1.1 Background of the study
The basic economic problem that confronts an under developed or a developing country and especially the new independent ones is how to attain within a relatively short period, a notable increase in the rate of economic growth which is envisaged will bring it to the level of perpetual real income comparable to those of more admired economics of the world. In order to attain this oval, the country would have to ; – Provide those basic government services especially in education, public health and transport. These services will serve as fertile soil to advancing the nation’s economy. – Stimulate a higher rate of capital formation in production facilities either in government or private sectors. The first accomplishment requires transportation on needed factors or resources to the governmental ;sector of the economy for the production of those services or facilities required by the entire populace.. The second accomplishment required transfer of resources to capital formation either strictly in the private sector or through the governmental sector. These resources may come from a. outside the control b. present use for consumption c. present use in production of capital of or types regarded as not contributing to economic growth. d. Idle or partially idle resources primarily manpower. The above four sources o varying opportunity growth and it actually does it only by transfer existing resources to the appropriate quarter and profitable application of these to production attains within that relatively short period a level of standard of living comparable to those of other more advanced countries of the world.
Accounting come in as the tool that measures the profitability/viability a project with an economic system. Glanlier (1976) defines accounting as the systematic collection, summarization, and analysis and reporting of data in a form suitable and under stable to prospective users. Generally, it involves some other related discipline as budgetary control taxation, cost and management accounting, financial management, auditing and quantitative techniques. Since development project entails projection into the future, it is essential that public officers ;and employees in the private sector appreciate the need a transaction and necessary statistics as to enable the proper ;evaluation of past. Records with what obtains presently in order to reasonably project into the future. Some of the practical ways in which accounting can be and is known to have been used not only for a decision making but also importantly to achieve desired results include. 1. Economic planning 2. Capital Formation 3. Accountability 4. Taxation 5. Accounting for social purposes.
Accounting records provide information that may be used within the business and which may be relied on by businessmen while making investment decision. The problem with most potential investors in the development nations is they are mostly illiterates and therefore required the services of any accountant and financial analyst to help access possible areas of investment. Budget implementation is another vital area where accounting knowledge is essential. Most budgets are stated in accounting formula and their implementation will require that knowledge that will enable officials read the budget as it affects their sector and even reflect on how other sectoral outlay may affect them. It is due to the perennial lags in our civil service that the researcher decided to carry out an investigation into what are likely lags in the wheel program or growth of the civil service and thereby the nation. The private sector employees are also caught in this lapses but however, there seems to be more commitment on their part due to obvious reasons of ownership and direct supervision by entrepreneurs. The proper functioning of financial system of a company determines to a good extent the viability of her economic structure. That is why the researcher decided to show sets of accounts viz (profit and loss account and value added statement) from unpetrol Nigeria PLC Annual Report and Account 1999. This financial statements help users of such statements ascertain the viability of the company and it is prepared by chartered Accountant.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The problem of this research as contained in the introduction is whether the accountant has major role to play in national development.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this project is aimed at identifying. -The role of an accountant in planning – The role of an accountant in government accounting. – The role of an accountant in controlling public expenditure.- The duties of an accountant in management and control of public concerns.