DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF A SCREW PRESS BRIQUETTING MACHINE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The world today is going green, everyone is thinking about alternative source of energy, the present and most popular form of energy fuel is known for its disadvantageous effect on the ozone layer in the atmosphere. First world countries like the USA, England, Russia and Germany are far ahead searching for alternative source to fuel energy most especially the latter who is the leading country in renewable energy for electricity generation. Developing countries are also looking for ways to go into other sources of energy apart from fossil fuel.For this reason, they have to look around and beyond their immediate environment to create energy.
Biomassareorganicmatterthatisrenewableoverthe course of time.Moresimply,biomassisreservedenergy(Zhang, 2012). Biomass is produced by green plants converting sunlight into plant material through photosynthesis and includes all land and water-based vegetation, as well as all organic wastes. With the principles of biomass, energy from immediate environment like agricultural waste, sawmill/carpentry waste, charcoal can be used to create energy in the form of Briquettes. Briquetting is the process of compaction of residues into a product of higher density than the original raw materials. It is also known as densification. The use of fuel wood for cooking has health implications especially on women and children who are disproportionately exposed to the smoke apart from environmental effects. Women in rural areas frequently with young children carried on their back or staying around them, spend one to six hours each day cooking with fuel wood(Oladeji, 2015). In some areas, the exposure is even higher especially when the cooking is done in an unventilated place or where fuel wood is used for heating of rooms. Generally, biomass smoke contains a large number of pollutants which at varying concentrations pose substantial risk to human health. Agro waste is the most promising energy resource. The decreasing availability of fuel woods has necessitated that efforts be made towards efficient utilization of agricultural wastes. These wastes have acquired considerably importance as fuels for many purposes, for instance, domestic cooking and industrial heating. Some of these agricultural wastes for example, coconut shell, wood pulp and wood waste can be utilized directly as fuels. These waste can be processed in a form whereby they are well compacted and hardened in form that they burn for a longer a time. These processes as earlier stated is called briquetting and it is produced with aid of a briquetting machine.