THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

ABSTRACT
Raw African Yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was subjected to various processing methods Viz: steeping in water for 6 hr and then boiling for 10, 20, 30, minutes respectively (samples B); steeping in water for 12 hours and then boiling for 10, 20, 30, minutes respectively (sample C) and finally sample A was raw yam bean which served as control. The entire sample was dry – milled into fine flours. The glycosidic cyanide, crude protein, ash, moisture, some functional properties and bulk density of the flours were analyzed from the results, protein and cyanide content of sample A (raw sample) are 25.20% and 72.23ml. results showed that the toasting, process gave the highest protein (24.12) with no trace of cyanide and it negatively affected the protein content of the samples reducing it from 25.20 to 17.57, 17.51(%) respectively. 12 hours soaking and few minutes boiling process negatively affected the protein content of the samples reducing it from 25.20% to 13.12, 12.78, 12.09 (%) respectively but have the strongest impact in covering the cyanide level from 72.23ml to zero respectively. Moisture content ranges from 400% – 14%, Ash ranges from 2.50% to 5.00%, water absorption ranges from 105g/ml to 290g/ml, oil absorption ranges form 0.98 – 1.95g/m. The bulk density showed 0.74g/ml – 0.88g/ml.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Legumes

2.2 Nutritive Value Of Legumes

2.3 African Yam Bean

2.4 Utilization Of African Yam Bean

2.5.0 Limitations In The Utilization Of African Yam Bean

2.5.1 Unacceptable Flavour

2.5.2 Hard – To – Cook Phenomenon

2.5.3 The Presence Of Anti – Nutritional Factors

2.4.1 Pre – Conditioning Treatment Used In African Yam Bean Processing

2.7.0 Functionality of Legume Protein/Flour

2.7.1 Nitrogen Solubility

2.7.2 Water And Oil Absorption

2.7.3 Emulsion Capacity

2.7.4 Foam Capacity

2.7.5 Gelation

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials And Source

3.1 Sample Preparation

3.2 Flow Charts For The Production Of The Different flour samples

3.2.1 Flow Chart For The Production Of Sample A (Raw Sample)

3.2.2 Flow Chart For The Production Of Samples B

3.2.3 Flow Chart For The Production Of Samples C

3.2.4 Flow Chart For The Production Of Toasted Sample (D Sample)

3.3.0 Determination Of Functional Properties Of African Yambean Flour

3.3.1 Water Absorption Capacity

3.3.2 Oil Absorption Capacity

3.4.0 Chemical Composition Of African Yam Bean

3.4.1 Determination Of Moisture Content

3.4.2 Determination Of Ash Content

3.4.3 Determination Of Crude Protein Content

3.5 Determination Of Glycosidic Cyanide

3.6 Determination Of Bulk Density

CHAPTER FOUR
Results / Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) belongs to the genera papilliona sec which is in the class known as Leguminousae (Okigbo, 1973). It is one of the neglected indigenous grain legumes in Nigeria. It is produced mostly in the eastern part of the country where it is consumed in different forms such as snacks, delicacy, man meal etc. It can be used for the fortification of other foods (Eke, 1997)

In Nigeria, it has as many names as there are communities cultivating it. Some of the names are Okpdudu, Azam, Uzuaku, Ijiriji, Azara, Ahaja, Nzamiri, Odudu, Girigiri (Hausa), sese (Yoruba) and Nsana (Ibibio) (Ogbo, 2002).

 

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THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

ABSTRACT

Complementary foods were formulated using sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish. The nutrient composition, functional properties and organoleptic attributes of the formulated complementary foods were investigated. The different flours were combined in the ratios of; 70:20:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, of sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish respectively. Cerelac, a commercial sample served as control. Porridges were prepared from the composite blends for organoleptic evaluation. Standard methods were used to analyze the composite flours. The protein content of African yam bean and crayfish flours complemented the sorghum protein and improved the nutritional quality of the formulated food. The result of the functional properties showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in both bulk density and viscosity. Sensory evaluation revealed that the porridge from the control was preferred over the others. Among the blends, the porridge made from 70:20:5 sorghum / African yam bean / crayfish was preferred over the others. The study showed that composite blends from sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish are nutritionally adequate and possess good functional properties which are required for the preparation of complementary foods for infants.

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and Methods

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

Appendix

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In developing countries like Nigeria, complementary foods are mainly based on starch tubers like cocoyam, sweet potato or on cereals like maize, millet and sorghum. Children are normally given these staples in the form of gruels that is either mixed with boiled water (Igyor et al., 2011).

Sorghum is an important food crop grown on a subsistence level by farmers in the semi arid tropics of Africa and Asia. It is the principal food crop grown in Northern Nigeria (Zakari and Inyang, 2008). Sorghum like other cereals is predominantly starchy and remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small _holder farmers in many countries FAO (1999).

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an underutilized legume crop that is predominantly cultivated in Western Africa. It produces nutritious pods, highly portentous seeds and capable of growth in marginal areas where other pulses fail to thrive (Enwere, 1998). It has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demands of the people in this region.

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, freshwater lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the super families Astacoidea and parastacoidea (Hart 1994). The greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in Southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambraridae (Tennessee Aquatic Nuisance 2007). A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, and oxygen rises from underground springs (Thompson et al., 2007).

 

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PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

Abstract

Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flours blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. Sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

 

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PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, QUALITY EVALUATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF “GARI” FORTIFIED WITH TOASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN SEED FLOUR

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, QUALITY EVALUATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF “GARI” FORTIFIED WITH TOASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN SEED FLOUR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

The search for solution to malnutrition problem in its various forms particularly in developing countries necessitated the enhancement of nutritive quality of staple foods through improved processing, enrichment and fortification. “Gari” (toasted cassava meal) is one of such basic staples that demand attention considering its position in the dietary regime of a developing country like Nigeria (Okafor, 1992).

Gari is a fermented, dewatered and toasted starchy granule from cassava which is widely consumed all over West Africa and in Brazil where it is known as ‘farinha de manioca’ (Lancaster et al., 1982). Gari is one of the most popular forms in which cassava (Manihotesculenta Crantz) also known as manioc is consumed in Nigeria and some other parts of West Africa (Kordylas, 1990). It is a major component of everyday diet in Nigeria providing about 11.835kJ/person/day (Osho, 2003). Traditionally, it is produced by pressing the juice out of peeled, grated cassava roots and allowing a natural lactic acid fermentation to take place for 2-5 days. The fermented mash is then toasted in an open aluminum pan over open fire until the starch gelatinizes and the moisture content reduces to less than 12% dry basis (Chuzel et al., 1986).        Cassava from which this important staple is produced is low in protein and deficient in essential amino acids. The crude protein content of locally produced gari vary between 1.03 %    -2 % and the level of cyanide  vary from 0 to 32mg HCN equivalent Kg-1 depending on the cassava variety and processing method (Oke, 1994; Ojo and Deane, 2002). Gari has been shown to be a rich source of energy but of poor protein source (1.03 %) compared to other food groups like grains (FAO, 1997). Gari has low levels of methionine, tryptophan, lysine and phenylalanine (Okigbo, 1980). High protein foods of animal origin such as meat, fish, milk and eggs are very expensive especially for the low income earners who are in the majority among the population of West African sub-region. Although efforts to increase the local production of these animal protein sources to make prices affordable are still ongoing (Akerele, 1967), fortification of gari with plant protein may be another alternative. There is therefore, need to search for cheaper but good quality protein sources that are readily available (Oluwamukomi, 2008). Gari is never eaten alone as a full meal but is rather taken with vegetable stew that can provide other nutrients like protein (Obadina et al., 2006). However, the exorbitant cost of animal protein for low income earners deters the inclusion of such animal protein source in the soup that gari is eaten with. This fact makes the need to improve the protein quality of gari imperative (Osho, 2003; Oluwamukomi et al., 2005). It is therefore, logical to source protein fortificants from plant sources like African yam bean, soybeans, cowpea and bambara nuts among others.  African yam bean unlike other afore mentioned plant protein sources has not found uses in many food formulations as soybean hence it is said to be unexploited. African yam bean as one of the ideal plant protein sources for protein supplementation of starchy foods has been proposed because it will also help to extend the use of lesser known and underutilized legumes in a number of food preparations especially in the developing countries for human consumption (Nwokeke et al., 2013).

The African yam bean [Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. Ex A. Rich) Harms] is a climbing legume adapted to lowland tropical conditions. It is one of the lesser-known legumes (Apata and Ologhobo, 1990) and widely cultivated in the southern parts of Nigeria. Nigeria produced about 3,424 tonnes of African yam bean in 2010. Like most grain legumes cultivated in Africa, African Yam bean is rich in protein (19.5%), carbohydrates (62.6%), fat (2.5%), vitamins and minerals (Iwuoha and Eke, 1996). The protein is made up of over 32 % essential amino acids, with lysine and leucine being predominant (Onyenekwe et al., 2000). African yam bean is a cheaper protein source than animal products such as meat, fish, poultry and egg – therefore it is consumed worldwide as a major source of cheap protein especially in developing countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural or religious-factors (Olayide, 1982). This work therefore seeks to determine the extent to which AYBS (African yam bean Seeds) can improve the nutrient quality and acceptability of AYBS containing gari.

1.2 Statement of problem

Cassava tubers consist almost entirely of starch and are particularly low in protein (about 1-2 %), so dependence on cassava diets may lead to serious protein deficiency problems. Gari is never eaten alone most times as a full meal but is rather taken with vegetable stew/soup/sauce that can provide other nutrients like protein. However, the exorbitant cost of animal protein especially for low income earners deters the inclusion of such animal protein source in the stew that gari is eaten with. Improving the protein content of gari may be an alternative and affordable option. Fortification of cassava product like gari with plant protein is a viable affordable alternative to tackle specifically the problem of protein energy malnutrition in those areas affected by malnutrition. This plant protein can be sourced from unexploited indigenous legumes with high protein content (18.1 to 25.8 %) like African yam bean seeds

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