THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MANURE ON CUCUMBER PLANT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

        One of the aboitic challenges facing crop production in the Tropics is the inherent low concentration of essential nutrients in the soil for crop growth and development (Schlecht et al., 2007). Essential nutrients are those nutrients which are required by plants to complete their  life cycle such as  Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) often referred to as primary nutrients, calcium (Ca),  magnesium (Mg) and  sulphur (S) called secondary nutrients and Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), copper(Cu), manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mb) and Zinc (Zn) called micronutrients (Barker and Pilbeam, 2007). These nutrients can be provided to the soil through the use of fertilizers. Fertilizer can be in organic or inorganic form. The use of inorganic fertilizers has not been helpful as it is associated with increased soil acidity, leaching and nutrient imbalance (Schlecht et al., 2007). According to Ayoola and Makinde (2006) inorganic fertilizers are usually not available and are always rather expensive for the low-income, small scale farmers. Organic manure such as cow-dung, poultry manure, swine waste, sewage sludge, crop residue can be used as an alternative for inorganic fertilizer. The nutrient contained in organic manure is released more slowly and are stored for a long time. Manure application also increase soil porosity and aggregate stability, promotes soil water infiltration and holding capacity, elevates soil organic matter content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability (Powell et al., 1996; 1999;Powell and Unger, 1998).

        However, the main defect in the use of organic nutrient source in crop production is the limited supply (amount) and bulkiness of organic materials. Composting is a management practice to improve manure efficiency or quality. Well managed compost has good agronomic properties such as good water holding capacity, light weight, small particle size. It is cheap and can easily supply nutrients to the crop (Miller and Norman, 1992).

        Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a vegetable crop eaten by most families in the Tropics. It is one of the most popular members of the Cucurbitaceae (vine crop) family. It is cultivated for fresh fruit which is locally consumed or exported to increase national income. The crop is cultivated in most parts of Northern Nigeria and some parts of Eastern Nigeria by peaseant farmers who lack information on some important cultural practices (Ekwu et al., 2007). Cucumber is a vital ingredient in vegetable salad in human nutrition. The fruit varies in shape, size and color. On analysis, mature fruit nutrient composition is 3.8 g dry matter, 0.6 g protein, 2.0 mg calcium, 0.4 mg riboflavin, 0.2 mg niacin and 11 mg vitamin. The fruit also serves as remedy in the treatment of constipation, jaundice and indigestion (Chadha, 2006).
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THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MANURE ON CUCUMBER PLANT

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Typhoid fever, a common and sometimes fatal infection of both adults and children that causes bacteremia and inflammatory destruction of the intestine and other organs, is endemic in countries, especially throughout Asia and Africa (Alex 2015). Chloramphenicol has been the treatment of choice for typhoid fever for 40 years, but the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol,  and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole) has necessitated the search for other therapeutic options (Liam, 2001). Currently ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice in the treatment of enteric fever in Nigeria. Alternatives such as azithromycin and ceftriazone are also recommended (Salada 2015).

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi),has become rare in industrialized countries, yet it remains a major cause of enteric disease in children in developing countries (Salada, 2015), resulting in an estimated incidence of 50 cases per 100,000 persons per year, predominantly in young school-age children [4]. Globally, it is estimated that typhoid accounts for 16 million cases each year, resulting in over 600,000 deaths [5]. Typhoid fever therefore continues to be a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is common in developing countries and concomitant with poor public health and low socio economic indices (yarney, 2010). Residents of poor communities lacking good water and sanitation system are those mostly affected. It is estimated that a total of 400,000 cases occur annually in Africa, with an incidence of 50 per 100,000 persons per year (Epidi 2016).

  • In  Sub-Saharan  Africa  invasive nontyphoidal salmonella (NTS) is also a major cause of bacteremia in adults and children; with an estimated occurrence of 175-388 cases per 100,000 in children and 200-7500 cases per 100,000 in HIV infected adults annually. In Nigeria, typhoid fever ranks among the leading 20 causes of outpatient illness, accounting for 0.92 % of hospital admissions (sory, 2009).
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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY ON THE PLANTS THAT ARE USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID IWE EGBESI and IWE AHUN (Alstonia congensis and Nauclea latifolia)

PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Water is a clear, colourless, testless and odorless liquid that is essential for life. Water is among the natural resources that occupies 708 of the earth surface (Willy et al, 2008). The human body needs about three to four litres of water per day for its normal functions. Apart from drinking and body functions, man needs water for various purposes including for use in transportation, recreation, water disposal, hydroelectric system (Onyeagba and Isu 2009).

Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. It is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Ultraviolent and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Chemically, water is made up of two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen in the ratio 2:1 the boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, at the top of mount. Everest water boils at 680C (1540F) compared to 1000C (2120F) at the sea level conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vets can reach temperature of hand reds or degrees and remains liquid.

Water has the second highest molar specific of any known substance, after ammonia, as well as high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ mol-1). Both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules these two unusual by buffering large fluctuation in temperature. Water plays a critical role in regulating body temperature, it carries nutrients throughout the body, it improves digestion, it eliminates waste and toxins from the body.
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PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Water is an essential part of human nutrition. It is required for the maintenance of personal hygiene, food production and prevention of diseases (Adegokeet al. 2012). A reliable supply of clean wholesome water is highly essential in a bid to promoting healthy living amongst the inhabitants of any defined geological region (Dada, 2009). Water is one of man’s priceless resources but it is generally taken for granted until its use is threatened by reduced availability and/or quality. Water is not only essential for life; it also remains an important source of disease transmission (Mbah and Muhammed, 2015) and infant mortality in many developing countries.

Edema et al., (2011) also described water as a key parameter influencing survival and growth of microorganisms in foods and other microbial environments.

Most potable water in Nigeria comes from three sources, which include rainwater, surface water and ground water.  Similarly, Okeriet al. (2009) noted that most of the water consumed in Nigeria is obtained from rainwater, lakes, rivers, springs, streams and ground water including boreholes and private wells which do not always produce pure water due to the presence of different contaminants.  In many developing countries, availability of potable water has become a critical and urgent problem and it is a matter of great concern to families and communities depending on Nonpublic water supply system (Okonkwo et al., 2008). Increase in human population has exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water in developing countries (Ibemesim, 2014). Most people living in the major cities of Nigeria do not have access to pipe borne water, probably due to its unavailability and/or inadequacy where obtainable (Omaluet al. 2010).
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PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER IN ABA

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FOOD HYGIENE AMONG FOOD VENDORS

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Food hygiene practices is a subject of wide scope and it is a broad term used to describe the preservation and preparation of foods in a manner that ensures the food is safe for human consumption.1 Food hygiene deals with the prevention of contamination of food stuffs at all stages of production, collection, transportation, storage, preparation, sale and consumption. Food borne illness is defined as a disease, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.2 This process of kitchen safety includes proper storage of food items prior to use, maintaining a clean environment when preparing the food, and making sure that all serving dishes are clean and free of bacteria that could lead to some type of contamination. The food storage aspect of food hygiene is focused on maintaining the quality of the food, so that it will be fresh when used in different recipes. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illnesses.3 This include the number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit diseases from one person to the other as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

Debates on genetic food safety include such issues as impact of genetically modified food on health of further generations and genetic pollution of environment, which can destroy natural biological diversity. In developed countries, there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries, the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory, food poisoning is hundred percent (100

%) preventable.3 Food sanitation also extends to keeping the preparation area clean and relatively germ-free.  Mixing bowls,  spoons, paring knives  and  any other  tools  used in  the
kitchen should be washed thoroughly before use.
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KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FOOD HYGIENE AMONG FOOD VENDORS

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH “SPOILED” TOMATOES IN GWAGWALADA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Tomato (lycopersicumesculentum) is an animal plant, having a weak woody stem covered with glistering red iscultivated in many parts of the world. the tomato plant is widely cultivated in many parts of the world and also has a smooth stain. It is green when immature but becomes bright red or yellow as it ripens. These products are considered important worldwide (Robins et al; 1994).

Tomato fruit is a well vegetable eaten raw as salad or for garnishing various foods in Nigeria as well as in many part of the world. The fruit contains high amount of carbohydrate, fat,organic acid,water,minerals,vitamins and pigments(Reddy,2009)

When spoilt as a result of life process of fungi, yeast and molds, the sugar are rapidly used up being changes into acetic acid lactic acid, alcohol and carbondioxide,the amount of these substances depending on their types of organism which are most activities particular sample in question.

In generally, adequate heat processing is given to tomato paste to achieve commercial sterility (speck 1994), but subsequent abusive post process handling /storage may lead to understand microbiological changes. It is public knowledge that can of tomato paste often show external evidence of spoilage under tropical retail condition (Anon, 1980)

Tomato fruit contains a lot of water which makes them susceptible to spoilage by microorganism.Also,the high water content makes storage and transportation of vegetable difficult. The microorganism reduce not only the nutritional values but also the market value s of tomato fruit. Micro organisms also affect the seller due to the spoilage of tomato.
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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH “SPOILED” TOMATOES IN GWAGWALADA

AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF THE WOUND INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The primary function of intact skin is to control microbial population that live on the skin surface and to prevent underlying tissue from becoming colonized and invaded by potential pathogens (Ndipet. al., 2007). Exposure of subcutaneous tissue following a loss of skin integrity (i.e. wound) provides a moist, warm and nutritious environment that is conducive to microbial colonization and proliferation.

A wound is defined as any injury that damages the skin and therefore compromises its protective function. An acute wound is generally caused by external damage to the skin, including abrasions, minor cuts, lacerations, puncture wounds, bites, burns and surgical incisions. A wound is a breakdown in the protective function of the skin; the loss of continuity of epithelium, with or without loss of underlying connective tissue (Leaper and Harding, 1998). Wounds can be accidental, pathological or post operative. All wounds contain bacteria but majority of the wounds do no get infected. There are many variables that can promote wound infection when there is a discontinuity of skin barrier. This include both host and organism related factors like bacterial load and type, immune competence of host co-morbid like diabetes mellitus, etc (Mir et. al., 2012). An infection of this breach in continuity constitutes wound infection. Wound infection is thus the presence of pus in a lesion as well as the general or local features of sepsis such as pyrexia, pain and indurations.

Wound infections are one of the most common hospital acquired infections and are an important cause of morbidity and account for 70-80% mortality (Gottrupet al., 2005; Wilson et al., 2004). Wound infections can be caused by different groups of micro organisms like bacteria, fungi and protozoa. However, different micro organisms can exist in polymicrobial communities especially in the margins of wounds and in chronic wounds (Percevil and Bowler, 2001). Infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients irrespective of the cause as it delays healing (Pondeiet al., 2013). It also causes longer hospital stay and increased expenses. In order to recognise early signs and symptoms of infections in a wound, whether complicated or not, skilled and vigilant team of doctors and paramedical staff is required (Moore andRomanelli, 2006).
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AETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF THE WOUND INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN