PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA LEAVES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

  1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON A MEDICINAL PLANT

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

  • PLANT DESCRIPTION [SCIENTIFIC AND NATIVE NAME]
  • AFRICAN PEACH[NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA] AS A MEDICINAL PLANT
  • PHYTOCHEMICALS
  • SOXHLET EXTRACTION

CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHODS

  • COLLECTION OF PLANT MATERIAL
  • PREPARATION AND MATERIALS USED FOR EXTRACTION
  • PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING

CHAPTER FOUR – RESULT AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

ABSTRACT

Methanolic extracts of leaves of the indigenous medicinal plant Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae), commonly called the African peach, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses including malaria, jaundice, diarrhea, hypertension, and tuberculosis treatment. Phytochemical screening of the different parts of the plant confirmed the presence of metabolites like saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones. Steroids were absent in all plant parts. This invariably confirms the folkloric usage of the various plant parts in the treatment of the listed diseases with careful selection of extracting solvent.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Medicinal plants have been the mainstay of traditional herbal medicine amongst rural dwellers worldwide since antiquity to date. The therapeutic use of plants certainly goes back to the Sumerian and the Akkadian civilizations in about the third millennium BC. Hippocrates (ca. 460–377 BC), one of the ancient authors who described medicinal natural products of plant and animal origins, listed approximately 400 different plant species for medicinal purposes. Natural products have been an integral part of the ancient traditional medicine systems, e.g. Chinese, Ayurvedic and Egyptian (Sarker & Nahar, 2007). Over the years they have assumed a very central stage in modern civilization as natural source of chemotherapy as well as amongst scientist in search for alternative sources of drugs.  About 3.4 billion people in the developing world depend on plant-based traditional medicines. This represents about 88 per cent of the world’s inhabitants, who rely mainly on traditional medicine for their primary health care. According to the World Health Organization, a medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which are precursors for chemo-pharmaceutical semi synthesis. Such a plant will have its parts including leaves, roots, rhizomes, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, grains or seeds, employed in the control or treatment of a disease condition and therefore contains chemical components that are medically active. These non-nutrient plant chemical compounds or bioactive components are often referred to as phytochemicals (‘phyto-‘from Greek – phyto meaning ‘plant’) or phytoconstituents and are responsible for protecting the plant against microbial infections or infestations by pests (Abo et al., 1991; Liu, 2004; Nweze et al., 2004; Doughari et al., 2009). The study of natural products on the other hand is called phytochemistry. Phytochemicals have been isolated and characterized from fruits such as grapes and apples, vegetables such as broccoli and onion, spices such as turmeric, beverages such as green tea and red wine, as well as many other sources (Doughari & Obidah, 2008; Doughari et al., 2009).

The science of application of these indigenous or local medicinal remedies including plants for treatment of diseases is currently called ethno pharmacology but the practice dates back since antiquity. Ethno pharmacology has been the mainstay of traditional medicines theentire world and currently is being integrated into mainstream medicine. Different catalogues including De Materia Medica, Historia Plantarum, Species Plantarum have been variously published in attempt to provide scientific information on the medicinal uses of plants. The types of plants and methods of application vary from locality to locality with 80% of rural dwellers relying on them as means of treating various diseases. For example, the use of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and cranberry juice (Vaccinium macrocarpon) to treat urinary tract infections is reported in different manuals of phytotherapy, while species such as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), garlic (Allium sativum) and tee tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) are described as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (Heinrich et al., 2004). A single plant may be used for the treatment of various disease conditions depending on the community. Several ailments including fever, asthma, constipation, esophageal cancer and hypertension have been treated with traditional medicinal plants (Cousins & Huffman, 2002; Saganuwan, 2010). The plants are applied in different forms such as poultices, concoctions of different plant mixtures, infusions as teas or tinctures or as component mixtures in porridges and soups administered in different ways including oral, nasal (smoking, snoffing or steaming), topical (lotions, oils or creams), bathing or rectal (enemas). Different plant parts and components (roots, leaves, stem barks, flowers or their combinations, essential oils) have been employed in the treatment of infectious pathologies in the respiratory system, urinary tract, gastrointestinal and biliary systems, as well as on the skin (Rojas et al., 2001; R´ıos & Recio, 2005; Adekunle  & Adekunle, 2009).

The science of application of these indigenous or local medicinal remedies including plants for treatment of diseases is currently called ethno pharmacology but the practice dates back since antiquity. Ethno pharmacology has been the mainstay of traditional medicines theentire world and currently is being integrated into mainstream medicine. Different catalogues including De Materia Medica, Historia Plantarum, Species Plantarum have been variously published in attempt to provide scientific information on the medicinal uses of plants. The types of plants and methods of application vary from locality to locality with 80% of rural dwellers relying on them as means of treating various diseases. For example, the use of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and cranberry juice (Vaccinium macrocarpon) to treat urinary tract infections is reported in different manuals of phytotherapy, while species such as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), garlic (Allium sativum) and tee tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) are described as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (Heinrich et al., 2004). A single plant may be used for the treatment of various disease conditions depending on the community. Several ailments including fever, asthma, constipation, esophageal cancer and hypertension have been treated with traditional medicinal plants (Cousins & Huffman, 2002; Saganuwan, 2010). The plants are applied in different forms such as poultices, concoctions of different plant mixtures, infusions as teas or tinctures or as component mixtures in porridges and soups administered in different ways including oral, nasal (smoking, snoffing or steaming), topical (lotions, oils or creams), bathing or rectal (enemas). Different plant parts and components (roots, leaves, stem barks, flowers or their combinations, essential oils) have been employed in the treatment of infectious pathologies in the respiratory system, urinary tract, gastrointestinal and biliary systems, as well as on the skin (Rojas et al., 2001; R´ıos & Recio, 2005; Adekunle  & Adekunle, 2009).

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA LEAVES

METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AQUEOUS OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

           Natural products have been, and have remained the cornerstone of health care. Present estimates show that 80% of the world’s population still rely on traditional medicine for their health care needs (Farnsworth et al. 1985).

           It is estimated that there are between 200 000 and 700 000 species of tropical flowering plants that have medicinal properties, this has made traditional medicine relatively cheaper than modern medicine. Over the years there have been alarming reports of multiple drug resistant in medically important strains of bacteria and fungi (Gill, 1992). The persistent increase in antibiotic resistant strains of organisms has led to development of more potent synthetic antibiotics such as the 3rd and 4th generations of cephalosporins by pharmaceutical companies. These new antibiotics are scarce, costly and not affordable particularly in the developing countries and therefore make compliance difficult. There is therefore need for continuous search for new effective and affordable antimicrobial drugs. Local medicinal plants provide a source of new possible antimicrobial drugs (Iwu, 1993). Among plants believed traditionally to have therapeutic effect but which receives little or less scientific research is Enantia chlorantha. Traditionally the bark extract is applied to ulcers and leprous spots for quick healing, decoction is used for washing wounds, bark sap is taken as decoction against diarrhea (Nostro et al. 2000).

Much attention has been recently directed towards plant extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from plants. The use of medicinal plants play a vital role in combating diseases in developing parts of the world where poverty and drug resistance limit access to, and effectiveness of synthetic drugs for chemotherapy. This study is necessary; coming on the heels of an explosion of trado-medicine in Nigeria, as plant-based drugs are seen marketed and sold on the street, offices and even on radio and television. With strong claims being made by trado-medical practitioners about these plants treating a wide array of diseases. Worthy of note is the large number of people who patronize the practitioner without concern to the potency and safety of the said plant product.

The advantages of herbal medicine over orthodox drugs include; minimal or no side effect, consistence potency and the fact that they are well absorbed and distributed in the area of infection. The success story of chemotherapy lies in the continuous search for the new drugs to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains of microorganisms. Natural products of higher plants may provide a new source of antimicrobial agents with potentially novel mechanisms of action. Secondary metabolites from higher plants could serves as defense agents against invading microorganisms (Oyagade et al., 1999). 

Studies have reported the possible use of the plant in conditions such as rickettsia fever, cough and wounds, typhoid fever and infective hepatitis or jaundice (Gill, 1992). It has also been revealed that the plant possesses antipyretic as well as antimicrobial and anti-malarial activities (Adesokan et al., 2007). In Cameroon, stem bark extract of Enantia chlorantha is used to treat jaundice and urinary tract infections (Adjanohoun et al., 1996).

1.1 ENANTIA CHLORANTHA DESCRIPTION

Enantia chlorantha is an ornamental tree belonging to the Annonaceae family commonly known as African yellow wood. It can grow up to 30m high, with dense foliage and spreading crown. It has a fluted and aromatic stem, thick and brown bark with a dark yellow color beneath the bark while the elliptic leaves are about 0.14-0.15m long and 0.05-0.14m broad. It is commonly found in the forest and coastal areas of West Africa, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Vivien et.al, 1985). Enantia chlorantha, locally known as “Erumeru’’ in igbo land; “Awopa”, or “Dokita Igbo” in Yoruba land helps in the treatment of yellow fever infections. The plant is used in trado-medicine for the treatment of conditions such as rickettsia fever, typhoid fever and infective hepatitis (Fasola et.al, 2011).

METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AQUEOUS OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA

GOSSYPIUM HIRSATUM[PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF METHONOLIC EXTRACT OF COTTON PLANT]

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Medicinal plants have been the mainstay of traditional herbal medicine amongst rural dwellers worldwide since antiquity to date. The therapeutic use of plants certainly goes back to the Sumerian and the Akkadian civilizations in about the third millennium BC. Hippocrates (ca. 460–377 BC), one of the ancient authors who described medicinal natural products of plant and animal origins, listed approximately 400 different plant species for medicinal purposes. Natural products have been an integral part of the ancient traditional medicine systems, e.g. Chinese, Ayurvedic and Egyptian (Sarker & Nahar, 2007). Over the years they have assumed a very central stage in modern civilization as natural source of chemotherapy as well as amongst scientist in search for alternative sources of drugs.  About 3.4 billion people in the developing world depend on plant-based traditional medicines. This represents about 88 per cent of the world’s inhabitants, who rely mainly on traditional medicine for their primary health care. According to the World Health Organization, a medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which are precursors for chemo-pharmaceutical semi synthesis. Such a plant will have its parts including leaves, roots, rhizomes, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, grains or seeds, employed in the control or treatment of a disease condition and therefore contains chemical components that are medically active. These non-nutrient plant chemical compounds or bioactive components are often referred to as phytochemicals (‘phyto-‘ from Greek – phyto meaning ‘plant’)  or phytoconstituents and are responsible for protecting the plant against microbial infections or infestations by pests (Abo et al., 1991; Liu, 2004; Nweze et al., 2004; Doughari et al., 2009). The study of natural products on the other hand is called phytochemistry. Phytochemicals have been isolated and characterized from fruits such as grapes and apples, vegetables such as broccoli and onion, spices such as turmeric, beverages such as green tea and red wine, as well as many other sources (Doughari & Obidah, 2008; Doughari et al., 2009).

The science of application of these indigenous or local medicinal remedies including plants for treatment of diseases is currently called ethno pharmacology but the practice dates back since antiquity. Ethno pharmacology has been the mainstay of traditional medicines theentire world and currently is being integrated into mainstream medicine. Different catalogues including De Materia Medica, Historia Plantarum, Species Plantarum have been variously published in attempt to provide scientific information on the medicinal uses of plants. The types of plants and methods of application vary from locality to locality with 80% of rural dwellers relying on them as means of treating various diseases. For example, the use of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and cranberry juice (Vaccinium macrocarpon) to treat urinary tract infections is reported in different manuals of phytotherapy, while species such as lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), garlic (Allium sativum) and tee tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) are described as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (Heinrich et al., 2004). A single plant may be used for the treatment of various disease conditions depending on the community. Several ailments including fever, asthma, constipation, esophageal cancer and hypertension have been treated with traditional medicinal plants (Cousins & Huffman, 2002; Saganuwan, 2010). The plants are applied in different forms such as poultices, concoctions of different plant mixtures, infusions as teas or tinctures or as component mixtures in porridges and soups administered in different ways including oral, nasal (smoking, snoffing or steaming), topical (lotions, oils or creams), bathing or rectal (enemas). Different plant parts and components (roots, leaves, stem barks, flowers or their combinations, essential oils) have been employed in the treatment of infectious pathologies in the respiratory system, urinary tract, gastrointestinal and biliary systems, as well as on the skin (Rojas et al., 2001; R´ıos & Recio, 2005; Adekunle  & Adekunle, 2009).

Medicinal plants are increasingly gaining acceptance even among the literates in urban settlements, probably due to the increasing inefficacy of many modern drugs used for the control of many infections such as typhoid fever, gonorrhoea, and tuberculosis as well as increase in resistance by several bacteria to various antibiotics and the increasing cost of prescription drugs, for the maintenance of personal health (Levy, 1998; Van den Bogaard et al., 2000; Smolinski et al., 2003). Unfortunately, rapid explosion in human population has made it almost impossible for modern health facilities to meet health demands all over the world, thus putting more demands on the use of natural herbal health remedies. Current problems associated with the use of antibiotics, increased prevalence of multiple-drug resistant (MDR) strains of a number of pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and MDR Klebsiela pneumonia has revived the interest in plants with antimicrobial properties (Voravuthikunchai & Kitpipit, 2003). In addition, the increase in cases of opportunistic infections and the advent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients and individuals on immuno suppressive chemotherapy, toxicity of many antifungal and antiviral drugs has imposed pressure on the scientific community and pharmaceutical companies to search alternative and novel drug sources.

GOSSYPIUM HIRSATUM[PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF METHONOLIC EXTRACT OF COTTON PLANT]