This research work treats marketing research as instrument in the success of small-scale enterprises. The statement of problem of this study deems it fit to verify and investigate application of marketing research. Concept in small-scale enterprises. This project also wants to look at marketing research if it can serve as tools effectively and efficiently and also if there is any room for improvement. The objective of the study is endeavoured to examined the problem involved in application of marketing research in small-scale enterprises.

The research methodology of this study is based on primary and secondary data, the research at the Global Soap and Detergent Industries covers all the departments in the organization, the population size comprises 75 workers and only 40 staff Sample size was selected, this study adopts simple percentage technique to present and analyze.

The data gathered via questionnaire, the test and re-test method was also employed in the study to determine the reliability of the data collected from the respondents.



The world of business today is rapidly changing and only a fast growing organization and individual keeps pace with these changes.

Perhaps, the complexity involved in business activities technological changes makes business executives or individual to go to bed late and wake up early. As such for survival and growth of small-scale enterprises, specialist and experts work extremely, using research on marketing as a source of collecting vital information which will lead to the success of small-scale enterprises.

In respect of information gathered, research also analyzes channels of distribution and making communication net. In addition, the economic crisis have created ken completion among enterprises have to consciously adjust to the changing need of the society.

Marketing research is a fact-finding process logical and essential for successful marketing in good decision making and adaptability.


It is important for small-scale enterprises to understand and fully appropriate the importance of the principles of marketing research.

 From experience small-scale enterprises are provided to suit the need of customers by providing a service and products that are desired by the customers.

    This can be properly achieved through marketing research. in practice, there is virtual neglect of the customers who should be their focal points of satisfaction.

  1. Is the application of marketing research to small-scale enterprises effective and efficient in identifying area where bad policy and bad decision are taken?
  2. Is there any specific or significant difference on the level of product in Global Soap and Detergent Nigeria Limited and other small-scale enterprises?
  3. Is there room for improvement on the performance of Global Soap and 1etergent Production and or the manner in which services are offered?
  4. Will marketing in which research information and initiative on small-scale enterprises are applied be able to identify the present desire of the customers, such that the enterprises will keep pace with changes, grow and develop very well.


To this end, the main objectives are to examine marketing research as a variable used for the success of small-scale enterprises and objectives of this study are as follows:

a. To examine the probe involved in application of marketing research in small-scale enterprises.

b. To examine the relationship between decision-making and marketing research.

c. To examine the scales of activities whether if conforms with the existing companies target market and also an aspect of marketing research.

d. To examine the external environment of small-scale enterprises within which it operated and also putting into consideration economic environment at present and future.

e. To examine the prices and output of small-scale enterprises in different market situation.


The scope of this research work is to highlight the importance of marketing research as a variable for a successful small-scale enterprise. It also dwells extensively on the relationship between decision making, marketing research is applied to small-scale enterprises with reference to Global Soap and Detergent Industry Limited, Ilorin, Kwara State.

Moreso, this research also study the external environment and its operation in a highly competitive Nigerians up coming small-scale enterprises and the effect of those competitive action on small-scale enterprise. a. To examine the probe involved in application of marketing research in small-scale enterprise.


The importance of this study is as follows: it will help small-scale enterprises to produce or offer services that are desired by customers. This study will give information that is important for the development of small-scale enterprises.

This study will identify the strength and weakness of enterprises and to know its threats and opportunities.

This study also gives a financial planning procedure with an effective feedback mechanism for an organization to accomplish its objectives.





Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on earth with its solid state ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam).

Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Water covers 71% of the earth’s surfaces and is vital for all known forms of life. On earth’s surface 96.5%of the planet’s water is found in oceans, 1.7% in ground water, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and o.oo1% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air) and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the earths water ground water. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the earth’s fresh water (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufacture products.

Water on earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transportation (evapotranspiration) condensation, precipitation, run off, usually reaching the sea. Traporarion and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.



–        Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. It is tasteless and odorless. The intrinsic colour of water and ice is a very slight blue hue, although both appear colorless in small quantities.

–        Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by the hydrogen – oxygen or OH bonds.

–        Water is a good polar solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water, e.g. salts, sugars, acids, alkalis and some gases especially oxygen, carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water fearing) substance.

–        Most of the major components in cells (proteins, DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water.

–        Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increase we with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride.

–        The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, on the top of Mt. Everest water boil at 680c (154 o f) compared to 100oc (212) at sea level. Conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperature of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid

At 4181.3J (kg.k), water has a high specific heat capacity, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ. mol-1). Both of its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate earth’s climate by buffering large fluctuation in temperature

–        The density of liquid water is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 1b/cu ft) at 4oc.

–        Water forms an zoetrope with many other solvents.

–        Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen.

–        As an oxide of hydrogen, water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen – containing compound burns or react with oxygen or oxygen containing compounds


Rain water, oceans, river, lakes, streams, ponds, and spring are natural sources of water.

Rain water: Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.

Surface water: Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers and lakes comes from rain and streams are called surface water. The water in rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of snow on mountains. Rivers flow into the sea.

Underground water: Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on the nonporous rocks. Sometimes due to high pressure this water sprouts out in the form of springs. It can be obtained by digging wells, sinking tubes well e.t.c.





Imagine you went for an occasion or you even organized the occasion yourself and the occasion was fun and enjoyable, so when the occasion to also have a taste of what happened during the occasion.  That is just exactly what video camera are meant for.  This video camera helps to keep records of events like wedding, birthday and naming ceremonies so that they can be referred to in future any time you feel like watching of re-experiencing the occasion.

Recent developments have made it possible to store video image on magnetic disk, as on a computer hard disk.  This is done by converting the image to digital form to store it.  The early problem was that to obtain reasonable resolution requirement storing a massive amount of data the result is that only a limited number of image to digital form to store it.  The early problem was that to obtain reasonable resolution requirement storing a massive amount of data the result is that only a limited number of image could be stored.  A reasonable quality colour picture with a resolution of 681 x 582 pixels has 396,000 picture elements.  This would need about 1/3 mega byte (MB) of disk storage (Paul, 1989).


Video Recording is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. (Tsunami, 2004).

Video recording can also be define as a consumer electronic device that record video in a digital or analog format to a disk drive (Tunc, 1983).

  2. Video recording is a very important tool than written records; this is because it produces accurate and convincing record of contemporary life (Hansama, 1996).
  3. Video is very important for the purpose of recording live shows and happy moment s because the video camera can replay the happy moments such as weddings and birthdays.
  4. Video cameras can be a perfect witness under some circumstances.  Video surveillance when we deal with some cases which involves robbery, during trafficking and motor vehicle violations.

The quality of video tapes program is indistinguishable from the original picture and sound with an excellent broadcast quality.  The tapes can be raised and also duplicated without loss of quality in picture or sound.  The video tape can also be replayed immediately and the recording can be analyzed by the technicians and the directors.  This leads to saving of time.  Another major advantage is that the video tapes picture and sound can be edited or modified separately.  Unwanted or faulty sections can be deleted and also replaced by some other materials.  Video taped programs can be easily stored as an entire program or single sections of even still shots that can be rescued and manipulated for further usage (Tsunam, 2004).    

  2. Digital Video:- The short comings in the analog video like the very hug size and many others led to the development of the digital video.  The digital video is much smaller in size and more portable compared to the analog video.  (Tsunami, 2004). An ideal digital video system has the same characteristics as an ideal analog system.  Both of them are totally transparent and reproduce the original applied have form without error.
  3. Analog Video: – There were the first methods used in television transmission and recording and the signal format s were essentially determined by requirements of cathode ray tube as a display.  But the short coming in the analog production process has led to the development the digital production process (Shukul, 2008).

The aim of this project is to empirically engage in the study of how to combine physics, science and entrepreneurship in the development of mankind.  In view of this the specific objectives of our project are to:

  1. Understand the physics underlying the development of video recording.
  2. The Historical development of the various methods of video recordings.
  3. Engage in a real shooting, editing and recording of an event using video recording techniques available.
  4. Provide how the knowledge pointed can be used to set –up a small scale business of video recording.
  5. Show how the infirmity of a young SLT gradual can be used to provide jobs rather than seeking for white colour enterprises.
  6. Possibly shown how the spirit of entrepreneurship can be developed in each and every one of us in order to stimulate the economic growth of each one of us, our society, our state and countries.



This paper discuss the elemental composition and concentration of Gliricidia sepium leaves by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence.  The element present are Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Also discuss on  Phytochemicals of the leaves wish contain alkaloids, tannins ,and saponins. The used analytical method, the experiment setup and the procedure of the sample preparation are presented.



       Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Toxic plants even have use in pharmaceutical development. (Division Magnoliophyta: eatu General Fres”.. 1993). Angiosperms (flowering plants) were the original source of most plant medicines. Some herbs and spices come from flowering plants.

Medicinal plants have been used for centuries, worldwide. Manuscripts have been found detailing medicinal plants and their uses as early as 2700 B.C.E. Before the technological advancements of the Industrial Revolution, humans relied heavily on remedies found in nature to treat illness and disease. Herbs were also used widely in religious and spiritual tradition and practice.

Several plants have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. St. John’s wort was traditionally used by American Indians to treat wounds and pain through a tea made from the leaves. Onions, garlic and other members of the allium family are also known for their disinfectant qualities. Applying a slice of onion directly to a would can help ease pain and decrease infection. Mohican and Penobscot Indians used wild indigo to treat snake bites, minor cuts and bruises. Yarrow’s use in poultices for wounds goes back to the time of ancient Greece. The plant is scientifically proven to have blood-clotting properties, making it a good natural remedy for stemming the flow of blood. (Duke 1993)

The use of medicinal plants can be found in the alternative therapies botanical medicine and herbalism, as well as in conventional medicine. Medicinal plants contain chemical substances that have beneficial properties to the body. While alternative medicine practitioners use only the leaves, stems, roots and berry extracts to treat illness, conventional medicine practitioners isolate and extract medicinal plants’ healing properties and use them as prescription drug ingredients.

Plants have been used in treating human diseases for thousands of years. Some 60,000 years ago, it appears that Neanderthal man valued herbs as medicinal agents; this conclusion is based on a grave in Iran in which pollen grains of eight medicinal plants were found (Solecki and Shanidar 1975). One of these allegedly ancient medicinal herbs, yarrow, is discussed in this work as a modern medicinal plant.

Up until the 18th century, the professions of doctor and botanist were closely linked. Indeed, the first modern botanic gardens, which were founded in 16th century Italy, in Pisa, Padova and Florence, were medicinal plant gardens attached to medical faculties or schools.

The use of medicinal plants is not just a custom of the distant past. Perhaps 90% of the world’s population still relies completely on raw herbs and unrefined extracts as medicines (Duke 1985). A 1997 survey showed that 23% of Canadians have used herbal medicines. In addition, as much as 25% of modern pharmaceutical drugs contain plant ingredients (Duke 1993).

Plant have been used for medicinal purpose for many centuries.

For many years the role and metabolic function of trace element in human body have been intensively investigate. Trace element are essential for the function of the human body. X-ray fluorescence technique for the analysis of medicinal plants. The important advanges of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence for the quantitative and qualitative analysis are :

  • simultaneous determination of many elements
  • determination in a wide concentration range
  • simple and fast sample preparation and
  • much lower equipment cost than that of a convention  wavelength x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, especially when a radioactive is used instead of x-ray tube.


Alternant hera nodiflora  R.   Br. ( Amaranthaceae)

Vernacular name : Dagunro (Yoruba)

As a pain reliever : The leaves are put on a hot stone and later smeared with white palm oil.

The  leaves and  palm  oil are then used to massage the affected part of the body.

Ceiosia trtgyna L. (Amaranthaceae)

Vernacular name : Ata (Yoruba)

As a treatment for guinea worm infection: The leaves together with three alligator pepper seeds (Amomum subulatum) are ground. Seven incisions are made on the affected part and the mixture rubbed in.
Gomphreno gtobosa  L.-Bachelor’s button (Amaranthaceae)

Vernacular name : Kandiri (Hausa)

As a treatment for body sore: The feaves are crushed into a paste which is applied 10 the affected part.




Title page




Table of Contents

Lists of Tables



Introduction and Literacy review

Epidemiology studies

Literature review


Materials and Methods

Sample collection

Sample analysis









Table 1: Parasitic profile of each fruits sample examined from post office market in Ilorin.


        The study to determine the parasitological contamination of fruits was carried out in post office Ilorin, three different types of fruits wee sampled and all were infected with helminthes eggs. Using sedimentation analysis. This suggesting existence of a great risk of acquiring intestinal parasites by eating improperly washed fruits.



Indigenous fruits are known to play major role in the nutrient livelihood of the religion population especially in the rural area where there is poor socio-economic condition (Adeboye and Adebayo 2008).

Unfortunately, people do not wash them properly before eating. The climate and topography of south – west Nigeria are suitable for growth of these fruits thought-out the year, using rain during wet season ad irrigation during dry season. These two sources of water was highly polluted with human and animal faced which represent high risk to farmers and consumes of fruits products.

Markets fruits are often contaminated by eggs of human intestine nematodes where human and animal faeces are extensively used as fertilize and refuse waste water. This indirect reserve of river water contains a substantial percentage of munipal refuse and sewage. This practice is gaining prominence in Nigeria as a result of the crowing cost of mineral fertilizer and high demand of basis fruits as a nutrient diet due to poor. Socio – economic condition (Damen and Ban wat 2007).


This have indicated that area of south west Nigeria are characterized by endemic inlmthid disiasen in population where raw untreated waste water imgated fmits generthy eaten unwashed and uncoked, my lead to parasite infestation (egah 2007)

In this content of fmits and porapties there is need for these avaneas with this increasing population, poor socio-economic conditions, urbanization and poor sanitation parasites living organisms which receive nourishment and shelter from other organism (hosts) where they live parasite is one of the “NATURE HANGMENT” because parasitic disease continue to be a major public health problem all over the world with associated high degree of morbidity and mortality.

According to WHO, parasites are one of the leading cause of death after HIV/AIDS and also tuberculosis. One out of ten living persons suffers from one or more seven major tropical disease of which five are parasitic in nature, out of 60 millions deaths in the world, more than 25th are accounted to parasites and with necessary population, urbanization industrialization poor. Socio-economic condition and poor sanitation facilities in developing countries, deforestation, unplanned reforestation and climate changes, some diseases which were previously unrecognized are emerging (Arora and Arora 2002).

Ethnic eating habits, poverty, tourism to exotic areas and environmental regradation have lead to emergence of food borne parasitic infection (Arora and Arora 2008).

It has been estimated that human harbors about 300 species of parasites worms and areas. To species of protozoa some of these parasites may have been required from field especially raw fruits, water and animals. Common food borne parasites include three, types of worms (uzotodes tremeadodes and neonelodes and several protozoa (Zoyle, 2003).

Facilities in these developing country like Nigeria to improve the parasite potential effect on public and healthcare issue to economic. Consequences of peoples productivity and agricultural loss are not readily available. Therefore the general objectives of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites on some fruits at post – office of Ilorin.


–       Abera et al (2010) Ereplorethe prevalence of intestinal parasites in food handlers of Ethiopia. One hundred and fifty eight  (41.1%) food handlers had intestinal parasites of these, 25 (6.5%) were suffering from diarrhea. In his studies h found nine species of intestinal parasites, of parasites recovered two protozoa (E. histilytical 12.76% and G. Lanblia 7.0%) and seven helminthes (A. lumbricoides, 11.7%, hook work, 80%, S. Stercoralis; 2.86% S. Mansoni, 1.8%, Taenia species, 1.3%, H, Nana, 0.5% and T. trodera, 0.5%) were detected.





Tiger nut is a tuber that is grown in the soil. It has a dimension ranging from 6-10 mm and occurs in different varieties. The colour is brown and has a sweet flavor when eaten. Tiger nut has been used extensively mainly for human consumption in Spain (Mason, 2008; Tiger nuts Traders, 2009). Tiger nuts are prepared and eaten cold as snacks. The milk can be extracted, treated and bottled. The flour is used to make cakes and biscuits and the oil is used for cooking (Wise, 2009). In United Kingdom, tiger nut is superb bait for carp fishing (Wise, 2009).

In Nigeria, the utilization of tiger nut is highly limited in spite of the fact that tiger nut is cultivated widely in the Northern part of the country. Tiger nuts are eaten raw mainly as snacks or fried and eaten mixed with roasted groundnuts (Abaejoh et al., 2006).

Kofi (1990) reported that sweetened tiger nut extract are bottled and sold in Ghana.

Recently, there is awareness for increased utilization of tiger nut (Belewu and Abodunrin, 2006; Belewu and Belewu, 2007; Ade-Omowaye et al., 2008; Ukwuru et al., 2008). Tiger nuts are valued for their highly nutritious starch content, dietary fibre and carbohydrate (Umene and Enebeli, 1997) and are rich in sucrose (17.4-20.0%), fat (25.5%), protein (8.0%) (Kordyias, 1990; Temple et al., 1990). Tiger nut is also rich in mineral content such as sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and traces of copper (Omode et al.,995; Oladele and Aina, 2007). The dietary fibre content of tiger nut is effective in the treatment and prevention of diseases such colon cancer, coronary heart diseases, obesity, diabetes and gastro-intestinal disorders (Anderson et al., 1994).

Tiger nut tubers are diuretic and can be used as stimulant and tonic (Chopral et al.1986) and in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery and excessive thirst (Chevalier, 1996). In addition, tiger nut has been demonstrated to contain higher essential amino acids than those proposed in the protein standard by FAO/WHO (1995) for satisfying adult needs for protein (Bosch and Alegna, 2005). Researchers have developed phyto milk of acceptable quality from tiger nut tubers (Abaejo et al., 2006; Ukwuru et al., 2008). Possible industrial application of tiger nut tubers has also been investigated (Oderinde and Tahir, 1988).

Tiger nut tubers can be processed in different ways to obtain different products. Pak. J. Nutr., 10 (2): 101-105, 2011-102. These products are of high nutritional values and Collins and Lyne (1979). The samples were serial economic potentials, hence deserve a greater attention diluted and an aliquot was plated in duplicate plates offhand it is currently given. As a crop that is grown widely in plate count agar for bacteria and potato dextrose agar for Nigeria, its availability is guaranteed. What are currently moulds. The plates were incubated at 37 C, 24 h and militating against the utilization of tiger nut is the little 25 C, 3 days for bacteria and moulds respectively. Awareness of the importance of this plant. The following Counts were carried out on plates containing 30-300 are possible derivatives of tiger nut: flour, milk, oil, cake, colonies using a colony counter and expressed as cream cheese, chocolate, biscuits, cookies, etc. The colony forming unit (cfu).objective of this research was to develop new products from tigernut tubers in other to increase the utilization of tiger nut.


Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus var. sativa) as a plant, its derivatives/uses and benefits are mainly discussed. The hunt for lesser known and un-exploited crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been on the high side now to retain the equilibrium between population growth and agricultural productivity, particularly in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Tiger nut is an underutilized crop of the family Cyperaceae, which produces rhizomes from the base and tubers that are somewhat spherical.

Pollination is by wind. Young tubers are white, while older tubers are covered by a yellow outer membrane; they are usually found within six inches of the ground surface. Vegetative colonies of its plants are often produced from the tubers and their rhizomes. They are usually preserved by sun drying for about three months before storage. It can be eaten raw, dried, roasted, or grated and can be subjected to further processing. Its uses in cooking and as fuel, baking flour, fish baits; milk in lieu of cow’s milk is outlined. Regarding the plant high percentage of carbohydrates (mono- and di-), fibre, and oil (especially oleic acid) and its moderately high level of protein, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorous), and vitamins C and E makes it a good source of food for humans and animals. It is a cheap source of nutrition for both the rich and the poor. The health benefits reflect reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, which is good for sports’ men and women and those intending to lose weight; it is also said to serve as a cure for flatulence and diarrhea, and as control against heart attacks, thrombosis and colon cancer, among others. The presence of anti-nutrients like polyphones and tannins can be eliminated by boiling in water. The tiger nut, though under-utilized, is still a good food snack for all. There is a need for awareness creation on tiger nut’s inherent nutritional properties.

The effects of Cyperus esculentus tuber oil based meal on the growth performance and its absorption in some selected organs (hearts, kidney, brain and liver) of rats were investigated.






In the curlinary arts the word herb refers to any green or bein part of a plant used for seasoning and flavouring a recipe but not used as the main ingredient.

Hebs are natural form of wide plants or their parts such as plower, ol, stem rich in bioactive chemical compounds so called herbiceuticals”. The main difference between pharmaceutical drug and herbal principles is their isolation method and purification level.

Herbs  are ric in natural complex chemicals, bioactive herbal principles (whole herbs, extracts or concentrates) may be used as “bioactive herbal formulations” as combinations of different active chemicals of plants or their parts combined with know enzyme inhibitoes, vitamins and alkalizing minerals that have in healt promoting, disease preventing or semi medional properties.


Herbs are harvested from leaves of herbaeous (meaning nonwoody) plants. Here are some types of herbs

  • Thyme: it is an antisoptic, its good asa a mouth rinse when infused in hot water ( cool and strain), also good for killing germs around your house, infuse, and use in a spray bottle with a 5m amt of white vinegar and top off with distilled water.
  • Garlic: when planting your own herbs, garlic is a great addition to your garden. It is one of those edible herbs that is aluesome in just about anything you put it in. it is more of an onion.
  • Bay leaf: this is great in soups and stews and is grown as a bush in the wild that get quite large. However, in a small pot in your kitchen, it is quite easy to monitors.
  • Bail: it is quite popular as for as edible herbs. It is great in tomato sources and other tomato dishes. It requires a lot of sun, and demands that you pinch off the ripe leaves so it will continue to get bigger.
  • Chives: when it comes to the type of herbs you put in your food on a regular basis, you donts want to forget about chives. As far as adile herbs go. Chives are great in potatoes, dips and even as a garnish to a lot of creamy soups. They grow up like tall grass and easily clipped when needed.
  • Dill:     it is one of the common  herbs that is not only great in dips and solad dressings, bat it is a wonderful smelling plant just to have in the garden

        Herbs (there are many, but here are some): cinnamon, peppermint garlic, chivers (yes), angelic rosemary, sunflower, dogrose, bay, aloevera, balm of gilead, dill, foxglove etc

Remember, while some herbs we use oiten in meals, others, are poisonous. Learn about them before you even touch them. Foxglove. For example, while it may be used in medicine to treat heart problems, are poisonous otherwise.


Herbs can be beneficial for those who are tying to cut back on fat, sugar and salt in their foods. Pay adding extra flovour to a dish with herbs. You may be able to reduce the amount of fats from ingredients such as cheese, butter or oil. Some herbs can also in decreasing the need for added salt in a recipe, this include dill seeds. Garlic power e.t.c here is the uses of some herbs.

  Garlic Used to treat yeast infections in women, used as an antibiotic to reduce cholesterol and high blood pressure. It is also used in preparing salad and salad dressing
  Thyme It is crushed and applied to clean cuts and abrasious as an antisoptic. In tea form, it is used for colds menstrual cramps and to calm the stomach.
  Chamomile  It is used as a sedative. It also reduces fever relieves digestive ailments.
  Cinnamon It is used to control blood sugar levels, and it also treats urinary tract and yeast infections.
  Cloves Used as a wound antiseptic, also used to treat diarrhea.
  Angelica rosemary Used to calm the digestive system, and in oil form can be rubbed into muscles to relieve soreness and increase circulation.
  basil Goes well with all tomato dishes cooled or fresh, solad dressing etc
  Dill Used in salad dessing and also serve as wonderful smelling plant just to have in the garden.
  Bay leaf Used in soup, stew, sauces and also add a rustic flavor to onion.



Obesity is from the Latin ‘‘Obesitas’’, which means ‘stout’, ‘fat’, or ‘plump’. Therefore, obesity is defined as a medical condition in which excess body fat accumulated to the extent that it may adverse effect on health, leading to reduce in life expectancy and increase in health problems (Anon, 1999). In another word, obesity is described as a result of too much of fat accumulates in the body (Janette 2005).

            A person is normally considered obese when his or her weight is 20% over the normal body-weight for height and age and the Body Mass Index (BMI) measures 30 and more or people normally considered obese, when their Body Mass Index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of the person’s height in meters, exceeds 30kg/m2.

            Body Mass Index (BMI) is measure of overweight and obesity is calculated as:

                                                BMI (kg/m2) =         weight (kg)

                                                                                     height (m2)

For example, an adult of height 1.74cms, weight = 70kg has a BMI OF;

BMI (kg/m2) = 70



            Our survival are killing us, the human body has evolved into a fat-hoarding machine. Foods that our body doesn’t immediately use for energy get quickly stored as fat, and we convert this fat back into fuel for our brains and muscles when food is scarce. This was great for our ancestors who don’t know when their next meal would be. But for us, with our drive-through restaurants and jam-packed junk food aisles, their survival mechanism is wreaking havoc on our health (anon,1999).

            Genes plays a strong role in determining obesity, some if us store fat more easily and shed it less readily than other even if we follow the procedure of eating and exercise program. Obesity is further defined as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-to-hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors. BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat (Dundee, 2001)

            In children, a health weight with age and sex, obesity in children and adolescent is defined not as an absolute number, but as in relation to a historical group, such that obesity is a BMI ratio greater than the 95th percentile.

The internationally accepted ranges of BMI are:

Underweight    = < 18.5

Normal         = 18.5 – 24.9

Overweight     = 25 – 29.9

Obesity         = 30 – 39.9

Extreme obesity = > 40

            Too much unnecessary fat build up makes a person obese. This could be due to a several cause; some of these instances could be the result of an organic cause, such as thyroid hormone deficiency, excessive adrenal cortisone or female sex hormone. Sometimes it can be the result of damage to a part of the lower brain that is in charge of organ satisfaction, however, not nearly all cases full under this class. The biggest reason for obesity is clearly known to be due to the result of modern lifestyle (NHS).

            Overweight has been defined as an excess of total or expected ”normal” body weight, including all tissue components (muscle, bone, water and fat) of body composition. Therefore, extreme obesity is often associated with shortened in life expectancy.

            In practice, the terms obesity and overweight are often used interchangeably to refer to excess body fat, but ideally, an index of obesity should reflect on only adipose tissue and independent of height, body fluids and muscle and skeleton (US 1999).  


Many factors that may cause obesity are beyond a person’s control. Some of the factors include;


Obesity tends to rain in families, which could signify a genetic cause, or simply a lifestyles cause. Children adopt the habit of their parents. In this factor, a child who said to has an overweight parent and eats high calorie food and inactive will likely become overweight too. However, if the family adopts health food and physical activities habits, the child chance of being overweight or obese is reduced.

            Study of identical twins that have been raised apart shows that genes have a strong influence on a person’s weight. Over weight and obesity tends to rain in families. Your chance of being overweight are greater if one or both of your parents are overweight or obese (NIH, 2005).


Regardless of whether a person has a pronspensity towards obesity, he or she may influence obesity by lifestyle changes. Also drastic changes in our society over the past 30 years have thrown us into an environment that our bodies were not building for. We spend more time sitting, driving and eating big portion of high calories, and high fat-blood than ever before and in other word, we spend less time being physically active. Also alcohol contributes to the cause of obesity because it is a fermentation product which contains a lot of calories, and heavy drinkers are often overweight.


Depression, sadness, anxiety, stress and other psychological conditions may affect the amount of foods one eats and or amount of exercise one engage in. Some people eat more than usual when they are bored, angry. Overtime or eating will lead to weight gain and may cause overweight or obesity (Clevel 2000).




Fresh samples of vegetable salad collected from different food outlet in Ilorin metropolis were evaluated for bacteria loads, at a temperature of 250c and the PH of the samples which is 3.7 using spread plate agar dilution method, the bacteria load ranges from 1.6×104cfu/g to 11.5×104cfu/g and faecal coliform ranges from 1.6×104cfu/g to 4.6×104cfu/g associated with the salad from majority of the samples. Microorganism associated with vegetable salad include,Bacillus anthracis mycobacterium spp, Brucella spp, Listeria monocytogenis, Yersima enterolytia, clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella spp and M. Paratuberculosis



        Vegetables are most consumed as salads or cooked in savory or salty dishes. While culinary fruits are usually sweet and used for deserts, but it is not the universal rule (Harri Vaino, Franca Bianchini, 2003).Some vegetable can be consumed raw, some may be eaten cooked and some must be cooked to destroy certain natural toxins or microbes in egg plant, unripe tomatoes, day lily, winter melon, fiddle head fern, and most kinds of legume/beans (such as common beans)

        The yellow/orange colors of fruits and vegetable are due to the presence of carotenoids, which are also affected by normal cooking processes or changes in pH. Chlorophyll is affected by the pH and it changes to olive green in acid conditions, and to bright green in alkaline conditions. Some of the acids are released in steam during cooking without a cover. The red/blue coloring of some fruits and vegetables (e.g., blackberries and red cabbage) are due to anthocyanins, which are sensitive to changes in pH. When the pH is natural, the pigments are purple, when acidic, red, and when alkaline, blue. These pigments are quite water-soluble. This property can be used in rudimentary testing of pH.

        Vegetables, as it name implies, is an edible plant or part of a plant, other than a fruit, planned for cooking or eating raw (Harri Vainio, Franca Bianchini,2003).

        During harvesting and transportation, raw vegetables may be bruised resulting in the release of plant nutrient, and thereby, providing substrates for microorganism present on the surface of the vegetables to grow. With a view of such exposure to pathogens, vegetables have been associated with the outbreaks of food borne disease in many countries (Alice, 2001).

        Bacteria are commonly found on raw foods like salads, eggs, beef, vegetables, cheese,  ice cream, unpastaurized milk, fish, fresh fruits, canned foods mushrooms etc(Noah,2009;Fry et al., 2005)

        Outbreaks of staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus and proteus food poisons after eating in a restaurant have been reported by some researchers in 2001, Norinaga Miwa reported on outbreak of staphylococcus aureus food poison due to the consumption of eggs in boxed launches prepared at their company cafeteria.(Norinaga et al). Aerobic colony counts, coliform and enterococci enumeration are useful and most often used means of accessing overall sanitation in the environments of food service establishment. (Collins, 1964; Jay, 1978, Moyo and Baudi, 2004).

        Effective cleaning is of prime importance since it not only removes gross contaminations but also any residues that could support the subsequent survivals and growth of microorganisms.(Clark,1965).As  a result of inadequate cleaning microorganism may persists on utensil and work surfaces and build in numbers(Fraizer and Westhoff,1988).The main objectives of sanitations is to minimize the access of microorganisms in food from various  sources    at    all      stages    of handling  (Marrioat,1989,cords and Dychdala,1993)

        Salad may be served at any point during a meal, such as: appetizer salads, light salads to stimulate the appetite as the first course of the meal, Dessert salads, sweet version often containing fruit, gelatin and or whipped cream

        In recent years, salad has become a very popular components of menu served in birthdays and wedding parties; they are also sold in fast food outlets in most major cities in Nigeria.

        Examples of different parts of plants used as vegetables are: coriander leaf, stem, flower bulbs, Leaves, leaf sheaths, leek, Tuber, Roots stem shoots, stem bulbs etc





CHLOROPHYII (also chlorophyI) is a green pigment found in cyaobacteria and the chloroplast of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words chloros (Green) and phyllon (leaf). chlorophyII is an extremely important bimolecular, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorbed energy from light. chlorophyII absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. However, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portion of the spectrum hence the green colour of chlorophyII containing tissues. cholorophyII was first isolated by Joseph Bienaime, Caventou and Pierre, Joseph Pelletier in 1817.

chlorphyII gives leaves their green colour and absorbed light that is also used in photosynthesis.

chlorophyII is found in high concentrations in chloroplasts of plant cells. chlorophyII is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light.

The two currently accepted photosynthesis units are photo system II and photo system I, which have their own distinct reaction center chlorophyIIs, named p680 and p700, respectively. These pigments are named after the wavelength (in nanometers) of their red-peak absorption maximum. The identity function and spectral properties of the types of chlorophyII in each photosystem are distinct and determined by each other and the protein structure surrounding them. Once extracted from the protein into a solvent (such as acetone or methanol), (4) (5) (6) these chlorophyII pigments can be separated in a sample paper chromatography experiment and, based on the number of polar group between chlorophyII a and chlorophyII b, will chemically separate out on the paper.

The function of the reaction center cholorophyII is to use the energy absorbed by and transferred to it from the other chlorophyII pigments in the photosystem to undergo a change separation, a specific redox reaction in which the chlorophyII donates an electron into a series of molecular intermediate called an electron transport chain. The charge reaction center chlorophyII (P680+) is then reduced back to its ground state by accepting an electron. In photosystem II, the electron that reduces P680+ ultimately comes from the oxidation of water into O2 and H+ through several intermediate. This reaction is how photosynthetic organism such as plants produce O2 gas, and is the source for practically all the O2 in earth’s atmosphere. Photosystem I typically works in series with photosystem II, thus the P700+ of photosystem I is usually reduced, via many intermediates in the thylakoid membrane, by electron ultimately from photo system II. Electron transfer reactions in the thylakoid membrane are complex, however, and the source of electrons used to reduce P700+ can vary.

The electron flow produce by the reaction center chlorophyII pigments is used to shuttle H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, setting up a chemiosmotic potential used mainly to produce ATP chemical energy’s and those electrons ultimately reduce NADP+ to NADPH, a universal reductant used to reduce CO2 into sugars as well as for other biosynthetic reduction.

Reaction center chlorophyII – protein complexes are capable   of directly absorbing light and performing charge separation events without other chlorophyII pigments, but the absorption cross section (the likelihood of absorbing a photon under a given light intensity) is small. Thus, the remaining chlorophyII in the photosystem and antenna pigment protein complexes associated with the photosystem all cooperatively absorb and funnel light energy to the reaction center. Beside chlorophyII a, there are other pigment, called accessory pigments, which occur in these pigment- protein antenna complexes.

A green sea slug, elysia chlorotica, has been found to use the chlorophyII it has eaten to perform photosynthesis for itself. This process in known as kleptoplasty, and no other animal has been found to have this ability.


        A legumes is a plant in the family fabaceae (or leguminosea), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (e.g beans and lentils or general pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil enhancing green manure. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen –fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. Well known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob soyabeans, peanuts and the woody climbing vine wisteria. Legumes trees like the locust trees (aleditsia, Robinia) or the Kentucky coffee tree (cymnocladus dioicus) can be used in permaculture food forests.

        A legume fruit is a simple drug fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (open along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term “Pod” is also applied to a few other fruit types such as vanilla and radish.


        Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes including forage, grain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manual, and timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more role simultaneously, depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested.

        Forage legumes are of two broad types. Some, like alfalfa, clover, vetch (vicia), stylo (stylosanthes) or Arachis are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or regularly cut by human to provide livestock feed.

        Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds, and are also called pulses. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. A grain legume includes beans, lentils lupins, peas and peanuts.

        Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are formed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in garden worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera  and acacia specie, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production. Various legume species are formed for timber production worldwide.




        Cashew nut oil is basically extracted from the fruit of cashew by the cold pressed method. The cashew nuts have a shell which has a hard layer inside and an oily layer outside. The cashew nut is actively contained within this. The oil comes out of the outer ashy colored shell. This oil is basically considered as toxic for the human beings but still, it has various uses.

        Four methods were used in caring out the chemical properties of cashew nut. The methods are Saponification value, Acid value, peroxide value, and Iodine value.



        The cashew nut (Anacadium Occidentale) produces nuts, the Kernels of which have increase considerably in economic importance over the past few decades. Indigenous to Brazil. The cashew was taken to West Africa, East and India by the Portuguese in the 15th and 6th centuries. It was noticed that the tree grew well on poor sandy soils along the costal belt and was used by the Portuguese in Africa as an anti soil, erosion measure the tree prospered and spread naturally, particularly in East Africa and India and the progeny of these wild cashew has formed the basis of the raw material for the cashew industry. Through the plant was primarily intended for checking soil erosion, it is now mainly grown for its commercially important kernel and shell oil. (Tiyadurai 1963).

        Cashew nut is a high value edible nut. It yield two oils one of these found between the seed coat (or pericare) and the nut, is called the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSC). It is used in industry as a raw material for brake lining compounds, as a water proofing agent, a preservative and in the manufacturing of paints and plastics. Iy is toxic and corrosive to the skin. (Cashew applies are sometimes made locally in to fruit drinks, wines and pickles.

        The fat of nut is completely naturally and unprocessed which is best for the body. It is especially rich in Linoleic acid (omega-3) and is least damaging to heart and arteries. Infact, it constitutes about 47% of the total weight of the nut. Nut often produce oil half their weight. It could be good news for people who feel week debilitated. Cashew has the right combination of fat and the ratio consumption. The relative abundance of monounsaturated fatty acids in cashew nut is conducive to the promotion of good health and that the relative abundance of fat is cashew nut in no way poses a nutritional risk (Achal 2005). The advantages of cashew kernel is that it has a rich, delightful taste and it meaty and acceptable as it.


        Cashew is a highly nutritious and concentrated form of food, providing a substantial amount of energy. The cashew nut kernel has a pleasant taste and flavor and can be eaten raw, fried and sometimes salted or sweetened with sugar (manay et al, 1987). It also contributes as an important source of invisible fat in the diet, being widely used in a variety of ways there has been a growing demand for cashew. The nut contains an acid compound which is a powerful vesicant, which is abrasive to the skin. There has been a growing demand for cashew in many temperate countries where the demand is increasing (Russel, 1979).


        The kernel is considered to be of high nutritive quality and growing conditions or the variety of cashew may have an influence on kernel composition (Ohler, 1979). The overall composition of the kernel is protein 21%, fat 46% and carbohydrate 25%.




Title page                                                                 



Table of content                                                                


CHAPTER ONE                                                                

Introduction and Literature Review

Aims and Objective

CHAPTER TWO                                                                       

Sterilization of Equipment                                                   

Sample Collection                                                               

Laboratory Preparation of                                                   

Processing of Sample                                                         

Enumeration of Bacillus Cereus from                                    

Food Sample using Most Probable Number (MPN)                 

Culturing of Bacillus Cereus                                                 


Result analysis








        B. Cereus is a spore forming organism capable of developing at a whole range of temperature, PH and water activity values. (Barker et al; 2005) thus bacterium, frequency associated with food born disease can be found in the natural environment and isolated from various foods, including meat and meat production (Ahmed et al; 1983).

        Some of the enterotoxins produced by B. Cereus causes food born diarrhea, characterized as the “diarrheic syndrome” this syndrome can be associated with the productin of five different protein, haemolysine, enterotoxin and enteroxins, non haemolytic enteroxine cytotoxins, the symptoms last for a period of 12 to 24 hours and consist of abnormal pain, watery diarrhoea and nausea. It is believed that the enterotoxins are mostly produced in the small intestine of the individual (Ankolekar et al; 2009) food associated with outbreaks of B cereus diarrhoea fr4equency include protein rich foods and researcher’s have emphasized the importance of the presence of microorganism or its spores in meat and meat products for the occurrence of such outbreaks practices such as inadequate temperature during food processing are indicated as the main factors contributing to the spread of the microorganism in these foods, with the objective of investigating the growth of enterotoxin producing B. Cereus in processed meat, this study was carried out using cultures of the microorganism from different origin (Bernhard et al; 1978) it is frequently isolated from milk and dairy products (Ahmed et al 1983)  in milk B. Cereus causes a defect known as “bitty” cream or sweet curding. It is found in rice, rice products oriental dishes and ingredients (Blaky et al; 1980) a variety of foods have been implicated in food-poisoning (Johnson, 1984) frequently isolated from soil and growing plants in the intestinal track of insect and mammals (Arnesen et al; 2008)

        Germination of most of the enterotoxigenic strain of B. Cereus adhered to CaC0-2 cells is stimulated while another celline HEP-2 does not trigger germination (Wijnands et al, 2007). The germination stimulated by Cac0-2 cells is related to the normal functions of germination receptors (Horustra et al, 2009) Beta-lactamase type I occur in the sporalated for run in penicillin-resistant B Cereus (Fenselau et al, 2008)

        B. Cereus is easily isolated and identified from samples clinical specimens and food samples are collected, stored temporary at refrigerating temperature and plated on selective agar media (Boschioits et al, 1983) low level of peptone and the absence of carbohydrates in KG medium facilitated formation of spore (Johnson, 1984). A columbia base 5% blood agar surface-spread with polymyxin B is recommended by Kramer et al. (Kramer et l, 1982) for better colonly characteristic and colony types are easily differentiated for serological testing in enumeration by most probable number method, trypticase soy polymyxin broth is recommended.

        Bacaragar is a modified selective agar and also contains Bacara and egg yolk. Pyruuate is found in rice, rice products, oriental dishes and ingredients (Blakey et. Al. 1980; et al, 1986). A variety of foods have been implicated in food-poisoning.

        Emetic syndrome caused by bacillus cereus is highly associated with rice and rice products (Johnson, 1984).

        Reauire both Gerl and area germination receptors for germination in inosine as the sole germinant, whereas the Gerl receptor is responsible for most of the response to L-alarine as the sole germinant, with a smaller contribution from identify with its homolog Gern which is a Na+/H+-K+ antiporter that is required for normal spore germination, while it has a significant role in outgrowth; gert mutant spores do not outgrow efficiently under alkaline conditions and outgrow more slowly than the wild type in the presence of high Nacl concentrations. The Gert protein in B. Cereus therefore countibutes to the success of spore outgrowth from the germinated state during alkaline or Na+ stress (senior et al, 2008).

        Germination of most of the enterotoxigenic strains of B. cereus adhered to caco-2 cells is stimulated while another celline, Hep-2, does not trigger germination (wijnards et al; 2007). The germination stimulated receptors (Hornstra et al. 2009).

        Beta-lactamase type I occurs in the sporulated from the in penicillin resistant B. cereus (fenselau et alp; 2008) B. cereus is easily isolated and identified from samples chemical; specimens and food samples are collected, stored temporary at refrigerating temperature if necessary, diluted if necessary, and plated on selective agar media.

        Mami egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP) is usually recommended, polymyxin is the selective agent, and egg yolk and mannitol are differential agents. Typical colonies are rough with.

        B. Cereus is differentiated from other non motile species by forming diffuse growth on predried nutrient agar as B. Cereus Var. mycoides B.cereus is usually strong B-hemolytic on trypticase soy sheep blood agar plate, whereas, B. thuringiensis and B. cereusvar. Mycoides are often weakly hemolytic and B. anthracis is non motile and non hemolytic. Endotoxcin crystals are found in B. thuringiensis (Harmon, 1978). Other biochemical tests used in confirming B. cereus are: acid is produced from anaerobic glucose fermentation, nitrate reduction, VP positive, tyrosine, decomposition, selective growth on blood agar and bacara agar, Kramer etal, 1982) recommended the following biochemical test for confirmation of B. cereus: Glucose +, mannotol, Xyclose-. And arabinose-, serotyping is recommended by a number of investigators (Bernhard et al 1978).

        B. anthracis and other Bacillus species including B.cereus can also be identified by the rapid apitests with the aid of computer programmes (Logan et al., 1985).




Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important and studies gram positive bacterial strains, which have a great potential to infect human being as well as other mammals. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections responsible for much life threatening diseases like toxic-shock syndrome, staphylococcal scarlet fever, meningitis, osteomyelitis etc. infection due to these strains are difficult to treat. This research work focused on the identification of drug target enzymes in staphylococcus aureus. These drug target enzymes development of the new antibiotic which can kill or suppress the growth of pathogen with no effect in the host. The E-value threshold cut-off was set to 0.001.


Title page                                                                         i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of content                                                       vi




Material and methods










Staphylococcus aureus a member of staphylococcaceae is considered as an opportunistic pathogen for the different mammals including livestock as well as humans (Lowy1998, projan and novick, 1995). It has been reported that staphylococcus aureus is resistance against varies antibiotics present in the market (Lowy, 1998; walsh and bowe, 2002). this bacterial strain word widely known for causing many of the severe and deadly disease like osteomyelitis bacteremia , endocarditic, meningitis, scalded skin syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning, etc( Lowy, 1998; drekema et al ., 2001 ). It is the primary cause of lower respiratory tract infections surgical site infection (Richard, et al., 1993) and the second leading of nosocomial  bacteremia (wisplinghoff et al ., 2004) pneumonia, and cardiovascular infections (Richard et al., 1993). Beside these disease, it is also found on the skin of the human beings and causing major problems like pimples, sour throat, hair follicle infection, acne, and sties (a sty is an inflammation of a gland in the eyelid). It is also causes boils, which are deeper pus-filled abscesses of the skin and underlying tissue (freeman-cook and freeman-cook, 2006 Carleton et al., 2004; king et al., 2006). In common with other facultative aerobes, staphylococcus aureus can grow in the absence of oxygen either by fermentation or by using an alternative terminal electron acceptor, such as nitrate.

    Various studies suggest that oxygen play a role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcus aureus, in both is capacity to produce virulence factors and its ability to persist and grow in different and often hostile environment niches (Chan and foster, in 1998; clement and foster, ohisen et al., 1997; Ross and onderdonk, 2000). The bacteria contain or can produce a variety virulence factor like adhesion, colonization, exoenzyme and exotoxins, capsule etc.These virulence factors help the bacteria to attack to the host cell, it can bind to protein such as fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and collagen, which form the extra cellular matrix of epithelia and endothelia surfaces (Gillaspy et al., 1990; freeman-cook, 2006). The resistance to antibiotics emerged and spread rapidly among strains of staphylococcus aureus, about 90% of staphylococcus aureus strains are currently resistant to penicillin and derivatives. To combat this problem, new derivatives of penicillin were introduced (Lowry, 2003; freeman-cook, 2006).

    Today, around 50% of all staphylococcus infections are multidrug resistant (resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin). One antibiotic stood for years as a drug that did not cause resistant bacteria to emerge. It often thought of as “last resort “, the name implies exactly how it has been used. Thus, the battle between human and bacteria continues (Freeman- cook et al., 2006). The computational approach has been use to investigate novel drug targets in other pathogenic organisms such as pseudomonas aeruginosa (sakharkar et al., 2004; perumal et al., 2007) and in helicobacter pylori (outla et al., 2006). As most currently known, antibacterial are essentially inhibitors of certain bacterial enzymes. In this study, we have adopted a strategy for comparative pathway analysis to find out some potential target against staphylococcus aureus. Only those enzymes which show unique properties than the host were selected as the target.

         Staphylococcus aureus is a vanguard for both nosocomial and community- acquired infection. It is the primary cause of surgical infection and lower respiratory tract infections, (Richard et al., 1993) and the second leading cause of cardiovascular infections, and pneumonia (Richards et al., 1999). Because of evolved resistance to antimicrobial drugs such as penicillin newer narrow-spectrum β-lactamase-resistant penicillin antimicrobial drugs (e.g. methicillin, oxacillin) infection with staphylococcus aureus are especially difficult to treat and this resistance appeared soon after they were introduced into clinical practice respectively in 1940s and 1960s (Lowy et al., 2003 ). Initially resistance to penicillin was restrained to small number of hospitalized patients, but as use of penicillin increased, resistance spread first to other hospitals and then into the community (chambers at el., 2001). Greater than 80% of community and hospital- acquired staphylococcus aureus isolated were resistant to penicillin by the late 1960s (Lowy et al., 2003). Current report suggests that the spread and evolution of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) seems be following identical wavelike emergence pattern (Chamber et al., 2001). In many US hospitals, MRSA is now endemic and epidemic along term care facilities and communities (Straus Baugh et al., 1960). National nosomial infections surveillance system’s data suggest that the proportion of staphylococcus aureus isolate that are resistant to methicillin has increased to 59.5%-64.4%, in intensive care unit (klevens et al ., 2006). Accurate national estimate of incidence are needed for understanding the magnitude of the problem. Nevertheless, national studies examine the effect of staphylococcus aureus or MRSA on the healthcare system are greater than 5years old (Kuehnert et al., 2005). Noskin et al., estimated that there were 290,000 staphylococcus aureus related hospitalization for 1999-2000 and reported that 125, 969 (43.2%) were likely resistant to methicillin (Kuehnert et al., 2005). The infections caused by this pathogen range from mild infections such as skin infections, poisoning to life threatening infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, osteomyelitis and infection endocarditic. Methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus is considered as super bug which was first reported in 1961 and now-a-days cause mortality rate of 39% while MRSA cause 24% death [laupland et al .., 2008].

 The currently known targets of staphylococcus aureus include PBP (penicillin binding protein) of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. Previously, beta-lactam antibiotics were knows to be effective against them, but due to production of altered form of PBP protein as well as beta-lactamase enzyme synthesis those drugs are not effective now, hence, our current study involves identifying targets apart from PBP(Hao et al., 2012). Another antibiotics prescribed is fluroquinolone. Fluroquinolone target DNA Gyrase A enzyme-essential for the replication, supercoiling of DNA. But according to Stephen et al., a highly signification associate between levofloxaxin and ciprofloxacin treatment and subsequent isolation of MRSA is reported (Weber et al., 2003). Linezolid, a new class of antibiotic called oxazolidinones is used to treat MRSA, which involve the mechanism of binding to bacterial 23s ribosomal RNA but  of the 50s subunit and thus inhibiting the formation of functional 70s initiation complex but between April 13 and June 26 ,2008,12 patient were identified by LRSA (linezolid resistant staphylococcus aureus). All the isolates were detected with a point mutation in 23s RNA. It was concluded that the clinical outbreak of LRSA medicated by the (Fr gene was related with extensive usage of linezolid (Tsiodras et al., 2001).   In this study, we have tried to search for some potential therapeutic targets other than the target discussed above. We have implemented an approach considering two pathogen in the senses that it must be associated with replication as well as viability of the pathogen. Secondly, the target should not be homologous to human. The non homologous property of these proteins helps to establish highly selective drug against the pathogen preventing the possibility of the cross reaction.




Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) are biodegradable materials, which are accumulated to store carbon and energy in various microorganisms.      

Soil samples used for the study were collected from groundnut farm garden. The isolates were screened for PHB production using sudan III stain as well as submerged fermentation. Four (4) of the best PHB producing bacteria were selected for further study. A total of twenty one (21) bacteria were isolated form the soil sample in which Bacillus sp had the highest percentage frequency of occurrence (54.5%). Follow in order by Enterococcus sp  (13.63%), Veillonella sp  (9.1%),  Micrococcus sp. (4.5 %), Corynebacterium sp.(4.5%) Yersinia Pestis (4.5%), Lactobacillus fermenti (4.5%) and Citrobacter sp. (4.5%).

        The fermentation pattern of PHB production was studied using Nitrogen source. NH4Cl was found to be the best nitrogen source (1.560a) for growth of PHB producing bacteria  (Citrobacter sp) while maximum PHB production  (1.899a) was observed in Citrobacter sp when KNO3 was used as nitrogen source.

        The study carried out shown that nitrogen sources significantly influence the production of PHB .



Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers (Keshavarz and Roy, 2010).

Polyhydroxybutyrate was discovered and identified as a granular component in bacterial cells. PHB can grow in a wide variety of natural environment and is the reserve polymer (intracellular granules) found in many types of bacteria in nature e.g. in soil, sea water, sewage sludge or compost.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be classified into two groups depending on the number of carbon atoms in the monomer unit: short-chain-length. (SCL-PHA) 3-5 carbon atom containing monomer and medium chain-length (MCL-PHAs), 6-14 carbon atom containing monomers (Steinbuchel and Valentin, 1995).

The discovery of a polyester by Smet et al. (1983) was the first report of accumulation of medium-chain-length (MCl-PHAs), having constituents of 6-14 carbon atoms in axenic culture (Smet et al., 1983).

Currently, more than 140 hydroxyalkanoic acid have been identified as constituent of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) representing a versatile class of microbial polymer (Steinbuchel and Valentin, 1995). Besides linear and branched 3-4-,5- and 6-hydroxyalkanoates, various functionalized PHAs constituents such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) containing halogenated or aromatic side chains have been described (Abe et al., 1990).

The physical properties of the homopolymer of hydroxybutyrate (PHB) are similar to those of poly propylene, for example regarding melting point, crystallinity, glass transition temperatures etc, and represent a stiff and brittle material (Hocking and Marchessault, 1994). The properties are improved in copolymers containing up to 25 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), where toughness and flexibility are increased and the decrease in crystallinity and melting point advance the melt-processing of the polymer without being degraded(Marchessault and Yu, 2002).

Therefore, the poly (3HB-CO-3HV) copolymer gained industrial interest and in the late 1980s, commercialization under the trade name Biopol was initiated (Holmer et al., 1984). Biopol can be processed to useful materials by various processes such, as extrusion, injection molding, fiber spinning, coating or foaming. Because of the versatile applications as thermoplastic biopolymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can also be used for natural fiber composites or as binder in paints and for various application in medicine and pharmacy such as tissue engineering (Kessler et al., 1999)

Polyhydroxylbutyrate(PHB) is a commonly found substance and readily biodegradable are aerobically and anaerobically. Microbes can use polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB) exists in the cytoplasmic fluid in the form of crystalline granule about 0.5μm in diameter. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is connected by ester linkage and from polyhydroxybutyrate (Andreson and Dawes, 1990). This can be extracted from the cells as native granule or by solvent extraction (Doi and lee, 1990) and processed in the way as polypropylene.

These biopolymers were also found to increase the resistance of bacteria (Tombolini and Nuti, 1989). Lemoigne, Grelet and Croson (1950) draw attention to the different amount of poly-beta – hydroxybutyrate obtained by Bacterim megaterium on different media and Maraca and Wilkinson (1958) showed that more of the substance was formed as the glucose concentration of the growth medium was increased; the subsequent depletion of the product during the later stage of growth suggested a storage function. They also showed that organism rich in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate had a slower rate of autolysis than organisms poor in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. It is probable; therefore, that poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate act as a reserve carbon and energy source. Tinelli (1955) found that the major part of the material was metabolized at sporulation and deduced that the two processes were intimately connected (Kato et al., 1992)

The bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate has been identified in more than twenty (20) bacterial genera, including Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijernickia, Pseudomonas. Alcaligenes, Rhizobium and Rhodospirillum (Sudesh et al., 2000). Many researchers have explained that soil bacteria generally produce polyhydroxybutyrate. Polyhydroxybutyrate PHB) production increases if ambient conditions (PH, temperature, nutrients) are made available (Hanzlikova et al., 1985).

Polyhydroxyalkanoate is one such biodegradable microbial polymer which is accumulated in bacteria as intracellular storage granules in the presence of excess carbon sources and limited nitrogen source (Anderson and Dawes, 1990).

The polymer is known to occur as intracellular granules in several genera of micro-organisms. The granules are synthesized by prokaryotes using fatty  acids, sugars and other carbon sources (Atkins and kennedy, 1985). Polyhydroxybutyrate is insoluble in water, resistant to ultraviolet radiation and is impermeable to oxygen and is very much suitable for use as food packaging material. This polymer is readily degraded in the soil and sewage and can be processed using the extrusion technology that is currently used in making polyethylene or polypropylene films (Byrom, 1987). The polyhydroxyalkanoate content and its composition are influenced mainly by the strain of the micro-organisms (Halami, 2008). To achieve a cost effective polyhydroxyalkanoate production, the availability of an efficient bacterial strain is a prerequisite and is a focus of interest for many investigation (Green span et al., 1985).




    1. Kaolinite

Kaolinite is one of the rare earth compounds that contain high concentration or percent of alumina and silica in the earth crust, and it has the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Rare earth (RE) compounds are “hi-tech” materials used in electronics automotive catalytic converter, glass/ceramic permanent magnets and nuclear energy. High demand/tight supply issues prompt the need for intensive research in the field of rare earth recovery/purification, with emphasis on development of new sources to secure sustainable access to supply in the future. Due to the abundance of Kaolinite in the superficial layers in nature, high specific surface area for adsorption and relatives ease of mining/processing [1].The Kaolinite or rare earths are leached and we can recover high purity and product by solvent extraction.

In April 2008, the US Naval medical research institute announced the successful use of a Kaolinite derived aluminosilicate nonoparticles infusion in traditional gauze, known commercially as Quick clot combat Gauze [2]. The purpose of this study is to explain the geochemical principles that govern acid chloride aluminum leaching and to provide a basis for understanding the testing application of acid leaching to the undeveloped resources base [3].

Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina Octahedral [4]. Rocks that are rich in Kaolinite are known as Kaolin or china clay [5]. The name is derived from kao-ling (Chinese word: gaoling) a village near Jingdezhen jlangxi province, china [6]. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of word “Kaolin” following François Xavier d Entrecolles’s reports form Jindgezhen [7]. In Africa, kaolin is sometimes known as Kalaba (in Gabon [8] and Cameroon [9]) Calaba and calaba chop (in Equatorial Guinea).

Kaolinite has a low shrink-swell capacity and a low cation exchange capacity (1-15meg/100g), it is a soft, earthy, usually white mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay), produced by the chemical weathering of aluminum silicate minerals like feldspar. In many parts of the world, it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide, giving it distinct rust, lighter concentrations yield white, yellow or light orange colour. Alternatively layers are sometimes found as at providence canyon state park in Georgia, ssssUnited State commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder, semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry.

  1. Source of Kaolinite

Kaolinite or kaolin mineral has its name derived form Gaoling (kao-ling) which is a high hill in the Jindgenzhen, Jiangxl province of china, although it was mined in that Chinese province, the mineral was first described as mineral species in Brazil in the year 1867. Kaolinite is mined as kaolin. Brazil, United Kingdom, Germany, India, Korea, France, China, and the Untied State of America are some of the known countries on which premium Kaolin clay is sourced. The mineral is typically found abundant in soils that are found o chemical weathering of rocks and have hot and moist climate such as tropical rain forest areas. In comparison along a gradient that leads towards progressively cooler or drier climate, the proportion of Kaolinite decreased while other clay minerals such as illicit and smectite which are formed in cool and dry climates increase. The climatic factors in the formation of Kaolinite tell soil much of the mineral’s relation to its sources areas geologic history. [8]. Kaolin clay is included in the group of hydrous aluminum silicates, healing stones kyanite and dumortierite are aluminum silicate. Aluminum is also found in the healing stone sapphire, amethyst, heliotrope (bloodstone), ruby, anyolite, emerald, idocrase, rhodonite, tiger iron, green tourmaline, alexandrite and moldavite. The kaolin mineral group includes other common clay mineral such as dickite, halloysite, nacrtie, Kaolinite and allophone. The kaolin mineral group is usually found in sediments, soils, hydrothermal deposits and sedimentary rocks. It takes the bulk of the mineral that are formed in the pouter crust of the earth at a wide range of geologic environment. Many of these silicates are of economic importance. Most of them are used ion various industries, the clay minerals that form the main constituent of kaolin are commonly formed through the cycles of rock formation. Although it may share the same chemical composition with their clay minerals in its group, it differs in its optical or physical properties.





The history of enzymes may be regarded as commencing with the work of Dubrunfaut, (1830) who prepared malt extract from germinating barley seeds.  This extract possessed the power of converting starch into sugar.  Therefore, it is imperative to briefly discuss the general facts and concepts of Enzymes before passing to detailed study of the various applications of immobilized enzymes in industries.

1.1   Enzymes: These can be defined as the substances which catalyzing or alter the rate of chemical reactions. All enzymes     are conjugated proteins and usually associated with non – proteins groups.  The catalytic activities depend on the maintenances of their native structure and slight variations may result in significant changes in their activities.  A common feature of all enzymes in the presence of a cleft / depression in the structure which is line mainly with hydrophobic amino acids into which the substrate fixed which is known as the ‘Active site’.  Certain amino acids residues which are concern with either orientation of the concentrate and the ends with the specificity of the enzymes or are involved in the catalyst of the reaction are located in this cleft, those amino acid that are associated with the latter role form the active site of the enzymes and are often located towards its base of this cleft, those amino acid that are associated with the latter role form the active site of the enzyme and are often located towards its base of this cleft.  In most cases, they are ionic or reactive and they include instidine, serine as well as Glutaric and Asphatic acid.  In addition, the Ions from a solution particularly cations may aid either location of substrate of the reaction. (Extracted from fundamentals of the biochemistry  6th Ed. S. ched & Co Ltd. New Delhi. Pg. 334 -348)  


        Enzymes can be classified according to their catalytic actions on various compounds.

  • Oxidoreductases: these catalyze the transfer of hydrogen or oxygen atoms or electrons and are using NAD+/NADP+ as an electron acceptor.
  • Transferases: catalyze the specific grouping transferring e.g. Methyl, Carbonyl and COA.
  • Hydrolyses: catalyze transfer of hydrolytic reactions e.g carbonsilic ester, thiolester, endoribonuclear and dipeptile hydrolyses.
  • Liases: these are enzymes that catalyze cleaving of bones by reaction.
  • Isomerizes: these catalyze intra molecular rearrangements.
  • Ligases: catalyses formation of bones and required ATP.


1.     TEMPERATURE: An increase in temperature of an enzymes increase the rate of all chemical reactions include those catalyze by the enzymes, it also increases the rate of denaturation of enzymes proteins, denaturation occur more readily.

 Denaturation      Increase reaction rate

Effect                                        A

         B Optimum temperature Overall


Table 1.31               Temp.                                         (oo)


Because of denaturation of A, the proportion of active fall and these two processes result in deducted line.

2.     PH: All enzymes are sensitive to changes in P.H and function best over a very limited range with a definite P.H optimum. The effects of P.H are to the changes in the tonic state of both amino acid residues of the enzymes and substrate molecules.

There alterations in charge will affect substrate bonding and the resulting rate of the reaction over a narrow P.H range, this effect will be reversible but extreme acidity or alkalinity often cause serious distortion of protein structure and result in permanent denaturation.




        Plants use carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose through the process of photosynthesis. The combination of glucose with other monosaccharide gives starch and cellulose. Energy is stored in plants in form of carbohydrate, thus carbohydrate is known as the energy giving food. The energy giving food is composed majorly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and has the general molecular formula Cx(H20)y. Carbohydrates can be classified naturally into simple sugar which include the monosaccharide e.g. glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose, the disaccharides (formed from the condensation of two monosaccharide with the loss of a water molecule) e.g. sucrose, maltose and lactose. Complex sugar also called polysaccharides (formed from the condensation of more than two monosaccharide) e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose. Carbohydrate is commonly, found on fruits, sap of plants e.g. tuber plants and grain crops. And also in honey.

        Glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, chemical synthesis and biology of saccharide (sugar chains or glycans). The importance of sugar can never be over emphasized since it is an essential component of living organism and it serves as the major sources of energy. According to the research done by various fields like medical, biochemical and biotechnological field sugar plays an important role in biology.

        In the broadest sense glycobiology can be defined as the study of the roles of carbohydrates in cellular life. Often they are continently bound to proteins (glycoproteins) and lipids (glycololipids to form glycoconjugates. Many glycol conjugates have structural roles. However, the carbohydrates groups of gylycoconjugates also can be involved in cellular processes including adhesion, transformation, growth, endocytosis and fertilization.



        The occurrence of glycobiology in the living cells include the following.

1.     The outer membrane of all living cells in nature is majorly composed of a dense and complex array of sugar chains (glycans).

2.     Many classes of glycans and glycoconjugates is found on the bacteria and archea cell walls.

3.     In eukaryotic organism most of proteins been secreted contains very large amount of covalently bond glycans.

4.     Also in eukaryotes, the cells surface and secreted glycans are mostly assembled via the Endoplasmic Reticulum – Golgi pathway.




          Ripe plantain peels (RPP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP) were subjected to solid state fermentation using pure culture of three fungal isolates, namely Aspergillus niger, a flavus and penicillium sp. After seven days of fermentation a niger, a flavus and penicillum sp increased the crude protein content of both unripe plantain and ripe plantain peels by 34, 30.3, 2.3 and 9.5, 4.5, 4.0% respectively. Though the UPP fermented with pencillium sp showed the least percentage increase in the crude protein content after seven days of fermentation, it recorded the highest percentage increase (39.8%) when fermentation was allowed to continue for 21 days. Except in the ripe plantain peel fermented with A niger, the sugar content of the waste also showed an increase after seven days of fermentation with the ripe plantain peel fermented with a flavus recording the highest percentage increase of 142.6%.

          There was a corresponding reduction in the cellulose content of both unripe plantain peel and ripe plantain peel with the ripe plantain peel fermented with A Niger showing the highest percentage reduction of 300%.

          Available information reveals that the nutritional value of plantain peels is increased by fermentation using A. niger A. flavus and penicillium sp.



Fermentation is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases and or alcohol using yeast or bacteria. In it strictest sense, fermentation is the absence of the electron transport chain and takes a reduced carbon source such as glucose and makes products like lactic acid or acetate (Oboh et al., 2002).

        Fermentation is one of the oldest methods of applied biotechnology, having been used in food processing and presentation as well as beverages production for over 6000 years (Motarjemi, 2000)

        The fermentation processes of staple food serve as a means of providing a major source of nourishment for large rural populations and contributing significantly to food security by increasing the range of raw material which can be used in the production of edible products (Adewusi et al., 1999). Fermentation increases the nutrient contents of food through the biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids and protein. It improve protein quality and fiber digestibility. It also enhances the availability of micro nutrient to organisms for utilization and aids in the degradation of anti nutritional factors (Achinewhu et al., 1998).

        The bioconversion of agriculture and industrial wastes to chemical feedstock has led to extensive studies on cellulolytic enzymes produced by fungi and bacteria waste and their disposal have become an environmental concern worldwide especially when these waste are biodegradable to useful goods and services (Shide et al.,2004).

        Three major waste management routes have been identified, namely sewage disposal, composting and landfill and bioremediation (William,2001) out of which sewage disposal provides opportunity for possible recovery of useful product after biodegradation.

        The use of biological means in the degradation of waste, especially agro-industrial by- products has greater advantages over the use of chemical because biotechnologically synthesized products are less toxic and environmentally friendly (Liu et al., 1998). Hence the modern world encourages a shift towards the use of microbes in degrading agro-industrial waste. So far, the literature has been silent on the use of some fungi to achieve this purpose in plantain peels.This study therefore intends to report the changes in the protein, cellulose and sugar contents of both ripe and unripe plantain peels when fermented with A. Niger, A. Flavus and penicillium sp (Iyayi, 2004).




The evaluation of power density of ray emissions from GSM masts in selected locations within Ilorin metropolis were carried out. The measurements taken in each spot were done using Acoustimeter. The location that shows the highest peak measurement (5.12 ± 1.07) location H, which exceeded the international approved exposure limits which is 4.1mW/m2.

This research shows that there are some areas within Ilorin metropolis where these GSM antennas are installed and is emitting high radiations which could cause several hazards to Human Health.



The world is fast becoming a global village, courtesy of communication, especially the telecommunications of which the Global System for Mobile Telecommunications (GSM) is a major factor. This wireless telephone system has brought several improvements to human lives across the globe, from the rural areas to urban areas, from the learned/educated to the uneducated, from the poor to the rich. There have been great increased trends in the socio-economic growth as high attention has shifted on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at homes, organizations and nations. In Nigeria today, experts have expressed concern over the environmental and health implications of the increasing mounting of telecommunications infrastructures indiscriminately especially around schools and homes (Punch Newspapers, 2010)

There have been several reports on the hazards associated with mobile phone antennae or base stations, for instance Goldsworthy (2006) reported that detailed studies have shown that weak electromagnetic fields, such as is used in the GSM transmission can cause leaking of cell membranes, leading to fragmentation of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cells. This genetic damage may result in several abnormalities in future organisms.

Santini et al (2003), Wolf and Wolf (2004) and Hutter et al (2006) have variously reported on the biological effects of people exposed to radiations from GSM masts/antennae. Such people’s complaints includes:

  • Fatigue problems.
  • Ocular problems.
  • Headaches.
  • Cancers.
  • Anxiety and sleeping problems.
  • Memory loss.

They argued that these complaints can cause enormous damage to human health, hence the need to pay attention on solving this problem to save humanity.

Loscher and Kas (1998) reported the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on dairy cows while McLeod et al (1987) had reported that these radiation cause drastic changes in the patterns of locomotion of diatoms.

In a report on the potential health risk due to telecommunications radio frequency radiation (RFR) exposures in Lagos state, Nigeria. Aweda et al (2009) reported that the measured RFR power close to radio and television mast and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases but there are concerns on the risk associated with the use of mobile phones.

Ibitoye and Aweda (2011) in their report on the assessment of radiofrequency power density distribution of GSM and broadcast antenna masts in Lagos city, Nigeria observedthat the power densities of the RF Radiation from telecoms transmitting and receiving antenna were far below the international standard limits. They concluded that the values observed were not likely capable of inducingsignificant hazardous health effects among people that are at least 6m away from the antennae. They took their measurements within 250 – 200meters from selected antennae and obtained range of results from 0.219 – 304.40mW/m2.

In an assessment report of radio frequencies radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana, Deatanyah et al (2012) reported a range from 0.85 to 1.07mW/m2 for 900MHz antennae. 0.78 – 1.19mW/m2 for 1800MHz antennae these were results obtained from 46 towns and 76 GSM cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. Especially in residential areas, schools and market places. These values, they reported were significantly very low to the international limit. Also Viel et al (2009) reported from France on the residential exposure of radio frequency fields from mobile phone base stations and broadcast transmitters; a population based survey with personal meter showed that field strength recorded were generally below 0.05V/m (0.006mW/m2).

The GSM transmit by the low frequency electromagnetic radiation exhibiting a pulsating pattern to transmit both voice and data information. The base stations serve as the intermediate between the caller and the recipient. The base station is a complex system with several components meant to receive and transmit signals. Depending on the distance, several antennae may be involved in the transmission of signals between the caller and the receiver.

The GSM was launched in Nigeria in 2001 and from this period, there have been increase in the number of masts installations across the country. These, apart from posingenvironmental threats, are believed to be hazardous to both human and other life forms. This fear has also attracted attention all over the world.

In view of the above concern, the aim of this project work is to access the field strength of GSM mast emissions in some locations within Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State and to ascertain if they fall within the safety limit recommended intermediately.   




This project is basically concerned with the extraction of DNA in tomatoes and garden egg fruit.

An experiment on how to extract DNA on tomatoes and garden egg, isolation on it to see what DNA actually look like as well as importance of DNA extraction are considered in this project.





        Working together at the University of Cambridge in England, James Watson, An American Scientist and Francis Crick, a British researcher made a major scientific breakthrough, when they discovered the famous “double helix”. The structure of DNA, the molecule of life.

        In April 25, 1983, issue of science Journal Nature, Watson and Cricks Wrote, we wish to suggest a structure for the slat of dexyribose Nucleic acid (DNA). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.

        Nine years later, in 1962, they received the Nobel prizes for answering one of science’s long pondered mysteries, advancing the emergency field of molecular biology in the process.

        Watson and Crick’s quest helps illustrate how collaboration, creativity, handwork and serendipity often conspire on the oath to scientific achievement.


        Decyribonecliec acid (DNA) was first isolated in 189 by the Swiss scientist friedrish Mieschre he called the white, slightly acidic chemical that he fond in cells “nulein”. By the late 1940s, scientists knew what DNA contained-phosphate sugar and four nitrogen containing chemical “bases” adenime (A), thymine (T), Guanine (G), and cytosine (C). But no one has figured out what the DNA molecule looked like. Friedrich (1869).

        In 1993, Linus Pauling, the great American Chemist, claimed to have discovered the structure of the DNA molecule, but when Watson saw Pauling’s research paper (which has not yet been published) on January 28, 1953, he knew it was wrong. A few days later at King’s college in London, Watson was shown an x-ray diffraction photograph of the DNA crystal taken by scientist (Watson J, 2001).


DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a long polymer-type molecule in which the replicating groups are nucleotides.

Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as DNA is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. All living things have DNA within their cells. Infact, nearly every cell in a multi-cellular organism possess the full set of DNA required for that organism. However, DNA does more that specific the structure and function of living things. It is also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organism of all types. In other words, whenever organisms of all types in reproduce, a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. This transmission of all or part of an organism’s DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity form one generation to the next, while still allowing for insight changes that contribute to the diversity of life.

Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus where it is called nuclear DNA but a small amount of DNA can be founded in the mitochondria where it is called mitochondria DNA (Rasmussim S, 2000).

DNA which is a long molecule, like a chain where the link of the chain are pieces called nucleotide some times also called “bases”. There are four different types of nucleotides in DNA which is called “A” “G”, “C”, and “T”. These four are all that is necessary to write a code that describes our entire body plan. The four nucleotides look a little bit alike. They all have a ring of carbons called, in chemist’s terminology, a ‘sugar’. However, each nucleotide also has another type of ring structure and this is where the four types of nucleotide are different. These rings are organic base much like the more familiar mineral acids and bases like NOH or HCL, except these bases are composed of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. (Rasmiussim S, 2005).


        Since DNA is the blueprint for life, everything living contains DNA. DNA isolation is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA. The extraction of DNA from cells and its purification are of primary importance to the field of biotechnology and forensic. Extraction and purification of DNA are the first steps in the analysis and manipulation of DNA that allow scientist to detect genetic disorder, produce DNA finger prints for individuals and even create genetically engineered organisms that can produce beneficial products such as insulin, antibiotics and hormones. (Kelly O, 2004).