TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 9
Significance of the Study 9
Research Questions 11
Scope of the Study 12
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13
1. Conceptual Framework 13
- Concept of Wastage in Vocational Technical Education 14
- Factors Leading to Wastage among Self Employed Metalwork Graduates 17
- Organization of Workshops/working Environment for Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 18
- Working Methods and Procedures for Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 27
- Entrepreneurial Skill Training required to reduce Wastage 30
- Skill Acquisition in Technical College 37
- Factors that influence Skill Acquisition 58
- Teaching Methods, Instructional Activities and Facilities relevant
to Metalwork 59
- Structure of Educational System 68
- Employment Status in Nigeria 71
2. Theoretical Framework 74
3. Review of Related Empirical Studies 79
4. Summary of Related Literature Reviewed 84
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 86
Design of the Study 86
Area of the Study 86
Population for the Study 86
Instrument for Data Collection 87
Validation of the Instrument 88
Reliability of the Instrument 88
Method of Data Collection 88
Method of Data Analysis 89
CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 90
Research Question 1 90
Research Question 2 91
Research Question 3 93
Research Question 4 94
Research Question 5 96
Hypothesis 1 97
Hypothesis 2 98
Hypothesis 3 99
Hypothesis 4 100
Hypothesis 5 101
Discussion of Findings 108
CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 113
Restatement of the Problem 113
Major Findings 115
Implication of the Study 115
Suggestion for Further Study 117
Appendix A: Letter to the Respondent 123
Appendix B: Questionnaire 124
Appendix C: Distribution of Self Employed Metalwork Graduates 132
D: Distribution of Technical Teachers 133
E: Result of the Analysis 134
LIST OF TABLES
- Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Determinants of Wastage among Self Employed Graduates of Technical Colleges 90
2. Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Training Activities for Retraining Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 92
3. Mean Responses of the Respondents on how Workshops/Working Environment should be Organized by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 93
4. Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Working Procedures to be Adopted by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 95
5. Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Entrepreneurial skill Training required by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 96
6. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Determinants of Wastage among Self Employed Graduates of Technical Colleges 97
7. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Training Activities to be Organized for Retraining Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 98
8. The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on how Workshops/Working Environment should be Organized by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 99
9. The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Working Procedures to be adopted by self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 100
10. The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Entrepreneurial Skill Training required by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage 101
The study was carried out to determine
strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of
technical colleges in Kogi State. Survey research design was adopted for the
study. The population for the study was 50 comprises of 30 technical teachers
in technical colleges and 30 self employed metalwork graduates. A structured
questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Five research
questions and five null hypotheses were formulated. Mean was used to analyze
the data for answering research questions while analysis of variance was used
to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at 0.05 level of
significance. The study found out that twenty one determinants were found to be
causes of wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of technical
colleges, twelve training activities were found for retraining self employed
metalwork graduates to reduce wastage, workshops/working environment should be
organized in seventeen ways by self employed metalwork graduates to reduce wastage,
twenty five working procedures were found to be adopted by self employed
metalwork graduates to reduce wastage and ten entrepreneurial skills were
required for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates. It was
recommended that seminars or workshops or retraining programme on how to reduce
wastage should be organized for self employed metalwork graduates already in
the field and technical teachers. Curriculum of vocational and technical
education programmes in technical colleges should be also reviewed to meet up
with modern needs/technologies in the society.
Background of the Study
Education in general is an indispensable tool for the continued existence and growth of any nation. Education is a process by which individual is enabled to develop capabilities through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value and attitudes for the benefit of society (Onuoha, 1986). Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) described education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development. Osuala (1999) stated that education in general is an exercise that engages everyone. Individual either goes through liberal, general or vocational education. In their view Ogwo and Oranu (2006) opined that vocational education programme depend on general education to provide theoretical explanation on scientific principle and general information on the environment. Technical and vocational education is an integral part of general education (UNESCO and ILO, 2002 in Ogwo and Oranu, 2006).
Technical and vocational education refers to those components of the general education curriculum which introduce students to the elements of technology in order to acquaint them with the role of technology in contemporary life and permit them to develop basic practical skills in the manipulation of simple tools and materials (Osuala, 1999). Encyclopedia Britannica (1994-2001) described technical education as the academic and vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology. Similarly, National Policy on Education NPE (2004) defined Technical Education as that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. This type of education is obtainable either in secondary or tertiary institutions across the nation.
The aim of establishing technical colleges is to produce graduates with saleable skills. To achieve this, it requires a laboratory setting as a unique learning situation in which the learner may experiment, test, construct, disassemble, repair, design, create, imagine and study (Ezeji, 2004). Technical colleges according to Okorie (2001) are the institutions where craftsmen are trained to the craft level of National Business and Technical Examination leading to award of National Technical Certificate (NTC). Okoro (2006) described technical colleges as the principal vocational institutions designed to prepare students in various occupation areas for employment. If the stated educational objectives are not strictly followed and observed, then it becomes educational wastage. There are several patterns of educational wastage such as school dropout, unguided selection of vocational/technical courses and inadequate educational fund. Manama (1985) observed that to determine efficiency, time and energy invested are compared with the cost utility of other method.
Salami (1993) also explained that wastage is the degree to which human and material resources developed and made available are grossly under-utilised or neglected. Similarly Brunner and Paul in Ajayi and Mbah (2008) added that wastage is the degree to which the actual output fails to correspond with stated goal of education within a given period of time.
In this study, wastage refers to the loss in utility of skill acquired by graduates of metal-work trade. Obialor (1989) explained that wastage connotes a deliberate inadvertent discarding of a useful material or asset, allowing of material to be unused, wrong use of material, or under-utilization of material. Nwimo (2004) said that wastage literally means something not occupied or used for any purpose. This implies that wastage is an error committed that militates against the output of self-employed metalwork graduates. Wastage has been observed among metalwork graduates. Self-employed metalwork graduates are the products of technical colleges who studied metalwork and work for themselves after graduation. These graduates sometimes damage their tools, equipment or machines, materials or even cause more havoc to the work contracted to them. This may be due to little or no skills acquired while in training. In order to reduce these wastages among the self-employed metalwork graduates, strategies are required to be put in place.
Strategies are plans that are intended to achieve a particular purpose. Oziegbunam (2011) described strategies as important features that can be used to promote the effectiveness of a programme or an attempt to bring solution to any area of difficulties. Training activities is one of the strategies to be considered in reducing wastage among self-employed metalwork graduates. Training activities need to be organized for them in form of retraining programme.
Organization of workshop and working environment of self employed graduates may also contribute to wastage if not properly planned and organized. Unplanned workshops and unarranged training equipment and tools may cause accidents during practical. This may also result to damages of worthy equipment and materials. Poor working methods and procedures can also lead to wastage of materials and other expensive tools and machines. Proper working methods and procedures could be adopted as strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates in the workshop. Salami (1993) mentioned structure of the educational system, admission of students into the system, guidance of students admitted into the system as sources of wastage in vocational technical education. Similarly, Okorie (2001) emphasized that technical teachers need to improve their knowledge because technology is fast changing and there is need for the re-training and upgrading of technical teachers to enable them embrace the change. The technical teachers should also possess the ability of helping others to learn from wealth of vocational skills. A vocational teacher who has the job skills but is unable to help others acquire the skills is a source of wastage in vocational education. The annual report from Annual General Meeting of principals of all Federal Technical Colleges (1998) submitted that there is problem of inadequate qualified technical teachers in the country. It was further explained in the report that the picture of staffing depicted show total weakness in all trade areas.
Inappropriate methods of assessing students’ performance in practicals are factors influence wastage in vocational education. Azubuike (2006) said that wrong methods and approaches are always adopted by teachers in various technical colleges in measuring students’ performance in practical assignments and project work in school workshops. Most gainful skills acquired by students of vocational programme is on practical assignment or project work, this require a close monitoring of students performcne and assessment. Osuala (1991) observed that practical project has been found useful in examining technical and human skills and competencies acquired by trainees especially in Master-apprentice on-the-job training. Practical training of workers in any pursuit brings both immediate and lasting economic returns in increased production and wage-earning capacity (Okorie, 2001).
Technical teacher should be practical oriented so as to impart those practical skills to the learners. Ezeji in Sogeyinbo (2006) pointed out that teachers’ role should be of facilitating learning through the use of materials and skills, and not merely transferring the knowledge. Lack of practical skills among graduates of Technical Colleges in Nigeria is responsible for their low productivity. Skill can be defined as the established attitude to work. Ede (2001) described skill as a expertness or dexterity or practiced ability facilitating doing something. Okorie (2000) classified skills into human and technical. The author further described human skills as those involved in critical thinking, imagination and creative ideas that result in designing, while technical skills as those developed through application of principles of science and engineering.
The major factors causing low productivity and wastage among graduates of technical colleges is lacked of saleable skills. According to Anaele (1991), most graduates of Technical Colleges who studied various trades and could not go for further studies neither gain employment nor practice the profession on their own for lack of employable skills. Similarly, Olaitan and Ede (2008) reported that many graduates of Technical Colleges and Polytechnics now resort to the use of commercial motorcycle (Okada) for their livelihood due to lack of employable skills from their institutions. Another wastage factors influencing low productivity in vocational technical education is the shortage of technical experts or operators to install and operate those equipment and machines that were imported and delivered to various Technical Colleges in Nigeria. Collin (2003) said that productivity is the quality of being productive or having the power to produce. Encarta (2008) explained influence as the effect of something on a person, thing, or event.
These equipment and machines are still found not activated. Fafunwa (1991) observed that a lot of equipment imported to accelerate technological education in this country has remained uncatered for. Mbata (1994) observed that some workshop equipment and tools are substandard, not to talk of being properly managed. Oranu (1991) said that the nature of the tools and equipment used in training are not properly related to the world of work. This will result to low productivity of metalwork graduates.
Metalwork is among the trades offered in Technical College s in Kogi State. Metal work is a trade that has casting, foundry, welding, fabrication, machinery and forging as its components. In each of the components, students learn relevant practical skills for employment after graduation. Oranu (2002) described metalwork as an occupation that entails designing, processing and fabrication of metal product. They further explained that in metalwork, activities such as foundry, forging, machine show and welding are always carried out. Metalwork technology is the art of manipulating or forming a piece of metal into the desired shape with accurate dimensions. Metalwork is purely a practical field that requires practical skills. Activities in Metalwork are always carried out in the workshop. Sulaiman (2000) said that well equipped workshop or laboratory be provided for learning situation in which a learner could experiment, study, imagine, create, design, construct, dismantle, repair and build equipment.
It is very important that the Technical Colleges equip their students with the needed skilled required to be self-reliant, therefore Metalwork trade in Technical Colleges was designed to produce competent craftsmen in Metalwork. For one to be self-employed in metalwork one needs to be well equipped with adequate metalwork skills that would enable one undertake that Metalwork activities encountered in the world of work. Metalwork skills are the type of skills required by graduates to carry out technical activities in metalwork technology. These skills are required in reaming, making soldering and brazing, using layout tools, arc welding, grinding machine cutting tools, and cutting operations on the lathe. According to Oranu (2002) there are several operations that can be carried out on the various machines such as drilling machine, shaping and milling machine. Iwuoha (1989) observed that the knowledge of maintenance and repair of equipment is very essential in the manning of any machine shop.
Omoregie (1989) explained that education should have inputs processes and expected outputs which can be evaluated to ascertain their usefulness. He observed that wastage factors as experienced in technical institutions could be responsible for the low productivity of most technical college graduates engaged in self-employment. This study became necessary to identify strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of Technical College s in Kogi State.
Statement of the Problem