APPLICATION OF FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

APPLICATION OF FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effect on national integration in Nigeria vis-à-vis staffing process in the Nigerian federal public service, issues of nation building, sustainable development in Nigeria, meritocracy and the general problems of applying federal character principle in Nigeria. Descriptive Survey Design was adopted in the study. A total number of ninety nine (99) copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents during the study, while a total of one ninety seven (97) copies were properly filled and returned for the analysis. Inferential statistics of Pearson Correlation was used to test all the hypotheses in order to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in each hypothesis with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 20.0). Test of hypotheses was carried out at 5% level of significance. Among other things the outcomes of the result revealed that federal character principle is significantly related to nation building in Nigeria; federal character principle is adhered to in staffing process in the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) and that the application of federal character principle affects meritocracy infederal government appointment in Nigeria. The study recommended that for the Nigerian Federal civil service to effectively and efficiently meet its objective of rendering public services to the people, merits and qualification should be given first priority in appointment, recruitment and staffing without primordial considerations of ethnical, regional, tribal and religious belonging so as to promote national integration.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Nigeria a federation of different nations is the most populous country in Africa with a population of over 160 million people. The country is divided into 36 states and 774 local government areas. The religious, ethnic, and cultural diversities of the federating units no doubt make it a unique one. Otite (1990) in Mustapha (2007), identifies 374 ethnic groups which are broadly divided into ethnic ‘majorities’ and ethnic ‘minorities’. The majority ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani of the north, the Yoruba of the southwest, and the Igbos of the southeast.

However, the relationship between these groups is characterized by fear and suspicion of domination of one state or ethnic group by another. Meanwhile, this suspicion and fear between groups is historical. However, it became pronounced when Sir Fredrick Lord Lugard began the process of subjecting ethnic groups with a history of mutual distrust and hatred together as one Nigeria. Remarkably, these ethnic groups are not of equal population and hence some tend to dominate others thus exploiting them. Also, political and economic imbalances exist among these various states or ethnic groups that make up Nigeria. These imbalances arose from the nature and character of the post-colonial Nigerian state. In almost all the sectors, state, ethnic or regions, people feel marginalized. These have brought about a choking competition for federal government appointments among the various ethnic groups which have resulted into ethno-regional conflict and tension that characterize Nigeria since 1960.

The emergence of various militia groups in the Niger Delta, OPC in the South-West, MASSOB in the South East and of recent Boko Haram in the North, are all indications of the existence of rivalries between and among the various groups over the sharing of national cake. These ethnic, regional, and religious divides in the country have become so problematic with resultant patterns of inequalities. These inequalities are caused by a complex range of factors, including history, geography, cultural orientation, religious affiliation, natural resource endowments, current government policies, and past colonial policies. Akinola and Adesopo (2011) in Aderonke (2013) support this argument when they posit that, the problem of ethnic minority has been receiving attention of scholars and practitioners of governance and development. This is because ethnic minority is usually sidelined and ignored by the majority in decision making and resources distribution. The consequence of such politics of exclusion has been agitation and demand for social inclusion, which at times results to violent actions.

In a heterogeneous and deeply divided societies all over the globe attempt to manage their diversities and divisive tendencies through one or combination of policy alternatives in the management of their public services for performance and service delivery has been of great concern in politics and administration globally (Abdullah, 2007). Often times, these policy alternatives turn out to be delicate arrangements, but when carefully conceived, crafted and practiced, it provides opportunity for centre-seeking and centre-fleeing forces to interact peacefully and co-habit on agreed terms. One of such policy alternatives adopted for the management of diversities and ensures even appointment is the Federal Character, which was borne out of the need to ensure national integration in the country (Nzeshi, 2012).

The principle of federal character was formulated and put into use by successive governments in Nigeria to address and hopefully mitigate the problem of diversity so as to ensure a peaceful, stable and united Nigeria. As Ojo (1999) persuasively explained, Federal character principle as an integrative mechanism is defined as fair and effective representation of the various components of the Federation in the country’s position of power, status and influence. He however observed that the principle of federal character touches on array of problems in the political process which includes ethnicity, the national question, minority problem, discrimination based on an indignity, resources allocation, power sharing employment and placement in institution, et cetera. It provides a formula for participation in the governance of the country in such a way that a single section of the country will not dominate another or a segment dominating the rest. Federal character principle sought to give “opportunities in education and employment, usually at the point of entry, to disadvantaged groups and areas to enable them compete and catch up with more advanced areas and sectors of the nation” (Ekeh, 1989:38).

Section 14, subsection 3 of the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) also states that:

The composition of the Government of the Federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that government or in any of its agencies.

To this end the Federal Character Commission (FCC) was established by act No. 34 of 1996 to implement and enforce the Federal Character Principle of fairness and equity in the distribution of public appointment, socio-economic amenities and infrastructural facilities among the federating units of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The provision of the 1999 constitution of section 14 and 153 also empowers the commission to operate in a democratic setting (Samuel et al., 2012). Therefore, the undertaking of this research will critically assess the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effects on national integration in Nigeria.

This research project is set out to examine critically the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effect on national integration in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic state, like many sub-Saharan African States. The Northern part of the country is populated by the Hausa’s, the Fulani’s, Kanuri’s, Igala’s, Igbira’s, Idoma’s and many others. The Southern part of the country on the other hand is occupied by the Yoruba’s, the Ibo’s or Igbo, the Ijaws, the Edos, the Ibibio’s, the Urhobo’s and many other small ethnic groupings. Now each of these groups not only inhabits a particular territory or area but also has a distinct language indigenous to them. It was against this background that, when the colonialists came into the country, they met and saw that there was no common language, particularly between and amongst the major ethnic groups and groupings. Another truism about Nigeria is the fact that, she is also a multi – religious state with a substantial population being adherents of Islam (Muslims) Christianity (Christians) and a host of indigenous religions.

In spite of these glaring and obvious differences, the British government unified the various people under a common administration in 1914, one hundred years ago (century). This so called union has been described by a very prominent Nigerian Political Scientist as a “forced brotherhood and sisterhood” Ayoade, (1998:101) thus, the country has since been confronted with the challenges of accommodating diversities, fostering inclusiveness and promoting national unity amongst its diverse ethnic groups that make up the Nigeria’s nation – state.

A fundamental and striking feature of Nigeria politics is the intense elites struggle for power among thedifferent ethnic groups in the country. These struggles have been between the elites from the North and other Southern counterpart. Often, the reasons advanced behind the tension are the fears in the North that the more educated South would predominate state institutions as well as the concerns in the southern part of the country that the contentious more populated North would have an edge in the electoral contests. The zero – sum nature of political competition amongst the elites precipitated a very bloody civil war between 1967 and 1970 (Adeosun, 2011:2). For Orji (2008:125) the soul – searching that followed the civil war reflected in the quest for elite’s consensus on how Nigeria should be governed to ensure political stability and fairness in the distribution of resources as well as federal government appointments among the various ethnic groups that inhabit, or make up the country (Adeosun, 2011:2).

According to Kwanashie (2002), fear has been constant in every tension and confrontation in political Nigeria. Not the physical fear of violence, not the spiritual fear of retribution, but the psychological fear of discrimination, of domination. He further submitted that it is the fear of not getting one’s fair share, one’s dessert. For some time now, the federal public service has come under criticism because its performance left much to be desired, knowing that the Federal public service is a body without which the business of government would be impossible to operate. Many attribute its inefficiency to the adoption of the Federal Character Principle which they believe negates the administrative ethos of merit system, skill, qualification and experience the very elixir of efficiency.

Moreover, the awkward application of the federal character principle tends to pose challenges to administrative effectiveness in Nigeria through the circumscription of merit. Such practice of the principle of federal character in personnel procurement without due regard for merit is more likely to mire efforts at sustainable development in a society. It is on this premise that this study seeks to explore the application of federal character principle on federal government appointment and its effect on national integration in Nigeria with special reference to the Federal Road Safety Commission -FRSC.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The major objective of this study is to assess the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effect on national integration in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of this study are:

i. To examine the relationship between federal character principle and nation building in Nigeria.

ii. To investigate the effect of federal character principle on staffing process in the Nigerian federal public service.

iii. To find out if the application of federal character principle affects meritocracy in federal government appointment.

1.4 Research Questions

The undertaking of this research study will be guided by the following research questions:

i. Is there any relationship between federal character principle and nation building in Nigeria?

ii. Does federal character principle have any effect on staffing process in the Nigerian federal public service?

iii. Will the application of federal character principle affect meritocracy in federal government appointment?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The researcher will test the following research hypotheses in the course of the study:

Hypothesis 1:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between federal character principle and nation building in Nigeria.

H1: There is a significant relationship between federal character principle and nation building in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 2:

Ho: Federal character principle has no effect on staffing process in the Nigerian federal public service.

H1: Federal character principle has an effect on staffing process in the Nigerian federal public service.

Hypothesis 3:

Ho: The application of federal character principle has no significant effect on meritocracy in federal government appointments.

H1: The application of federal character principle has a significant effect on meritocracy in federal government appointments.

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APPLICATION OF FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTIDUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTIDUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTIDUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS AND EXECUTIVE POLICIES ON TAX INCENTIVE AS VERITABLE TOOL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS AND EXECUTIVE POLICIES ON TAX INCENTIVE AS VERITABLE TOOL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS AND EXECUTIVE POLICIES ON TAX INCENTIVE AS VERITABLE TOOL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC OKPARA AVENUE AND ABAKALIKI ROAD BRANCHES, ENUGU)

THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC OKPARA AVENUE AND ABAKALIKI ROAD BRANCHES, ENUGU)

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC OKPARA AVENUE AND ABAKALIKI ROAD BRANCHES, ENUGU)

THE IMPACT OF REVENUE GENERATION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

THE IMPACT OF REVENUE GENERATION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

ABSTRACT
This project work is carried out on problem of personal income tax generation and administration taxation can be simply defined as a compulsory contribution by individuals and organizations to a statutory Authority.  The merits of taxations are numerous for instance, it could be used for re-distribution of income or for stabilizing the economy.
In the recent past and till date it has not been easy to fully realized the objectives of taxation owing to the existence of inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the system of administration and collection of personal income tax in Enugu state.  This project problems of personal income tax Generation and Administration in Enugu State.  (A case study of internal Revenue Enugu – North) will highlight those problem militating against the attainment of the objective of taxation.
In carrying out this research work, questionnaires bad been used to collect data and simple percentage analysis was used to analyse the data collected.
Also this research work enabled me to observed whether inhabitants of Enugu North Local Government Area indulge so much in tax avoidance and tax evasion because they have not been sufficiently enlightened on the important and merits of taxation.
Finally the research work carried out helped the researcher to know if there is enough personnel needed for effective tax collection and administration.  The limitation of this study is monetary problem and time, there will be scarcity of accurate national statistics.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Proposal
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE:
 Introduction
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Board of internal revenue Enugu
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Formulation of research hypothesis
1.6 Delimitation / limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWO:
Literature Review
2.1 Origin and importance of taxation in nigeria
2.2 Importance of taxation in nigeria
2.3 Qualities of good tax system
2.4 Effects of taxation
2.5 Personal income taxation (general criteria)
2.6 Problems of personal income tax generation
2.7 Problems of personal income tax administration
CHAPTER THREE:
Methodology
3.1 Population
3.2 Sample
3.3 Instrument
3.4 Validation of instrument
3.5 Collection of data
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation and analysis of data collected
4.1 administration and collection of questionnaire
4.2 Analysis of questionnaire using the simple percentage
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Summary and conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
Bibliography
References

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THE IMPACT OF REVENUE GENERATION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE)

EVALUATING THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: SIERRA LEONE AND LIBERIA AS CASE STUDIES

EVALUATING THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: SIERRA LEONE AND LIBERIA AS CASE STUDIES

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

EVALUATING THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: SIERRA LEONE AND LIBERIA AS CASE STUDIES

AN EVALUATION OF THE LAW RELATING TO THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER-RELATED DISASTERS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DROUGHTS AND FLOODS IN NIGERIA

AN EVALUATION OF THE LAW RELATING TO THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER-RELATED DISASTERS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DROUGHTS AND FLOODS IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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AN EVALUATION OF THE LAW RELATING TO THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER-RELATED DISASTERS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DROUGHTS AND FLOODS IN NIGERIA

PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE JUDICIAL PROCESS: A CRITIQUE OF SELECTED DECISIONS ON CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE JUDICIAL PROCESS: A CRITIQUE OF SELECTED DECISIONS ON CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE JUDICIAL PROCESS: A CRITIQUE OF SELECTED DECISIONS ON CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTI-DUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTI-DUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE INADEQUACY OF NIGERIA’S ANTI-DUMPING LAW, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES UNDER THE WTO/GATT 1994 FRAMEWORK

ASSESSING VICTIMS RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATION, PROTECTION AND REPARATION : A CRITICAL REVIEW OF NIGERIAN CASES BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

ASSESSING VICTIMS  RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATION, PROTECTION AND REPARATION : A CRITICAL REVIEW OF NIGERIAN CASES BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

ASSESSING VICTIMS  RIGHTS TO PARTICIPATION, PROTECTION AND REPARATION : A CRITICAL REVIEW OF NIGERIAN CASES BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

AN EXAMINATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE: OIL DISCOVERY IN NIGERIA, NATURAL RESOURCE CONFLICT AND CSR PROVISIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY LAW

AN EXAMINATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE: OIL DISCOVERY IN NIGERIA, NATURAL RESOURCE CONFLICT AND CSR PROVISIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY LAW

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE: OIL DISCOVERY IN NIGERIA, NATURAL RESOURCE CONFLICT AND CSR PROVISIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY LAW

TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE REALIZATION OF THE RIGHT TO ACCESSIBLE AND ADEQUATE HOUSING IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH SOUTH AFRICA

TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE REALIZATION OF THE RIGHT TO ACCESSIBLE AND ADEQUATE HOUSING IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH SOUTH AFRICA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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TOWARDS AN EFFECTIVE REALIZATION OF THE RIGHT TO ACCESSIBLE AND ADEQUATE HOUSING IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH SOUTH AFRICA

FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUIDELINES: AN EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN THE NIGERIA’S TAX REGIME  

ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUIDELINES: AN EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN THE NIGERIA’S TAX REGIME

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUIDELINES: AN EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN THE NIGERIA’S TAX REGIME

STRENGTHENING AND REDEFINING THE ROLE OF THE AUDIT AND SUPERVISORY COMMITTEES TO ENHANCE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN DEPOSIT TAKING SACCOS IN NIGERIA

STRENGTHENING AND REDEFINING THE ROLE OF THE AUDIT AND SUPERVISORY COMMITTEES TO ENHANCE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN DEPOSIT TAKING SACCOS IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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STRENGTHENING AND REDEFINING THE ROLE OF THE AUDIT AND SUPERVISORY COMMITTEES TO ENHANCE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN DEPOSIT TAKING SACCOS IN NIGERIA

CONVERGENCE BETWEEN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND FINANCIAL SERVICES IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATIONS OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN NIGERIA

CONVERGENCE BETWEEN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND FINANCIAL SERVICES IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATIONS OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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CONVERGENCE BETWEEN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND FINANCIAL SERVICES IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATIONS OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN NIGERIA

AN ANALYSIS OF UNITED NATIONS CONVENTIONS ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES: A CASE STUDY OF DOMESTIC IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA.

AN ANALYSIS OF UNITED NATIONS CONVENTIONS ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES: A CASE STUDY OF DOMESTIC IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

 

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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AN ANALYSIS OF UNITED NATIONS CONVENTIONS ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES: A CASE STUDY OF DOMESTIC IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WIFES RIGHT TO MAINTENANCE IN ISLAMIC AND STATUTORY LAWS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA AND SABON-GARI COMMUNITIES OF KADUNA STATE.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WIFES RIGHT TO MAINTENANCE IN ISLAMIC AND STATUTORY LAWS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA AND SABON-GARI COMMUNITIES OF KADUNA STATE.

ABSTRACT

Majority of men in the society are ignorant of the wife’s right of maintenance in Islamic and statutory laws. HoweverIslam has provided the wife with the right to maintenance as enshrined in the holy Quran and statutory law respectively. But certain factors are militating against the enjoyment of such rights. Husbands do not maintain their wives according to what the holy Quran and statutes stipulate. It was therefore, investigated whether the Muslim and Christian wives are aware of such right as enshrined in the Holy Quran and statutes respectively. Do the husbands allow their wives to freely enjoy these right if they are aware of them? This has been a serious problem for the welfare of the wives in the society and in fact it is infringement of their established right under the shariah and statutory laws. Lack of proper maintenance of a wife may lead to regular disputes between husband and wife and subsequently may lead to a broken home.This research was embarked upon to clarify a lot of misunderstanding among spouses as to the wife’s right to maintenance and will serve as a guide to student who will like to research into similar problems in the near future. It will also serve as an educational material to married women who are ignorant of their conjugal rights. The researcher deemed it necessary to set up parameters for the work for clarity and easy approach. For the purpose of this research, statutory laws applicable in Nigeria are going to be given primary attention.However,where necessary, reference are going to be made to statutory laws applicable in England and under Islamic law, the four Sunni schools will be our guide.It was found that even though it is the husbands responsibility to provide maintenance to his family ,the prevailing economic hardship as indicated by the wife’s in the research area has made them work hard in order to support the family. secondly,There is cultural infiltration into the Islamic teachings on marriage and this has been allowed to supersede the religion teaching on marriage . It is therefore recommended that more publications on women’s rights should be made available and the husbands must disregard cultural practices and follow the teachings of the holy Quran and sunnah of the Prophet PBUH.

CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Cases – – – – – – – – – viii
List of Statutes and Laws – – – – – – – ix
Glossary – – – – – – – – – xi
Abbreviation – – – – – – – – – xii
Contents – – – – – – – – – xiii
1.0 CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aims and Objectives – – – – – – – 4
1.4 Justification – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Research Methodology – – – – – – 4
1.6 Literature Review – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope of the Research – – – – – – – 9
1.8 Organisational Layout – – – – – – – 10
2.0 CHAPTER TWO: MARRIAGE UNDER ISLAMIC AND STATUTORY LAWS
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 12
2.2 The Purpose of Marriage under Islamic Law – – – – 14
2.3 Requirement of a Valid Islamic Law Marriage – – – 15
2.3.1 Proposal – – – – – – – – 15
2.3.2 Offer (Ijab) and Acceptance (Qabul) – – – – – 17
2.3.3 Marriage Guardian (Waliyatun Nikkah) – – – – 18
2.3.4 Dowry (Sadaq) – – – – – – 22
2.3.5 Witnesses – – – – – – – – 25
2.4 The Purpose of Marriage under Statutory Law – – – 27
2.5 Requirement of a Valid Statutory Marriage – – – – 28
2.5.1 Marriageable Age – – – – – – – 28
2.5.2 Consent of the Parents – – – – – – 29
2.5.3 Prohibited Degree – – – – – – – 30
2.5.4 Prior Customary or Statutory Marriage – – – – 31
2.5.5 Consent of Parties – – – – – – – 32
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: MAINTENANCE OF WIFE UNDER ISLAMIC LAWS
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 33
3.2 Basis of Maintenance of Wife under Islamic Law – – – 34
3.3 Scale of Maintenance of Wife under Islamic Law – – – 36
3.4 Components of Maintenance – – – – – 38
3.4.1 Feeding – – – – – – – – 38
3.4.2 Clothing – – – – – – – – 38
3.4.3 Lodging. – – – – – – – – 38
3.4.4 Medication or Medical Treatment – – – – – 39
3.4.5 Domestic Services – – – – – – – 39
3.5 Maintenance when Due – – – – – – 41
3.5.1 Immediately after Contract – – – – – – 42
3.5.2 After Consummation – – – – – – – 43
3.5.2.1 Marriage Must be Valid and Subsisting – – – – 43
3.5.2.2 Marriage Must be Consummated – – – – – 43
3.5.2.3 Wife Must be Capable of Sexual Intercourse – – – – 43
3.5.2.4 Wife Must be Accessible for Conjugal Relations – – – 45
3.6 Maintenance of wife under special circumstance – – – 49
3.6.1 Maintenance Where the Wife is a Worker – – – – 49
3.6.2 Maintenance during Iddah (Waiting Period) – – – – 51
3.6.3 Maintenance during Sickness of Wife – – – – 55
3.6.4 Maintenance During Absence of the Husband – – – 56
3.6.5 Maintenance of a Wife when the Husband has no Means of Livelihood (poverty)
– – – – – – – – – – 57
3.7 Withholding Maintenance – – – – – – 59
3.7.1 Recalcitrance (Disobedience) – – – – – – 59
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: MAINTENANCE OF WIFE UNDER STATUTORY LAW
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – 61
4.2 Basis of Maintenance of Wife under Statutory Law – – – 64
4.3 Criteria for Consideration of Award of Maintenance of Wife under Statutory Laws – – – – – – – – – – 66
4.3.1 Means of the Parties – – – – – – – 66
4.3.2 Earning Capacity of the Parties – – – – – 67
4.3.3 Conduct of the Parties to the Marriage – – – – 69
4.3.4 All Other Relevant Circumstances – – – – – 70
4.4 Enforcement of Maintenance Order – – – – – 71

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WIFES RIGHT TO MAINTENANCE IN ISLAMIC AND STATUTORY LAWS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA AND SABON-GARI COMMUNITIES OF KADUNA STATE.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS UNDER THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS(ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES 2009 IN NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS UNDER THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS(ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES 2009 IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 chose certain rights to protect under chapter IV and termed them as Fundamental Rights. These rights are chosen to be protected not only by the Constitution, but also by the African Charter on Human and Peoples „Right. Whenever there are breaches of these fundamental rights, the law provides a procedure for their enforcement, which is the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009. The basic objective of the 2009 Rules is to facilitate enforcement procedure by removing some of the impediments in 1979 rule. Unfortunately it is clear that the procedure for enforcement of Fundamental Rights is still bedeviled by delay. Many applications alleging serious human rights violations are routinely struck out or dismissed. However, the pertinent question is: to what extent are the human rights provision in these legal instruments realized or enforced? It is worthy of note that there are equally other important impediments in the realization of the objective of Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009, such as the distinction between main claim and ancillary claim in the Nigerian fundamental rights, because litigants are cautious of whether or not their claim will succeed because of this distinction. This research examines the problem of delay associated with the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009 This dissertation made an in depth analysis of the rules and considered to what extent it achieved its objective in order to enhance a robust human right regime. To achieve a close –to- accurate‟ if not accurate result, the research embarked on a field work. To this end, both doctrinal and empirical method of research is used. This research found out that the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009, though has brought tremendous changes in the field of human rights protection (e.g the abolishment of locus standi and leave, is still faced with some major setback like the issue of principal and ancillary claim in the enforcement of fundamental rights and the jurisdiction of the National Industrial Court which is not clear in the rule. The work recommend that Courts should do away with the dichotomy between principal and ancillary and the definition of courts in the Rule should include the National Industrial Court.

1.1 Background to the Study

Fundamental Rights are rights derived from natural or fundamental or constitutional law1. They are rights which remain in the realm of domestic law, which are recognized, entrenched and guaranteed in the constitution of a country or any other legal instrument such as the African Charter on Human and People‟s Rights. Fundamental Human Rights are also described as rights which are inalienable and guaranteed to every person.

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Right guarantee fundamental human rights. These Fundamental Human Rights are not privileges in the sense that they could be withdrawn at the whims and caprices of the government of the day. They are rights which the executive and legislature are enjoined to respect and the judiciary to protect. However, there are instances where these guaranteed rights are violated either by the law enforcement agents or in quasi-judicial proceedings2

Furthermore, where there are breaches of these rights, the appropriate means to secure the enforcement of the victims‟ fundamental right is paramount. It is against this background that the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules was enacted. On 29th May, 1999, a new constitution came into being. Some judicial opinions3 were of the view that the Fundamental Rights ( Enforcement Procedure ) Rules1979 was dead pursuant to section 42(3) which provides who to make rules for the practice and procedure for the High court towards the enforcement of the provision of Chapter IV. For effective enforcement of the rights guaranteed under the 1999 Constitution, the 2009 Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules was enacted, It was signed In November 11,2009 by the then Chief Justice IdrisLegboKutigi and came into force with immediate effect replacing the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure)Rules 1979.

The purpose of the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules is to facilitate the enforcement of fundamental rights. The Rules provide for redress where there is a violation or even apprehension of likely violation of these rights. The fundamental rights are provided in Chapter IV of the 1999 Constitution and Chapter 1 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples‟ Rights. Where the violation has occasioned injury which could be compensated in financial terms, courts are duty bound to make orders of reparation in monetary terms if applied for and proved.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS UNDER THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS(ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES 2009 IN NIGERIA

LAW PROJECT TOPICS

1.COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING ACROSS BOARDERS IN NIGERIA: THE IMMIGRATION EXPERIENCE

2.A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT SITUATIONS AND CHOICE OF LAWS IN THE NIGERIA…

3.THE CHALLENGES OF THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS UNDER THE 1999 NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION

4.Applicability Of Natural Law Principles To The Law Of Negligence In Nigeria

5.AN APPRAISAL OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMES AND THE OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

6.The Nigerian Copyright Commission And Administration Of Copyright In Nigeria

7.EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY TO HIS EMPLOYEE UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT

8.Examination of the laws and procedures for the regulation of trade disputes in Nigeria

9.The role of legislature in impeachment proceeding under the 1999 constitution of Nigeria

10.Justification For And The Abolition Of Capital Punishment Under Human Rights Law

11.Widowhood Practice In Nigeria

12.Conflict Management In Africa: The Role Of The Civil Society

13.United Nations And Conflict Management Of The Civil War In Liberia

14.Nigeria Roles In The Development Of International Organization In Africa. A Case Study Of…

15.AN APPRAISAL OF THE DOCTRINE OF DOMICILE UNDER THE PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

16.Double Decker Marriage In Nigeria (issues, Problems And Solutions)

17.Ownership And Control Of Mineral Resources Under The Shariah And Nigerian Statute. A Comparative…

18.THE RIGHT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON UNDER THE NIGERIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

19.UTILITY OF CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT IN CRIMINAL TRIALS

20.AN APPRAISAL OF THE APPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION METHODS TO MARRIAGE DISPUTES

21.A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF OPINION EVIDENCE

22.ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE IN NIGERIAN LAW

23.THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS IN THE CONSTITUTION OF NIGERIA

24.REPUGNANCY DOCTRINE: AN ATTEMPT TO DESTROY OR PRESERVE CUSTOMARY LAW

25.CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT UTILITY IN CRIMINAL TRIALS (AN OVERVIEW)

26.NIGERIA JUDICIARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS AND WAY OUT

27.CRIME REPORTING AND PERCEIVED EFFECTS ON ITS VICTIMS

28.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF INSURABLE INTEREST UNDER THE NIGERIA LAW OF…

29.LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

30.CRIMINOLOGY: SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF GENDER, RACE AND RELIGION ON CRIME

31.ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND OIL SPILLAGES: AN INDICTMENT TO HUMAN RIGHT AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

32.THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT AND ITS ROLE IN THE PROSECUTION OF GENOCIDE

33.INSURANCE AS PECULIAR SPECIE OF THE LAW OF CONTRACT

34.A CRITIQUE ON THE DOCTRINE OF PRE-ACTION NOTICE IN NIGERIA

35.THE PRE-COLONIAL JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF ESANLAND (A CASE STUDY OF IRRUA KINGDOM)

36.A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE RIGHT OF ARTIFICIALLY INSEMINATED CHILD TO INHERIT UNDER ISLAMIC…

37.A CONVENTIONAL AND ISLAMIC MORTGAGE FINANCING – A LEGAL COMPARISON

38.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PRESUMPTIONS IN RELATION TO THE LAW OF EVIDENCE

38.ATTITUDE OF THE JUDICIARY TOWARDS ADMISSIBILITY OF CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT

39.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CORROBORATION UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW OF EVIDENCE

40.CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE RELEVANCY AND ADMISSIBILITY OF ELECTRONICALLY GENERATED EVIDENCE IN NIGERIA

41.DUTY CARE : ITS IMPLICATION TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL IN NIGERIA

42.A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF LEGITIMACY AND LEGITIMIZATION UNDER NIGERIA FAMILY LAW

43.EXCESS OF INJUNCTION IN NIGERIA JUDICIAL SYSTEM

44.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SECTION 144 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION

45.AN APPRAISAL OF THE LIABILITIES OF A COMPANY FOR THE ACTS OF ITS DIRECTORS

46.NIGERIA AND ARGENTINA CRIMINAL LAW: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

47.ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTCIE IN NIGERIAN COURTS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

48.EXAMINING PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN NIGERIA: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

49.A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT SITUATION AND CHOICE OF LAWS IN THE NIGERIAN…

50.RIGHT OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

51.DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

52.APPRAISAL OF TRESPASS AS A TORTUOUS ACTION UNDER THE LAW OF TORT

53.COMPETENCE AND COMPARABILITY: IS CHILD EVIDENCE ADMISSIBLE

54.AN EXAMINATION OF LAWS REGULATING ELECTION PETITIONS IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF NIGERIA

55.Do Judges Make Law (a Cursory Look At The Recurring Question)

56.WRONGFUL TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE FOR REINSTATEMENT OF PRIVATE…

57.RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF PARTIES UNDER THE CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

58.DUTIES AND POSITION OF COMPANY DIRECTORS UNDER NIGERIAN COMPANY LAW

59.ANALYSIS OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INSURANCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW OF INSURANCE

60.Women In Politics (a Review Of Common And Islamic Law Provision)

61.AN APPRAISAL OF THE LIABILITIES OF A COMPANY FOR THE ACTS OF ITS DIRECTORS

62.Provocation As A Defence To Criminal Liability: The Nigerian Perspective

63.TRUST PROPERTY: A LEGAL LINK BETWEEN TRUST PROPERTY AND TRUSTEE UNDER THE NIGERIAN LEGAL…

64.A Critical Appraisal Of Legitimacy And Legitimation Under Nigerian Family Law – Pdf

65.EXCESS OF INJUNCTION IN NIGERIA JUDICIAL SYSTEM

66.DUTY OF CARE: ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION IN NIGERIA

67.CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE RELEVANCY AND ADMISSIBILITY OF ELECTRONICALLY GENERATED EVIDENCE IN NIGERIA

68.An Appraisal Of The Application Of Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods To Marriage Disputes –…

69.A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONFLICT SITUATIONS AND CHOICE OF LAWS IN THE NIGERIAN…

70.COMPETENCE AND COMPELLABILITY: IS CHILD EVIDENCE ADMISSIBLE

71.APPRAISAL OF TRESPASS AS A TORTIOUS ACTION UNDER THE LAW OF TORT

72.ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN NIGERIAN COURTS: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

73.A Critical Overview Of The Consent Provisions Under The Land Use Act, 1978

74.Analysis Of The Various Schools Of Thought In Relation To The Meaning Of Law

75.AN APPRAISAL: LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERY

76.CONVENTIONAL AND ISLAMIC MORTGAGE FINANCING: A LEGAL COMPARISON – PDF

77.CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE RIGHT OF ARTIFICIALLY INSEMINATED CHILD TO INHERIT UNDER ISLAMIC LAW

78.CONFESSION OF ONE OF THE ACCUSED PERSON AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON IN COMMON AND ISLAMIC…

79.A LEGAL AND JURISPRUDENTIAL ANALYSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND SAME SEX MARRIAGES: SUPPORTING THE NIGERIAN…

80.THE LEGAL  EFFECTS OF CUSTOMARY LAW MARRIAGE IN NIGERIA – PDF

81.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SECTION 144 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION – MUSA YAR’ADUA…

82.THE PREREQUISITES OF A VALID WILL; A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

83.A CRITIQUE OF JEREMY BENTHAM’S IDEA OF LAW

84.A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF ELECTION LAWS IN NIGERIA

85.A LEGAL APPRAISAL OF THE ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR REFORMS IN NIGERIA

86.AN APPRAISAL OF THE COURTS AND CONSTITUTIONALISM IN NIGERIA

87.AN EXAMINATION OF LAWS AND PROCEDURES REGULATING TRADE DISPUTE IN NIGERIA

88.WILL A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS UNDER COMMON AND ISLAMIC LAWS – PDF

89.DOES JUDGES MAKES LAW? A CURSORY LOOK AST THE RECURRING

90.A HOLISTIC APPRAISAL OF THE CONCEPT OF TRUST UNDER THE NIGERIAN JURISPRUDENCE

91.AN APPRAISAL OF THE COURTS AND CONSTITUTIONALISM IN NIGERIA: A DECADE OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE

92.EGBASE V ORIAREGHAN(1985); EFFECT OF NON EST FACTUM ON CONTRACT

93.CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT UTILITY IN CRIMINAL TRIALS

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