DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A VARIABLE RESISTANCE BOX

ABSTRACT

In this project a resistance box has been constructed using locally available materials namely, 1/3 and plywood for the construction of the box, cupper wire, Ferro board, soldering iron, soldering lead, screw and resistors.

The resistance obtainable from the box ranges from 2-11W. The box is fitted with terminal s to allow easy use in physics laboratory practical. At the end of the experiment, the values obtained are very close to those obtainable using imported box.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                       iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                           v

Table of content                                                                              vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Introduction                                                                            1

1.2    Aim of the project                                                                  2

CHAPTER TWO

2.1    Resistor                                                                                  3

2.2    Theory of operation                                                              4

2.3    Classification of resistors                                                     7

2.4    Factor affecting resistances                                                          12

2.5    Reactivity and conductivity                                                  13

2.6    Resistor colour codes                                                           15

2.7    Symbols of resistor across battery                                               17

2.8    Uses of resistors in a circuit                                                 19

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    Design and construction                                                      20

3.2    Other components of the box                                              21

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1    Test and experiments                                                           23

4.2    The box in a simple circuit                                                   24

4.3    Discussions                                                                           26

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Summary                                                                               27

5.2    Conclusion                                                                                      28

5.3    Recommendation                                                                 29

References                                                                                     30

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    INTRODUCTION

In many electrical measurements, standard variable resistances are required. These standard resistances come in various forms and shapes. The resistance box is one of them.

These resistance boxes are imported and in most cases very expensive. Most schools can therefore not afford to buy enough for the use of there students. It is therefore important for technologists to be able to improvise using locally available materials.

Also, during the course of designing and construction, student technologists are really exposed to more practical works in order to acquired a lot of experience on how to make use and handle many laboratory tools, equipments and apparatus.

We have two different, types of resistance boxes which includes:

(a)     Decade type

(b)     Plug type

In decade type, the coil of each resistance are connected in series, and there is a rotary switch which also aids in contact with each other. The switching used are of high quality compared with the resistance of the coils which they are selected.

In plug type, no switches are required instead, their resistance is varied by means of plugs. The resistance coils are formed across gaps with a thick brass bar, and the gaps are formed in the holes being drilled to receive the short circuiting plugs.

1.2    AIM OF THE PROJECT

This project aim at presenting precisely the process of construction of a resistance box, which is an imported equipment in the physics laboratory.

Most practical work involve the use of resistors of fixed value that are fixed into and later removed from the circuit. The replacement of a particular resistor of a given value may lead to destruction of the resistor so an alternative way for guiding against this is by use of variable resistance box.

This resistance box is to provide a resistance range between two and eleven (2-11W), a range commonly used in many practical experiments.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A VARIABLE RESISTANCE BOX

ANTI-PLASMODIAL PROPERTY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON SWISS MICE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                                     pages

Title page                                                                                                             i          

Certification                                                                                                      ii         

Dedication                                                                                                     iii        

Acknowledgements                                                                                       iv        

Table of Contents                                                                                            v         

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                                                                          1

1.1 Background Study                                                                                                   1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                                     2

1.3 Justification                                                                                                           3

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study                                                                               4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review                                                                                                   6

2.1 Definition and history of Malaria                                                                 6

2.1.2 Etiologic and vectors of malaria                                                               7

2.1.3 Epidermiology of malaria                                                                                  8

2.1.4 Life cycle of malaria parasite                                                                   10-13

2.1.5 Molecular cell biology and pathogenesis                                                    13

2.1.6Diagnosis of malaria                                                                                           14

2.1.7 Management of malaria                                                                           18

2.1.7.1 Conventional therapeutic agents                                                            18

2.1.7.2 Drug in pipeline                                                                                              19

2.2 Traditional medicine                                                                                21

2.2.1 Control measures                                                                                               22

2.3 Malaria vaccine                                                                                                     24

2.4 The experimental plant                                                                              25       

2.4.1 Moringa Oleifera                                                                                      26       

2.4.2 Social Economic importance of morning oleifera                                29

2.4.3 Ecology and Cultivation                                                                       29       

CHAPTER THREE                                                               

3.0 Collection of plant                                                                                          42       

3 .1 Control drugs                                                                                            42       

3.2 Experimental animal                                                                                   43       

3.3 Materials and reagent                                                                             43       

3.4 Extraction from the plant seed                                                              43       

3.5 Gas chromatography mass spectrometry                                               44       

3.6. Experimental Design                                                                               50       

3.7 Collection and inoculation of the parasite                                                 50

3.8 Statistical Analysis                                                                                                52

3.9 Presentation and statistical analysis of Data                                   52

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result                                                                                                       53      

4.1 Parasite density at different concentration of the extract of Maringa oliefera seed 55

4.2 Percentage difference in parasitaemia inhibition at different concentration among   seed                                                                  58

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion                                                                                                             60

5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                   61     

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                                  62

ABSTRACT

Malaria is an increasing worldwide threat, with more than three hundred million infections and one million deaths every year. Due to the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance, the continuous search for antimalarial agents. This study was conducted to determine the antimalarial efficacy of Moringa oleifera Seed extract in Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei .After extraction, phytochemical screening and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening of the extract, the mice were grouped into six groups, five per group. Designated  as 40% treated with 40mg/kg of the Maringa oliefera seed extract, 60% treated with 60mg/kg, 80% treated with 80mg/kg,100% treated with 100mg/kg and positive control treated with distilled water while negative control was given choloroquone.  For the period of 3 days at 12 hours interval.  Parasite density was determine by preparing of thick and thin blood film, stain with Giemsa stain and view under microscope to determine the antiplamodial activity of the extract

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

 Since the beginning of human civilization, medicinal plants have been used by mankind for its therapeutic value. Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. Many of these isolations were based on the uses of the agents in traditional medicine. The plant-based, traditional medicine systems continues to play an essential role in health care, with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care (Owolabi et al., 2007). Medicinal plants are plants containing inherent active ingredients used to cure disease or relieve pain (Okigbo et al., 2008). The medicinal properties of plants could be based on the antioxidant, antimicrobial antipyretic effects of the phytochemicals in them (Cowman, 1999; Adesokan et al., 2008). The ancient texts like Rig Veda (4500-1600 BC) and Atharva Veda mention the use of several plants as medicine. The books on ayurvedic medicine such as Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita refer to the use of more than 700 herbs (Jain, 1968). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1977) “a medicinal plant” is any plant, which in one or more of its organ contains substances that can be used for the therapeutic purposes (Okigbo, 2009). The term “herbal drug” determines the part/parts of a plant (leaves, flowers, seed, roots, barks, stems, etc.) used for preparing medicines.

ANTI-PLASMODIAL PROPERTY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON SWISS MICE