1.1 BACKGROUND HISTORY
The concept of sculptural composition would not be well understood without the researcher taking a quick glance at the history of sculpture and examining the key words in the concept i.e.”sculptural and “composition
The origin of art of sculpture dates backs to the origin of the man, synchronizing with the primeval experiences of the pre-historic man. The early man suddenly developed the need to improve upon his skills and similarly to subject the chaotic character of nature to a portable size and gain a certain measure of control and promote fertility. He achieved this by carving out making incised contours of the figure of animals on the walls of the cares and stones with sticks and fingers. He applied into those contours mineral, plant, pebbles, and other media.
As man’s scope and experiences widened, there came into being the need to experiment dating from the pre-historic to the modern era of scientific evolution technology.
Differences in philosophical identifies, geographical locations and techniques of approach characterized the history and growth of sculpture from one pattern or style to another, giving rise to different movements such as cave sculpture (catacomb), mediaeval, Renaissance, Baroque, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism down to cubism.
In the 20th century at moment, such artists as Pablo Picasso who is regarded as the father of the above era. He is known for his verse knowledge on all aspect of art. He executed the very first sculptural composition. This was revealed in his ram head sculpture he achieved through the use of bicycle handles as horn and the sit as the face and other employed fabricated as well as found object.
According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Sculpture’ means, “ concerning sculpture” and means, “the art of shaping solid figures of stone wood, clay, metal etc” It also defined “composition as”, the art of putting together to form something”….
From the sculptural compassion is an art expression that involves the fabrication arrangement of metals, wood, fiber, bond, stone, and any sculptural medium.
Coming down to the scope of this study which is Osili village in Enugwu Ukwo, Njikoka Local Government area of Anambra State, in respect to a shrine, “Offia Ugwu” and its Custodian.
Enugwu-Ukwu which is sited near Awka the capital of Anambra State has Osili as one of the eighteen major villages. It has three segments. Akama, Etiti and Obeagu Osili. Etiti-Osili is populated by three kindred, namely, Umuagu, Umukike, and Umuibi. Some members of Umuobi and Umuagu Kindreds also live at Obeagu Osili side by with two other kindreds, namely Umuiku neche and Umuorikpe.
Okperi was the first settler at the point now known as Ofia Ugwu. It is the highest point in area and about hundred meters above sea level. He had one son, Onyike. This sacred enclave known as Ugwu was the abode of Okperri. The whole Osili village worship at the shrine. At a certain period of every year, Ikpo Ukwu ritual is performed. The sacrifice always attracted by the inhabitants of the whole village, including people from other village, only persons who had performed the Amanwulu title, attended and took part in the sacrifice. There are three idols in the shrine and each is worshiped at its own specific time. The idols include Ugwu, Madu Ugwu, and Aro Ugwu The last known Chief priest of Ugwu, was Nwonyike Unoego from Obu Onyike, while the whole women from village worshiped at Ugwu. Ugwu Idol derived its power from spiritual gynarch. That resulted on the traditional reincarnation of many of our daughters form Ugwu Idol. Since the de3mise of the chief priest, no other descendants of Okperi had succeeded him.
This lackadaisical altitude could be traced to the fact that Ugwu by its nature does not attract many worshipers.