IMPACT OF FILLING, INDEXING AND RECORD-KEEPING ON THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

ABSTRACT

The research work which titled ‘’Filling, indexing, and Record keeping on the attainment of organizational goals, a case study of The Ibarapa Polytechnic, Eruwa. It is designed to look into how fitting, indexing, and record-keeping enhances the growth of a firm.

Chapter one presents the introduction. These includes; objectives of the study, statement of the problems, significance of the study, limitation of the study and statement of hypothesis.

Chapter two highlights literature review among other things.

Chapter three; research methodology, target population, study sample, instruments for data collection, validation of instruments, methods of data collection and method of analysis.

Chapter four; deals with presentation of data, analysis of data.Finally, chapter five bring the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.

I got to understand in the process of the study that this topic is highly essential to consider and that the subject of filling, indexing and record-keeping cannot be brushed aside when considering the success of any firm. Many firms have been into thin air, some wound up, some bankruptcy, just because they failed to keep appropriate records.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Right from years of conception of institution, filling, indexing, and record keeping had been vital to individuals, organization and many who have posterity to protect. I hold sublime pride in writing this titled ‘’Filling, indexing, and record keeping on the attainment of organizational goal. Indeed to be perfect, accurate for this assertion.Filling is the process by which documents, correspondence paper are systematically classified, arranged, stored, and preserved so that they will easily be retrieved at a later day for reference purpose.

File is a memory of organization without file, there is no record.Record keeping on the order hand serves as a source of reference to events, actions, and decisions that manifest at a point in time. It also aid management in decision making.

It serves as account of fact or even set down writing as a means of preserving knowledge of information. Index is an indicator which may be found in file or books. In another word, index is a device for finding the position of records in a system guide. It can also be defined as an essential aid for finding materials already field for reference.

IMPACT OF FILLING, INDEXING AND RECORD-KEEPING ON THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A PROPOSED TANKFARM

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to assess environmental impacts of a proposed tankfarm which is to be situated at the Olokola Free Trade Zone in Ondo State (OKFTZ).

It encompasses various field sampling which includes soil, air and noise sampling taken from the proposed site. These samples were tested in the laboratory for parameters such as Total Hydro Carbon, pH values, Total Mean Percentage of Organic Matter, Heavy Metal Investigation, cation concentration. The Total Hydro Carbon which ranges from 4.8 to 33.0 milligram per kilogram(mg/kg) in the wet season and 4.0 to 78.5 mg/kg for dry season. The THC is reflective of an unpolluted environment, and it is widely accepted that soils with a hydrocarbon level below 100 mg/kg are considered unpolluted. Heavy metals investigation showed that Iron had the highest mean concentration (2213mg/kg) followed by Zinc (4.82mg/kg) and Copper (3.78mg/kg) for dry season while for wet season, Iron had 2039mg/kg followed by Zinc (8.68mg/kg) and copper (3.0mg/kg). The concentration of the monovalent cation in the soils was generally high. Sodium (Na) concentrations ranged between 2,136 and 7,341mg/kg in the wet season and 6,175 and 10,308 mg/kg in the dry season while potassium (K) ranged between 0.09 and 0.15 mg/kg in the wet season and 0.04 and 0.45mg/kg in the dry season. The high sodium content could be attributed to the proximity of the study area to the ocean. 

Suspended Particulate Matter Levels for Wet and Dry Season on shows that there are more suspended particulate matter in the dry season as the result indicated a value of 196 µg/m3 against 64µg/m3 in the wet season. Comparing these findings with EGASPIN guidelines for national air quality standards, more air quality monitoring is needed during the dry season as it reaches a high of 196 though it is still within the EGASPIN (Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industries in Nigeria)  limits. Noise measurements showed that the measured levels varied significantly in the different locations monitored and ranged from a low of 55.2dB to a high of 66.7dB, for the dry season and 52.7dB to a high of 67.9dB, for the wet season as compared to the World Bank standard of 45 dB(A) for residential areas during the daytime. It is recommended that environmental performance be monitored regularly to ensure compliance and those measures to be taken where necessary. The OKFTZ site is generally suitable for the proposed bulk fuel storage facility and all environmental risks can be minimized and managed through implementing preventative measures and sound environmental management systems.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A PROPOSED TANKFARM

EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACT ON REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN NORMAL RATS

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants contain physiologically active principles that over the years had been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones. The effects on the basal levels of estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone were conducted in experimental animals. H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg produced minor effects on rat reproductive hormones, namely testosterone and estradiol while no change was observed on both prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone levels. Moreover, no histological changes were detected on both testes and ovaries of the experimental animals after 28 days of administration. It can be concluded that H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones. Key words: Estrogenic effect, reproductive hormones, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract.

INTRODUCTION

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability within the body to alter endocrine functions often through mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones (James et al., 2013). These actions on the endocrine system have resulted in developmental deficits in various invertebrate and aquatic species (Crain et al., 2007; Elango et al., 2006) and mammals (Christopher et al., 2012). Exposures in adulthood have consequences but fetal and early life exposures appear to have more severe effects that persist through life (Rubin and Soto, 2009). Among these classes of chemicals are phytoestrogens that show effects suggestive of estrogenicity, such as binding to the estrogen receptors, induction of specific estrogenresponsive gene products, stimulation of estrogen receptor(s) and positive breast cancer cell growth (James et al., 2013). Through these interactions by acting as agonists or antagonists, EDCs are able to alter the activity of response elements of genes, block natural hormones from binding to their receptors, or in some cases increase the perceived amount of endogenous hormone in the body by acting as a hormone mimic to its receptor (Ze-hua et al., 2010). Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams and beverages. The brilliant red colour of its calyx makes it a valuable food product, a part from its multitude of traditional medicinal uses. Infusions of the calyces are considered as diuretic, *Corresponding author. E-mail: hozhooz@hotmail.com. 2296 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. cholerectic, febrifugal and hypotensive, decreasing the viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (Salleh et al., 2002). Roselle calyx extract is a good source of antioxidants from its anthocyanins and associated with antitumor and inhibitory effects on the growth of several cancer cells (Ajiboye et al., 2011). Extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces have been reported to be rich in phytoestrogens (Adigun et al., 2006; Orisakwe et al., 2004; Brian et al., 2009; Omotuyi et al., 2011) and some reports indicated that H. sabdariffa calyces have estrogenic effects, although exact estrogen-like ingredient is not determined (Ali et al., 1989). This study was undertaken to determine to which extent H. sabdariffa calyces extract alters the basal levels of selected reproductive hormones: estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone as well as the histological features of both testes and ovaries of rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plants The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were purchased from the local market in Wad-Medani, Sudan. The plant material was identified by the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Sudan. Extraction of plant material One hundred grams of coarsely powdered calyces of H. sabdariffa were extracted by maceration using ethanol (70%) in a conical flask for 72 h, kept away from light throughout the extraction period, then filtered and evaporated by a rotary evaporator at 60°C. The resulting solution was freeze dried and placed into a refrigerator until use. Effect of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones Experimental animals The effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on rat reproductive hormones was conducted based on the method described by Omotuyi et al. (2011). A total of 20 rats (10 each for males and females) were housed in a clean animal house subjected to an intensive nutritional program. Rats were acclimatized for a period of 14 days under standard environmental conditions. The ethical committees, University of Gezira and Ministry of Health, Gezira State, ethically approved the experimental protocol. Experimental design Albino wistar rats were divided into four groups each of five. Water control groups for both males and females and the other two groups (either males or females) received 250 mg/kg of plant extract via gastric tube daily for 28 days. Collection of blood samples Blood samples were collected from conjunctival veins using capillary tubes at 7-day intervals for 28 days. Hormonal assay The hormones were estimated using the standard protocols of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Roche, Switzerland) for determination of estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Histopathological examination Twenty-eight days after oral administration of the extract, all experimental animals were anaesthetized using chloroform vapour and dissected. The ovaries and testes were collected and immediately fixed in Bouins fluid for 6 h and transferred to 70% alcohol for histological processing according to Drunny and Wallington (1990). Briefly, following fixation of the right side testes and ovaries from both control and test animals, tissue sections were processed by dehydration in 95% and absolute alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in pure clean moltenparaffin wax from which blocks of tissues were made for sectioning. Ribbon slices of about 5.0 μm in thickness were made with the aid of a microtome (delete machine) and the sections picked with slides, which were dried in oven. The slices were stained with haemotoxylin and eosin, and then mounted using DPX onto a light microscope (delete magnification 40× for testes and 10× for ovary) for histopathological and morphological changes. Data analysis All the obtained data were expressed as means ± standard deviation and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comparisons with the control groups were made using One-way ANOVA. Differences were considered significant if P-value < 0.05.

RESULTS

Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on estradiol levels in female rats The study revealed that the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx in a dose of 250 mg/kg exhibited a mild increase (p-value < 0.05) in estradiol level in female rats in time-dependent manner (Table 1). On day 28, estradiol reached more than twice the value observed on day 0 compared to those of water control group. Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on testosterone levels in male rats Following intragastric administration of 250 mg/kg of ethanolic H. sabdariffa calyx extract for 28 days, serum levels of testosterone were significantly reduced (P-value Sirag et al. 2297 Table 1. Serum estradiol levels (pg/ml) in female rats (n=5) after oral administration of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx and water (SD ± SEM). Preparation Day 0 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28 Hibiscus sabdariffa 6.40±29 8.12±39 12.93±40 15.92±47 16.6±50 Control (water) 5.39±30 6.1±35 6.14±34 6.34±36 7.12±37 *P-value < 0.05. Table 2. Serum testosterone levels (ng/ml) in male rats (n=5) after oral administration of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx and water (SD ± SEM). Preparation Day 0 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28 Hibiscus sabdariffa 2.77±3.66 2.18±1.89 1.44±1.02 0.8±0.53 0.54±0.16 Control (water) 0.47±2.64 0.68±2.37 0.94±0.64 1.34±1.06 1.07±2.39 *P-value < 0.05 < 0.05) in male rats throughout the experimental period compared to those of water control group (Table 2). Effect of ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on prolactin and FSH levels in female rats The ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx in a dose of 250 mg/kg/ml did not cause changes in the serum levels of prolactin or FSH throughout the experimental period in female rats administered the plant extract for 28 days. Histological effects of H. sabdariffa calyx extract on rat testes and ovaries The extract did not cause histological changes on both testes and ovaries of the experimental animals when the plant extract was administered for 28 days.

DISCUSSION

Certain phytoestrogens such as isoflavones and lignans have been thoroughly investigated for their estrogenic properties (Miksicek, 1995; Collins et al., 1997; So et al., 1997). Extracts of H. sabdariffa have been reported to be rich in phytoestrogen (Adigun et al., 2006; Orisakwe et al., 2004; Brian et al., 2009; Omotuyi et al., 2011). There are reports indicated that H. sabdariffa calyces have estrogenic effects, although exact estrogen-like ingredient is not determined (Ali et al., 1989). Moreover, plant phenols, anthocyanin isolates and anthocyanin-rich mixture of bioflavonoids possess estrogenic activities (Omotuyi et al., 2011). The reduction of serum level of testosterone in male rats produced by ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyx may be explained by the estrogenic activity of the plant, an evidence raised by Orisakwe et al. (2004). Furthermore, other studies had reported a statically significant decrease in testosterone levels in laboratory animals treated with phytoestrogens (Sharpe et al., 2002; Cline et al., 2004). The precise role that oestrogens play in male reproductive development is unclear, but generally, oestrogens tend to have ‘demasculinising’ or antiandrogenic effects. In foetal and neonatal life, this probably results from suppression of testosterone production (Haavisto et al., 2001), or loss of androgen receptors (McKinnell et al., 2001). Oestrogens are synthesised from androgens via the action of a single enzyme (aromatase), and there is a close relationship between the actions of these two hormones. Moreover, testosterone may be converted to estrogen by aromatase (Benassayag et al., 2002). Although dietary phytoestrogens have been implicated in adverse effect upon fertility in various animals, there are few published reports of such effects in human populations consuming large amounts of these substances (Benassayag et al., 2002). In male rats, reduction of testosterone level might impair spermatogenesis and cause male infertility (Orisakwe et al., 2004). It should be noted that in the study of herbal extracts, one could not attribute the observed biological effects to a particular constituents because many other compounds are present in the plant extracts (Saied-Karblay et al., 2010). Factors such as species, age, gender, diet, dose, route of administration and metabolism strongly influence the ultimate biological response to phytoestrogen exposure (Shweta, 2009). 2298 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Conclusion H. sabdariffa calyx extract caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones and due to the pleiotropic effects of phytoestrogens in vivo, a broad panel of in vitro assays covering not only estrogenic action but also other regulating processes has to be used to assess the potential of plant-derived compounds to beneficially or adversely affect human health.

REFERENCES

Adigun MO, Ogundipe OD, Anetor JI, Detunde AO (2006). Dosedependent changes in some haematological parameters during shortterm administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract (zobo) in wistar albino rats. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 35:73-77. Ajiboye TO, Salawu NA, Yakubu MY, Oladiji AT (2011). Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract. J. Drugs Chem. Toxicol. 34:109-115. Ali MS, Salih WM, Humida AM (1989). An estrogenic–like activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Fitoterapia. 60:547–548. Benassayag C, Perrot-Applanat M, Ferre F (2002). Phytoestrogens as modulators of steroid action in target cells. J. Chromatogr. B. 777:233-248. Brian J, Jonna F, Lauren E, Alice P, Gail B (2009). Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Menopause, 16 (4):748-755. Christopher R, Cederroth 1; Céline 1 and Serge, A (2012). Soy, phytoestrogens and their impact on reproductive health. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 355:192–200 Cline JM, Franke AA, Register TC, Adams MR (2004). Effects of dietary isoflavones aglycones on the reproductive tract of male and female mice. J. Toxicol. Pathol. 32:91-99. Collins BM, Mclachlan JA, Arnold SF (1997). The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phytochemicals with the human estrogen receptor expressed in yeast. Steroids. 62:365-372. Crain DA, Eriksen M, Iguchi T, Jobling S, Laufer H (2007). An ecological assessment of bisphenol-A: evidence from comparative biology. J.l Reprod. Toxicol. 24:225–239. Drunny RAB, Wallington EA (1990). Histological Techniques 5th Ed London, Oxford University Press, pp 199-220. Elango A, Shepherd B, Chen TT (2006). Effects of endocrine disrupters on the expression of growth hormone and prolactin mRNA in the rainbow trout pituitary. J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.145:116-127. Haavisto T, Numela K, Pohjanvirta R, Huuskonen J (2001). Prenatal testosterone and LH levels in male rats exposed during pregnancy to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dixin and diethylstilbestrol. J. Mol. Cell Endocrinol.178:169-179. James A, Rogers L, Metz V, Wee Y (2013). Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals and immune responses: A focus on bisphenol-A and its potential mechanisms. J. Mol. Immunol. 53:421-430 McKinnell C, Atanassova N, Williams K, Fisher JS, Walker M, Turner KJ, Saunders, PTK, Sharpe RM (2001). Suppression of androgen action and the induction of gross abnormalities of the reproductive tract in male rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol. J. Androl. 22:323-338. Miksicek RJ (1995). Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 208:44-50. Omotuyi IO, Ologundudu A, Onwubiko VO, Wogu MD (2011). Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn anthocyanins alter circulating reproductive hormones in rabbits. J. Diabetes Endocrinol. 1(3):36-45. Orisakwe OE, Husaini DC, Afonne OJ (2004). Testicular effects of subchronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in rats. J. Reprod. Toxicol.18:295–298. Rubin BS, Soto AM (2009). Bisphenol A: perinatal exposure and body weight. J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 304:55–62. Saied-Karbalay D, Ali N, Farzaneh D, Mohammad R (2010). Effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Matricaria chamomilla on serum testosterone and estradiol levels, spermatozoon quality and tail length in rat. Iran J. Med. Sci. 35(2):25-32. Salleh N, Runnie I, Roach D, Mohamed S, Abeywardena Y (2002). Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor in HepG2 cells by tropical plant extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3693-3697. Sharpe RM, Martin B, Morris K, Walker M (2002). Infant feeding with soy formula: effects on the testis and blood testosterone levels in marmoset monkeys during the period of neonatal testicular activity. J. Human Reprod. 17(7):1692-1703. Shweta T, Bhavana B, Aditi D, Durgesh N (2009). Effect of Carum carvi and Curcuma longa on hormonal and reproductive parameter of female rats. Int. J. Phytomed. 1:31-38. So FV, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK (1997). Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by flavonoids in the presence and absence of excess estrogen. Cancer Lett. 112:127-133. Ze-hua L, Yoshinori K, Satoshi M (2010). A review of phytoestrogens: Their occurrence and fate in the environment. Water Res. 44:567- 577.

EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACT ON REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN NORMAL RATS

THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ACANTHUS MONTANUS ON FASTING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out to determine the effect of Acanthus montanus on fasting blood sugar level of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats (both male and female) weighing between 140g to 160g were used for this research project. They were acclimatized for 14 days after which the animals were grouped into four groups of five rats each. Each animal were administered based on their body weight. The dose given to animals in group A was 300mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus, Group B was given 500mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus, Group C was given 700mg/kg body weight of Acanthus montanus and group D (control group) was given distilled water. The administration lasted for thirteen days. A day before the animals were tested for fasting blood sugar level, food and water was withdrawn and they fasted for twelve hours. Blood samples were collected from the tail of the animals and the fasting blood sugar of each of the animals was tested.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction 1

1.1     Plants

1.2     Aim of Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature Review 5

2.1     The Uses of Medicinal Plants

2.2     Acanthus Montanus                                                               

2.3     Scientific Classification of Acanthus Montanus

2.4     Fasting Blood Sugar

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and Methods

3.1     Preparation of plants

3.1.1  Chemicals, Reagents and Equipments

3.2     Management of Animals

3.3     Administration of Plant Extract

3.3.1  Determination of Drug Dosage for Acanthus Monthanus         

3.3.2  Preparation of Stock Solution for Acanthus Montanus Ethanolic Extract

3.3.3  Calculation of Administered Volume

3.4     Sample Collection and Determination of Fasting Blood Sugar

3.5     Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results

4.1     Biochemical Parameters and Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Discussion

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

References

Appendix

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-     Acanthus montanus                                                        

Figure 2-     Graphical representation of Acanthus montanus on fasting blood sugar level.

 LIST OF TABLE

Table 1 – Grouping and administration of treatment

Table 2- Showing the fasting blood sugar readings

Table 3- Showing the effect of fasting blood sugar in the experiment and control group of adult wistar rats.

THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ACANTHUS MONTANUS ON FASTING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERN OF AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC WORKSHOP

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Automobile Industry can be refers to as the collection of firms that produce, manufacture broadly automobiles using the same raw material, pattern of production while the definition of small-scale industries varies from country to country and from time to time. Automobile mechanic workshop is an example of small scale industry because it’s not attached to main production of automobiles but servicing and maintenance of automobiles. For example, engine repair, collision repair, car wash, oil change and lube. According to ‘Ford Motor Co-operation’, its evolution started when automobile manufacturing became available just before the beginning of the 20th century. Although for early car owner, there were no vehicle mechanics only the bicycle mechanic, plumber or machinist were summoned then to repair the fabricated parts. The wealthier ones among the car owner employed chauffeur-mechanics as servants who would drive and maintain the vehicles and they used their specialized knowledge to lever better pay and privileges from their wealthier employer.

            By the twenties, the motor vehicles started to be common in places and it was possible for vehicle repair industry to grow either as independent companies or as workers for specific automobile makers. These technicians were pay by the hours or day at which they work and repairs were billed for actual time taken. The repair workshops with various good specialized mechanics had a big advantage as repair were quicker and therefore cheaper. To introduce some stability to the repair market, standard times for set repair jobs started to be used for billing.

Starting the 1930s, mechanics spent their time sitting on benches, waiting and hoping for work in the slow economy period when some would go home with little or no pay for many days.

After the World War Two, the economy boomed, Flat Rate system started to dominate and as workers had little control over the accounting procedures that determined their pay, the mechanics also learned how to manipulate the system for extra pay at the expense of customers.

The use of automobile vehicles on our roads plays a key role in road transportation system and the economy of the society thereby making road transport services more efficient unlike other means of transport in various countries.

Vehicle maintenance refers to practice where an automobile is serviced on a regular basis to prevent major breakdown or the need for major repair. (international journal of science and technology vol2.)

Automobile service workshops has contributed greatly to the society in terms of services to the society and productive employment among the poorer people is vital and helps dispersal of industries in the urban, semi-urban and rural areas of the country. Many uneducated youths get employment in these workshops and thereby alleviating poverty.

1.1 Background to the Study

            Services can be refers to as work done for others either in terms of business or occupation. It enables both the customer and the service provider to know what to expect and not what to expect from the service.

Service Organization varies rapidly in size and function. The growth of service industry in the past two decades has prompted a number of study on this sector of the economy. The service industry is difficult to define and encompass. There has been various ways at which the service industry can be identified. It includes: economic activities like physical and other experiential activities and what is transformed through their services.

Service Organization varies in size. On one hand, the scale of service is huge, for example International cooperation who deals with industries like banking, airlines, insurance e.t.c and on the other hand the scale of service is small and locally owned for example automobile mechanic workshop, restaurant e.t.c. According to Ayeni (1979:12) in reference to Mabogunje, he stated that any study carry out on the service centers in an urban area is an attempt to explain a part of the spatial configuration of such urban area.

Maintenance is defined as an activity applicable to all systems, natural and artificial, to cause such systems to remain unaltered or unimpaired. It is the repair activity carried out on vehicles or other machineries to keep them unaltered, and if altered, to restore them to their original state. (Okah-Avae 1995; Akinola and Ogedengbe 2005). Automobile Service workshop can be defined as the sales and leasing of vehicles, providing after sales services and sales of auto part.

            The study of the distributional pattern of Automobile Mechanic workshop have not been paid much attention on until after the period of colonial era when the demand for vehicle ownership started increasing and also there occur increasing urge for  mobility of goods, people compare to other service sector of the economy where there has been much attention. For example Banking sector, Educational Sector e. t. c.

. Mostly, the site of mechanic workshop where maintenance activities, repair of vehicle and sales of vehicle parts are carried out are of low capital base and  either located on slippery terrains, under tree sheds, canopy made of banana or palm fronds, etc.

In Nigeria where land transport is largely in use compared to water transportation and other modes of transportation in other country, the use of automobile vehicles, either diesel or petrol driven is predominant. According to ‘Akintola 1995’, he stated that ‘the vehicles cannot remain new forever, as the parts breakdown and wear out, and so, must be maintained’.

The background to the existence of Automobile Mechanic workshop in Nigeria, Ibadan to be precise can be traced back on the basis of the need to render services to vehicles which when on the move can suddenly develop fault and requires an emergency repair. So this makes it inevitable that some repairing workshops should be set up near the road side to render services to the vehicles when they go out of order or become inoperative, and be very helpful for the operation of vehicles. Within a short time, the number of vehicles increased enormously and many workshops were set up. Nowadays, many roads and high ways are built and hundreds and thousands of vehicles are found plying on those roads. In order to provide services to those vehicles to make them operative, a large number of mechanic workshops are located near the road side. (Technical report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria)

The job of an automobile mechanics over the 21st century has been increasingly specialized with rapid advancement in technology, they have broaden their knowledge from main mechanic work to including rewiring, electronic work due to the modern trend in production and manufacturing of modern vehicles whose part have been evolved with electronics. So this creates basis for the mechanics to have broader knowledge in repair works than before. Although the land used for automobile mechanical works are mostly acquired through rent and lease so the managers have periods of years to locate their workshop there and at the end of the period of practice, the workshop is later on the control of the previous worker who was a trainee and after the acquisition of knowledge, he becomes boss in his own level.

The automobile mechanic workshops in Nigeria are under the control of mostly illiterate or semi literate individuals (Oguzie, 2001). The designs of vehicles nowadays have advanced to a very sophisticated level, and unlike the old mechanically operated vehicle systems, the modern vehicles are being operated and controlled by computerized electronic sensors. For example, latest vehicles’ ignition systems are electrically controlled without employing the old use of manually reset contact breaker. Common to majority of the new trend cars is the brain box and other electronic gadgets that sense instant faults in the vehicle and immediately notifies the driver through the dashboard display. The modern trend of mechanical services therefore requires the use of more complex and highly technological and special diagnostic equipment to analyse vehicle faults for repair and service. To ensure this for efficiency, safety, comfort and style, competent professional hands are required (Auto Tips 2001; Dhillon 1980 Automobile repair and servicing is considered to be inelastic because it will always and forever be in demand. The need for people to purchase vehicles will continue to rise likewise the need to maintain, repair and service the vehicles no matter the level at which the economy struggles in a country.

DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERN OF AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC WORKSHOP

BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PASTEURIZED LIQUID MILK SAMPLES SOLD AT DIFFERENT SHOPS

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of pasteurized liquid milk samples sold at different shops in students market located at Imo state University front gate. A total of four samples were collected. The samples were examined to determine the total heterophilic bacterial count and total coliform count. Results revealed that two of the samples (1 and 2) yielded no growth on both Nutrient agar and MacConkey agar hence, were tagged satisfactory. Sample 2 and 3 yielded growth that ranges from 7.0X104 – 9.0 X104, 1.3 X105 – 1.3 X105 respectively. Further identification test carried out showed the presence of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. in sample 3 and 4 hence they were tagged unsatisfactory. The presence of coliform bacteria shows the possibility of pathogenic bacteria and could cause disease.

BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PASTEURIZED LIQUID MILK SAMPLES SOLD AT DIFFERENT SHOPS

EVALUATATION OF THE LEVEL OF VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E AND MALONDIALDEHYDE IN MALE SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

 Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of gaseous phases and particles). A more broad definition may include taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. The practice may have begun as early as 5000-3000 BC (Nagarajet al., 2014).Cigarette smoking is probably the most addictive and dependence producing form of object-specific, self-administered gratification known to man. According to present estimates, tobacco is responsible for causing more than 5 million deaths every year (World Health Organization, 2008).

The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on human health have been well documented.It has been known that cigarette smoke carries around 4000 chemicals including toxic metals,poisonous gases and free radicals (Schumacher et al., 2009). Amongst these constituents, free radicals are considered to be more dangerous as these owing to their unpaired electron

are highly reactive and can cause oxidative damageto biomolecules and biomembranes (Senet al., 2010).

Smoking plays an important role in disturbing the antioxidant balance. Normally blood contains a healthy complement of antioxidants that keep oxidative damage to a minimum. Tobacco smoke contains abundant reactive oxygen species and also activated neutrophils released due to smoking also add to the pool of reactive oxygen species which deplete these antioxidant mechanisms leading to tissue damage (Kumaret al., 2010).

Malondialdehyde is a organic compound with the formula CH2 (CHO). This reactive species occurs naturally and is a marker for oxidative stress.

EVALUATATION OF THE LEVEL OF VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E AND MALONDIALDEHYDE IN MALE SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS.

ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FREE AND IMMOBILIZED ALPHA-AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS

ABSTRACT

The bacteria Bacillus licheniformis was cultured in nutrient agar and then incubated for 15h at 35oC. The bacteria cells were harvested by centrifugation after incubation. The cell free supernatant was used to estimate alpha-amylase activity. The alpha-amylase obtained was isolated and purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It was purified up to 15.5 fold and a yield of 20.2% on DEAE- Sephadex column with a final specific activity of 12.14 u/mg. The alpha-amylase was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. The free and immobilized enzyme had broad temperature ranges from 20oC to 70oC with optima of 60oC and 70oC respectively and optimum pH of 7.0 and 8.0 respectively. Initial velocity studies for the determination of kinetic constants with maltose as substrate revealed a KM value of 2.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml for the free and immobilized enzyme respectively and a Vmax value of 0.4unit/mg/min and 0.95unit/mg/min for the free and immobilized enzyme respectively. Both the free and immobilized enzyme activity were enhanced by Ca2+ , Mn2+ , and Na+ while Hg2+ and Zn2+ were found to be strong inhibitors of both the free and immobilized enzyme.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0.INTRODUCTION

1.1.Background of Study

Amylase is a digestive enzyme classified as a saccharidase (an enzyme that cleaved poly-saccharides). It is mainly a constituent of pancreatic juice and saliva, needed for the breakdown of long-chain carbohydrate (such as starch) into smaller units like disaccharides and trisaccharides.

Alpha-amylase is the major form of amylase found in humans and other mammals. It is also present in seeds containing starch as food reserve and it is secreted by many fungi. Although found in many tissues, alpha-amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and saliva. Alpha-amylase found in saliva breaks starch down to maltose and dextrin. It breaks large insoluble starch molecules into soluble forms e.g. amylodextrin, erythrodextrin and achrodextrin producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. The pancreas produces alpha-amylase which hydrolyses dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzyme to glucose to supply the body with energy (Alistair et al., 2006).

Although amylase can be derived from several sources such as plants, animals and microbes, the microbial amylase meet industrial needs and demands. Large numbers of microbial amylase have completely replaced chemical hydrolysis of starch in starch processing industries (Pandey et al., 2000).

ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FREE AND IMMOBILIZED ALPHA-AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS

IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA, 1982-2011

                                                              ABSTRACT

Since the expositions of the key role of monetary policy in influencing macroeconomic objectives like economic growth, price stability and host of other objectives, monetary authorities are saddled with the responsibility of fashioning appropriate monetary policy instruments that can be effectively used to grow their economies. However, despite the various monetary measures or instruments adopted by the monetary authorities to enhance rapid and sustainable economic growth and given the prominence of monetary policy in macroeconomic management in Nigeria over the years, growth has not accelerated. Instead of growing, the country has witnessed relatively low and unstable economic growth, poor income redistribution and increased poverty level as represented by its per capita income. The perceived ineffectiveness of monetary policy impact can be submitted as ineffectiveness or failure of the instruments deployed – all things being equal. It was against this background, therefore, that this study sought to examine how; (i) effective the use of Treasury bill rate as (a proxy to Open Market Operation) has impacted on the growth of Nigeria’s Real Gross Domestic Product, (ii) the use of Broad Money Supply (M2) as a monetary tool has fared in stimulating the growth of Nigeria’s RGDP, (iii)  Liquidity Ratio (Lr) has impacted on the growth of Nigeria’s RGDP, (iv)  effective the use of Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) as a monetary instrument has impacted on the growth of Nigerian’s RGDP. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted. Time series data for 30-years period covering 1982 – 2011 were collated from secondary sources that included Central Bank of Nigeria published annual reports and statistical bulletin. Four hypotheses were formulated for the study and tested using a multiple regression model. Economic growth proxied by growth of Real Gross Domestic Product was adopted as the dependent variable, while the independent variable included Treasury Bill Rate (TBR), Broad Money Supply (M2), Liquidity Ratios (LR) and Monetary Policy Rate (MPR). Results show that (i) Treasury bill rate has a positive and significant impact on Nigeria’s RGDP, (ii) Broad Money Supply (M2) exhibited a negative and insignificant impact on Nigerian’s RGDP, (iii) Liquidity ratio has negative and insignificant impact on Nigerian’s RGDP and (iv) Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) has positive and significant impact on Nigeria’s RGDP. The policy implication arising from the findings is that the monetary policy instruments showed a mix result in terms of their impact on Nigeria’s RGDP. The study therefore recommends among others that Nigeria should adopt a macro mix of monetary, fiscal and exchange rate policies because of the relative weakness of the use of monetary policy alone in engendering economic growth.

                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                ii

Approval                                                                                     iii

Dedication                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                        v

Abstract                                                                                                  vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       viii

List of Tables                                                                                                  xi

List of Figures                                                                                                    xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION               –           –            –             –                           

1.1    Background to the Study       –             –          1                                                    

1.2    Statement of the Problem                         –             –              4      

1.3    Objectives of the Study          –          –           –            –             –              6          

1.4    Research Questions                –           –             –            –              6 

1.5    Research Hypothesis         –       –            –            –               7   

1.6   Scope of the Study –          –     –           –          –            –            –               7         

1.7   Significance of the Study   –          –   –         –            –            –               7  

References            –          –            –           –         –           –            –               9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE      –        –             12

2.1    Theoretical Review           –            –          –           –             –            –             12

2.1.1    Schools of Economic Thoughts on Monetary Policy                     12

2.1.1.1    Classical Approach     –          –          –       –             –            –              12

2.1.1.2    The Keynesian Approach       –       –           –             –            –             13

2.1.1.3    The Modern Approach           –          –           –             –            –              13

2.1.1.4    The Liquidity Theory             –  –          –           –             –            –              14

2.1.2    Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism    –         –              15

2.1.2.1    The Traditional Interest Rate Channel         –         –             15 

2.1.2.2    The Exchange Rate Channel             –          –             – –              17

2.1.2.3    Other Assets Channel            –          –                  –             –             17

2.1.2.3.1    Equity Price Channels (Tobin’s q Theory)           –    –             – 18

2.1.2.3.2    Wealth Effects            –         –        –    –            –           –             –              18

2.1.2.4    The Credit Channels     –          –           –            –           –             –              19

2.1.2.4.1    The Bank Lending Channel           – –           –           –             –              19

2.1.2.4.2    Balance Sheet Channel         –        –           –           –             –              19

2.1.3    Links between Monetary Policy and Economic Growth     –  -20

2.1.4    Monetary Transmission Mechanisms in Nigeria         –          – 21

2.1.4.1    Transmission Mechanism under the Direct Monetary Control  21

2.1.4.2    Transmission Mechanism under the Indirect Approach to Monetary Control               22 

2.1.4.3    Challenges of Monetary Policy Transmission in Nigeria          23

2.1.5    Instruments of Monetary Policy in Nigeria               –      –            23

2.1.5.1    Era of Direct Control Instruments      –          24                                      

2.1.5.1.1    Moral suasion            –          –        –            –            –   24         

2.1.5.1.2    Selective Credit Control or Guidelines      –  –             –              25

2.1.5.2    Era of Indirect or Market Based Instruments        –            –           25

2.1.5.2.1    Open Market Operations (OMO)              –            –          –           26

2.1.5.2.1.1    Auctioning of the Nigeria Treasury Bills (NTB)            –           27

2.1.5.2.1.2    The Two-Way Quote NTB Trading         –          –                       27

2.1.5.2.1.3    Reverse Repurchase Agreement (Reverse Repo)           -28        

2.1.5.2.1.4    Repurchase Agreement (REPO)   –          –          –          –            29

2.1.5.2.2    Reserve Requirements          –       –          –          –            –            29     

2.1.5.2.2.1    Cash Reserve Requirement           –          –          –          –               30

2.1.5.2.2.2    Liquidity Ratio       –          –          –          –       –            –            30

2.1.5.2.3    Discount Window Operations         –          –          –           –           –   30 

2.1.5.2.4    The CBN Standing Facilities           –                    –             –              31   

2.1.6    Implementation of Monetary Policy in Nigeria            –          –           33

2.2    Empirical Review             –   –          –          –           –             –              38

2.3    Summary             –           –          –          –          –           –             –              44

References                    –            –           –          –          –           –             –              46

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY       –             –              53

3.1    Introduction        –                –           –          –          –           –             –              53

3.2    Research Design         –           –           –          –          –           –            –              53

3.3    Nature and Sources of Data                –           –           –            –              52 

3.4    Model Specification           –              –         –           –           –            –             52

3.5    Model Justification            –              –          –          –           –           –              55

3.6    Explanatory Variables           –           –          –           –          –           –              56

3.6.1 Dependent Variable               –           –          –            –          –            –             56

3.6.2 Independent Variable        –   –           –                 –            –            56 

3.6.3 Controlled Variable                –          –           –           –            –            57

3.7    Method of Analysis            –        –          –           –           –            –            59

References        –             –                 –             –           –           –            –           60

CHAPTER FOUR  PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA   – 63           

4.1       Introduction         –            –    –             –              –             –            –           63

4.2       Presentation of Data        –        –             –              –              –            –           63

4.3       Test of Hypotheses          –          –             –              –              –            –           76

4.3.1    Test of Hypothesis one    –       –             –               –             –            –           76

4.3.2    Test of Hypothesis Two   –            –     –  –             –           78     

4.3.3    Test of Hypothesis Three              —               –             –            –           80

4.3.4    Test of Hypothesis Four                         –             –           –            82

4.4       Discussion of Results                –               –             –           –            83

            References        –             –                –              –              –           –           86

CHAPTER FIVE         SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND    RECOMMENDATIONS             –           –            87

5.1       Introduction               –               –             –            –            –          87

5.2       Summary of Findings       –                   –             –            –            –          87      

5.3       Conclusion        –                    –               –             –             –           –          88  

5.4       Recommendations             –  –               –             –            –           –          89

5.5       Contribution to Knowledge     –             –            –           –          90

            Bibliography     –               –                –              –             –          –          91

                                                    LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1         Real Gross Domestic Product, Treasury bill Rate and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate     –     –              –              –              –             61 

Table 4.2         Real Gross Domestic Product, Broad Money Supply and Gross Domestic  Product Growth Rate       –              –              –            64         

Table 4.3         Real Gross Domestic Product, Liquidity Ratio and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate                   –              –              –              –            67 

Table 4.4         Real Gross Domestic Product, Monetary Policy Rate and Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate         –              –              –            71 

Table 4.5  OLS Regression Result of Treasury bill Rate (TBR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP)            –             –              –              –              –            74 

Table 4.6   OLS Regression Result of Broad Money Supply(M2) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP)               –              –              –              –            76 

Table 4.7    OLS Regression Result of Liquidity Ratio (LR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP)        –             –              –              –              –            78 

Table 4.8   OLS Regression Result of Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP)                   –              –              –            79 

                                                           LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 4.1        Multiple Line chart showing Treasury Bill Rate and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate            

Figure 4.2        Multiple Line chart showing Real Gross Domestic Products, Broad Money Supply and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate  67

Figure 4.3        Multiple Line chart showing Liquidity Ratios and Real Gross Domestic Product  Growth Rate             –              –               –               –              70

Figure 4.4        Multiple Line chart showing   Monetary Policy Rate and Real Gross Domestic   Product Growth Rate                      –               –  74

                                                CHAPTER ONE

                                                INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

One of the greatest challenges facing nations is how to achieve sustainable economic growth and development and formal articulation of how money affects economic growth dates back to the time of Adams Smith and later championed by the monetary economists (Adefeso and Mobolaji, 2010:13). This is because of the numerous benefits that growth confers. A few of the most important ones are; firstly, economic growth raises the general living standard of the population as measured by per capita national income; secondly, economic growth makes many kinds of income distribution easier to achieve; thirdly, economic growth enhances the time frame of accomplishing the basic necessities of man, for example shelter, food, clothing, etc, by a substantial majority of the population (Lipsey,1982:693).

Monetarists strongly believe that monetary policy exact greater impact on economic activity as unanticipated change in the stock of money affects output and growth i.e the stock of money must increase unexpectedly for central bank to promote growth (Omotor, 2007). Ezema (2009) defines monetary policy as a combination of policy actions taken by the central bank of a country to influence money supply, interest rate, availability and cost of credit in an economy. Monetary policy aims at achieving the broad objectives of commensurate economic growth rate and development of the national economy through specific objectives which include price stability, full employment, favorable balance of payment and others (Okwu,et.al.,2011;Nwankwo, 1991). It covers gamut of measures or combination of packages intended to influence or regulate the volume, prices as well as direction of money in the economy. Specifically, it permeates all the debonair efforts by the monetary authorities to control the money supply and credits conditions for the purpose of achieving diverse macroeconomic objectives (Ajie and Nenbee, 2010). Chamberlin and Yueh (2006:55) add that monetary policy – the act of controlling the supply or price of money – may exert a powerful influence over the economy.

Monetary policy can also be defined as the instruments at the disposal of the monetary authorities to influence the availability and cost of credit/money with the ultimate objective of achieving price stability. Depending on the mandate of the monetary authorities, the objectives of monetary policy may well go beyond price stability. More often than not, monetary authorities particularly in developing countries are saddled with a dual mandate – price stability and sustainable growth (Ibeabuchi, 2007). In such a situation, monetary policy is used to achieve both objectives (Aderibigbe, 1997:11 ). The apparent conflict between these views according to Fry (2000:128) is resolved if it can be established that monetary policy can be used to accomplish the goals of high employment and growth only if it maintains stable prices. In such a case, price stability becomes a necessary condition for sustained economic growth and, thus, no conflict between the two objectives, since they imply the same thing.

Since the expositions of the role of monetary policy in influencing macroeconomic objectives like economic growth, price stability and host of other objectives, monetary authorities are saddled with the responsibility of fashioning appropriate monetary policy instruments that can be effectively used to grow their economies (Nenbee, et. al, 2010). In the opinion of Bernanke and Lian (1998), the choice of the monetary instruments used for intervention by policy makers is the major determinant of the degree of impact on monetary aggregates and the ultimate objective of economic growth. In other word, the responsibility lies on the monetary authorities to evaluate and assess the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the transmission mechanisms of its monetary instruments deployed and determines which one has greater and quicker impact on their ultimate objective amongst others. The transmission mechanism of monetary policy describes the channels or the processes through which monetary policy actions of the central bank impact on the ultimate objectives of inflation and output (Akhtar, 1997;  Ajayi, 2007). Specific channels of monetary transmission operate through the effects that monetary policy has on interest rates, exchange rates, equity and real estate prices, bank lending and firm balance sheets. Four main channels through which monetary policy influences the economy have been identified in the literature namely, interest rates (sometimes referred to as liquidity channel), exchange rate, other assets prices and credit (Peter, 2005).

In Nigeria, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is the sole monetary authority. Its core mandate is to promote monetary and price stability and evolve an efficient and reliable financial system through the application of appropriate monetary policy instruments and systemic surveillance. In order to ensure the realization of the goals of price stability and economic growth, the CBN deploys its monetary policy instruments in such a way as to ensure optimality in inflation and growth outcomes (CBN, 2010). Monetary policy complements other economic policies to achieve government’s overall macroeconomic objectives of internal balance and external viability (Adesoye, et. al., 2012).

The conduct of monetary policy in Nigeria has undergone several phases. Three of the phases are easily identified – the era of application of direct controls; the era of application of market instruments (or indirect controls), and the era of intense reform of strategy and institutions. The major objectives of policy has, however, remained unchanged, that is, price stability and sustainable growth of the economy (Omotor, 2007).While the objectives of monetary policy in the early 1970s were designed to deal with four main broad objectives, namely price stability, high rate of unemployment, sustainable economic growth and balance of payments, the approach of monetary policy implementation has evolved over the years from absolute reliance on direct controls in the 1970s and early 1980s to focus on the market based system of monetary control (Uchendu, 1996). Under direct controls, monetary management depended on the use of direct instruments, such as credit ceilings, selective credit controls, administrative fixing of interest rates and exchange rate as well as the prescription of cash reserve requirements. The main objective then was to ensure that funds were made available to the productive sectors of the economy such as agriculture and manufacturing at relatively cheap terms. Under this regime, monetary policy impulses through changes in interest, exchange rates and credit ceilings were expected to positively affect changes in output and prices through the credit channel. Achieving the objective of monetary policy under this approach was, however, hampered by excessive fiscal dominance and poor compliance with statutory directives by deposit money banks as operators continued to hide credit transactions in a way that prevented funds from flowing into the preferred sectors of the economy (Idowu, 2009).

As the financial markets deepened over time as a consequence of the economy wide macroeconomic reforms that commenced mid-1980s, the CBN started the process of shifting from the use of direct instruments to market-based instruments.(Sanusi, 2002).  The most significant move in the new direction came in June 1993 when the Bank introduced OMO. The market-based tools include in addition to OMO, reserve requirements which specifies the proportion of a bank’s total deposit liabilities that should be kept with the central bank; and discount window operations under which the central bank performs the role of lender of last resort to the deposit money banks (Nnanna, 2001). Currently, OMO is the major instrument of monetary policy at the CBN. Other supporting instruments are discount window operations, moral suasion, foreign exchange sales/swaps and the standing facility introduced in December 2006 (CBN, 2006).

As a result of the increasing dynamism of the modern national economy resulting from financial liberalization and greater integration and interdependence of the monetary economies, there is need for continual research and assessment of the relevance and effectiveness of monetary instruments used in monetary management. This will enable policy makers ensure that there is no deviation from monetary targets and that the instrument accomplishes the ultimate goal which is the growth of the nation’s economy. It is as results of this need, amongst others that this study will examine the impact of monetary policy instruments on the economic growth of Nigeria.

IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA, 1982-2011

IMPACT OF MICROFINANCE ON RURAL ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –              –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval page –           –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Declaration      –             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgements    –           –         –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents        –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of tables   –                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

Abstract          –              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study            –           –           –           –           –           1
    1. Statement of problem –         –           –           –           –           –           2
    1. Objectives of the study –         –           –           –           –           –           4
    1. Research questions –   –      –           –           –           –           –           4
    1. Research hypotheses – –        –           –           –           –           –           5
    1. Scope of the study –    –           –           –           –           –           –           5
    1. Significance of the study –      –           –           –           –           –           7
    1. Operational definition of terms                  –           –           –          

References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Conceptual Framework          –           –           –           –           –           12

2.1.1    Definition of micro-credit –    –           –           –           –           –           13

2.1.2    Micro-credit service providers –        –           –           –           –           13

2.1.3    Characteristics of micro-credit –        –           –           –           –           14

2.1.4    Micro-credit and the rural poor –             –           –           –           –           15

2.1.5    Micro-Finance –           –           –           –      –           –           –           –           17

2.1.6    Features of micro-finance –     –    –           –           –           –           –           17

2.1.7    Benefits of micro-finance programs – –              –           –           –           18

2.1.8    Goals of the microfinance banks           –           –           –           –           18

2.2       Theoretical Review   –                     –           –           –           –           –           19

2.2.1    The evolution of micro-finance in Nigeria –    –           –           –           19

2.2.2    Justification for the establishment of microfinance bank       -22

2.2.3    Micro-financial challenges –    –           –           –      –           –           22

2.2.3.1 Rate of interest –         –           –           – –           –           –           23

2.2.3.2 High rate of defaults –            –            –           –           –           –           23

2.2.3.3 Limited Outreach        –           –           –           –           –           23

2.2.3.4 Lack of infrastructure and access to market – –          –           –           24

2.2.3.5 Diversion of loan to non-productive uses –     –       –           –           24

2.2.3.6 Poor monetary policy –            –            –           –           –           –           25

2.2.3.7 Inequitable distribution of wealth and income –         –           –           25

2.2.3.8 High cost of screening and recovering micro loans –  –  –            25

2.2.3.9 Lack of Experienced Credit Officers     –           –           –           –           25

2.2.3.10Problem of illiteracy   –                     –           –           –           –           25

2.2.3.11 Inadequate or non-monitoring of micro and small enterprises by banks thereby leading to default of facilities.           –           –           26

2.2.4    The micro-finance policy –             –           –           –           –           –           26

2.2.4.1 An overview of the micro-finance policy –    –           –           –           26

2.2.4.2 Micro-finance policy objectives –        –                –           –           –           26

2.2.4.3 Policy target of microfinance scheme –            –           –           –           27

2.2.4.4 Policy strategies –        –         –           –           –           –           –           27

2.2.4.5 Millennium goals –      –       –           –           –           –           –           27

2.2.4.6 Principles for effective microfinance institution –      –   –        28

2.2.5    Policy measure instruments as framework for microfinance banks    –           –           29

2.2.5.1 Ownership of microfinance banks –    –           –           –           –           29

2.2.5.2 Participants in the microfinance activities –    –           –           –           30

2.2.6    The roles and responsibilities of stakeholders –          –           –           30

2.2.6.1 Government –  –           –           –           –                   –           –           30

2.2.6.2 Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) –       –        –           –           30

2.2.6.3 Microfinance institutions (MFIs) –      –               –           –           31

2.2.6.4 Public sector poverty alleviation Agencies –   –           –           –           31

2.2.6.5 Donor Agencies –             –           –           –           –           31

2.2.7    Framework for supervision of microfinance banks –  –  –   32

2.2.7.1 Licensing and supervision of microfinance banks –    –           –           32

2.2.7.2 Establishment of a national microfinance consultative committee (NMFCC)           32

2.2.7.3 Credit reference bureau –        –              –           –           –           –           32

2.2.7.4 Deposit insurance scheme –    –           –           –           –           –           32

2.2.7.5 Management certification process –      –           –           –           –           32

2.2.7.6 Apex Associations of microfinance institutions –                33

2.2.7.7 Corporate Governance for microfinance banks –              33

2.2.8    Regulatory framework of microfinance institutions – –            33

2.2.8.1 Strengths regulatory framework of micro-finance institutions  –  33

2.2.8.2 Weaknesses of Regulatory framework of microfinance institutions 34

2.2.9    Informal finance institutions in rural areas –   –        –           –           34

2.2.9.1 Daily savings enterprises –      –          –           –           –           –           35

2.2.9.2 Professional money lending scheme – –         –           –           –           36

2.2.9.3 Rotating savings and credit Associations –            –           –           37

2.2.9.4 Family fund pool scheme –     –      –           –           –           39

2.2.9.5 The local moneylenders –        –        –           –           –           39

2.2.9.6 Social clubs and age grade association –              –           –           40

2.2.9.7 Tied Credit –   –           –           –              –           –           –           41

2.2.10  Development finance institutions and microfinance in Nigeria –  41

2.2.10.1Nigerian Agricultural co-operative and rural development bank (NACRDB)          43

2.2.10.2Functions of NACRDB –      –           –           –           –           –           44

2.2.10.3The bank of Industry (BOI) –                   –           –           –           44

2.2.10.4Failures of former Defunct Banks –   –            –           –           46

2.2.11  The concept of rural economic growth in Nigeria –   –           –           47

2.2.12  The Effectiveness of microfinance in rural development –     48

2.2.13  Impact assessment of microfinance    –             –           –           50

2.2.14  Arguments on loan default problem   –     –           –           –           53

2.3       Empirical Literature on Microfinance and Performance –   49

References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design         –                  –           –           –           –           59

3.2       Nature and Sources of Data             –           –           –           –           59

3.3       Population and Sample Size   –              –           –           –           –           59

3.4       Description of Research Variables      –             –           –           59

3.4.1    Independent Variable:            –           –     –           –           –           –           60

3.4.2    Dependent Variables  –           –                 –           –           –           –           60

3.5       Technique for Data Analysis  –           –   –           –           –           –           61

3.6       Model Specification    –           –           –                 –           –           –           61

References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           63

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction    –           –                   –           –           –           –           –           64

4.2       Data presentation        –           –                –           –           –           –           64

4.3       Determination of Research variables  –            –           –           –           66

4.4       Test of Hypothesis      –           –           –             –           –           –           71

4.4.1    Test of Hypothesis One          –        –           –           –           –           71

4.4.2    Test of Hypothesis Two          –                  –           –           –           –           72

4.4.3    Test of hypothesis Three         –             –           –           –           –           73

            References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           74

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary of findings  –      –           –           –           –           –           75

5.2       Conclusion      –           –        –           –           –           –           –           75

5.3       Recommendations      –              –           –           –           –           –           76

5.4       Contributions to Knowledge  –         –           –           –           –           77

5.5       Suggestions for further research studies         –           –           –           77

            Bibliography   –           –                   –           –           –           –           78

            Appendix        –                    –           –           –           –           –           87

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1         Nominal Values of Model Data              –           –           –           64

Table 4.2         Determination of Microfinance Activities      –  –           –           66

Table 4.3         Determination of Agricultural Contribution to GDP —           67

Table 4.4         Determination of Rural Savings         –   –           –           69

Table 4.5         Determination of Rural Poverty         —           –           70

Table 4.6         E-view Regression Results     –           –       –           71

Table 4.7         E-view Regression Results     –            –           –           72

Table 4.8         E-view Regression Results     –               –           73

ABSTRACT

This study examines the impact of microfinance activities on rural economic growth in Nigeria for the period: 2000-2015; the introduction of microfinance banks is the inability of commercial banks to provide sufficient credit, savings and other financial services to the poor and so have taken up the challenges of the gap created by them;  the primary objective is to investigate the impact of microfinance on rural economic growth in Nigeria with the specific objective of examining and evaluating the impact on agricultural contribution to GDP, rural saving and poverty reduction; literature was reviewed along the line of conceptual framework, theoretical and empirical literature; methodology adopted used the ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique to estimate the hypotheses, values of aggregate loan and advances to aggregate deposit ratio was used as proxy for microfinance activities and adopted as the independent variable while the dependent variables include agricultural sector contributions to gross domestic product (GDP), rural savings (RS) and poverty index (PI); Data analysis considered three hypotheses and the result from the  study reveals that regression coefficient of microfinance activity is negative in explaining agricultural contribution to GDP and rural poverty but positive and significant in explaining rural savings in Nigeria; based on these findings, the study recommends that conscious effort showed be made by government to industrialize rural areas as a means of improving rural economic growth; microfinance institutions should be encouraged to lend to rural dwellers as a way of promoting rural saving habits in Nigeria while policies related to agricultural diversification should be intensified by government in combating the menace of poverty in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Over the past three decades, there has been growing awareness of the spatial dimension in the development of the rural areas especially in developing countries where rural communities have earlier experienced decades of neglect (Olawepo and Ariyo, 2011). There is therefore special interest in the accelerating processes of rural community transformation by various governments in the areas of poverty alleviation, provision of rural infrastructure such as health and medical facilities, electricity, pipe borne water. Schools; agricultural extension and in the development of micro finance establishments that will affect the lives of the rural investors and community organizations. Based on these and other strategies, the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 1990 established an economic policy that would encourage the extension of banking business to the rural area of the country in order to mobilize rural savings. This was aimed at development and fostering rural transformation(Ariyo, 2003 and Olawepo, 2004). The whole idea of rural banking stemmed from a realization of the abundant resources available in the rural areas, the need to channel these resources to production and make such business activities contribute to economic development shifted research focus and government policy to promoting rural banking habit. An increase in rural investment as a result of provision of loans and advances will gear up output level and this will in turn raise the consumption level and possibly improve accessibility to public good s and services within the rural environment (See Direvedi, 1980; Adedayo, 1983; Jenyo, 2002 and Olawepo 2004).

According to Smith and Yeboah, (2005), throughout most of the post World War IIperiod, government across the developing world have intervened in rural financial markets in order promote income expansion and alleviate rural poverty. In many of these efforts especially during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, the authorities pursued the direct credit approach which is targeted at increasing production or adopting new technologies without external assistance in the form of credit since they were assumed to be too poor to save. But private banks could not lend on appropriate terms to this sector and thus farmers were forced into the hand of money lenders This Development lead to the establishment of government owned specialized institutions like Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme to provide subsidized credit to the target population.

By the early 1990s two general approaches to financial market reform had taken shape. The first was known as financial liberalization and the second the financial  system development Approach. The goal of rural financial market reform was to expand access to financial services and efficiency of financial intermediation Restrictive government polices was said to be the principal cause of the shallow, fragmented and inefficient financial systems plaguing many developing countries (Mckinnon 1973).

To enhance the efficiency of the financial system and to create more access to financial services for marginalized groups, the prescription was liberalize the financial system by eliminating restrictions on interest rates, mandatory sector credit allocations and credit ceilings (Pill and Pradhan, 1997; African Development Bank, 1994; and Aryeetey et al, 1997).

Today the task of taking the financial system and the entire economy to the next level is squarely placed on financial system strategy 2020. The blue print of financial system strategy is to reposition the country to one of twenty largest economies in the world. The objectives were articulated strategies to make Nigeria the financial hub of Africa, join the league of the top 20 economies and build financial institutions that are global players.

Above all, there can be no meaningful discussion of  Nigerian’s rural economy without due consideration of crucial role of not only Agriculture that has remained largest revenue earners for Nigerian living in rural area but also those engage in small scale business such as pottery, weaving, carving, tool making, trading hairdressers, photographers, welders , bakery, small and medium scale  enterprises’ have been fully recognized by government and development experts as the main engine of economic growth and a major factor in promoting the realization of FSS2020, improve standard  of living of rural populaces, bring local capital formation, achieve high level of productivity and capacity and act as principal catalyst  for achieving equitable and sustainable industrial diversification.

IMPACT OF MICROFINANCE ON RURAL ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON MAJOR MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES IN NIGERIA, 1980 – 2014

Abstract

Using annual time series data from 1980 to 2014, this study investigated the impact of government expenditure disaggregated into capital (CEXP) and recurrent (REXP) on GDP Per Capita (GDPPC), inflation (INF), unemployment (UNEMP), and Gini index (GINCO, proxy for poverty) respectively to construct principally four econometrics models. The study adopted the ex-post facto research design in the study and five hypotheses were proposed and tested.The multiple regression and Granger causality test of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique of analysis were employed in obtaining the numerical estimates of the coefficients in the different equations. The study estimated the models in the statistical procedure of co-integration and Error-Correction Model (ECM). The results of long run regression showed that government capital and recurrent expenditure both had positive and significant impact on GDP per capita;capital expenditure had a significant negative impact on inflation, while recurrent expenditure had positive but non-significant impact on inflation. Government capital expenditure had a significant negative impact on unemployment, while recurrent expenditure had negative but non-significant impact on unemployment; equally capital and recurrent expenditure showed a significant negative impact on poverty. While bidirectional causality exists between recurrent expenditure and inflation, no causality relationship was found between capital expenditure and inflation, capital expenditure and GDP per capita, and recurrent expenditure and GDP per capita respectively.Error Correction Model (ECM) was introduced in all the equations in order to adjust the short-run discrepancies in the parameters, and it showed a speed of adjustment of 72%, 51%, 24% and 27% respectively, to any disequilibrium within a year. The study recommended that government expenditures should be redirected and refocused towards the growth of the real sectors to stimulate general productivity in the economy; and that deliberate efforts are consciously needed to begin at reversing the observed excessive government recurrent expenditures over capital expenditures given the dangerous and inhibiting effect it has on a typical developing economy.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                               i

Approval ii

Declaration                                                                                           iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                v

Abstract                                                                                  vii

Table of contents                                                                                   viii

List of Tables     xi

List of Figures                                                                              xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                1         

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                   6         

1.3       Objectives of the Study                            9         

1.4       Research Questions                                                               9

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                              10

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                               10

1.7       Significances of the study                                                                        10

            References                                                                     12

CHAPTER  TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

2.1       CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK                                                15       

2.1.1    Concept of Government Expenditure    15

2.1.2    Government expenditure and the economy 19

2.1.3    Concept of fiscal policy 21

2.1.4    Concept of Economic Growth     22

2.1.5    Concept of Inflation                                                    25

2.1.6     Concept of Unemployment                                         27

2.1.7    The Poverty Concept                                                   28

2.1.8    Poverty and income inequality                               32

2.2       THEORETICAL REVIEW                                                           34       

2.2.1.   Theories or Determinants of Public Expenditure    34

2.2.1.1 Wagner’s Theory of Increasing State Activity              35

2.2.1.2 The Displacement Effect Hypothesis of Wiseman and Peacock 38

2.2.1.3 The Rostow-Musgrave Development Model             39

2.2.2    Theories of Economic Growth                                                     41

2.2.2.1 The Classical theory of Economic Growth                 41

2.2.2.2 Keynesians Theory of Economic Growth                            42

2.2.2.3 Harrod-Dommar Theory of Economic Growth   43

2.2.2.4 Neoclassical Growth Theory                                                         43

2.2.2.5 Endogenous Growth Model                    45

2.2.3    The Nexus between Government Expenditure and Macroeconomic Variables        47

2.2.3.1 Government Expenditure and Economic Growth          47

2.2.3.2 Government Expenditure and Inflation                          52

2.2.3.3 Government Expenditure and Unemployment    57

2.2.3.4 Government Expenditure and Poverty Reduction             62

2.3       EMPIRICAL REVIEW                                                                     66       

2.3.1    Government Expenditure and Economic Growth     66

2.3.2    Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria 71

2.3.3    Government Expenditure and Price Stability                                       75

2.3.4    Government Expenditure and Inflation in Nigeria   79

2.3.5    Government Expenditure and Unemployment 83

2.3.6    Government Expenditure and Unemployment in Nigeria      88

2.3.7    Government Expenditure and Poverty Rate           88

2.3.8    Government Expenditure and Poverty in Nigeria                        92

2.4       Review Summary                                                                     95       

            References                                                                        105

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design                                                                        128

3.2       Nature and Sources of Data                                                128

3.3       Analytical Framework                                                                    128

3.4       Model Specification                                                                    129

3.5       Description of Model Variables                                     135           

    3.6      Techniques of Analysis                                                      139

3.7       Other Diagnostic Test                                                                          143      References                                                                                                                   145

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction                                                                                 148

4.2       Data Presentation and Interpretation                              148

4.3       Descriptive statistics                                                      157

4.4       Stationarity and Co-integration Tests                             158

4.5       Test of hypotheses                                                     160

4.5.1     Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model I          160

4.5.2     Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model II             165

4.5.3     Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model III                     169

4.5.4     Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model IV                       173

 4.5.5    Analysis and Discussions of Result in Model V           177

4.5.6     Further Discussion of Results                                 178

4.6        Implications of Results                                                           179 References                                                                                                                 182

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary of Findings                                                               183

5.2       Conclusion                                                                   183

5.3       Recommendations                                                              185

5.4       Contribution to Knowledge                                      186

5.5       Recommendations for Further Study                                 187

            Bibliography                                                                             188

            Appendices                                                                                 213

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Summary of Empirical Literature

Table 4.1: The annualized data of government expenditure, capital expenditure and recurrent expenditure                                 149

Table 4.2: Annualized data for GDP Per Capita, Inflation rate, Unemployment and GiniCoefficient                                             152

Table 4.3: Summary of the descriptive statistics of the variables      157     

Table 4.4:  Summary of Unit Root and Co-integration Tests         158

Table 4.5: Long-run Regression Results for Model I                               161

Table 4.6: Short-run Regression Results for Model I                       163

Table 4.7: Long-run Regression Results for Model II                    165

Table 4.8: Short-run Regression Results for Model II                   167

Table 4.9: Long-run Regression Results for Model III                      169

Table 4.10: Short-run Regression Results for Model III                        171

Table 4.11: Long-run Regression Results for Model IV                         173     

Table 4.12: Short-run Regression Results for Model IV         175

Table 4.13: Presentation of Granger Causality Result for Model V 177

Table 4.14: Specification Error Test                                                  178

Table 4.15:  Test for Multicollinearity                          179         

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 4.1.Is the graphical representation of Government (Total, Capital and Recurrent) Expenditure from 1980-2013.                                                         151

Fig. 4.2. Line graph of trends of per capita gross domestic product from 1980-2013           153

Fig. 4.3. Line graph of trends of inflation rate from 1980-2013     154

Fig. 4.4. Line graph of trends of unemployment rate from 1980-2013     155

FIG. 4.5. Line graph of trends of gini-coefficient from 1980-2013     156

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON MAJOR MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES IN NIGERIA, 1980 – 2014

THE IMPACT OF POOR BUDGETARY IMPLEMENTATION ON CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES (A STUDY OF SELECTED COMPANIES)

ABSTRACT

The study intends to investigate the impact of poor budgetary implementation in construction companies. The purpose is to specifically identify the major causes of poor budgetary implementation practices in construction companies using megastar technical and Construction Company Ltd, Aleed Construction Company, Anasami Construction Nig Ltd, Sametech Construction and C &C Construction Co. Ltd as case study. It is to determine the impact of poor budgetary implementation in construction companies and offer useful and meaningful suggestions for improving on the identified problems based on the findings. The study was carried out for the five companies. The researcher made use of primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources with respect to this study include the various management staff of the companies and the account staff of the companies selected. Information obtained from these people were by asking face to face questions and recording their responses, then questionnaires were also administered to them for more response. A statistical approach (yaro yamen) was used in determining both the sample size and the proportion of the sample. Then the researcher used simple percentage and chi-square analysis to analyze the data collected. The study revealed that inadequate or poor budgetary implementation practices are as a result of deviation from the budgetary principles and standards, manipulation of budget by corrupt officials, late release of fund budgeted, etc. Recommendations were made based on the findings. The researcher recommended that there should be timely release of budget so as not to disrupt smooth operations of the companies. There should be an efficient monitoring of how the budget is implemented in the companies. It was also recommended that all employees of the companies should understand how a budget is implemented in the companies. The management of the companies were also advised to motivate employees by encouraging employees through incentives and benefits in order to achieve the objectives of the organization.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            In the traditional sense, the primary purpose of preparing budget is to understand and control costs. Budget preparation is very useful in a project as a planning and controlling tool. Budget could be employed by the company to get priorities among projects competing for limited resources. It enables the company to set the machinery in motion for meeting the interim valuations as when due and also used to justify the  elimination of uneconomic projects as well as the revision of its objectives to meet the demand of a manageable project.

            Results of descriptive/non parametric statistical technique indicate that one of the major problems confronting the construction sector in Nigeria is inadequate managerial control in the form of sound budget planning and control. The primary concern during implementation of budget is to ensure the fulfillment of the financial and economic aspect of budget outlays. The financial tasks include programmed spending of the amounts for the purpose specified and avoiding lapses or a rush of expenditure towards the end of the financial year. Budgetary implementation is the enforcement of the set objectives taking appropriate actions to bring performance in line with planned targets.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Numerous problems militate against an efficient budgetary implementation. Benneth (1975:23) was of the view that “statute differences or more accurately role conflict between budget staff and line personnel is an important source of unfunctional consequence of a budgetary system. This implies that the basic problem of budgetary implementation arise from differences in the way budget staff and line personnel understand the budgeting system.

Line employees see budgets as merely emphasizing history, being too rigid, unrealistic, unattainable and ambiguous. The budget staff are seen as over-concerned with figures, unconcerned with line problems and cut off by a language of their own (ie presenting complicated format). These problems would affect the effectiveness of budget system directly or indirectly through their effects on communication, motivation and participation.  

Again, under the volatile conditions in which they work, managers often lack up-to-date information on which to base their decisions. There is always a time lag involved in the process of preparing and approving estimates of proposed expenditures in most companies. This time lag matters less in a stable economy where factors affecting budgetary decisions change  slowly. But in the fast changing financial conditions of low income countries, it can make formal budgetary procedures impossible to follow.

Another important problem of budgetary implementation is the unrestricted transfer of funds from one category of expenditure to another. Lewis (1967:208) opined that “the characteristics of the African financial environment and changes that take place after the budget has been approved”. So all these lead to the study of “The Impact of Poor Budgetary Implementation in Construction Companies (A study of Megastar Technical and Construction Company Limited, Aleed Construction Company, Anasami Construction Nig Ltd, Sametech Construction and C & C Construction Co. Ltd).

THE IMPACT OF POOR BUDGETARY IMPLEMENTATION ON CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES (A STUDY OF SELECTED COMPANIES)

IMPACT OF FINANCIAL REPORTING ON INVESTMENT DECISION OF EQUITY HOLDERS IN BREWERIES AND BANKING INDUSTRIES

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impact of Financial Reporting on investment decision of equity holders in Breweries and Banking Industries. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact financial reporting has on investment decisions of shareholders and other investors. Using residual equity theory and enterprise theory upon which the study is anchored and the body of literature on financial reporting pedagogies as conceptual guides, a five year data from five selected firms namely: Nigerian Breweries plc, Guinness Nigeria Plc, Zenith Bank plc, First Bank plc and Guaranty Trust Bank Plc were used in the study conducted in south east, Nigeria.  Financial reporting and equity holders were operationalized and measured. Data from the five selected firms were analyzed using regression and correlation statistics. The findings of the study show that: Profitability has a significant positive impact on equity holders’ investment decision. Dividend per share payout does not significantly affect equity holders’ investment decisions. There is a significant positive relationship between Earnings per share and investment decision. There is an insignificant positive relationship between leverage and investment decision. Liquidity of a firm has a significant positive effect on equity holders’ investment decision in the firm. The study concludes that financial reporting has a significant positive impact on equity holders’ investment decision. The study recommends that financial reporting statutory regulators should ensure credible financial reporting that would ensure reliable decision making.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The fundamental aim of financial reporting is to provide high-quality financial reporting information concerning economic entities or units, primarily financial in nature, useful for economic decision making (FASB, 1999; IASB, 2008). Providing high quality financial reporting information is important because it will positively influence capital providers and other stakeholders in making investment, credit, and similar resource allocation decisions enhancing overall market efficiency (IASB, 2006; IASB, 2008). The importance of reliable financial reporting as a vehicle for financial decision making cannot be over- emphasized and one of the fundamental problems in prior researches is the operationalization of the concept. The quality of financial reporting includes different context- specific domains and as such involves differences among constituents (Schipper & Vincent, 2003; Dechow & Dichev, 2002). In addition, the users within a user group may also perceive the usefulness of similar information differently given its context (Beest, Braam and Boelens, 2009).

Quoted organizations have as a matter of fundamental condition, the responsibility of making known those matters that concern their operations in order to help the investing public in their investment decision-making. Firms of different sizes aside their statutory obligation, endeavour to retain their shareholders and investors so as to attract new ones. A satisfying methodology of accomplishing the above is to make or publish the information concerning the organization as financial reporting. Such financial statement is essential in aiding the decision making abilities of accounting information users. Financial statement provides important information for a wide variety of decisions, and investors draw information from the statement of the firm in whose security they contemplate investing (Anaja & Onoja, 2015) ‘‘Decision makers who contemplate acquiring total or partial ownership of an enterprise expect to secure returns on their investment such as dividends and increase in the value of their investment’’ (p.2.). Dividends and increase in the value of shares of firms depend on the future profitability of the enterprise. Financial statement is a formal and comprehensive statement describing financial activities of a business organization such as the financial institutions. For such a business entity, financial statement is a statement that reports all relevant financial information, presented in a structured manner and in a form easy to understand for managerial use for taking prompt and informed decision making related to investment (IASB, 2007a) and also to decision making pertaining to cost planning, investment planning, expected returns and performance evaluation.

Anaja and Onoja (2015:2) posits ‘‘that the financial statement comprises balance sheet (for determining financial position), profit and loss statement (describes statement of comprehensive income), statement of equity changes (explain the changes of the company’s equity), and cash flow statements (reports on a company’s cash flow activities, particularly its operating, investing and financing activities). Although, these statements are often complex and may include an extensive set of notes to the financial statement and explanation of financial policies and management discussion and analysis (IASB, 2007b). The notes typically describe each item on the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement in further detail. Notes to financial statement are considered an integral part of the financial statements. However, the approaches that the notes and financial statement are presented and reported are critically for investment decision making by existing and prospective investors in order to earn optimal returns on their investments.

This indicates that financial statement methods in terms of information disclosure pattern, transparency, auditing, reporting standards, regulatory control and flexibility, corporate governance, and financial scandals have influence on investment decision making in any organization, especially in financial institutions with extensive range of investment activities that requires comprehensive financial facts that can be obtained from a financial reporting. Though, these financial statements are often prepared according to national standards, corporate governance, professional ethics, and code of ethics. It has been stressed that there is need for corporate ethics in the preparation of financial report. This to avoid financial reporting fraud and scandals that might hinders effective decision making process by management and other users of reports. The purpose of ethics in financial accounting reporting with expected standards is to re-orientate corporate organization on the need to abide by a code of conduct that facilitates public confidence in their services (Okafor, 2006).

It was observed that the roles of financial statement on investment decision making of financial institutions in Nigeria has some problems to both investors and managers of business organizations who are either not aware of the importance of interdependence relationship that exist between investors and financial organizations. The incidence of corporate failures, for instance, Enron Corporation and World.com in the year 2002, and other accounting scandals compounded by the global energy, food and financial crises leading to credit squeeze across the globe, have partly been attributed to impact of financial statement manipulations which portrayed some ailing companies as if they were sound. In Nigeria also, corporate failures and distresses have been witnessed in the banking sector. Evidence was the huge collapse of the commercial banks all due to massive accounting related frauds. This problem resulted in the establishment of Asset Management Company of Nigeria (AMCON) to prevent corporate failures particularly in the Nigerian banking sector by acquiring financially distressed companies.

IMPACT OF FINANCIAL REPORTING ON INVESTMENT DECISION OF EQUITY HOLDERS IN BREWERIES AND BANKING INDUSTRIES

PROFITABILITY AS A MEASURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF AFRICA PLC, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                         i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of content                                                       v

CHAPTER ONE:

  1. Background of the study                                  1
    1. Statement of the problem                                5
    1. Objective of the study                                      7
    1. Research Question                                           9
    1. Significant of the study                                    9  
    1. Scope and Limitation of the study                   10
    1. Research Method                                             11
    1. Definition of Terms                                          12

CHAPTER TWO:

  • Literature Review                                             14
    • Need for Financial Analysis                             18
      • Financial Ratio Analysis                              20
      • Uses of Financial Ratio                                        23
    • Profitability Analysis                                        26
    • Types of Profitability Ratio                                       29
    • Uses of Standard in Ratio Analysis                  36
    • Limitation of Financial Ratio                           39

CHAPTER THREE:

  • Historical Background of United                      42

Bank for Africa Plc

  • Mission and Vision of the Bank                       44   
    • Accounting Policies Operated by the Bank              45
    • Data Specification                                            46
    • Research Instrument                                       47
    • Techniques of Investment                                        47
    • Personal Interview                                           48
    • Data Analysis                                                   50
    • Limitation of Methodology                                       51

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and Analysis of Data                   52
    • Summary of Financial Statement for the                 52

part five years of UBA Plc.

  • UBA Plc Trend Analysis Table                          64

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of Finding                                        65
    • Recommendations                                           67
    • Conclusions                                                     69
    • Appendix                                                                 71
    • Journals                                                          79
    • Bibliography                                                    80

CHAPTER ONE

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The extent of which corporate objective are achieved depends on the quantum and quality of resources as its disposal.  We all know that resources are not only scare relative to the demand for them but also waiting assets.  For example, plants become absolute, land loses it fertility, money get spends and executives (men) get old.  The scenario implies that resources must be constantly aquired used efficiency and replaced” (Asien, 2000).

The fact that activities mentioned above cost money implies that the survival of the firm depends on the profit realized by it.  Profit can therefore be defined as the excess of income over expenditure.

The definition of profit depends on the information needs of the company.  If the underlying profitability of the business the objective review a company’s, result, then it is an operating profit. i.e gross profit less expenses.

According to Ellis (1993) says that “Financial reporting of profit provides a key measure of the performance outcome, associate with performance outcome associated with an organization strategy”.  This means that before the performance of a business can be evaluated a proper profit measure approach must be operated by the organization.  Therefore, the function of financial manager is to include profit planning.

The term profit planning refers to the operating decision in the area of pricing, costs, volumes of out pout and the firms selection of product brings.  Profit planning is therefore a pre-requisite for optimizing investment and financing decisions (Mao and James 1969).     

The major aim of establishing a business is to make profit unless adequate (net profit) are generated and used for the replacement of resources, the firm will eventually be run down.,  profit analysis in business have the following advantages:-

  1. It helps to increase the equity control of shareholders through retained earning.
  2. It also helps to raise the loss absorptive capacity of the organization.
  3. The ability of the companies to pay its dividends depends on the size of its profits.

A company should earn profits to survive and grow other a long period of time.  Profits are essential, but it would be wrong to assume that every action initiated by management of company should be earned at maximizing profits, irrespective of social consequences.  Although, profits is the ultimate output of a company, and it will have no future say if it fails to make sufficient for a firm and the reporting of its in the financial statement is not just sufficient but to show the weak and strength of a real accounting system that is in the usefulness of its application rather than information or data gathering processing aspect (Paul et al, 1972).

In this view, the financial manager, should, continuously evaluate the efficient of its company as to achieve its targeted goal i.e profits.  Financial statement of companies are tools which produces a means through which this evaluation can be carried out.  Meaning that financial statement should be used to examine the statement of success of the business over the period.  Also willsmore (1971). Confirm this statement that management use financial statements as working tools with which to obtain the most effective results in the control of business affairs so as to ensure the adequacy of the over all result, in the profitability and financial strength of the business as whole “financial ratio are therefore employed as means of paper evaluation for the business.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Organization is expected to keep records of their transaction over the year.  Adequate and proper records should be kept in order to measure financial performance of the business.

Over the years, it has been realized that financial statement i.e the profit and loss account and balance sheet are not well prepared which as a result of liability of most organization to meet their financial obligation.

This may be as result of the following reason:

i.)     Poor Management or managerial control over the business affair.     

ii.)    Lack of proper and adequate recording and keeping of books account.

iii.)   Inefficient use of the firm’s financial assets over the years

iv.)   Window dressing at top management level of the organization.

v.)    Change in according policies operated by the company.

vi.)   Changes in the general price level and increase economic fluctuation over the years.  

The problem of this study is to determine how financial statement=s can serve as a better tool for measuring the performance of a business over the years, so that night decision can easily be taken by the users.  It financial statements help in knowing how profitable business has been by various interested parties.  For example shareholders, creditors, bank and customers.  

PROFITABILITY AS A MEASURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF AFRICA PLC, ILORIN)

EFFECT OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION ON THE MARKETING OF HOTEL PRODUCTS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED HOTELS IN ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.2   Background information

1.2   Need for the study

1.3   Statement of the purpose

1.4   Scope of the study

1.5   Limitation to the study

1.6   Research hypothesis

1.7   Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Economic depressions (inflation

2.2   Food and beverages services

2.3   Hotel Accommodation services

2.4   Other associated products

2.5   Hotel products

2.6   Effect of economic depression (inflation)

2.7   Impact of inflation on hotel industry

2.8   Marketing of Hotel products

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1   Study population

3.2   Method of data collection

3.3   Sampling techniques

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1   Test of hypothesis

4.2   Problems of inflation on market of hotel product and suggested solution

CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1   Conclusion

5.2   Recommendation

Bibliography/References

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Hospitality industry is recognize as one of the largest term of business organization in today’s world, ever since the stage of development of the industry which has been traced to the advent of the modern means of transportation which makes it easy for people to travel from one place to another.

The second stage of this ever continuous development in Nigeria which has been linked with the transportation development and to the political independence for back as 60s.

        The mass of people on transit (out of their homes) needs to be well catered for in aspect of food, drink, and sleeping accommodation in their respective area of destination, hence the need for hotel service.

        Hospitality as an industry is said to be an industry that held itself as an establishment offering food, drinks, and accommodation (if so requires) to any potential customer who appears able and willing to pay a reasonable sum of money for the service provided and who is in a fit stable to be received.

        Products offered by the hotel establishment ranges from food and beverages to service and facilities render. It can be therefore classified as tangible and intangible items. The types if hospitality industry (commercial or welfare) determines whether these product are to be offered for sale at profit level or not.

        In any commercial hotels, it has been proven that the volume of sales turnover and the price the potential guest  are willing to pay for the service which has been the important variables that determine the profit ability of the operations.

The early years of Nigeria post independence, the number of hospitality industry in the country is very nominal and thus enjoyed the monopoly of the market. But in years back, many were developed and managed hotels have sprang up, thereby creating competition between the old and the newly existing customers patronages.

Hotel products in Nigeria is limited to only accommodation, foods and beverages, and any other tangible or intangible services offered in the hospitality industry. While the effect of economic depression on marketing of hotel product in Nigeria simply show in the serious hardship whereby the inflation level on sales and regard the return (market) made has been subjected to the hyper-inflation year’s back, precisely more than a decade ago.

The resulted to the depression in the economic system of the nation and five a set-back even in the spending power of an individual while luxury items like hotel services possessed by the hotel addict were reduced, even some stop their consumption and patronage for hotels products and services thereof.

1.2   NEED FOR THE STUDY

Having clearly give throughout the previous research submitted to the department of hospitality management by my predecessor, the researcher observe vividly with keen interest on my views that much has not been done affirm critically the effect of the economic depression of Nigeria on the marketing of the hotel product HPS and possibly suggest a way out.

As regard my experiences in hospitality industry is concerned  with equipped facilities and humanism to set on motion the materials resources effectively, it has to succumb to this term; exchanging successful product for cash or any other items of value in order to achieve her targeted profit margin.

Therefore, there is need to study with keen interest any intended factors that is capable of jeopardizing the interest, objectives, designed rolling plans of various hotel properties and distinguished stakeholders were necessary. 

EFFECT OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION ON THE MARKETING OF HOTEL PRODUCTS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED HOTELS IN ILORIN)

STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

ABSTRACT

         This report gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Ilorin, Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the studio and studio terminologies.

            Chapter three is about light use in production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and possible solution.      

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION TO SIWE

       The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.

      The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs department of the establishment.

1.1               BACKGROUND OF SIWES

The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.

      The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the educational environment or institution.

       However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country, in accordance with the education policy of the government.      

1.2               OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The objectives of the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:

  •    It improves student’s knowledge about the industrial sector or organization.
  •    It enable the student to practicalised different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
  •    It relates the student to the labor market and how it’s being operated.
  •     It also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
  •     It enable student to know more the technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or involved.
  •     It enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.

 1.3     Description of the establishment of attachment.

The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in 1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.

 Between 1977 and date, the station has undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and clients within and outside the state.

At present, the station has staff strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it transmits 24 hours on weekdays.

Apart from contributing its quota in area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of programs from Lagos via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in 1977.  Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A. Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R. Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.

The present management team of NTA Ilorin includes:

  • Chief T.R. Gyang _________________ General Manager.
  • T.A Olasehinsde __________________ General Manager.
  • Hajia Moriliat T.O Adamu____ Manager. Administration.
  • Yinka Ajayi _______ Manager News and Current. Affairs.
  • Taiye Ogunderin ____________ Manager programmes.
  • Yakubu G. Oladele ___________ Marketing Manager.
  • Samuel Osawu ____________ Chief Technical officer.
  • Engr. J.O Babajide ____Manager-In-Charge, NTA Patigi.
  • Mrs Remi Awolola ____ Manager-In-Charge, Ogbomoso.

1.4 LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF NTA ILORIN

    Although the idea of establishing a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971 by a number of  journalists who are indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.

      The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money already into the project, there could be no going back.

              The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77,  Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of  kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.

STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF NEGOTIATION AS A VITAL TOOL TO EFFECTIVE BUYING IN A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF BULLETINE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, ILORIN KWARA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE                                    

INTRODUCTION

By no means can all purchases and suppliers matter be dealt with by correspondence and telephone. It is therefore a necessity that face to face •counters sometimes take place to resolve problems and differences which id be overcome by negotiation.

This research work looks at negotiation as an important tool in ensuring effective buying in a construction company.

It is important to recognize that the primary task of purchasing manager in fulfillment his role of maintaining suppliers is through effective negotiation.

The purchase manger should be a specialist in satisfying the needs of the company by seeking suitable sources of supply and negotiating to secure the best terms and service possible negotiation is necessary whenever it is require reconcile two or’ more different opinion in order that action “may be initiated continued  in mutual  agreed condition.

It is very important that all buying and selling transaction leave both parties satisfied and hence negotiation is not forcing and unwilling acceptance.

Though negotiation is complex and costly, but it is use for primarily for naira value purchase. For high Naira value purchases, where five criteria which dictate competitive bidding prevail. Though competitive bidding is only used to narrow down the number of supplier which implies dealing with a few successful bidder.

1.2      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Bulleting Construction Company limited is a duly registered company. In corporate in Nigeria in 1989, the company which is owned by both indigenous and foreign partners has operated responsibility with the lanes of Nigeria.

The company’s head office is in Ilorin the Kwara State Capital with branch offices all over the Federation from Kogi State to Deltal State, from River State to Bauchi state and making further rapid cursion into other state of the Federation.

As a responsible specialized corporate entity with a group of highly responsible indigenous and foreign technical crew, the company has had the honour of handling numerous construction Works both within and outside the state. The company future is very promising as this can readily be assessed through its many tangible and intangible assets.

Despite the present economic downturn in the country which has forced many organizations out of the business the company still forging a head with work force about (679) six hundred and seventy nine workers, of this number (674) six hundred and seventy four are Nigerians.

However, the staffs of the company are well pay and motivated hence the company has contributed into small measure to social economic development ‘Nigeria.

This analysis has become imperative to show the Nigerian government that Bulletine Construction Company is a well established responsible corporate body operating with in the frame work of the Nigeria law.

1.3      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Negotiation with suppliers is one of the most important functions of purchasing department. The success or failure of an organization depends largely on the effectiveness and efficiencies of the buyers to negotiate with suppliers on terms and conditions of the contract such as price, quality, delivery services etc. However investigations have shown that the purchasing departments of the company are not given free hand to operate in the procurement of materials for the organization. Though the role of buyer in any organization is to contribute immensely to the profitability and realization of objectives of the organization. But during the economic recess the market becomes unsuitable a fluctuation in prices. A very good example is what is happening currently in Nigeria with reference to deregulation of Naira as a result of which purchasing power of Naira was drastically reduced.

The activities of buyer in this situation become need with

i)  What Procurement procedure could be applicable for this situation? And this could include any of the following

  1. Speculative purchase
  2. Hand to mouth purchase
  3. Spot purchase
  4.  Time budgeting of purchase
  1. How to obtain the right quality and quantity of goods at the right times?
  2. How can (he right or fair price could he achieved?
  3.  How could the right materials or goods he gotten from this right source or location?

1.4      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

    The research work will cover a broad area in purchasing operation and procurement procedure in organization.

It entails the following specific area which the research would like to emphasize upon in the course of writing the project. These include contract negotiation supplier relationship and others, buyer’s role in negotiation, objective of negotiation, creating conducive environment during the course of negotiation. In consolidation with the above areas the research or will give various definition of terminology used in the course of the project work.

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF NEGOTIATION AS A VITAL TOOL TO EFFECTIVE BUYING IN A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF MUSHROOM

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.The standard for the name “mushroom” is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word “mushroom” is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap(Smith et al., 2015). “Mushroom” also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.

Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as “bolete”, “puffball”, “stinkhorn”, and “morel”, and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called “agarics” in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term “mushroom” can also designate the entire fungus when in culture; the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms; or the species itself(Smith et al., 2015).

Mushrooms are well known all over the world and the edible ones have been considered as functional foods. They serve to enrich food as supplements and they provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain (Smith et al., 2015).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Globally, millions of deaths attributed to malaria are being recorded. The disease constitutes a huge epidemiologic burden in Africa and continues and continues to cripple the economic development in the region (Trudell and Ammirati, 2009). In Nigeria, the disease is responsible for 60% outpatient visits to health facilities, 30% childhood death, 25% of death in children under one year and 11% maternal death (Philips, 2011). The financial loss due to malaria annually is estimated to be about 132 billion Naira in form of treatment costs, prevention, loss of man-hour, etc.; yet, it is a treatable and completely evitable disease(Philips, 2011). Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with 97% of the population of 170 million living in areas of high malaria risk and anestimated 3% living in malaria free highlands. Nigeria bearsup to 25% of the malarial disease burden in Africa, making this country with the highest malaria mortality (WHO, 2014).

The Global Fund (TGF)’s response in the fight against malaria in Nigeria is co-managed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP). Currently NMEP is implementing New Funding Model (NFM) of TGF which began in January 2015 (WHO, 2014). Implementation of malaria control interventions is broad-based and includes: Case Management; Integrated Vector Management; Special Interventions such as Intermittent Presumptive treatment with Sulphadoxine and Pyrimethamine; and other supportive interventions (WHO, 2014).

Edible mushrooms have been source of food to man, even before the for-knowledge of its nutritional content. It has served as major source of food in several African countries including Nigeria(Smith et al., 2015). However, its use as an antimalarial agent has not been documented. There is therefore, the need to assess the suppressive effect of the extract of this mushroom on albino mice.

1.3       Justification of the Research

Although the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in existence for 50,000–100,000 years, the population size of the parasite did not increase until about 10,000 years ago, concurrently with advances in agriculture (Harper et al., 2011) and the development of human settlements. Close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparum malaria may have originated in gorillas (Prugnolle et al., 2011). References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history (Cox,2013). The advent of multiple drug resistant malaria led to the continuous effort to curb the menace it has created through the use of all possible approaches for its eradication. However, P. berghei is used as a model organism for the investigation of human malaria because of its similarity to the Plasmodium species which cause human malaria. P. berghei has a very similar life-cycle to the species that infect humans, and it causes disease in mice which has signs similar to those seen in human malaria. Importantly, P. berghei can be genetically manipulated more easily than the species which infect humans, making it a useful model for research into Plasmodium genetics.

In several aspects the pathology caused by P. berghei in mice differs from malaria caused by P. falciparum in humans. In particular, while death from P. falciparum malaria in humans is most frequently caused by the accumulation of red blood cells in the blood vessels of the brain, it is unclear to what extent this occurs in mice infected with P. berghei (Craig et al., 2012). Instead, in P. berghei infection, mice are found to have an accumulation of immune cells in brain blood vessels (Craig et al., 2012). This has led some to question the use of P. berghei infections in mice as an appropriate model of cerebral malaria in humans (Craig et al., 2012).

Although the decreased sensitivity of malaria parasites to an antimalarial drug was first reported about a century ago in association with quinine, the term drug-resistant malaria was rarely used; resistance was not considered a major problem until the late 1950s, after chloroquine resistance emerged. Historically, chloroquine was widely used as the standard first-line drug against P. falciparum. Resistance was first detected on the Thailand–Cambodia and the Venezuela–Colombia borders, near areas where chloroquinated salt was used for malaria control, forcing the affected countries to begin switching to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) in the 1970s. Resistance to SP developed quickly, again on the Thailand–Cambodia border. The spread of chloroquine and SP resistance to other parts of Asia and as far as Africa is well documented (Plowe, 2009). Several articles have been published on the use of various extracts with antiplasmodial properties to eradicate Plasmodium falciparum from the blood stream of induced albino mice. Hence, a need for further review of the work to ascertain the effects of these compounds with antiplasmodial activities.

1.4       Aim and Objectives

1.4.1    Aim

To determine the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of edible mushroom: Agaricus bisporus on Plasmodiumberghei in albino mice.

ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF MUSHROOM

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS: Business admin or BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION is administration of a business. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations, as well as related fields which include accounting, finance, project management and marketing.

Many final year research students has been finding it difficult to choose business project topic, in this article i am going to show you some few step by steps on what are things you need to know before you choose BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS for approval

1.      Think of a research area that is of great interest to you.
2.      Brainstorm on possible subjects, titles and topics that could come out of the research area.
3.      Narrow down the topic to a specific issue.
4.      Look for trending issues in Nigeria.
5.      Ensure there is adequate material for the study.
6.      Take a time out to structure your topic properly.

GET A RESEARCH AREA

The first step in developing outstanding research topics is by identifying a research area that interests you. Successful researchers align their work to their research area or interest. By doing this, you become an expert in your chosen research area, and your previous research papers become foundation for future research studies. Final year students in Nigeria should identify what subjects they love talking about. Good examples of research areas are Taxation, Employee Performance, Work-Life Balance, Electricity Conductors etc. Visit https://www.modishproject.com/ for more examples of research areas for your academic field.

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BRAINSTORM FOR THAT OUTSTANDING TOPIC

That unique and outstanding research topic is deep down in your brains only that you have not yet realized it. After identifying a suitable research area, pick up a paper or a book and try to formulate as many research-able topics as possible (the more the topics, the better your chances of getting a good one). The topics may look weird at first, but you may not realize how important this process will be to you until you try it. One benefit I have achieved with brainstorming is that it gives me the freedom to put down as many whack ideas as possible. The truth is, after some days these ideas become very useful, as they serve as foundations for formulating better research topics.

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NARROW DOWN YOUR RESEARCH TOPIC

Since you have been able to identify your research area and a research topic, you should now avoid broad topics. Broad topics are killer research topics. They make you stress your self for no good reasons. Your topic is probably broad if:

  1. You find your research topic too confusing.
  2. You seem to forget your topic frequently.
  3. Your supervisor is not interested in your project work.
  4. You seem to find conflicting materials on your topic.
  5. You frequently feel dizzy or lazy whenever you see you research topic.
    If all these happen to you then you need help. Breakdown the topic! If you are writing on the role of management in an organization, then you are not on point! Management can still be broken down to other variables, nouns, and subjects such as financial management, strategic management etc.

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LOOK FOR TRENDING ISSUES

One secret about outstanding researchers is that they are always solving current issues on ground. When new issues such as bank recapitalization in Nigeria and fuel subsidy arise, research topics and materials on them sell like pure water. When you present a research topic on a current issue that needs urgent attention in a country like Nigeria, your supervisor is happy with you. When defending it, you are assured of a good grade because, you are not only presenting a unique work, but you are also solving an urgent problem and building literature for that issue as well.
However, when developing research topics to suite trending issues in your country, you must be very careful. Writing on very current issues can get you hanging. Availability of materials to support your literature review-both theoretical and empirical review becomes a big challenge. Before formulating research topics on trending issues, one must first make sure there are studies already conducted. Students wishing to explore into newer research areas or topics with little or no materials are still encouraged to do so, but it is best done at a PhD level.

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SOURCE FOR ADEQUATE MATERIALS

Students wishing to get the best out of their research project are usually encourage to make sure that there is adequate literature concerning or relating to their study. However, you can still check my site https://www.modishproject.com/ or http://newprojecttopics.com.ng for over 50,000 sample research materials that can guide you throughout your research.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
STRUCTURE YOUR RESEARCH TOPIC

In structuring your research topic, follow the following steps:

  1. Make sure your topic is not broad. Structure your topic to address a specific problem or answer a specific question. Do not write on every thing as you may get confused.
  2. Identify variables in your research topic. Variables must be present in your topic. After brainstorming, arrange these variables in such a way your readers can easily understand what your study is all about. For more info read this article on research variables.
  3. Avoid lengthy research topics.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
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AN EVALUATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY USING UBA PLC IN IKOT EKPENE AS A CASE STUDY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Change is unavoidable in organizations today and is of paramount importance to study how change factors affect staff  productivity. Change is what presses us out of our comfort zone and it is inevitable (Sidikova, 2011). Kitur (2015) is of the view that change comes in an organization in many forms: merger, acquisition, joint venture, new leadership, technology implementation, organizational restructuring, and change in products or regulatory compliance. The change may be planned years in advance or may be forced upon an organization because of a shift in the environment. Organizational change can be radical and alter the way an organization operates, or it may be incremental and slowly change the way things are done. Change management can be defined as a style of management that aims at encouraging organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the changes taking place in their work. (Green, 2007). For change management to be successful and its impact positive, managers or supervisors in the organizations need to understand what motivates their team and enroll employee participation. In fact separating managers from leadership in terms of style is difficult because every manager needs to have leadership skills to get activities done and every leader should have managerial skills to induce workers to change directions. This is especially important in organizations or institutions which are going through change since constant motivation and guidelines are needed for effectiveness of employee performance (McLagan, 2002). In the global market economy, technology introductions, aging boomer population, and less than honest world competition have all had an impact of change management. With the sudden financial shock in late 2008, many employers rushed to downsize their organizations to capture possible profits. In today’s business environment, it’s becoming obvious that nothing remains still (Olubayo 2014). He emphasizes that the rate of change which business organizations face have continued to increase more and more in the last five decades. This is as a result of advances in information and communication technology increasing democratization of economies and liberalization of economies across the globe.

In order to compete globally, organizations have embraced change management factors such as culture, technology, leadership and structure which affects both employee and organizational performance. In other to remain competitive universities have adopted cultural systems known to every employee which are add value to their performance, for instance we value quality education. Leadership changes may influence employee performance. The leader as a person in charge or as a change agent can manage an organization or the process of organizational change more effectively and successfully if he/she is capable and competent. (Asghar, 2010). He noted that rapid technological advancements, high expectations of customers, and ever changing market situations have compelled organizations to incessantly reassess and reevaluate how they work and to understand, adopt and implement changes in their business model in response of changing trends. Organizational change is a demand of the day, and needed for them to survive. On the other hand organizational structure changes are thought to influence employees’ performance. A structure is an arrangement of task or activities being performed in an organization.

Staff productivity is important for an organization to achieve its objectives and goals. Employees are an important asset to an organization that may affect it either positively or negatively. Due to unavoidable environmental changes, organizations today have been challenged to advocate for changes that influence employees’ productivity. Therefore the top management has to ensure that factors that influence staff productivity are taken into consideration. Management can be defined as a creative and systematic flow of knowledge that can be applied to achieve quality results by using human as well as other resources in an effective way (Drucker, 2003). The importance of management in organizations today has increased multifold. Strategic outcomes depend on ways of management in organization, therefore key management functions that include learning to delegate, planning, organizing, communicating clearly, motivating employees, adapting to change and constantly generating innovative ideas are crucial.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Organizations are continually faced with challenges in other to compete effectively with the global environments; so changes in the structure, processes and individuals within the workplace are planned, strategized and implemented to successfully meet up with the global demands. Some of these change programs succeed while others do not because some employees’ resist organizational change due to fear of losing their jobs, distress and anger when it is not properly managed. The success of any organization therefore, lies in fostering an effective method in which employees’ can be prepared to accept change as they are the central implementers of the change programs and which in turn bring about productivity of staff in the organization. Most staff exhibit low levels of commitment to their duties and researchers believe that when management is aware of employee attitudes towards organizational tasks and place priority on effective mechanisms to prepare staff for organizational change, staff will have high level of commitment to their duties and enhance productivity of the organization.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. To examine the roles of organizational change on staff productivity in an organization.
  2. To examine the organizational change strategies that impact on staff productivity. 

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AN EVALUATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY USING UBA PLC IN IKOT EKPENE AS A CASE STUDY