum be demonstrated?

5.  How can the appearance of chaos in the double pendulum be demonstrated?

1.5 ORGANISATION OF STUDY

This section deals with the organization of the research work in chapters; the chapter one of the research work will cover the background of the study, the statement of problem, the aims and objectives of study, significance and the scope of study, the chapter two will deal with the review of related literature on the effect of double pendulum and its application. The chapter three of the research work will cover the areas of materials and method. The chapter four will cover the experiment and discussion of result while the chapter five will cover the summary, conclusion and possible recommendation for the research work

1.6 METHODOLOGY

The motion of particles and rigid bodies is governed by Newton’s law. For the purpose of the research work, we will derive an alternate approach, placing Newton’s law into a form particularly convenient for multiple degree of freedom systems or systems in complex coordinate systems. This approach results in a set of equations called Lagrange’s equations and some part of Runge-kutta method. They are the beginning of a complex, more mathematical approach to mechanics called analytical dynamics. In this course we will only deal with this method at an elementary level. Even at this simplified level, it is clear that considerable simplification occurs in deriving the equations of motion for complex systems. These two approaches–Newton’s Law and Lagrange’s Equations–are totally compatible. No new physical laws result for one approach vs. the other. Many have argued that Lagrange’s Equations, based upon conservation of energy, are a more fundamental statement of the laws governing the motion of particles and rigid bodies. We shall not enter into this debate.

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the double pendulum and its application will be of immense benefit to the physics and mathematics department in Universities and other tertiary institutions in Nigeria as the findings of the study will educate the entire population under the umbrella of the study on the double pendulum, the factors affecting the performance of the double pendulum, the demonstration of normal modes in the double pendulum and also the demonstration on the appearance of chaos in the double pendulum. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry similar research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the double pendulum and its application will cover on the factors affecting the performance of the double pendulum, the demonstration of normal modes in the double pendulum and also the demonstration on the appearance of chaos in the double pendulum

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Pendulum: A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

Modes: The normal modes of a mechanical system are single frequency solutions to the equations of motion; the most general motion of the system is a superposition of its normal modes

Inertia: a tendency of the double pendulum to do nothing or to remain unchanged.

DOUBLE PENDULUM AND ITS APPLICATION

INTRODUCTION TO LASER BASED INTRUDER ALARM SYSTEM.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

A laser based intruder alarm system as in this project work is a security system based on the use of laser beam. Laser is an Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

          Laser beam in light operated project works are mostly used as means of putting things ‘ON’ remotely or used as trap which when obstructed results in a switching into action another operation.  Burglar alarms widely use this kind of beam which is invisible to the naked eye. Ultrasound signals are also invisible but would be easily detected unlike the laser beam which becomes only visible when blocked by a plain background such as wall and so this could be used as an indicating pointer for many applications such as ammunition or target pointer for bombing aircraft or snipers.

            Furthermore this project intends to use the laser system as a trap which when breached by a burglar, triggers and alarm as an alternating unit

1.1 PROBLEM DEFINATIONS

Detecting a burglar or intruder who is very smart at what he does best is a difficult task and as such to do it without an intruder knowledge is even more difficult. How to detect an intruder without his or her knowledge is the problem needing Engineering solutions.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

                   The aim of this project work is to design and construct a laser based intruder  alarm system with the following objectives.

a)     To develop a laser gun using a GA as diode to generate continuous laser beam for sensing by a detector

b)     To develop  a receiving circuit based on LDR (light dependent resistor) to detect the laser beam

c)     To develop a switching circuit to switch into action a specified load

d)     To design a 555 timer based alarm system

e)     To realize a suitable power supply system unit for the whole circuit

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT

       The means by which our valuables are secured cannot be over emphasized as the saying security is very crucial to all

1.4LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The limitation of this work is the non-availability ofelectric power to keep the system active and operational.

In terms of scope, this work is limited to security alternating system by design and construction in its basic form.

1.5 BLOCK DIAGRAM

     The figure of fig 1.1 shows the block unit which make up the laser based intruder alarm system.

INTRODUCTION TO LASER BASED INTRUDER ALARM SYSTEM.