The research work which titled ‘’Filling, indexing, and Record keeping on the attainment of organizational goals, a case study of The Ibarapa Polytechnic, Eruwa. It is designed to look into how fitting, indexing, and record-keeping enhances the growth of a firm.
Chapter one presents the introduction. These includes; objectives of the study, statement of the problems, significance of the study, limitation of the study and statement of hypothesis.
Chapter two highlights literature review among other things.
Chapter three; research methodology, target population, study sample, instruments for data collection, validation of instruments, methods of data collection and method of analysis.
Chapter four; deals with presentation of data, analysis of data.Finally, chapter five bring the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.
I got to understand in the process of the study that this topic is highly essential to consider and that the subject of filling, indexing and record-keeping cannot be brushed aside when considering the success of any firm. Many firms have been into thin air, some wound up, some bankruptcy, just because they failed to keep appropriate records.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Right from years of conception of institution, filling, indexing, and record keeping had been vital to individuals, organization and many who have posterity to protect. I hold sublime pride in writing this titled ‘’Filling, indexing, and record keeping on the attainment of organizational goal. Indeed to be perfect, accurate for this assertion.Filling is the process by which documents, correspondence paper are systematically classified, arranged, stored, and preserved so that they will easily be retrieved at a later day for reference purpose.
File is a memory of organization without file, there is no record.Record keeping on the order hand serves as a source of reference to events, actions, and decisions that manifest at a point in time. It also aid management in decision making.
It serves as account of fact or even set down writing as a means of preserving knowledge of information. Index is an indicator which may be found in file or books. In another word, index is a device for finding the position of records in a system guide. It can also be defined as an essential aid for finding materials already field for reference.
This study was carried out to assess environmental impacts of a proposed tankfarm which is to be situated at the Olokola Free Trade Zone in Ondo State (OKFTZ).
It encompasses various field sampling which includes soil, air and noise sampling taken from the proposed site. These samples were tested in the laboratory for parameters such as Total Hydro Carbon, pH values, Total Mean Percentage of Organic Matter, Heavy Metal Investigation, cation concentration. The Total Hydro Carbon which ranges from 4.8 to 33.0 milligram per kilogram(mg/kg) in the wet season and 4.0 to 78.5 mg/kg for dry season. The THC is reflective of an unpolluted environment, and it is widely accepted that soils with a hydrocarbon level below 100 mg/kg are considered unpolluted. Heavy metals investigation showed that Iron had the highest mean concentration (2213mg/kg) followed by Zinc (4.82mg/kg) and Copper (3.78mg/kg) for dry season while for wet season, Iron had 2039mg/kg followed by Zinc (8.68mg/kg) and copper (3.0mg/kg). The concentration of the monovalent cation in the soils was generally high. Sodium (Na) concentrations ranged between 2,136 and 7,341mg/kg in the wet season and 6,175 and 10,308 mg/kg in the dry season while potassium (K) ranged between 0.09 and 0.15 mg/kg in the wet season and 0.04 and 0.45mg/kg in the dry season. The high sodium content could be attributed to the proximity of the study area to the ocean.
Suspended Particulate Matter Levels for Wet and Dry Season on shows that there are more suspended particulate matter in the dry season as the result indicated a value of 196 µg/m3 against 64µg/m3 in the wet season. Comparing these findings with EGASPIN guidelines for national air quality standards, more air quality monitoring is needed during the dry season as it reaches a high of 196 though it is still within the EGASPIN (Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industries in Nigeria) limits. Noise measurements showed that the measured levels varied significantly in the different locations monitored and ranged from a low of 55.2dB to a high of 66.7dB, for the dry season and 52.7dB to a high of 67.9dB, for the wet season as compared to the World Bank standard of 45 dB(A) for residential areas during the daytime. It is recommended that environmental performance be monitored regularly to ensure compliance and those measures to be taken where necessary. The OKFTZ site is generally suitable for the proposed bulk fuel storage facility and all environmental risks can be minimized and managed through implementing preventative measures and sound environmental management systems.
Medicinal plants contain physiologically active principles that over the years had been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones. The effects on the basal levels of estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone were conducted in experimental animals. H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg produced minor effects on rat reproductive hormones, namely testosterone and estradiol while no change was observed on both prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone levels. Moreover, no histological changes were detected on both testes and ovaries of the experimental animals after 28 days of administration. It can be concluded that H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones. Key words: Estrogenic effect, reproductive hormones, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability within the body to alter endocrine functions often through mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones (James et al., 2013). These actions on the endocrine system have resulted in developmental deficits in various invertebrate and aquatic species (Crain et al., 2007; Elango et al., 2006) and mammals (Christopher et al., 2012). Exposures in adulthood have consequences but fetal and early life exposures appear to have more severe effects that persist through life (Rubin and Soto, 2009). Among these classes of chemicals are phytoestrogens that show effects suggestive of estrogenicity, such as binding to the estrogen receptors, induction of specific estrogenresponsive gene products, stimulation of estrogen receptor(s) and positive breast cancer cell growth (James et al., 2013). Through these interactions by acting as agonists or antagonists, EDCs are able to alter the activity of response elements of genes, block natural hormones from binding to their receptors, or in some cases increase the perceived amount of endogenous hormone in the body by acting as a hormone mimic to its receptor (Ze-hua et al., 2010). Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams and beverages. The brilliant red colour of its calyx makes it a valuable food product, a part from its multitude of traditional medicinal uses. Infusions of the calyces are considered as diuretic, *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 2296 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. cholerectic, febrifugal and hypotensive, decreasing the viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (Salleh et al., 2002). Roselle calyx extract is a good source of antioxidants from its anthocyanins and associated with antitumor and inhibitory effects on the growth of several cancer cells (Ajiboye et al., 2011). Extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces have been reported to be rich in phytoestrogens (Adigun et al., 2006; Orisakwe et al., 2004; Brian et al., 2009; Omotuyi et al., 2011) and some reports indicated that H. sabdariffa calyces have estrogenic effects, although exact estrogen-like ingredient is not determined (Ali et al., 1989). This study was undertaken to determine to which extent H. sabdariffa calyces extract alters the basal levels of selected reproductive hormones: estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone as well as the histological features of both testes and ovaries of rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plants The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were purchased from the local market in Wad-Medani, Sudan. The plant material was identified by the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Sudan. Extraction of plant material One hundred grams of coarsely powdered calyces of H. sabdariffa were extracted by maceration using ethanol (70%) in a conical flask for 72 h, kept away from light throughout the extraction period, then filtered and evaporated by a rotary evaporator at 60°C. The resulting solution was freeze dried and placed into a refrigerator until use. Effect of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones Experimental animals The effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones was conducted based on the method described by Omotuyi et al. (2011). A total of 20 rats (10 each for males and females) were housed in a clean animal house subjected to an intensive nutritional program. Rats were acclimatized for a period of 14 days under standard environmental conditions. The ethical committees, University of Gezira and Ministry of Health, Gezira State, ethically approved the experimental protocol. Experimental design Albino wistar rats were divided into four groups each of five. Water control groups for both males and females and the other two groups (either males or females) received 250 mg/kg of plant extract via gastric tube daily for 28 days. Collection of blood samples Blood samples were collected from conjunctival veins using capillary tubes at 7-day intervals for 28 days. Hormonal assay The hormones were estimated using the standard protocols of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Roche, Switzerland) for determination of estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Histopathological examination Twenty-eight days after oral administration of the extract, all experimental animals were anaesthetized using chloroform vapour and dissected. The ovaries and testes were collected and immediately fixed in Bouins fluid for 6 h and transferred to 70% alcohol for histological processing according to Drunny and Wallington (1990). Briefly, following fixation of the right side testes and ovaries from both control and test animals, tissue sections were processed by dehydration in 95% and absolute alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in pure clean moltenparaffin wax from which blocks of tissues were made for sectioning. Ribbon slices of about 5.0 μm in thickness were made with the aid of a microtome (delete machine) and the sections picked with slides, which were dried in oven. The slices were stained with haemotoxylin and eosin, and then mounted using DPX onto a light microscope (delete magnification 40× for testes and 10× for ovary) for histopathological and morphological changes. Data analysis All the obtained data were expressed as means ± standard deviation and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comparisons with the control groups were made using One-way ANOVA. Differences were considered significant if P-value < 0.05.
Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on estradiol levels in female rats The study revealed that the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx in a dose of 250 mg/kg exhibited a mild increase (p-value < 0.05) in estradiol level in female rats in time-dependent manner (Table 1). On day 28, estradiol reached more than twice the value observed on day 0 compared to those of water control group. Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on testosterone levels in male rats Following intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg of ethanolic H. sabdariffa calyx extract for 28 days, serum levels of testosterone were significantly reduced (P-value Sirag et al. 2297 Table 1. Serum estradiol levels (pg/ml) in female rats (n=5) after oral administration of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx and water (SD ± SEM). Preparation Day 0 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28 Hibiscus sabdariffa 6.40±29 8.12±39 12.93±40 15.92±47 16.6±50 Control (water) 5.39±30 6.1±35 6.14±34 6.34±36 7.12±37 *P-value < 0.05. Table 2. Serum testosterone levels (ng/ml) in male rats (n=5) after oral administration of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx and water (SD ± SEM). Preparation Day 0 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28 Hibiscus sabdariffa 2.77±3.66 2.18±1.89 1.44±1.02 0.8±0.53 0.54±0.16 Control (water) 0.47±2.64 0.68±2.37 0.94±0.64 1.34±1.06 1.07±2.39 *P-value < 0.05 < 0.05) in male rats throughout the experimental period compared to those of water control group (Table 2). Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on prolactin and FSH levels in female rats The ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx in a dose of 250 mg/kg/ml did not cause changes in the serum levels of prolactin or FSH throughout the experimental period in female rats administered the plant extract for 28 days. Histological effects of H. sabdariffa calyx extract on rat testes and ovaries The extract did not cause histological changes on both testes and ovaries of the experimental animals when the plant extract was administered for 28 days.
Certain phytoestrogens such as isoflavones and lignans have been thoroughly investigated for their estrogenic properties (Miksicek, 1995; Collins et al., 1997; So et al., 1997). Extracts of H. sabdariffa have been reported to be rich in phytoestrogen (Adigun et al., 2006; Orisakwe et al., 2004; Brian et al., 2009; Omotuyi et al., 2011). There are reports indicated that H. sabdariffa calyces have estrogenic effects, although exact estrogen-like ingredient is not determined (Ali et al., 1989). Moreover, plant phenols, anthocyanin isolates and anthocyanin-rich mixture of bioflavonoids possess estrogenic activities (Omotuyi et al., 2011). The reduction of serum level of testosterone in male rats produced by ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx may be explained by the estrogenic activity of the plant, an evidence raised by Orisakwe et al. (2004). Furthermore, other studies had reported a statically significant decrease in testosterone levels in laboratory animals treated with phytoestrogens (Sharpe et al., 2002; Cline et al., 2004). The precise role that oestrogens play in male reproductive development is unclear, but generally, oestrogens tend to have ‘demasculinising’ or antiandrogenic effects. In foetal and neonatal life, this probably results from suppression of testosterone production (Haavisto et al., 2001), or loss of androgen receptors (McKinnell et al., 2001). Oestrogens are synthesised from androgens via the action of a single enzyme (aromatase), and there is a close relationship between the actions of these two hormones. Moreover, testosterone may be converted to estrogen by aromatase (Benassayag et al., 2002). Although dietary phytoestrogens have been implicated in adverse effect upon fertility in various animals, there are few published reports of such effects in human populations consuming large amounts of these substances (Benassayag et al., 2002). In male rats, reduction of testosterone level might impair spermatogenesis and cause male infertility (Orisakwe et al., 2004). It should be noted that in the study of herbal extracts, one could not attribute the observed biological effects to a particular constituents because many other compounds are present in the plant extracts (Saied-Karblay et al., 2010). Factors such as species, age, gender, diet, dose, route of administration and metabolism strongly influence the ultimate biological response to phytoestrogen exposure (Shweta, 2009). 2298 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Conclusion H. sabdariffa calyx extract caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones and due to the pleiotropic effects of phytoestrogens in vivo, a broad panel of in vitro assays covering not only estrogenic action but also other regulating processes has to be used to assess the potential of plant-derived compounds to beneficially or adversely affect human health.
Adigun MO, Ogundipe OD, Anetor JI, Detunde AO (2006). Dosedependent changes in some haematological parameters during shortterm administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract (zobo) in wistar albino rats. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 35:73-77. Ajiboye TO, Salawu NA, Yakubu MY, Oladiji AT (2011). Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract. J. Drugs Chem. Toxicol. 34:109-115. Ali MS, Salih WM, Humida AM (1989). An estrogenic–like activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Fitoterapia. 60:547–548. Benassayag C, Perrot-Applanat M, Ferre F (2002). Phytoestrogens as modulators of steroid action in target cells. J. Chromatogr. B. 777:233-248. Brian J, Jonna F, Lauren E, Alice P, Gail B (2009). Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Menopause, 16 (4):748-755. Christopher R, Cederroth 1; Céline 1 and Serge, A (2012). Soy, phytoestrogens and their impact on reproductive health. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 355:192–200 Cline JM, Franke AA, Register TC, Adams MR (2004). Effects of dietary isoflavones aglycones on the reproductive tract of male and female mice. J. Toxicol. Pathol. 32:91-99. Collins BM, Mclachlan JA, Arnold SF (1997). The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phytochemicals with the human estrogen receptor expressed in yeast. Steroids. 62:365-372. Crain DA, Eriksen M, Iguchi T, Jobling S, Laufer H (2007). An ecological assessment of bisphenol-A: evidence from comparative biology. J.l Reprod. Toxicol. 24:225–239. Drunny RAB, Wallington EA (1990). Histological Techniques 5th Ed London, Oxford University Press, pp 199-220. Elango A, Shepherd B, Chen TT (2006). Effects of endocrine disrupters on the expression of growth hormone and prolactin mRNA in the rainbow trout pituitary. J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.145:116-127. Haavisto T, Numela K, Pohjanvirta R, Huuskonen J (2001). Prenatal testosterone and LH levels in male rats exposed during pregnancy to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dixin and diethylstilbestrol. J. Mol. Cell Endocrinol.178:169-179. James A, Rogers L, Metz V, Wee Y (2013). Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals and immune responses: A focus on bisphenol-A and its potential mechanisms. J. Mol. Immunol. 53:421-430 McKinnell C, Atanassova N, Williams K, Fisher JS, Walker M, Turner KJ, Saunders, PTK, Sharpe RM (2001). Suppression of androgen action and the induction of gross abnormalities of the reproductive tract in male rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol. J. Androl. 22:323-338. Miksicek RJ (1995). Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 208:44-50. Omotuyi IO, Ologundudu A, Onwubiko VO, Wogu MD (2011). Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn anthocyanins alter circulating reproductive hormones in rabbits. J. Diabetes Endocrinol. 1(3):36-45. Orisakwe OE, Husaini DC, Afonne OJ (2004). Testicular effects of subchronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in rats. J. Reprod. Toxicol.18:295–298. Rubin BS, Soto AM (2009). Bisphenol A: perinatal exposure and body weight. J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 304:55–62. Saied-Karbalay D, Ali N, Farzaneh D, Mohammad R (2010). Effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Matricaria chamomilla on serum testosterone and estradiol levels, spermatozoon quality and tail length in rat. Iran J. Med. Sci. 35(2):25-32. Salleh N, Runnie I, Roach D, Mohamed S, Abeywardena Y (2002). Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor in HepG2 cells by tropical plant extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3693-3697. Sharpe RM, Martin B, Morris K, Walker M (2002). Infant feeding with soy formula: effects on the testis and blood testosterone levels in marmoset monkeys during the period of neonatal testicular activity. J. Human Reprod. 17(7):1692-1703. Shweta T, Bhavana B, Aditi D, Durgesh N (2009). Effect of Carum carvi and Curcuma longa on hormonal and reproductive parameter of female rats. Int. J. Phytomed. 1:31-38. So FV, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK (1997). Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by flavonoids in the presence and absence of excess estrogen. Cancer Lett. 112:127-133. Ze-hua L, Yoshinori K, Satoshi M (2010). A review of phytoestrogens: Their occurrence and fate in the environment. Water Res. 44:567- 577.
This research work was carried out to determine the effect of Acanthus montanus on fasting blood sugar level of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats (both male and female) weighing between 140g to 160g were used for this research project. They were acclimatized for 14 days after which the animals were grouped into four groups of five rats each. Each animal were administered based on their body weight. The dose given to animals in group A was 300mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus, Group B was given 500mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus, Group C was given 700mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus and group D (control group) was given distilled water. The administration lasted for thirteen days. A day before the animals were tested for fasting blood sugar level, food and water was withdrawn and they fasted for twelve hours. Blood samples were collected from the tail of the animals and the fasting blood sugar of each of the animals was tested.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction 1
1.2 Aim of Study
2.0 Literature Review 5
2.1 The Uses of Medicinal Plants
2.2 Acanthus Montanus
2.3 Scientific Classification of Acanthus Montanus
2.4 Fasting Blood Sugar
3.0 Materials and Methods
3.1 Preparation of plants
3.1.1 Chemicals, Reagents and Equipments
3.2 Management of Animals
3.3 Administration of Plant Extract
3.3.1 Determination of Drug Dosage for Acanthus Monthanus
3.3.2 Preparation of Stock Solution for Acanthus Montanus Ethanolic Extract
3.3.3 Calculation of Administered Volume
3.4 Sample Collection and Determination of Fasting Blood Sugar
3.5 Statistical Analysis
4.1 Biochemical Parameters and Statistical Analysis
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1- Acanthus montanus
Figure 2- Graphical representation of Acanthus montanus on fasting blood sugar level.
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1 – Grouping and administration of treatment
Table 2- Showing the fasting blood sugar readings
Table 3- Showing the effect of fasting blood sugar in the experiment and control group of adult wistar rats.
Automobile Industry can be refers to as the collection of firms that produce, manufacture broadly automobiles using the same raw material, pattern of production while the definition of small-scale industries varies from country to country and from time to time. Automobile mechanic workshop is an example of small scale industry because it’s not attached to main production of automobiles but servicing and maintenance of automobiles. For example, engine repair, collision repair, car wash, oil change and lube. According to ‘Ford Motor Co-operation’, its evolution started when automobile manufacturing became available just before the beginning of the 20th century. Although for early car owner, there were no vehicle mechanics only the bicycle mechanic, plumber or machinist were summoned then to repair the fabricated parts. The wealthier ones among the car owner employed chauffeur-mechanics as servants who would drive and maintain the vehicles and they used their specialized knowledge to lever better pay and privileges from their wealthier employer.
By the twenties, the motor vehicles started to be common in places and it was possible for vehicle repair industry to grow either as independent companies or as workers for specific automobile makers. These technicians were pay by the hours or day at which they work and repairs were billed for actual time taken. The repair workshops with various good specialized mechanics had a big advantage as repair were quicker and therefore cheaper. To introduce some stability to the repair market, standard times for set repair jobs started to be used for billing.
Starting the 1930s, mechanics spent their time sitting on benches, waiting and hoping for work in the slow economy period when some would go home with little or no pay for many days.
After the World War Two, the economy boomed, Flat Rate system started to dominate and as workers had little control over the accounting procedures that determined their pay, the mechanics also learned how to manipulate the system for extra pay at the expense of customers.
The use of automobile vehicles on our roads plays a key role in road transportation system and the economy of the society thereby making road transport services more efficient unlike other means of transport in various countries.
Vehicle maintenance refers to practice where an automobile is serviced on a regular basis to prevent major breakdown or the need for major repair. (international journal of science and technology vol2.)
Automobile service workshops has contributed greatly to the society in terms of services to the society and productive employment among the poorer people is vital and helps dispersal of industries in the urban, semi-urban and rural areas of the country. Many uneducated youths get employment in these workshops and thereby alleviating poverty.
1.1 Background to the Study
Services can be refers to as work done for others either in terms of business or occupation. It enables both the customer and the service provider to know what to expect and not what to expect from the service.
Service Organization varies rapidly in size and function. The growth of service industry in the past two decades has prompted a number of study on this sector of the economy. The service industry is difficult to define and encompass. There has been various ways at which the service industry can be identified. It includes: economic activities like physical and other experiential activities and what is transformed through their services.
Service Organization varies in size. On one hand, the scale of service is huge, for example International cooperation who deals with industries like banking, airlines, insurance e.t.c and on the other hand the scale of service is small and locally owned for example automobile mechanic workshop, restaurant e.t.c. According to Ayeni (1979:12) in reference to Mabogunje, he stated that any study carry out on the service centers in an urban area is an attempt to explain a part of the spatial configuration of such urban area.
Maintenance is defined as an activity applicable to all systems, natural and artificial, to cause such systems to remain unaltered or unimpaired. It is the repair activity carried out on vehicles or other machineries to keep them unaltered, and if altered, to restore them to their original state. (Okah-Avae 1995; Akinola and Ogedengbe 2005). Automobile Service workshop can be defined as the sales and leasing of vehicles, providing after sales services and sales of auto part.
The study of the distributional pattern of Automobile Mechanic workshop have not been paid much attention on until after the period of colonial era when the demand for vehicle ownership started increasing and also there occur increasing urge for mobility of goods, people compare to other service sector of the economy where there has been much attention. For example Banking sector, Educational Sector e. t. c.
. Mostly, the site of mechanic workshop where maintenance activities, repair of vehicle and sales of vehicle parts are carried out are of low capital base and either located on slippery terrains, under tree sheds, canopy made of banana or palm fronds, etc.
In Nigeria where land transport is largely in use compared to water transportation and other modes of transportation in other country, the use of automobile vehicles, either diesel or petrol driven is predominant. According to ‘Akintola 1995’, he stated that ‘the vehicles cannot remain new forever, as the parts breakdown and wear out, and so, must be maintained’.
The background to the existence of Automobile Mechanic workshop in Nigeria, Ibadan to be precise can be traced back on the basis of the need to render services to vehicles which when on the move can suddenly develop fault and requires an emergency repair. So this makes it inevitable that some repairing workshops should be set up near the road side to render services to the vehicles when they go out of order or become inoperative, and be very helpful for the operation of vehicles. Within a short time, the number of vehicles increased enormously and many workshops were set up. Nowadays, many roads and high ways are built and hundreds and thousands of vehicles are found plying on those roads. In order to provide services to those vehicles to make them operative, a large number of mechanic workshops are located near the road side. (Technical report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria)
The job of an automobile mechanics over the 21st century has been increasingly specialized with rapid advancement in technology, they have broaden their knowledge from main mechanic work to including rewiring, electronic work due to the modern trend in production and manufacturing of modern vehicles whose part have been evolved with electronics. So this creates basis for the mechanics to have broader knowledge in repair works than before. Although the land used for automobile mechanical works are mostly acquired through rent and lease so the managers have periods of years to locate their workshop there and at the end of the period of practice, the workshop is later on the control of the previous worker who was a trainee and after the acquisition of knowledge, he becomes boss in his own level.
The automobile mechanic workshops in Nigeria are under the control of mostly illiterate or semi literate individuals (Oguzie, 2001). The designs of vehicles nowadays have advanced to a very sophisticated level, and unlike the old mechanically operated vehicle systems, the modern vehicles are being operated and controlled by computerized electronic sensors. For example, latest vehicles’ ignition systems are electrically controlled without employing the old use of manually reset contact breaker. Common to majority of the new trend cars is the brain box and other electronic gadgets that sense instant faults in the vehicle and immediately notifies the driver through the dashboard display. The modern trend of mechanical services therefore requires the use of more complex and highly technological and special diagnostic equipment to analyse vehicle faults for repair and service. To ensure this for efficiency, safety, comfort and style, competent professional hands are required (Auto Tips 2001; Dhillon 1980 Automobile repair and servicing is considered to be inelastic because it will always and forever be in demand. The need for people to purchase vehicles will continue to rise likewise the need to maintain, repair and service the vehicles no matter the level at which the economy struggles in a country.
The present study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of pasteurized liquid milk samples sold at different shops in students market located at Imo state University front gate. A total of four samples were collected. The samples were examined to determine the total heterophilic bacterial count and total coliform count. Results revealed that two of the samples (1 and 2) yielded no growth on both Nutrient agar and MacConkey agar hence, were tagged satisfactory. Sample 2 and 3 yielded growth that ranges from 7.0X104 – 9.0 X104, 1.3 X105 – 1.3 X105 respectively. Further identification test carried out showed the presence of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. in sample 3 and 4 hence they were tagged unsatisfactory. The presence of coliform bacteria shows the possibility of pathogenic bacteria and could cause disease.
Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of gaseous phases and particles). A more broad definition may include taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. The practice may have begun as early as 5000-3000 BC (Nagarajet al., 2014).Cigarette smoking is probably the most addictive and dependence producing form of object-specific, self-administered gratification known to man. According to present estimates, tobacco is responsible for causing more than 5 million deaths every year (World Health Organization, 2008).
The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on human health have been well documented.It has been known that cigarette smoke carries around 4000 chemicals including toxic metals,poisonous gases and free radicals (Schumacher et al., 2009). Amongst these constituents, free radicals are considered to be more dangerous as these owing to their unpaired electron
are highly reactive and can cause oxidative damageto biomolecules and biomembranes (Senet al., 2010).
Smoking plays an important role in disturbing the antioxidant balance. Normally blood contains a healthy complement of antioxidants that keep oxidative damage to a minimum. Tobacco smoke contains abundant reactive oxygen species and also activated neutrophils released due to smoking also add to the pool of reactive oxygen species which deplete these antioxidant mechanisms leading to tissue damage (Kumaret al., 2010).
Malondialdehyde is a organic compound with the formula CH2 (CHO). This reactive species occurs naturally and is a marker for oxidative stress.
The bacteria Bacillus licheniformis was cultured in nutrient agar and then incubated for 15h at 35oC. The bacteria cells were harvested by centrifugation after incubation. The cell free supernatant was used to estimate alpha-amylase activity. The alpha-amylase obtained was isolated and purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It was purified up to 15.5 fold and a yield of 20.2% on DEAE- Sephadex column with a final specific activity of 12.14 u/mg. The alpha-amylase was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. The free and immobilized enzyme had broad temperature ranges from 20oC to 70oC with optima of 60oC and 70oC respectively and optimum pH of 7.0 and 8.0 respectively. Initial velocity studies for the determination of kinetic constants with maltose as substrate revealed a KM value of 2.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml for the free and immobilized enzyme respectively and a Vmax value of 0.4unit/mg/min and 0.95unit/mg/min for the free and immobilized enzyme respectively. Both the free and immobilized enzyme activity were enhanced by Ca2+ , Mn2+ , and Na+ while Hg2+ and Zn2+ were found to be strong inhibitors of both the free and immobilized enzyme.
1.1.Background of Study
Amylase is a digestive enzyme classified as a saccharidase (an enzyme that cleaved poly-saccharides). It is mainly a constituent of pancreatic juice and saliva, needed for the breakdown of long-chain carbohydrate (such as starch) into smaller units like disaccharides and trisaccharides.
Alpha-amylase is the major form of amylase found in humans and other mammals. It is also present in seeds containing starch as food reserve and it is secreted by many fungi. Although found in many tissues, alpha-amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and saliva. Alpha-amylase found in saliva breaks starch down to maltose and dextrin. It breaks large insoluble starch molecules into soluble forms e.g. amylodextrin, erythrodextrin and achrodextrin producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. The pancreas produces alpha-amylase which hydrolyses dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzyme to glucose to supply the body with energy (Alistair etal., 2006).
Although amylase can be derived from several sources such as plants, animals and microbes, the microbial amylase meet industrial needs and demands. Large numbers of microbial amylase have completely replaced chemical hydrolysis of starch in starch processing industries (Pandey et al., 2000).
Since the expositions of the key role of monetary policy in influencing macroeconomic objectives like economic growth, price stability and host of other objectives, monetary authorities are saddled with the responsibility of fashioning appropriate monetary policy instruments that can be effectively used to grow their economies. However, despite the various monetary measures or instruments adopted by the monetary authorities to enhance rapid and sustainable economic growth and given the prominence of monetary policy in macroeconomic management in Nigeria over the years, growth has not accelerated. Instead of growing, the country has witnessed relatively low and unstable economic growth, poor income redistribution and increased poverty level as represented by its per capita income. The perceived ineffectiveness of monetary policy impact can be submitted as ineffectiveness or failure of the instruments deployed – all things being equal. It was against this background, therefore, that this study sought to examine how; (i) effective the use of Treasury bill rate as (a proxy to Open Market Operation) has impacted on the growth of Nigeria’s Real Gross Domestic Product, (ii) the use of Broad Money Supply (M2) as a monetary tool has fared in stimulating the growth of Nigeria’s RGDP, (iii) Liquidity Ratio (Lr) has impacted on the growth of Nigeria’s RGDP, (iv) effective the use of Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) as a monetary instrument has impacted on the growth of Nigerian’s RGDP. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted. Time series data for 30-years period covering 1982 – 2011 were collated from secondary sources that included Central Bank of Nigeria published annual reports and statistical bulletin. Four hypotheses were formulated for the study and tested using a multiple regression model. Economic growth proxied by growth of Real Gross Domestic Product was adopted as the dependent variable, while the independent variable included Treasury Bill Rate (TBR), Broad Money Supply (M2), Liquidity Ratios (LR) and Monetary Policy Rate (MPR). Results show that (i) Treasury bill rate has a positive and significant impact on Nigeria’s RGDP, (ii) Broad Money Supply (M2) exhibited a negative and insignificant impact on Nigerian’s RGDP, (iii) Liquidity ratio has negative and insignificant impact on Nigerian’s RGDP and (iv) Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) has positive and significant impact on Nigeria’s RGDP. The policy implication arising from the findings is that the monetary policy instruments showed a mix result in terms of their impact on Nigeria’s RGDP. The study therefore recommends among others that Nigeria should adopt a macro mix of monetary, fiscal and exchange rate policies because of the relative weakness of the use of monetary policy alone in engendering economic growth.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION – – – – 1
1.1 Background to the Study – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 6
1.4 Research Questions – – – – 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – 7
1.6 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 7
References – – – – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE – – 12
2.1 Theoretical Review – – – – – – 12
2.1.1 Schools of Economic Thoughts on Monetary Policy 12
2.1.6 Implementation of Monetary Policy in Nigeria – – 33
2.2 Empirical Review – – – – – – 38
2.3 Summary – – – – – – – 44
References – – – – – – – 46
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – – 53
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 53
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – 53
3.3 Nature and Sources of Data – – – – 52
3.4 Model Specification – – – – – – 52
3.5 Model Justification – – – – – – 55
3.6 Explanatory Variables – – – – – – 56
3.6.1 Dependent Variable – – – – – – 56
3.6.2 Independent Variable – – – – – 56
3.6.3 Controlled Variable – – – – – 57
3.7 Method of Analysis – – – – – – 59
References – – – – – – – 60
CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA – 63
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 63
4.2 Presentation of Data – – – – – – 63
4.3 Test of Hypotheses – – – – – – 76
4.3.1 Test of Hypothesis one – – – – – – 76
4.3.2 Test of Hypothesis Two – – – – – 78
4.3.3 Test of Hypothesis Three — – – – 80
4.3.4 Test of Hypothesis Four – – – 82
4.4 Discussion of Results – – – – 83
References – – – – – – 86
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS – – 87
5.1 Introduction – – – – – 87
5.2 Summary of Findings – – – – – 87
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – 88
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – 89
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge – – – – 90
Bibliography – – – – – – 91
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Real Gross Domestic Product, Treasury bill Rate and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – – – – 61
Table 4.2 Real Gross Domestic Product, Broad Money Supply and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – – 64
Table 4.3 Real Gross Domestic Product, Liquidity Ratio and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – – – 67
Table 4.4 Real Gross Domestic Product, Monetary Policy Rate and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – – 71
Table 4.5 OLS Regression Result of Treasury bill Rate (TBR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) – – – – – 74
Table 4.6 OLS Regression Result of Broad Money Supply(M2) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) – – – – 76
Table 4.7 OLS Regression Result of Liquidity Ratio (LR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) – – – – – 78
Table 4.8 OLS Regression Result of Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) – – – 79
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1 Multiple Line chart showing Treasury Bill Rate and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate
Figure 4.2 Multiple Line chart showing Real Gross Domestic Products, Broad Money Supply and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate 67
Figure 4.3 Multiple Line chart showing Liquidity Ratios and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – – – 70
Figure 4.4 Multiple Line chart showing Monetary Policy Rate and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate – – 74
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
the greatest challenges facing nations is how to achieve sustainable economic
growth and development and
formal articulation of how money affects economic growth dates back to the time
of Adams Smith and later championed by the monetary economists (Adefeso and
This is because of the numerous benefits that growth confers. A few of
the most important ones are; firstly, economic growth raises the general living
standard of the population as measured by per capita national income; secondly,
economic growth makes many kinds of income distribution easier to achieve;
thirdly, economic growth enhances the time frame of accomplishing the basic
necessities of man, for example shelter, food, clothing, etc, by a substantial
majority of the population (Lipsey,1982:693).
strongly believe that monetary policy exact greater impact on economic activity
as unanticipated change in the stock of money affects output and growth i.e the
stock of money must increase unexpectedly for central bank to promote growth (Omotor, 2007). Ezema (2009) defines monetary policy as a
combination of policy actions taken by the central bank of a country to
influence money supply, interest rate, availability and cost of credit in an
economy. Monetary policy aims at achieving the broad objectives of commensurate
economic growth rate and development of the national economy through specific
objectives which include price stability, full employment, favorable balance of
payment and others (Okwu,et.al.,2011;Nwankwo, 1991). It covers gamut of measures or combination of packages intended
to influence or regulate the volume, prices as well as direction of money in
the economy. Specifically, it permeates all the debonair efforts by the
monetary authorities to control the money supply and credits conditions for the
purpose of achieving diverse macroeconomic objectives (Ajie and Nenbee, 2010).
Chamberlin and Yueh (2006:55) add that monetary policy – the act of controlling
the supply or price of money – may exert a powerful influence over the economy.
Monetary policy can also be
defined as the instruments at the disposal of the monetary authorities to
influence the availability and cost of credit/money with the ultimate objective
of achieving price stability. Depending on the mandate of the monetary authorities,
the objectives of monetary policy may well go beyond price stability. More
often than not, monetary authorities particularly in developing countries are
saddled with a dual mandate – price stability and sustainable growth
(Ibeabuchi, 2007). In such a situation, monetary policy is used to achieve both
objectives (Aderibigbe, 1997:11 ). The apparent conflict between these views
according to Fry (2000:128) is resolved if it can be established that monetary
policy can be used to accomplish the goals of high employment and growth only
if it maintains stable prices. In such a case, price stability becomes a
necessary condition for sustained economic growth and, thus, no conflict
between the two objectives, since they imply the same thing.
Since the expositions of the role of
monetary policy in influencing macroeconomic objectives like economic growth,
price stability and host of other objectives, monetary authorities are saddled
with the responsibility of fashioning appropriate monetary policy instruments
that can be effectively used to grow their economies (Nenbee, et. al, 2010).
In the opinion of Bernanke and Lian (1998), the choice of the monetary
instruments used for intervention by policy makers is the major determinant of
the degree of impact on monetary aggregates and the ultimate objective of
economic growth. In other word, the responsibility lies on the monetary authorities
to evaluate and assess the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the transmission
mechanisms of its monetary instruments deployed and determines which one has
greater and quicker impact on their ultimate objective amongst others. The
transmission mechanism of monetary policy describes the channels or the
processes through which monetary policy actions of the central bank impact on
the ultimate objectives of inflation and output (Akhtar, 1997; Ajayi, 2007). Specific channels of monetary
transmission operate through the effects that monetary policy has on interest
rates, exchange rates, equity and real estate prices, bank lending and firm
balance sheets. Four main channels through which monetary policy influences the
economy have been identified in the literature namely, interest rates
(sometimes referred to as liquidity channel), exchange rate, other assets
prices and credit (Peter, 2005).
In Nigeria, the Central Bank of
Nigeria (CBN) is the sole monetary authority. Its core mandate is to promote
monetary and price stability and evolve an efficient and reliable financial
system through the application of appropriate monetary policy instruments and
systemic surveillance. In order to ensure the realization of the goals of price
stability and economic growth, the CBN deploys its monetary policy instruments
in such a way as to ensure optimality in inflation and growth outcomes (CBN,
2010). Monetary policy complements other economic policies to achieve
government’s overall macroeconomic objectives of internal balance and external
viability (Adesoye, et. al., 2012).
conduct of monetary policy in Nigeria has undergone several phases. Three of
the phases are easily identified – the era of application of direct controls;
the era of application of market instruments (or indirect controls), and the
era of intense reform of strategy and institutions. The major objectives of
policy has, however, remained unchanged, that is, price stability and
sustainable growth of the economy (Omotor,
2007).While the objectives of monetary policy in the early 1970s were
designed to deal with four main broad objectives, namely price stability, high
rate of unemployment, sustainable economic growth and balance of payments, the
approach of monetary policy implementation has evolved over the years from
absolute reliance on direct controls in the 1970s and early 1980s to focus on
the market based system of monetary control (Uchendu, 1996). Under direct
controls, monetary management depended on the use of direct instruments, such
as credit ceilings, selective credit controls, administrative fixing of
interest rates and exchange rate as well as the prescription of cash reserve
requirements. The main objective then was to ensure that funds were made
available to the productive sectors of the economy such as agriculture and
manufacturing at relatively cheap terms. Under this regime, monetary policy
impulses through changes in interest, exchange rates and credit ceilings were
expected to positively affect changes in output and prices through the credit
channel. Achieving the objective of monetary policy under this approach was,
however, hampered by excessive fiscal dominance and poor compliance with
statutory directives by deposit money banks as operators continued to hide
credit transactions in a way that prevented funds from flowing into the
preferred sectors of the economy (Idowu, 2009).
As the financial markets
deepened over time as a consequence of the economy wide macroeconomic reforms
that commenced mid-1980s, the CBN started the process of shifting from the use
of direct instruments to market-based instruments.(Sanusi, 2002). The most
significant move in the new direction came in June 1993 when the Bank
introduced OMO. The market-based tools include in addition to OMO, reserve
requirements which specifies the proportion of a bank’s total deposit
liabilities that should be kept with the central bank; and discount window
operations under which the central bank performs the role of lender of last
resort to the deposit money banks (Nnanna, 2001). Currently, OMO is the major
instrument of monetary policy at the CBN. Other supporting instruments are
discount window operations, moral suasion, foreign exchange sales/swaps and the
standing facility introduced in December 2006 (CBN, 2006).
As a result of the increasing dynamism of the modern national economy resulting from financial liberalization and greater integration and interdependence of the monetary economies, there is need for continual research and assessment of the relevance and effectiveness of monetary instruments used in monetary management. This will enable policy makers ensure that there is no deviation from monetary targets and that the instrument accomplishes the ultimate goal which is the growth of the nation’s economy. It is as results of this need, amongst others that this study will examine the impact of monetary policy instruments on the economic growth of Nigeria.
126.96.36.199 Rotating savings and credit Associations – – – 37
188.8.131.52 Family fund pool scheme – – – – – 39
184.108.40.206 The local moneylenders – – – – – 39
220.127.116.11 Social clubs and age grade association – – – 40
18.104.22.168 Tied Credit – – – – – – – 41
2.2.10 Development finance institutions and microfinance in Nigeria – 41
Agricultural co-operative and rural development bank (NACRDB) 43
22.214.171.124Functions of NACRDB – – – – – – 44
126.96.36.199The bank of Industry (BOI) – – – – 44
188.8.131.52Failures of former Defunct Banks – – – – 46
2.2.11 The concept of rural economic growth in Nigeria – – – 47
2.2.12 The Effectiveness of microfinance in rural development – 48
2.2.13 Impact assessment of microfinance – – – 50
2.2.14 Arguments on loan default problem – – – – 53
2.3 Empirical Literature on Microfinance and Performance – 49
References – – – – – – – – – 52
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1Research Design – – – – – 59
3.2 Nature and Sources of Data – – – – 59
3.3 Population and Sample Size – – – – – 59
3.4 Description of Research Variables – – – 59
3.4.1 Independent Variable: – – – – – – 60
3.4.2 Dependent Variables – – – – – – 60
3.5 Technique for Data Analysis – – – – – – 61
3.6 Model Specification – – – – – – 61
References – – – – – – – – – 63
FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 64
4.2 Data presentation – – – – – – 64
4.3 Determination of Research variables – – – – 66
4.4 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – 71
4.4.1 Test of Hypothesis One – – – – – 71
4.4.2 Test of Hypothesis Two – – – – – 72
4.4.3 Test of hypothesis Three – – – – – 73
References – – – – – – – 74
FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – 75
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 75
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 76
5.4 Contributions to Knowledge – – – – – 77
5.5 Suggestions for further research studies – – – 77
Bibliography – – – – – – 78
Appendix – – – – – – 87
Table 4.1 Nominal Values of Model Data – – – 64
Table 4.2 Determination of Microfinance Activities – – – 66
Table 4.3 Determination of Agricultural Contribution to GDP — 67
Table 4.4 Determination of Rural Savings – – – 69
Table 4.5 Determination of Rural Poverty — – 70
Table 4.6 E-view Regression Results – – – 71
Table 4.7 E-view Regression Results – – – 72
Table 4.8 E-view Regression Results – – 73
This study examines the impact of microfinance activities on rural economic growth in Nigeria for the period: 2000-2015; the introduction of microfinance banks is the inability of commercial banks to provide sufficient credit, savings and other financial services to the poor and so have taken up the challenges of the gap created by them; the primary objective is to investigate the impact of microfinance on rural economic growth in Nigeria with the specific objective of examining and evaluating the impact on agricultural contribution to GDP, rural saving and poverty reduction; literature was reviewed along the line of conceptual framework, theoretical and empirical literature; methodology adopted used the ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique to estimate the hypotheses, values of aggregate loan and advances to aggregate deposit ratio was used as proxy for microfinance activities and adopted as the independent variable while the dependent variables include agricultural sector contributions to gross domestic product (GDP), rural savings (RS) and poverty index (PI); Data analysis considered three hypotheses and the result from the study reveals that regression coefficient of microfinance activity is negative in explaining agricultural contribution to GDP and rural poverty but positive and significant in explaining rural savings in Nigeria; based on these findings, the study recommends that conscious effort showed be made by government to industrialize rural areas as a means of improving rural economic growth; microfinance institutions should be encouraged to lend to rural dwellers as a way of promoting rural saving habits in Nigeria while policies related to agricultural diversification should be intensified by government in combating the menace of poverty in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the past three decades, there has
been growing awareness of the spatial dimension in the development of the rural
areas especially in developing countries where rural communities have earlier
experienced decades of neglect (Olawepo and Ariyo, 2011). There is therefore
special interest in the accelerating processes of rural community
transformation by various governments in the areas of poverty alleviation,
provision of rural infrastructure such as health and medical facilities,
electricity, pipe borne water. Schools; agricultural extension and in the
development of micro finance establishments that will affect the lives of the
rural investors and community organizations. Based on these and other
strategies, the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 1990 established an economic
policy that would encourage the extension of banking business to the rural area
of the country in order to mobilize rural savings. This was aimed at
development and fostering rural transformation(Ariyo, 2003 and Olawepo, 2004). The whole idea of rural banking
stemmed from a realization of the abundant resources available in the rural
areas, the need to channel these resources to production and make such business
activities contribute to economic development shifted research focus and government
policy to promoting rural banking habit. An increase in rural investment as a
result of provision of loans and advances will gear up output level and this
will in turn raise the consumption level and possibly improve accessibility to
public good s and services within the rural environment (See Direvedi, 1980;
Adedayo, 1983; Jenyo, 2002 and Olawepo 2004).
According to Smith and Yeboah, (2005), throughout
most of the post World War IIperiod,
government across the developing world have intervened in rural financial
markets in order promote income expansion and alleviate rural poverty. In many
of these efforts especially during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, the authorities
pursued the direct credit approach which is targeted at increasing production
or adopting new technologies without external assistance in the form of credit
since they were assumed to be too poor to save. But private banks could not
lend on appropriate terms to this sector and thus farmers were forced into the
hand of money lenders This Development lead to the establishment of government
owned specialized institutions like Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme to
provide subsidized credit to the target population.
By the early 1990s two general
approaches to financial market reform had taken shape. The first was known as
financial liberalization and the second the financial system development Approach. The goal of rural
financial market reform was to expand access to financial services and
efficiency of financial intermediation Restrictive government polices was said
to be the principal cause of the shallow, fragmented and inefficient financial
systems plaguing many developing countries (Mckinnon 1973).
To enhance the efficiency of the
financial system and to create more access to financial services for
marginalized groups, the prescription was liberalize the financial system by
eliminating restrictions on interest rates, mandatory sector credit allocations
and credit ceilings (Pill and Pradhan, 1997; African Development Bank, 1994;
and Aryeetey et al, 1997).
Today the task of taking the financial
system and the entire economy to the next level is squarely placed on financial
system strategy 2020. The blue print of financial system strategy is to
reposition the country to one of twenty largest economies in the world. The
objectives were articulated strategies to make Nigeria the financial hub of
Africa, join the league of the top 20 economies and build financial institutions
that are global players.
Above all, there can be no meaningful discussion of Nigerian’s rural economy without due consideration of crucial role of not only Agriculture that has remained largest revenue earners for Nigerian living in rural area but also those engage in small scale business such as pottery, weaving, carving, tool making, trading hairdressers, photographers, welders , bakery, small and medium scale enterprises’ have been fully recognized by government and development experts as the main engine of economic growth and a major factor in promoting the realization of FSS2020, improve standard of living of rural populaces, bring local capital formation, achieve high level of productivity and capacity and act as principal catalyst for achieving equitable and sustainable industrial diversification.
Using annual time series data from 1980 to 2014, this study investigated the impact of government expenditure disaggregated into capital (CEXP) and recurrent (REXP) on GDP Per Capita (GDPPC), inflation (INF), unemployment (UNEMP), and Gini index (GINCO, proxy for poverty) respectively to construct principally four econometrics models. The study adopted the ex-post facto research design in the study and five hypotheses were proposed and tested.The multiple regression and Granger causality test of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique of analysis were employed in obtaining the numerical estimates of the coefficients in the different equations. The study estimated the models in the statistical procedure of co-integration and Error-Correction Model (ECM). The results of long run regression showed that government capital and recurrent expenditure both had positive and significant impact on GDP per capita;capital expenditure had a significant negative impact on inflation, while recurrent expenditure had positive but non-significant impact on inflation. Government capital expenditure had a significant negative impact on unemployment, while recurrent expenditure had negative but non-significant impact on unemployment; equally capital and recurrent expenditure showed a significant negative impact on poverty. While bidirectional causality exists between recurrent expenditure and inflation, no causality relationship was found between capital expenditure and inflation, capital expenditure and GDP per capita, and recurrent expenditure and GDP per capita respectively.Error Correction Model (ECM) was introduced in all the equations in order to adjust the short-run discrepancies in the parameters, and it showed a speed of adjustment of 72%, 51%, 24% and 27% respectively, to any disequilibrium within a year. The study recommended that government expenditures should be redirected and refocused towards the growth of the real sectors to stimulate general productivity in the economy; and that deliberate efforts are consciously needed to begin at reversing the observed excessive government recurrent expenditures over capital expenditures given the dangerous and inhibiting effect it has on a typical developing economy.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents viii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
1.1Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Research Hypotheses 10
1.6 Scope of the Study 10
1.7 Significances of the study 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 15
2.1.1 Concept of Government Expenditure 15
2.1.2 Government expenditure and the economy 19
2.1.3 Concept of fiscal policy 21
2.1.4 Concept of Economic Growth 22
2.1.5 Concept of Inflation 25
2.1.6 Concept of Unemployment 27
2.1.7 The Poverty Concept 28
2.1.8 Poverty and income inequality 32
2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW 34
2.2.1. Theories or Determinants of Public Expenditure 34
184.108.40.206 Wagner’s Theory of Increasing State Activity 35
220.127.116.11 The Displacement Effect Hypothesis of Wiseman and Peacock 38
18.104.22.168 The Rostow-Musgrave Development Model 39
2.2.2 Theories of Economic Growth 41
22.214.171.124 The Classical theory of Economic Growth 41
126.96.36.199 Keynesians Theory of Economic Growth 42
188.8.131.52 Harrod-Dommar Theory of Economic Growth 43
184.108.40.206 Neoclassical Growth Theory 43
220.127.116.11 Endogenous Growth Model 45
2.2.3 The Nexus between Government Expenditure
and Macroeconomic Variables47
18.104.22.168 Government Expenditure and Economic Growth 47
22.214.171.124 Government Expenditure and Inflation 52
126.96.36.199 Government Expenditure and Unemployment 57
188.8.131.52 Government Expenditure and Poverty Reduction 62
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW 66
2.3.1 Government Expenditure and Economic Growth 66
2.3.2 Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria 71
2.3.3 Government Expenditure and Price Stability 75
2.3.4 Government Expenditure and Inflation in Nigeria 79
2.3.5 Government Expenditure and Unemployment 83
2.3.6 Government Expenditure and Unemployment in Nigeria 88
2.3.7 Government Expenditure and Poverty Rate 88
2.3.8 Government Expenditure and Poverty in Nigeria 92
2.4 Review Summary 95
3.1 Research Design 128
3.2 Nature and Sources of Data 128
3.3 Analytical Framework 128
3.4 Model Specification 129
3.5 Description of Model Variables 135
3.6 Techniques of Analysis 139
3.7 Other Diagnostic Test 143 References 145
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 148
4.2 Data Presentation and Interpretation 148
4.3 Descriptive statistics 157
4.4 Stationarity and Co-integration Tests 158
4.5 Test of hypotheses 160
4.5.1 Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model I 160
4.5.2 Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model II 165
4.5.3 Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model III 169
4.5.4 Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model IV 173
4.5.5 Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model V 177
4.5.6 Further Discussion of Results 178
4.6 Implications of Results 179 References 182
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY
OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 183
5.2 Conclusion 183
5.3 Recommendations 185
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 186
5.5 Recommendations for Further Study 187
Table 2.1: Summary of Empirical
Table 4.1: The annualized data of government expenditure, capital expenditure and recurrent expenditure 149
Table 4.2: Annualized data for GDP Per Capita, Inflation rate, Unemployment and GiniCoefficient 152
Table 4.3: Summary of the descriptive statistics of the variables 157
Table 4.4: Summary of Unit Root and Co-integration Tests 158
Table 4.5: Long-run Regression Results for Model I 161
Table 4.6: Short-run Regression Results for Model I 163
Table 4.7: Long-run Regression Results for Model II 165
Table 4.8: Short-run Regression Results for Model II 167
Table 4.9: Long-run Regression Results for Model III 169
Table 4.10: Short-run Regression Results for Model III 171
Table 4.11: Long-run Regression Results for Model IV 173
Table 4.12: Short-run Regression Results for Model IV 175
Table 4.13: Presentation of Granger Causality Result for Model V 177
Table 4.14: Specification Error Test 178
Table 4.15: Test for Multicollinearity 179
LIST OF FIGURES
4.1.Is the graphical representation of Government (Total, Capital and
Recurrent) Expenditure from 1980-2013. 151
4.2. Line graph of trends of per capita gross domestic product from 1980-2013 153
Fig. 4.3. Line graph of trends of inflation rate from 1980-2013 154
Fig. 4.4. Line graph of trends of unemployment rate from 1980-2013 155
FIG. 4.5. Line graph of trends of gini-coefficient from 1980-2013 156
The study intends to investigate the impact of poor budgetary implementation in construction companies. The purpose is to specifically identify the major causes of poor budgetary implementation practices in construction companies using megastar technical and Construction Company Ltd, Aleed Construction Company, Anasami Construction Nig Ltd, Sametech Construction and C &C Construction Co. Ltd as case study. It is to determine the impact of poor budgetary implementation in construction companies and offer useful and meaningful suggestions for improving on the identified problems based on the findings. The study was carried out for the five companies. The researcher made use of primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources with respect to this study include the various management staff of the companies and the account staff of the companies selected. Information obtained from these people were by asking face to face questions and recording their responses, then questionnaires were also administered to them for more response. A statistical approach (yaro yamen) was used in determining both the sample size and the proportion of the sample. Then the researcher used simple percentage and chi-square analysis to analyze the data collected. The study revealed that inadequate or poor budgetary implementation practices are as a result of deviation from the budgetary principles and standards, manipulation of budget by corrupt officials, late release of fund budgeted, etc. Recommendations were made based on the findings. The researcher recommended that there should be timely release of budget so as not to disrupt smooth operations of the companies. There should be an efficient monitoring of how the budget is implemented in the companies. It was also recommended that all employees of the companies should understand how a budget is implemented in the companies. The management of the companies were also advised to motivate employees by encouraging employees through incentives and benefits in order to achieve the objectives of the organization.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the traditional sense, the
primary purpose of preparing budget is to understand and control costs. Budget
preparation is very useful in a project as a planning and controlling tool.
Budget could be employed by the company to get priorities among projects
competing for limited resources. It enables the company to set the machinery in
motion for meeting the interim valuations as when due and also used to justify
the elimination of uneconomic projects
as well as the revision of its objectives to meet the demand of a manageable
Results of descriptive/non
parametric statistical technique indicate that one of the major problems
confronting the construction sector in Nigeria is inadequate managerial
control in the form of sound budget planning and control. The primary concern
during implementation of budget is to ensure the fulfillment of the financial
and economic aspect of budget outlays. The financial tasks include programmed
spending of the amounts for the purpose specified and avoiding lapses or a rush
of expenditure towards the end of the financial year. Budgetary implementation
is the enforcement of the set objectives taking appropriate actions to bring
performance in line with planned targets.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
problems militate against an efficient budgetary implementation. Benneth
(1975:23) was of the view that “statute differences or more accurately role
conflict between budget staff and line personnel is an important source of
unfunctional consequence of a budgetary system. This implies that the basic
problem of budgetary implementation arise from differences in the way budget
staff and line personnel understand the budgeting system.
employees see budgets as merely emphasizing history, being too rigid,
unrealistic, unattainable and ambiguous. The budget staff are seen as
over-concerned with figures, unconcerned with line problems and cut off by a
language of their own (ie presenting complicated format). These problems would
affect the effectiveness of budget system directly or indirectly through their
effects on communication, motivation and participation.
under the volatile conditions in which they work, managers often lack
up-to-date information on which to base their decisions. There is always a time
lag involved in the process of preparing and approving estimates of proposed
expenditures in most companies. This time lag matters less in a stable economy
where factors affecting budgetary decisions change slowly. But in the fast changing financial
conditions of low income countries, it can make formal budgetary procedures
impossible to follow.
Another important problem of budgetary implementation is the unrestricted transfer of funds from one category of expenditure to another. Lewis (1967:208) opined that “the characteristics of the African financial environment and changes that take place after the budget has been approved”. So all these lead to the study of “The Impact of Poor Budgetary Implementation in Construction Companies (A study of Megastar Technical and Construction Company Limited, Aleed Construction Company, Anasami Construction Nig Ltd, Sametech Construction and C & C Construction Co. Ltd).
This study examined the impact of Financial Reporting on investment decision of equity holders in Breweries and Banking Industries. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact financial reporting has on investment decisions of shareholders and other investors. Using residual equity theory and enterprise theory upon which the study is anchored and the body of literature on financial reporting pedagogies as conceptual guides, a five year data from five selected firms namely: Nigerian Breweries plc, Guinness Nigeria Plc, Zenith Bank plc, First Bank plc and Guaranty Trust Bank Plc were used in the study conducted in south east, Nigeria. Financial reporting and equity holders were operationalized and measured. Data from the five selected firms were analyzed using regression and correlation statistics. The findings of the study show that: Profitability has a significant positive impact on equity holders’ investment decision. Dividend per share payout does not significantly affect equity holders’ investment decisions. There is a significant positive relationship between Earnings per share and investment decision. There is an insignificant positive relationship between leverage and investment decision. Liquidity of a firm has a significant positive effect on equity holders’ investment decision in the firm. The study concludes that financial reporting has a significant positive impact on equity holders’ investment decision. The study recommends that financial reporting statutory regulators should ensure credible financial reporting that would ensure reliable decision making.
OF THE STUDY
The fundamental aim of
financial reporting is to provide high-quality financial reporting information
concerning economic entities or units, primarily financial in nature, useful
for economic decision making (FASB, 1999; IASB, 2008). Providing high quality
financial reporting information is important because it will positively
influence capital providers and other stakeholders in making investment, credit,
and similar resource allocation decisions enhancing overall market efficiency
(IASB, 2006; IASB, 2008). The importance of reliable financial reporting as a
vehicle for financial decision making cannot be over- emphasized and one of the
fundamental problems in prior researches is the operationalization of the
concept. The quality of financial reporting includes different context-
specific domains and as such involves differences among constituents (Schipper
& Vincent, 2003; Dechow & Dichev, 2002). In addition, the users within
a user group may also perceive the usefulness of similar information
differently given its context (Beest,
Braam and Boelens, 2009).
have as a matter of fundamental condition, the responsibility of making known those
matters that concern their operations in order to help the investing public in
their investment decision-making. Firms of different sizes aside their
statutory obligation, endeavour to retain their shareholders and investors so
as to attract new ones. A satisfying methodology of accomplishing the above is
to make or publish the information concerning the organization as financial
reporting. Such financial statement is essential in aiding the decision making
abilities of accounting information users. Financial statement provides
important information for a wide variety of decisions, and investors draw
information from the statement of the firm in whose security they contemplate
investing (Anaja & Onoja, 2015) ‘‘Decision makers who contemplate acquiring
total or partial ownership of an enterprise expect to secure returns on their
investment such as dividends and increase in the value of their investment’’
(p.2.). Dividends and increase in the value of shares of firms depend on the
future profitability of the enterprise. Financial statement is a formal and
comprehensive statement describing financial activities of a business
organization such as the financial institutions. For such a business entity,
financial statement is a statement that reports all relevant financial
information, presented in a structured manner and in a form easy to understand
for managerial use for taking prompt and informed decision making related to
investment (IASB, 2007a) and also to decision making pertaining to cost
planning, investment planning, expected returns and performance evaluation.
and Onoja (2015:2) posits ‘‘that the financial statement comprises balance
sheet (for determining financial position), profit and loss statement
(describes statement of comprehensive income), statement of equity changes
(explain the changes of the company’s equity), and cash flow statements
(reports on a company’s cash flow activities, particularly its operating,
investing and financing activities). Although, these statements are often complex
and may include an extensive set of notes to the financial statement and
explanation of financial policies and management discussion and analysis (IASB,
2007b). The notes typically describe each item on the balance sheet, income
statement and cash flow statement in further detail. Notes to financial
statement are considered an integral part of the financial statements. However,
the approaches that the notes and financial statement are presented and
reported are critically for investment decision making by existing and
prospective investors in order to earn optimal returns on their investments.
This indicates that
financial statement methods in terms of information disclosure pattern,
transparency, auditing, reporting standards, regulatory control and flexibility,
corporate governance, and financial scandals have influence on investment
decision making in any organization, especially in financial institutions with
extensive range of investment activities that requires comprehensive financial
facts that can be obtained from a financial reporting. Though, these financial
statements are often prepared according to national standards, corporate
governance, professional ethics, and code of ethics. It has been stressed that
there is need for corporate ethics in the preparation of financial report. This
to avoid financial reporting fraud and scandals that might hinders effective
decision making process by management and other users of reports. The purpose
of ethics in financial accounting reporting with expected standards is to
re-orientate corporate organization on the need to abide by a code of conduct
that facilitates public confidence in their services (Okafor, 2006).
It was observed that the roles of financial statement on investment decision making of financial institutions in Nigeria has some problems to both investors and managers of business organizations who are either not aware of the importance of interdependence relationship that exist between investors and financial organizations. The incidence of corporate failures, for instance, Enron Corporation and World.com in the year 2002, and other accounting scandals compounded by the global energy, food and financial crises leading to credit squeeze across the globe, have partly been attributed to impact of financial statement manipulations which portrayed some ailing companies as if they were sound. In Nigeria also, corporate failures and distresses have been witnessed in the banking sector. Evidence was the huge collapse of the commercial banks all due to massive accounting related frauds. This problem resulted in the establishment of Asset Management Company of Nigeria (AMCON) to prevent corporate failures particularly in the Nigerian banking sector by acquiring financially distressed companies.
The extent of which
corporate objective are achieved depends on the quantum and quality of
resources as its disposal. We all know
that resources are not only scare relative to the demand for them but also
waiting assets. For example, plants
become absolute, land loses it fertility, money get spends and executives (men)
get old. The scenario implies that resources
must be constantly aquired used efficiency and replaced” (Asien, 2000).
The fact that
activities mentioned above cost money implies that the survival of the firm
depends on the profit realized by it.
Profit can therefore be defined as the excess of income over expenditure.
The definition of
profit depends on the information needs of the company. If the underlying profitability of the
business the objective review a company’s, result, then it is an operating
profit. i.e gross profit less expenses.
According to Ellis
(1993) says that “Financial reporting of profit provides a key measure of the
performance outcome, associate with performance outcome associated with an
organization strategy”. This means that
before the performance of a business can be evaluated a proper profit measure
approach must be operated by the organization.
Therefore, the function of financial manager is to include profit
The term profit
planning refers to the operating decision in the area of pricing, costs,
volumes of out pout and the firms selection of product brings. Profit planning is therefore a pre-requisite
for optimizing investment and financing decisions (Mao and James 1969).
The major aim of
establishing a business is to make profit unless adequate (net profit) are
generated and used for the replacement of resources, the firm will eventually
be run down., profit analysis in
business have the following advantages:-
It helps to increase the equity control of shareholders through
It also helps to raise the loss absorptive capacity of the organization.
The ability of the
companies to pay its dividends depends on the size of its profits.
A company should earn
profits to survive and grow other a long period of time. Profits are essential, but it would be wrong
to assume that every action initiated by management of company should be earned
at maximizing profits, irrespective of social consequences. Although, profits is the ultimate output of a
company, and it will have no future say if it fails to make sufficient for a
firm and the reporting of its in the financial statement is not just sufficient
but to show the weak and strength of a real accounting system that is in the
usefulness of its application rather than information or data gathering
processing aspect (Paul et al, 1972).
In this view, the
financial manager, should, continuously evaluate the efficient of its company
as to achieve its targeted goal i.e profits.
Financial statement of companies are tools which produces a means
through which this evaluation can be carried out. Meaning that financial statement should be
used to examine the statement of success of the business over the period. Also willsmore (1971). Confirm this statement
that management use financial statements as working tools with which to obtain
the most effective results in the control of business affairs so as to ensure
the adequacy of the over all result, in the profitability and financial
strength of the business as whole “financial ratio are therefore employed as
means of paper evaluation for the business.
STATEMENT OF THE
expected to keep records of their transaction over the year. Adequate and proper records should be kept in
order to measure financial performance of the business.
Over the years, it has
been realized that financial statement i.e the profit and loss account and
balance sheet are not well prepared which as a result of liability of most
organization to meet their financial obligation.
This may be as result
of the following reason:
i.) Poor Management or managerial
control over the business affair.
ii.) Lack of proper and adequate
recording and keeping of books account.
iii.) Inefficient use of the
firm’s financial assets over the years
iv.) Window dressing at top
management level of the organization.
v.) Change in according
policies operated by the company.
vi.) Changes in the general
price level and increase economic fluctuation over the years.
The problem of this study is to determine how financial statement=s can serve as a better tool for measuring the performance of a business over the years, so that night decision can easily be taken by the users. It financial statements help in knowing how profitable business has been by various interested parties. For example shareholders, creditors, bank and customers.
4.2 Problems of inflation on market of hotel product and suggested solution
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
industry is recognize as one of the largest term of business organization in
today’s world, ever since the stage of development of the industry which has
been traced to the advent of the modern means of transportation which makes it
easy for people to travel from one place to another.
second stage of this ever continuous development in Nigeria which has been linked with
the transportation development and to the political independence for back as
The mass of people on transit (out of
their homes) needs to be well catered for in aspect of food, drink, and
sleeping accommodation in their respective area of destination, hence the need
for hotel service.
Hospitality as an industry is said to be
an industry that held itself as an establishment offering food, drinks, and
accommodation (if so requires) to any potential customer who appears able and
willing to pay a reasonable sum of money for the service provided and who is in
a fit stable to be received.
Products offered by the hotel
establishment ranges from food and beverages to service and facilities render.
It can be therefore classified as tangible and intangible items. The types if
hospitality industry (commercial or welfare) determines whether these product
are to be offered for sale at profit level or not.
In any commercial hotels, it has been proven that the volume of sales turnover and the price the potential guest are willing to pay for the service which has been the important variables that determine the profit ability of the operations.
early years of Nigeria
post independence, the number of hospitality industry in the country is very
nominal and thus enjoyed the monopoly of the market. But in years back, many were
developed and managed hotels have sprang up, thereby creating competition
between the old and the newly existing customers patronages.
products in Nigeria is limited to only accommodation, foods and beverages, and
any other tangible or intangible services offered in the hospitality industry.
While the effect of economic depression on marketing of hotel product in
Nigeria simply show in the serious hardship whereby the inflation level on
sales and regard the return (market) made has been subjected to the hyper-inflation
year’s back, precisely more than a decade ago.
resulted to the depression in the economic system of the nation and five a set-back
even in the spending power of an individual while luxury items like hotel
services possessed by the hotel addict were reduced, even some stop their consumption
and patronage for hotels products and services thereof.
1.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY
clearly give throughout the previous research submitted to the department of
hospitality management by my predecessor, the researcher observe vividly with
keen interest on my views that much has not been done affirm critically the
effect of the economic depression of Nigeria on the marketing of the
hotel product HPS and possibly suggest a way out.
regard my experiences in hospitality industry is concerned with equipped facilities and humanism to set
on motion the materials resources effectively, it has to succumb to this term;
exchanging successful product for cash or any other items of value in order to
achieve her targeted profit margin.
Therefore, there is need to study with keen interest any intended factors that is capable of jeopardizing the interest, objectives, designed rolling plans of various hotel properties and distinguished stakeholders were necessary.
gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the
student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television
Authority (NTA) Ilorin,
Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about
student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of
attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the
studio and studio terminologies.
Chapter three is about light use in
production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the
microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video
camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter
seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as
a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization,
industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning
which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.
The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical
fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major
work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been
thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs
department of the establishment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF
The student industrial work
experience scheme (SIWES)
was established by ITF
in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory
for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary
The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of
industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the
world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity
of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling
various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the
educational environment or institution.
However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition
for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country,
in accordance with the education policy of the government.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF
The objectives of the student
industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:
It improves student’s knowledge about the
industrial sector or organization.
It enable the student to practicalised
different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
It relates the student to the labor market
and how it’s being operated.
also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of
work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
It enable student to know more the
technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or
enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.
1.3 Description of the establishment of
The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in
1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.
Between 1977 and date, the station has
undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and
clients within and outside the state.
At present, the station has staff
strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it
transmits 24 hours on weekdays.
Apart from contributing its quota in
area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has
produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of
programs from Lagos
via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay
station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger,
Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network
service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The
station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in
1977. Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first
General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo
was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D
Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between
November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A.
Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince
Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was
Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R.
Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government
stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully
operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.
The present management team of NTA
Chief T.R. Gyang _________________
T.A Olasehinsde __________________
Although the idea of establishing
a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some
early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971
by a number of journalists who are
indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi
Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was
conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.
The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of
a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The
newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility
studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government
in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money
already into the project, there could be no going back.
The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77, Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.
By no means can
all purchases and suppliers matter be dealt with by correspondence and telephone. It is therefore a necessity that
face to face •counters sometimes take place
to resolve problems and differences which id be
overcome by negotiation.
work looks at negotiation as an important tool in ensuring effective buying in a construction company.
It is important
to recognize that the primary task of purchasing manager in fulfillment his role of maintaining
suppliers is through effective negotiation.
The purchase manger
should be a specialist in satisfying the needs of the company by seeking suitable sources of supply
and negotiating to secure the best terms
and service possible negotiation is necessary whenever it is require reconcile two or’ more different opinion in order
that action “may be initiated continued in mutual agreed condition.
It is very
important that all buying and selling transaction leave both parties satisfied and hence negotiation is
not forcing and unwilling acceptance.
negotiation is complex and costly, but it is use for primarily for naira value purchase. For high Naira value
purchases, where five criteria which
dictate competitive bidding prevail. Though competitive bidding is only used to narrow down the number of supplier
which implies dealing with a few successful bidder.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Bulleting Construction Company limited is a duly
registered company. In corporate
in Nigeria in 1989, the company which is owned by both indigenous and foreign
partners has operated responsibility with the lanes of Nigeria.
The company’s head office is in Ilorin
the Kwara State Capital with branch offices
all over the Federation from Kogi State to Deltal State, from River State to Bauchi state and making further
rapid cursion into other state of the
As a responsible specialized corporate entity with a
group of highly responsible indigenous and foreign technical crew, the company
has had the honour of
handling numerous construction Works both within and outside the state. The company future is very promising
as this can readily be assessed through its many tangible and intangible assets.
Despite the present economic downturn in the
country which has forced many
organizations out of the business the company still forging a head with work force about (679) six hundred and seventy
nine workers, of this number (674) six hundred and
seventy four are Nigerians.
However, the staffs of the company are well pay and
motivated hence the company has contributed into small measure to social
economic development ‘Nigeria.
analysis has become imperative to show the Nigerian government that Bulletine Construction Company is a
well established responsible corporate body operating with in the frame work of
the Nigeria law.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Negotiation with suppliers
is one of the most important functions of purchasing
department. The success or failure of an organization depends largely on
the effectiveness and efficiencies of the buyers to negotiate with suppliers on terms and conditions of the contract
such as price, quality, delivery services etc. However investigations have
shown that the purchasing departments of the company are not given free hand to operate in the procurement
of materials for the organization.
Though the role of buyer in any organization is to contribute immensely to the profitability and realization of
objectives of the organization. But during the economic recess the market
becomes unsuitable a fluctuation in prices. A very good example is what
is happening currently in Nigeria with
reference to deregulation of Naira as a result of which purchasing power
of Naira was drastically reduced.
The activities of buyer in
this situation become need with
Procurement procedure could be applicable for this situation? And this could include any of the following
to mouth purchase
Time budgeting of purchase
to obtain the right quality and quantity of goods at the right times?
can (he right or fair price could he achieved?
How could the right materials or goods he
gotten from this right source
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work will cover a broad area
in purchasing operation and procurement
procedure in organization.
entails the following specific area which the research would like to emphasize
upon in the course of writing the project. These include contract negotiation supplier relationship and others, buyer’s
role in negotiation, objective
of negotiation, creating conducive environment during the course of negotiation. In consolidation with the above
areas the research or will give various definition of terminology used in the course of
the project work.
A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.The standard for the name “mushroom” is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word “mushroom” is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap(Smith et al., 2015). “Mushroom” also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.
deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such
as “bolete”, “puffball”, “stinkhorn”, and
“morel”, and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called
“agarics” in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order
Agaricales. By extension, the term “mushroom” can also designate the
entire fungus when in culture; the thallus (called a mycelium) of species
forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms; or the species itself(Smith et al.,
Mushrooms are well known all
over the world and the edible ones have been considered as functional foods.
They serve to enrich food as supplements and they provide health benefits
beyond the traditional nutrients they contain (Smith et al., 2015).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Globally, millions of deaths attributed to malaria are
being recorded. The disease constitutes a huge epidemiologic burden in Africa
and continues and continues to cripple the economic development in the region
(Trudell and Ammirati, 2009). In Nigeria, the disease is responsible for 60%
outpatient visits to health facilities, 30% childhood death, 25% of death in
children under one year and 11% maternal death (Philips, 2011). The financial loss
due to malaria annually is estimated to be about 132 billion Naira in form of
treatment costs, prevention, loss of man-hour, etc.; yet, it is a treatable and
completely evitable disease(Philips, 2011). Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with
97% of the population of 170 million living in areas of high malaria risk and
anestimated 3% living in malaria free highlands. Nigeria bearsup to 25% of the
malarial disease burden in Africa, making this country with the highest malaria
mortality (WHO, 2014).
The Global Fund (TGF)’s response in the fight against malaria
in Nigeria is co-managed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP).
Currently NMEP is implementing New Funding Model (NFM) of TGF which began in
January 2015 (WHO, 2014). Implementation of malaria control interventions is
broad-based and includes: Case Management; Integrated Vector Management;
Special Interventions such as Intermittent Presumptive treatment with Sulphadoxine
and Pyrimethamine; and other supportive interventions (WHO, 2014).
Edible mushrooms have been source of food to man, even
before the for-knowledge of its nutritional content. It has served as major
source of food in several African countries including Nigeria(Smith et al., 2015). However, its use as an
antimalarial agent has not been documented. There is therefore, the need to assess
the suppressive effect of the extract of this mushroom on albino mice.
1.3 Justification of the Research
Although the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in existence for 50,000–100,000 years, the population size of the parasite did not increase until about 10,000 years ago, concurrently with advances in agriculture (Harper et al., 2011) and the development of human settlements. Close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparum malaria may have originated in gorillas (Prugnolle et al., 2011). References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history (Cox,2013). The advent of multiple drug resistant malaria led to the continuous effort to curb the menace it has created through the use of all possible approaches for its eradication. However, P. berghei is used as a model organism for the investigation of human malaria because of its similarity to the Plasmodium species which cause human malaria. P. berghei has a very similar life-cycle to the species that infect humans, and it causes disease in mice which has signs similar to those seen in human malaria. Importantly, P. berghei can be genetically manipulated more easily than the species which infect humans, making it a useful model for research into Plasmodium genetics.
In several aspects the pathology caused by P. berghei in mice differs from malaria caused by P. falciparum in humans. In particular, while death from P. falciparum malaria in humans is most frequently caused by the accumulation of red blood cells in the blood vessels of the brain, it is unclear to what extent this occurs in mice infected with P. berghei (Craig et al., 2012). Instead, in P. berghei infection, mice are found to have an accumulation of immune cells in brain blood vessels (Craig et al., 2012). This has led some to question the use of P. berghei infections in mice as an appropriate model of cerebral malaria in humans (Craig et al., 2012).
Although the decreased sensitivity of malaria parasites to an antimalarial drug was first reported about a century ago in association with quinine, the term drug-resistant malaria was rarely used; resistance was not considered a major problem until the late 1950s, after chloroquine resistance emerged. Historically, chloroquine was widely used as the standard first-line drug against P. falciparum. Resistance was first detected on the Thailand–Cambodia and the Venezuela–Colombia borders, near areas where chloroquinated salt was used for malaria control, forcing the affected countries to begin switching to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) in the 1970s. Resistance to SP developed quickly, again on the Thailand–Cambodia border. The spread of chloroquine and SP resistance to other parts of Asia and as far as Africa is well documented (Plowe, 2009). Several articles have been published on the use of various extracts with antiplasmodial properties to eradicate Plasmodium falciparum from the blood stream of induced albino mice. Hence, a need for further review of the work to ascertain the effects of these compounds with antiplasmodial activities.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
To determine the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of edible mushroom: Agaricus bisporus on Plasmodiumberghei in albino mice.
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS: Business admin or BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION is administration of a business. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations, as well as related fields which include accounting, finance, project management and marketing.
Many final year research students has been finding it difficult to choose business project topic, in this article i am going to show you some few step by steps on what are things you need to know before you choose BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS for approval
1. Think of a research area that is of great interest to you.
2. Brainstorm on possible subjects, titles and topics that could come out of the research area.
3. Narrow down the topic to a specific issue.
4. Look for trending issues in Nigeria.
5. Ensure there is adequate material for the study.
6. Take a time out to structure your topic properly.
GET A RESEARCH AREA
The first step in developing outstanding research topics is by identifying a research area that interests you. Successful researchers align their work to their research area or interest. By doing this, you become an expert in your chosen research area, and your previous research papers become foundation for future research studies. Final year students in Nigeria should identify what subjects they love talking about. Good examples of research areas are Taxation, Employee Performance, Work-Life Balance, Electricity Conductors etc. Visit https://www.modishproject.com/ for more examples of research areas for your academic field.
That unique and outstanding research topic is deep down in your brains only that you have not yet realized it. After identifying a suitable research area, pick up a paper or a book and try to formulate as many research-able topics as possible (the more the topics, the better your chances of getting a good one). The topics may look weird at first, but you may not realize how important this process will be to you until you try it. One benefit I have achieved with brainstorming is that it gives me the freedom to put down as many whack ideas as possible. The truth is, after some days these ideas become very useful, as they serve as foundations for formulating better research topics.
Since you have been able to identify your research area and a research topic, you should now avoid broad topics. Broad topics are killer research topics. They make you stress your self for no good reasons. Your topic is probably broad if:
You find your research topic too confusing.
You seem to forget your topic frequently.
Your supervisor is not interested in your project work.
You seem to find conflicting materials on your topic.
You frequently feel dizzy or lazy whenever you see you research topic.
If all these happen to you then you need help. Breakdown the topic! If you are writing on the role of management in an organization, then you are not on point! Management can still be broken down to other variables, nouns, and subjects such as financial management, strategic management etc.
One secret about outstanding researchers is that they are always solving current issues on ground. When new issues such as bank recapitalization in Nigeria and fuel subsidy arise, research topics and materials on them sell like pure water. When you present a research topic on a current issue that needs urgent attention in a country like Nigeria, your supervisor is happy with you. When defending it, you are assured of a good grade because, you are not only presenting a unique work, but you are also solving an urgent problem and building literature for that issue as well. However, when developing research topics to suite trending issues in your country, you must be very careful. Writing on very current issues can get you hanging. Availability of materials to support your literature review-both theoretical and empirical review becomes a big challenge. Before formulating research topics on trending issues, one must first make sure there are studies already conducted. Students wishing to explore into newer research areas or topics with little or no materials are still encouraged to do so, but it is best done at a PhD level.
Students wishing to get the best out of their research project are usually encourage to make sure that there is adequate literature concerning or relating to their study. However, you can still check my site https://www.modishproject.com/ or http://newprojecttopics.com.ng for over 50,000 sample research materials that can guide you throughout your research.
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
STRUCTURE YOUR RESEARCH TOPIC
In structuring your research topic, follow the following steps:
Make sure your topic is not broad. Structure your topic to address a specific problem or answer a specific question. Do not write on every thing as you may get confused.
Identify variables in your research topic. Variables must be present in your topic. After brainstorming, arrange these variables in such a way your readers can easily understand what your study is all about. For more info read this article on research variables.
unavoidable in organizations today and is of paramount importance to study how
change factors affect staff
productivity. Change is what presses us out of our comfort zone and it
is inevitable (Sidikova, 2011). Kitur (2015) is of the view that change comes
in an organization in many forms: merger, acquisition, joint venture, new
leadership, technology implementation, organizational restructuring, and change
in products or regulatory compliance. The change may be planned years in
advance or may be forced upon an organization because of a shift in the
environment. Organizational change can be radical and alter the way an
organization operates, or it may be incremental and slowly change the way
things are done. Change management can be defined as a style of management that
aims at encouraging organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the
changes taking place in their work. (Green, 2007). For change management to be
successful and its impact positive, managers or supervisors in the organizations
need to understand what motivates their team and enroll employee participation.
In fact separating managers from leadership in terms of style is difficult
because every manager needs to have leadership skills to get activities done
and every leader should have managerial skills to induce workers to change
directions. This is especially important in organizations or institutions which
are going through change since constant motivation and guidelines are needed
for effectiveness of employee performance (McLagan, 2002). In the global market
economy, technology introductions, aging boomer population, and less than
honest world competition have all had an impact of change management. With the
sudden financial shock in late 2008, many employers rushed to downsize their
organizations to capture possible profits. In today’s business environment,
it’s becoming obvious that nothing remains still (Olubayo 2014). He emphasizes
that the rate of change which business organizations face have continued to
increase more and more in the last five decades. This is as a result of
advances in information and communication technology increasing democratization
of economies and liberalization of economies across the globe.
In order to
compete globally, organizations have embraced change management factors such as
culture, technology, leadership and structure which affects both employee and
organizational performance. In other to remain competitive universities have
adopted cultural systems known to every employee which are add value to their
performance, for instance we value quality education. Leadership changes may
influence employee performance. The leader as a person in charge or as a change
agent can manage an organization or the process of organizational change more
effectively and successfully if he/she is capable and competent. (Asghar,
2010). He noted that rapid technological advancements, high expectations of
customers, and ever changing market situations have compelled organizations to
incessantly reassess and reevaluate how they work and to understand, adopt and
implement changes in their business model in response of changing trends.
Organizational change is a demand of the day, and needed for them to survive.
On the other hand organizational structure changes are thought to influence
employees’ performance. A structure is an arrangement of task or activities
being performed in an organization.
is important for an organization to achieve its objectives and goals. Employees
are an important asset to an organization that may affect it either positively
or negatively. Due to unavoidable environmental changes, organizations today
have been challenged to advocate for changes that influence employees’
productivity. Therefore the top management has to ensure that factors that
influence staff productivity are taken into consideration. Management can be
defined as a creative and systematic flow of knowledge that can be applied to
achieve quality results by using human as well as other resources in an effective
way (Drucker, 2003). The importance of management in organizations today has
increased multifold. Strategic outcomes depend on ways of management in
organization, therefore key management functions that include learning to
delegate, planning, organizing, communicating clearly, motivating employees,
adapting to change and constantly generating innovative ideas are crucial.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
continually faced with challenges in other to compete effectively with the
global environments; so changes in the structure, processes and individuals
within the workplace are planned, strategized and implemented to successfully
meet up with the global demands. Some of these change programs succeed while
others do not because some employees’ resist organizational change due to fear
of losing their jobs, distress and anger when it is not properly managed. The
success of any organization therefore, lies in fostering an effective method in
which employees’ can be prepared to accept change as they are the central
implementers of the change programs and which in turn bring about productivity
of staff in the organization. Most staff exhibit low levels of commitment to
their duties and researchers believe that when management is aware of employee
attitudes towards organizational tasks and place priority on effective
mechanisms to prepare staff for organizational change, staff will have high
level of commitment to their duties and enhance productivity of the
Objectives of the Study
The following are
the objectives of the study:
To examine the roles of organizational
change on staff productivity in an organization.
To examine the organizational change
strategies that impact on staff productivity.