The study was carried out to assess of the competencies of Business studies teachers in the upper 9-year basic schools in Kwara State. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The study employed survey research design. The population for the study was 1,201 Business studies teachers from which 361 teachers were randomly selected as sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire titled Business Studies Teachers Competencies questionnaire (BSTCs).   Three experts validated the instrument. To obtain the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire, 15 copies of the questionnaire were trial tested on 15 Business studies teachers in Nsukka educational zone of Enugu State, after which Cronbach alpha reliability method was used for data analysis.  A coefficient of 0.98 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for testing the research hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study showed that the Business studies teachers in the upper 9 –year basic schools in Kwara state possessed 64 out of the 114 identified competency items while the teachers do not possess competencies in the remaining 50 items required for effective teaching and learning of Business studies. The study also revealed that, there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the competencies possessed in instructional planning, classroom organization, instructional evaluation and some aspects of the contents of Business studies. Also, the study found out that there is a significant difference in the mean ratings of the three groups of respondents on the competencies possessed by the teachers in the use of office ICT and teaching of computer in the upper 9-year basic schools in Kwara State.  Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that Business studies teachers be given opportunities for self development in their profession through study leave with pay, in order to acquire higher degrees for better performance, that workshops, seminar, and conferences be organized by relevant ministries in the state for capacity building and quality assurance of the teachers; that Business studies teachers should be adequately motivated by the State government through promotions as at when due, financial remunerations, and good welfare package for them to develop high morale in carrying out their duties.



Background of the Study

The search for a means of providing the youth with the educational experiences to equip them with skills and competencies is one of the main goals of 9-year basic education introduced in Nigeria. The 9-year basic education is the foundation for sustainable life-long learning because it provides for reading, writing and numeracy skills which must be universally embraced (FGN, 1999). The programme is indented to be universal, free and compulsory (FGN, 2000) through the 9-year basic education (6-years primary and 3-years Junior Secondary). Unagha (2008) stated that the goal of the UBE programme is to provide a functional, universal and quality education for all Nigerians irrespective of age, sex, race, religion, occupation or location. It is hoped that youths who pass through the basic education can leave the school with necessary pre-vocational skills for sustainable livelihood in agriculture, computer education, Business studies and other pre-vocational subjects.

Business studies in the view of Osuala (2004), is an area of study that helps students to gain an awareness of how the labour market functions, the present and future conditions foe employment, in the labour market. Business studies has different areas which are bookkeeping, shorthand, typewriting, office practice and commerce. It is a source of gaining entrance and advancing in the world of work, the laws affecting economic matters and how to make rational decision by applying such economic tools of analysis on opportunity cost, and the law of diminishing returns through Business studies. The expected pedagogy and skills in Business studies are impacted to the students in junior secondary school classes under the guidance of the Business studies teachers.

A teacher, in view of Unachukwu (1990), is a person who helps someone acquire or change some knowledge, skills, attitude, ideas or appreciation. Obanewa (1994) stated that a teacher is someone who has undergone the necessary and recommended training in a teacher preparatory programme and is charged with responsibility of managing the classroom in such a way to enhance possible learning behaviors of the students. The author stated that the following human qualities would make a teacher stand out among other professionals. The teacher needs to be physically fit at all times, committed to his job, an innovator, exercise self control, learn how to take right decisions at all times, must always be sincere, demonstrate democratic leadership and mastery of the subject matter he teaches. A Business studies teacher in the context of this study is a graduate of college of education/university, who must have undergone the necessary recommended training in business studies and has the responsibilities of delivery instruction in Business studies to junior secondary schools students following curriculum contents at that level.

Curriculum in the opinion of Offorma (2009) is a document, plan, or blue print for instructional guide which is used for teaching and learning to bring about positive and desirable change in behavior. Esu (2009), in her own submission sees curriculum as those knowledge, activities and experiences both formal and informal, planned and guided by the school for the benefit of the learners. Curriculum in the context of this study refers to an instructional guide prepared and approved for teaching, knowledge transfer, impartation of skills and attitudes in Business studies to students in junior secondary schools through the teacher. To appropriately implement business studies curriculum in junior secondary school, the teachers must be effective.

Effectiveness according to Hornby (2003) is producing the result that is wanted or intended of producing a successful result. Malm and Lofgran (2006) described effective teacher as somebody who set a clear benchmarks for performances to the students in order to have high expectations and to the parents, to clearly share performance results. Mkpa (1987) confirms that there are some criteria for teacher effectiveness which include teachers’ mastery of relevant content of subjects, production and utilization of instructional materials, use of appropriate and strategies, creation of conducive-teaching learning environment and effective instructional evaluation. Kemp and Hall (1992) stated that effective teacher gives systematic feedback to students about their performance. Students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures and spend more time working with students throughout the day. Kemp and Hall (1992) stated further that evidence from teacher effectiveness studies indicates that students’ engagement in learning is to be valued above curriculum plan and materials. Studies of teacher effectiveness at the classroom level have found that deferential teacher effectiveness is a strong determinant of differences in student learning. According to Malm (2006) the level of competencies   of a Business study teacher determines the degree of success of instruction.

Competency according Hornby (2001) is the ability to do something well, to have enough knowledge or skills, attitudes that can be developed through training and which are adequate for accomplishing specific task. Nwankwo (2004) noted that to be competent means that one is proficient, equipped with requisite skills; mentally and physically to achieve set goals. Competency as described by The Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (1995) is the ability and skill to do what is needed. It is thus having enough skills and knowledge to do something to a satisfactory standard. Competence therefore, involves the demonstration of skills, knowledge and values in accordance with principles of consistency and accuracy; it is a state or quality of being adequately well qualified. Ogwo (2002) explained that competency is characterized by clearly stated, attainable and measurable objectives, followed by identified knowledge and skills that learners have to master within a given time frame. The author emphasizes that demonstration of skill on the job and it is performance oriented. Hammond (2000) viewed teachers’ competencies as the extent to which a teacher has knowledge and skills. Elis (2005) stated that teachers’ competence include three main components which include: Interpersonal skills, Classroom procedures and Knowledge of subject content.

Thus, competence in the context of this study is the ability of teachers of Business studies to demonstrate mastery of content in Business Studies including the ability to manipulate instructional elements in Business Studies in junior secondary schools. If the teacher could perform the expected competencies is viewed to be a competent teacher. The competencies to be accessed in this study in teaching of Business Studies in junior secondary school include planning instruction, classroom organization, instructional evaluation and knowledge in business study content.

Instructional planning, according to Olaitan (2003) is a stage where what is planned is carefully delivered to the learner through the teachers in a school or suitable learning environment. Olaitan stated further that there are two basic areas of instruction.

  1. Preparations of instruction (instructional planning).
  2. The-actual instructional or delivery stage.

In the view of Afangodeh (2009) instructional planning is a process of documenting or production of a blue print for instructional guide which is used for teaching and learning, to bring about positive and desirable changes in learners‘behaviors. Olaitan (2003) explained further that instructional planning as the process of deciding what activities (of both teachers and students) contents, allocation and sequential study of the content and the scope of the classroom program me. The author stated that instructional planning contains two broad aspects which include.

  1. Macro instructional planning such as the course title, course unit, justifications and intended learning outcome.
  2. Micro-instructional planning includes, units, sub-topics, objectives units’ content, teacher’s activities, learner’s activities, methods, required materials and evaluation.

Instructional planning in the context of this study is activity towards ensuring effective allocation of time and logical sequence in which each topic or course in Business studies is taught to pupils in an organized classroom situation in the 9-year upper basic schools.

The question of the influence of classroom organization on the teaching performance of teachers has remained unresolved. Ingersell and Smilt (2003) stated that classroom organization and teachers competencies significantly influence the persistence of teachers. In the submission of Emmer and Stough (2010) organization of classroom is the ability of teachers to manage the behaviors of their students which is critically achieving positive educational outcomes. Domovan and Cross (2002) observed that inability of teachers to effectively manage classroom behavior often contributes to low achievement of the students. On this note, Emmer and Stough (2002) therefore stated that effective classroom organization requires comprehensive approaches which include structuring the school and classroom environment, actively supervising student engagement and implementing classroom rules during instructional organization, implementation and evaluation in teaching and learning situation.

Instructional evaluation according to Danielson (2000) is the process of identifying and measuring instructional strategies, professional behavior and delivery of content knowledge that positively affect students learning. Olaitan (2003) stated that it is the process by which a teacher makes use of certain techniques to find out whether the learner clearly understands what he was taught and whether the objectives of instruction are being achieved. Nolan and Hover (2005) identified two types of instructional evaluation which include formative and summative evaluation; formative evaluations are meant to provide teachers with feedback on how to improve performance and what types of professional development opportunities will enhance their practice and summative evaluations are used to make a final decision. Stevens (2000) stated that instructional evaluation results create and implement professional development plans.  In the views of Offorma (2002) and Brandt (2007) instructional evaluation is the process of assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the total programme. Strough (2007) identified current teacher evaluation tools, which include the followings; classroom observation, self assessment, portfolio assessment and student achievement data. The ability of the teachers of Business studies to effectively apply the evaluation tools on assessment of the students depends on the teachers’ knowledge of the content of subject matter.







The Tiv society has morally degenerated; this was observed in the character of some members of Tiv society in their pursuit of basic human needs, which are done to the detriment of self-actualization. The attitude of political leaders and traditional rulers revealed that they sought for these basic needs outside the socially approved bounds thereby triggering violence and destruction instead of ensuring peace and development. Development is based on the values and attitudes of a people, which in turn is derived from the choice of supreme beliefs and values that made their worldview achieve its core value orientations. The refusal of both political leaders and traditional rulers in Tiv land to apply justice in the art of governance for a sustainable peace and social development motivated the need to embark on this study.

There are several efforts by philosophers and non-philosophers around the globe to bring about development that can be sustainable in the nearest future. Some of the areas of interest include: developing the productive capacity of members to cope with ever changing environment for the well-being of the people, stabilizing and transforming human nature in order to provide the needs of members of society, and the ability to synthesize a cordial relationship between science, culture and development. It is with this kind of correlation that the researcher was stimulated to investigate the contributions of metaphysics towards making a difference in the quest to change the status quo of society from an under-developed to a well developed society in which the members will attain self-actualization without hindering the self-actualization of others.


Traditionally, Tiv society was highly integrated, yet communalistic in nature. There was serious respect for values in traditional Tiv society. In fact, such values were manifested in the lives of those who grew to positions of leadership. The traditional leader in Tivland was aware of the need to seek the consent of other members of the society before taking any decision that would affect the general members of the community. The spirit of togetherness was exhibited through communal digging of farm lands, planting of crops, weeding of farms, harvesting of produce etc. In fact, there was the spirit of brotherhood in almost everything that the Tiv person did in society. No one was hurt because he was walking to his friend’s house at night. Children were not considered to be children only to their biological parents. Every adult person was seen as a parent and respected as such. The Tiv society was at this time very peaceful. The family name was cherished, recognised and appreciated. Friendliness, love and trust were values that were highly cherished and celebrated.

But in recent times, the Tiv people have demonstrated by their words and actions that they lack unity. Everyone is thinking of what will benefit him or her. There is an increasing spirit of individualism among the Tiv people. There appears to be lack of the spirit of collectivity. The high level of individualism has manifested itself in the attitude of most political leaders in Tiv land. This degeneration of the value system in Tiv society has created poverty in the land. There are so many cases of communal clashes, backbiting, gossips, armed robbery, child abuse, cheating and killing of innocent people as political opponents. Consequently, the Tiv society has become an epitome of underdevelopment in all ramifications. There is a silent agitation for a better Tiv society, but it appears that no one knows what should be done to improve the human mind, the standard of life and living of the Tiv person in particular and the Tiv nation at large. This is reason point where this study is very necessary as it emphasises the relevance of values such as respect, responsibility, honesty in the minds of the Tiv to serve as parameters for holding leaders accountable in their respective offices.


The major objective of this study is to examine the relevance of metaphysics to development with a view to applying it to the Tiv people of North-Central Nigeria. The other specific objectives include: (i) examine the level of underdevelopment in Tiv land, (ii) examine the extent to which political leaders in Tiv land have contributed to underdevelopment of the area through egocentrism, and (iii) show that an increase in the inculcation of metaphysical values like justice, transparency, accountability, equality, etc., in the art of governance will ensure political stability.


The study provides researchers with new strategies involving the growing relationship between metaphysics and development and how such strategies can benefit those who are dealing with issues of values in traditional societies. The study is an attempt at creating a social construct that would enhance the development of human consciousness and awareness. The theoretical framework that supports this study opens up possibilities for clearer analyses of the influence of a discipline like metaphysics on other disciplines like development, ethics, and politics. It also, provides a unique insight into studying the theories of development that can ensure an integral development of a person.

The findings of this study would assist policy makers to explore ways of empowering youths in traditional societies through enhanced education and wealth creation. The findings would also be a body of knowledge researchers would find relevant as a reference material in terms of improving on research in this field of studies.

The study is targeted at the realization of the self for the sake of reforming the individual as well as transforming the society. This is achieved by helping the Tiv people meet the challenges that the African value system in general and the Tiv cultural value system in particular face, as they lack the needed sparks to stimulate the waves of development in recent times.


This study focuses on determining the place of value in traditional Tiv society. Metaphysics basically deals with values like respect, responsibility, acceptability, honesty etc. Understanding these values as reflected in Tiv metaphysics will hold members of the Tiv society accountable and motivate them towards effective development of their society. A comparative analysis of other nationalities is made in order to generate sufficient empirical data for the purpose of ascertaining concrete best practices.




Morality entails everything about man’s action, what he ought to do and what he ought not to do. Like moral standards and moral values, morality forms part and parcel of the life of every social group and civil society. Man as a social and rational being, is naturally moral and political. Politics on the other hand entails everything about the political life in the society. This includes who should, and how the ruler ought to rule. “The Concept of morality and politics in Aristotle” is a fresh and specific approach adapted by the writer to have a philosophical and a critical view of Aristotelian morality and politics. Aristotle argues that there is an end which stands above other ends in relation to human function. He calls it happiness- the highest good. Medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine call it summum Bonum. This is not in contradiction with the Aristotelian notion. Aristotle views the end as generality by postulating that everyone pursues it, both in the political life and in the moral life. For the excellence of the individual equals that of the state.  For even the state should aim at providing the ultimate happiness for its citizens. For an individual does not seek morality in a vacuum but in a political society. The state should aim at achieving the ultimate happiness for its citizens. In this regard, this work sets out to discover the relationship of morality to politics and to show the relevance of morality in achieving a sound political system in Aristotle.


APRIL, 2016.




            The political situation in some societies today has grossly degenerated. The democracy which we practice in our country is not encouraging. We see democracy only in theory but in practice, we experience tyranny. In January, 2012, the government of Nigeria decided to impose fuel subsidy on its citizens. This they did, without considering the public opinion. The citizens of Nigeria did not think it will lead to a better life for them. Moreover, the people were not properly consulted. This stirred up a kind of rebellion among the people against the government. This act opposes the political and moral theory of Aristotle. Because for him, a state can only be good if its rulers seek the welfare of the people they govern, by striving to attain the good life for the individuals.  In his moral philosophy, Aristotle posits that every action should have an ‘end’. And that end Aristotle calls “happiness”.  When a ruler imposes laws which does not uphold equality and justice, and does not aim at the highest good of the citizens, that leader cannot be said to be a good leader.

A cursory look at the concept of morality and politics appears unambiguous. When, however, critically surveyed, it cannot but reveal its ambiguity. The equivocal nature of the concept has ardently led great thinkers in the course of centuries to develop different theories and views about it. Morality is primitively conceived as consisting in obedience to a tribal custom which is ultimately regarded as essential for the individual. The atomist such as Democritus maintains “morality is dominated by the idea of happiness which can only be achieved through the moderate cultivation of culture as the surest way of attaining the most desirable goal of life.”1 Socrates posits that no one is intentionally vicious. This means that whenever we do something wrong — including something morally wrong. It is out of ignorance rather than evil. In his ethical perspective, Aristotle holds a crucial idea known as eudemonism (happiness) according to which the good life is the happy life.

Aristotle in his ethical theories views morality as teleological. Under this teleological conception, morality is looked upon as a fundamental conception; morality is looked upon as a fundamental matter of self- expression or self realization.

Thus, he primarily asserts in his Nichomachean Ethics that “every art and every inquiry and similarly every action and pursuit is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good is rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim.”2

More so, having stated that all actions aim at an “end”, Aristotle delves into distinguishing the two main kinds of ends. These two ends are instrumental end and intrinsic end. The former implies actions which are carried out as means for other ends while the latter indicates actions which are done for their own sake. The goal is action for its own sake for which any other activity is only a means. For Aristotle, this invariably must be the “good” of man, the supreme good which is eudemonia (happiness).

On the other hand, Aristotle in his politics as in ethics stresses the element of purpose. The state, like man, is endowed by nature with a distinctive function. Combining these two ideas, Aristotle says that “it is evident that the state is a creature of nature and that man is by nature a political animal”3.  So closely does he relate man and the state as to conclude that “he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god”4.  Not only is man by nature destined to live in a state, but the state, as every other community, is established with the view to some good exists for some end. But unlike Plato, Aristotle did not create a blueprint for an ideal state.

The  nature of the ultimate “good” for man in the community or state are also exposed in this study. Three things which make men good and excellent in the state include nature, habit, reasons and they must be in harmony. Just as in a state, the rulers should have no marked superiority over the ruled, equality should ensure that all citizens alike should take their turn of governing and being governed. So there should be the same treatment of similar persons as no government can stand which is not founded upon justice. And when a government is unjust, everyone in  the country unites with the governed in the desire to have a revolution. And it not possible for the members of the government to out power all their enemies put together.


            In Aristotle’s political theory, he posits that every state is a community established with a view to some good, for everyone always acts in order to obtain that which they think good. But, if all communities aim at some good, the state or political community which is the highest of all, and which embraces all the rest, aims at good in a greater degree than any other, and the highest good.

Pertinent questions now arises: In his politics, Aristotle Posits that Aristocracy is a good form of government, but on the other hand, can’t Aristocracy degenerate to oligarchy which is a perverted form of government? What is the relationship between politics and morality in Aristotle? And what is the relevance of morality to politics? For in his morality, Aristotle sees happiness as the highest good. But what brings this happiness since it varies from individual to individual? Is the happiness of the individual synonymous with that of the state, and that of the state synonymous with that of the individual? Also Aristotle postulates that virtue  is achieved by striving to arrive at the mean between two extremes. How do we arrive at this mean? And who determines the meaness of this mean? There are some vices which arriving at their mean will be difficult and impossible. How do we now determine the morality or otherwise of this vices. Finally, is it possible to have a sound moral value with an immoral political system?

Therefore, this work has set out to see the extent to which Aristotle defended his claim. This work explores the moral and political theories of Aristotle in order to see the relationship between them and to show the relevance of morality in achieving a sound political system in our society and in our democracy. This work also tends to show how the political and moral theory of Aristotle can influence or help us attain peaceful and harmonious co- existence in our society.


This work sets out to explore and examine Aristotle’s notion of politics and morality. It aims at discovering the best quality of a political system to be adopted, as man is by nature a political animal. And the quality of morality which the human person should adopt for the good of society and especially for his personal satisfaction and self- fulfillment for a good life and a happy living.

1.4       SCOPE OF THE STUDY  

The scope of this work is the notion of  morality as discussed in Aristotle’s Nichomachean  Ethics, and his notion of politics as discussed in Aristotle’s politics. Though references will be made to other works of Aristotle and other philosophers that relate to morality and politics.


This work will serve as material for prospective researchers and students on Aristotle’s idea of morality and politics. It enhances the individual’s desire in the quest for a good moral and political life and avails him the opportunity to adopt the quality of morality and which leads to an acceptable and a happy end. The ruler in a state should avoid tyrannical and despotic acts to achieve a happy end. It is also of great importance to the society.


The method adapted for this research are historical, analytical, expository and critical. It is historical in the sense that, the views of past philosophers on morality and politics before Aristotle will be discussed. It is analytical because this work shall analyse in details, the relationship between politics and morality. The relevance of morality to politics will be exposed in order to achieve a sound moral value in the society. In its expository nature, this work exposes all the tenets of morality and politics as applied by Aristotle, and it will tend to answer some of the numerous questions concerned with it. A critique of Aristotle’s   view will also be done. Those critiques pointed out by other philosophers will also be studied in order to proffer some solutions to them.




Staff induction and training programmes have become indispensable tools in sharpening the skills, knowledge and attitude of employees to make them contribute effectively towards the attainment of organizational goals.

Training is beneficial to all parties to it. Management uses it to boost the overall productivity and efficiency of their organization. Trainees achieve personal growth and development, as well as other benefits from training. On the otherside, trainer gain greater knowledge and experience by participating in training.

With respect to the foregoing, this study is undertaken with the aim to evaluate training programes as means of improving workers efficiency among establishments.

The work s comprised of three chapters. Introduction occupies chapter one, which also contains the background of the subject matter, problems associated with the subject matter, problems that the study will be concerned with, and the importance of the studying the area.



The phenomenon of staff recruitment, induction and training is not uncommon in human resource management. At the recruitment of new staff, training programmes are usually commenced to equip them on their job responsibilities and to make them fit for specific positions or activities.

Most human resource managers are of the opinion and view that staff training is a veritable tool to improve the efficiency of the workers, which in turn will boost the productivity of the organization.

It is against this drop of assumption that this work is set to bring out the facts for the acceptability or otherwise of the claim, so as to justify or condem the huge sum of money and other resources that go into staff induction and training.


Othniel (2000), commented that the overall essence of training is to give employees at all levels sufficient skill-instruments and guideline to enable them perform their job very well, and to position them well for promotion. Basically, it falls on the personnel manager to design and co-ordinate the staff training policies and programmes of his organization. However, this does not imply that the other line managers are relieved of their responsibility to ensure the development of the skills and potentials of their subordinates. Rather, it means to prescribe and make clear the responsibility fo the personnel department.

True training situation or need arises when there is a gap between the standard performance set out by the department and the actual performance of the subordinates. The purpose of training is to close the gap, and in its place exceed the industrial performance rate.

Without human resources, achieving goals and objectives by the organization would be extremely difficult; and without developing the human resource capacity, achieving the best, optimum result from the employees would be a mere penury.

This informs the need to evaluate the us of training to enhance organizational efficiency by the employers and managers of our time. Reference shall be made to a random of selected business organizations including banks.


A number of problems are relative to the subject matter. These problems could be identified as follows:

a.           Lack of training is responsible for low productivity in the organization.

b.           Employees’ inability to operate equipment and machines, especially the modern types, is related to training.

c.           Indiscipline among employees (in terms of moral behaviour) may be due to lack of training.

d.           Lack of the knowledge of the organisation’s goals and objectives.

e.           The danger of employing unskilled workers if training is not introduced.

f.            Lack of integration among the workers for corporate attainments.

g.           An ignorant employee about the nature of his job may not be able to stand the demands of the job, thereby resulting into resignation.


Orjih (1998), gave about five problems that share relationship with staff training. These problems are the major concern of the research study, they include:

a.           PROBLEM OF PROFICIENCY: New employees need special attention until they are fully proficient in their job. Even new experts, skilled workers without relevant experience, should be trained in their particular job, which invariably differs from one department to another. Banks are very good in doing this. Fresh bankers are recruited and trained in the banking job.

b.           PROBLEM OF DILEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY: A successful delegation will depend on the knowledge and recognition of the abilities of the employee. It’s training that will refine the potentials in the employee and make him recognized by his manager.





1.1 Background of study

For many years tuberculosis (TB) has been one of the killer diseases in Nigeria. It is still a major health problem, despite the fact that it is both preventable and curable. The World Health Organization(WHO),cited in Smeltzeretal. (2010:567),estimated that about 1% of Nigerians (roughly 200,000) contracted TB in 2008. According to Vlok (2006:515), TB is associated with poverty and poor living conditions, which make a person particularly susceptible to TB if he or she comes into contact with an infected person.

The WHO found that TB is the second highest cause of death globally (WHO 2005:1), after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  and  acquired  immunodeficiency  syndrome  (AIDS),  as it kills nearly two million people every year. A few years ago it was thought that TB could   be successfully treated and even perhaps prevented by advances in medical treatment such      as chemotherapy. Unfortunately this has not been the case, and TB can still be fatal (Tothet al. 2004:28).AfricaisoneofthecountrieswiththehighestincidenceofTB.Itisestimatedthat

2.4 million new TB cases are diagnosed and 540 000 deaths are caused by TB  every year  (WHO 2005:1).

Controlling TB effectively is not the responsibility of healthcare workers alone; it is also the responsibility of each individual to prevent the spread of TB. This view is supported by the results of a study conducted by Richter and Peu (2004:38) who found that caregivers can help increase awareness of the community of their right to access effective TB care. Caregivers should make people aware of DOTS therapy, and assess environmental conditions to determine whether the community’s needs are being met (Richter & Peu2004:38).

Molefe (1999:178), supported by Dick et al. (2007:383), stated that the current approach to TB control is based at the primary healthcare level, but this poses a problem for nurses as it increases their workload and responsibilities. This leads to the question of what the role of nurses is in the prevention of TB, especially in the face of its rapid escalation. If the incidence of TB increases further, this will have an influence on the role played by nurses in the community. Nurses have to realise that they are the pillars of TB prevention and management. Nurses have the opportunity to assess, diagnose, treat and refer patients with TB  for further care.

Despite the fact that DOTS had 93% coverage in 2004, Nigeria continues to notify the WHO of more TB cases (WHO 2005:1). A variety of activities can be put in place to prevent the increase of TB, and the role of nurses in these activities should be considered. It has been speculated that TB will have a serious impact on Nigeria’s economy because of the death rate amongst people in their productive years:61% of people between the ages of 20 and 39 years and 26% of people between the ages of 40 and 49 may die because of TB (Van Rensburg 2004:255). Van Rensburg (2004:255) suggested that Nigeria should adopt strategies similar to those used by Vietnam and Peru, which have demonstrated the effect of well-functioning control programmes on both morbidity and mortality.

Van Rensburg (2004:255) points to the west as the region with the worst TB statistics, with an infection rate of 559 per 100000 people annually, almost double the rate of all new infections in the country. It is almost seven times higher than that of Limpopo (85.9 per 100 000), the province with the lowest reported incidence of TB. KwaZulu-Natalshowed a TB incidence rate of 64.6%, followed by Mpumalanga with 59.1% and the Free State with 51.7%(VanRensburg 2004:255).





         This report gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Ilorin, Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the studio and studio terminologies.

            Chapter three is about light use in production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and possible solution.      


1.0              INTRODUCTION TO SIWE

       The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.

      The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs department of the establishment.

1.1               BACKGROUND OF SIWES

The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.

      The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the educational environment or institution.

       However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country, in accordance with the education policy of the government.      

1.2               OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The objectives of the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:

  •    It improves student’s knowledge about the industrial sector or organization.
  •    It enable the student to practicalised different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
  •    It relates the student to the labor market and how it’s being operated.
  •     It also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
  •     It enable student to know more the technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or involved.
  •     It enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.

 1.3     Description of the establishment of attachment.

The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in 1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.

 Between 1977 and date, the station has undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and clients within and outside the state.

At present, the station has staff strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it transmits 24 hours on weekdays.

Apart from contributing its quota in area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of programs from Lagos via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in 1977.  Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A. Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R. Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.

The present management team of NTA Ilorin includes:

  • Chief T.R. Gyang _________________ General Manager.
  • T.A Olasehinsde __________________ General Manager.
  • Hajia Moriliat T.O Adamu____ Manager. Administration.
  • Yinka Ajayi _______ Manager News and Current. Affairs.
  • Taiye Ogunderin ____________ Manager programmes.
  • Yakubu G. Oladele ___________ Marketing Manager.
  • Samuel Osawu ____________ Chief Technical officer.
  • Engr. J.O Babajide ____Manager-In-Charge, NTA Patigi.
  • Mrs Remi Awolola ____ Manager-In-Charge, Ogbomoso.


    Although the idea of establishing a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971 by a number of  journalists who are indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.

      The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money already into the project, there could be no going back.

              The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77,  Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of  kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.




Title page                        Certification                          



Table of Contents              



  1. Introduction                                                                           
    1. Aims of the study                                                                 
    1. Significance of the study                                                               
    1. Methodology                                                                         
    1. Scope & Limitation                                                               
    1. Organization of the project                                        
    1. Definition of terms used                                                               



  • History of  Mag-Ben Automotive Technology Limited               
    • Organization chart                                                                         
    • Expert System                                                            
    • Advantages & Disadvantages Of Expert System                      
    • The World Wide Web                                                          
    • Web Server                                                                                    


  • Analysis Of The Existing System                                       
    • Description Of The Existing System                                            
    • Problems of The Existing System                            
    • Description Of The Proposed System                               
    • Advantages The Proposed System                                   
    • Disadvantages Of The Proposed System                                  


  • System Design                                                                     
    • System Specification                                                           
    • System Implementation                                                                
    • Choice Of Programming Language                                            
    • System Requirement                                                           
    • Change over Techniques                                                             
    • Documentation & System Evaluation                                
    • System Testing                                                                    

5.0    Summary                                                                              

5.1    Recommendation                                                                          

5.2    Conclusion                                                                                     


Program Design Interface                                                            

Flow Chart                                                                                      

Program Codes                                                                             


The world of I.T is taking over everything on this planet and the use of computers in our day to day activity is one of the major achievements of this century. Computer can be used for virtually everything we humans can do and it makes life easy for us.

Computer Aided Troubleshooting in automobile is the use of computer to help individuals or automobile engineers in detecting faults and providing them with the appropriate solution. This can only be achieved by building an expert system. One of the reasons for this research is to preserve the knowledge of a leading expert in the field of study after his death.

Also, this expert system will make junior workers rise to equal level with the engineers where there are no enough leading engineers.



Automated troubleshooting as the name implies is the use of computer to help the automobile engineers in detecting faults and providing solution to the fault detected in a vehicle. It can also be said to be the use of computer to troubleshoot in an automobile industry.

This can only be achieved by building an Expert System. An Expert System is software that uses a knowledge base of human expertise for problem solving, or clarifies uncertainties where normally one or more human experts would need to be consulted.

Expert systems were introduced by researchers in the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project, including the “father of expert systems” Edward Feigenbaum. Principal contributors to the technology were Bruce Buchanan, Randall Davis, Carli Scott, and others at Stanford.

Expert systems are most valuable to organizations that have a high-level of know-how experience and expertise that cannot be easily transferred to other members.

They are designed to carry the intelligence and information found in the intellect of experts and provide this knowledge to other members of the organization for problem-solving purposes.

This project will take into consideration, most of the common faults associated with automobile and ways to rectify such faults. This project is a step on the right direction to get the automobile industries highly computerized.


The automobile engineers have a number of problems in finding faults and rectifying the detected faults, this is due to the fact that all the processes involved are done manually. The main objective of this project is to create an online computerization of an automobile industry. The main aims include:

  • To save time: A lot of time is conserved when using computer
  • To reduce or minimize fatigue: Human beings experience fatigue due to overwork, illness and their state of mind and this may cause delay but when an expert system is built, such experiences does not occur as long as the basic requirements for the environment are provided
  • To make work easier to learn and understandable
  • To make work faster and highly efficient.


The significance of this study is to let the individuals, or automobile engineers have adequate understanding of what an expert system is and this has been introduced to various fields. By this, a simple but descriptive explanation to guide engineers on how to detect fault in an automobile and provide the appropriate solution to the fault detected, and also give hints on maintaining an automobile. This project is presented in such a way that the technical faults that occur in a vehicle can be corrected successfully and faster.




Title page                                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgments                                                                               iv

Proposal                                                                                                          v

Table of content                                                                                  vi


1.0   Introduction                                                                                1

1.1       Statement of the Problem                                                       4         

1.2       Objective of the Study                                                 5

1.3       Significant of the Study                                                          6

1.4       Scope and Limitations of the Study                            7

1.5       Hypothesis Formulation                                                          8

1.6       Historical Background of the Case Study                  9

1.7       Definition of Terms                                                                  16


2.0       Introduction                                                                            17

2.1       Concept of motivation                                                 20

2.2       Theories of motivation                                                             28

2.3       Content theories of motivation                                               31

2.4       Money as motivational tools                                       51

2.5       Enhancing employee motivation                                 62


3.1       Research method used                                                           66

3.2       Instrument used for data collection                           66

3.3.      Research population and sample size                        68

3.4       Data collection                                                                                    68

3.5       Statistical technique used in analyzing data 69

3.6       Method of interpretation and analysis of data           70


4.1       Data presentation                                                                   71

4.2       Data Analysis and interpretation                               72

4.3       Test of hypothesis                                                                   91

4.4       Summary of findings                                                               96


5.1       Summary                                                                                            100

5.2       Conclusion                                                                              101

5.3       Recommendations                                                                   103

References                                                                               107


This project work will discuss the motivation factor that led the researcher to the choosing of this topic in the introductory stage.

Therefore, based on the foregoing aims, the research will carryout a successful project work on the subject matter (human motivation as an effective tool for an organizational development in the banking industry). The study would also stress the significant of the motivation to any service industry. The historical background of the industry as the socio-economical factors that brings effectiveness to the services of the industry (guaranteed Trust Bank) the rational and limitations of the study was also discussed.        Chapter one would be concluded with definition of necessary terms used in the project,

In chapter two, the contribution of various author on this subject matter which would also be acknowledged by reviewing the necessary literature.

Chapter three of this research work would emphasis the uses of observation method, direct interview and questionnaire would be distributed to the respondents.

Chapter four deal with data presentation, interpretation of data analysis, testing of hypothesis, summary of findings.

While the last chapter focuses on summarizing the findings of the study, conclusion would be drawn and necessary recommendations would be suggested for the organization to adopt.



An organization can be defined in terms of the machinery used, but rather it is the human beings in the organization that make up the organization. For an organization to achieve its objective, it has to entail the utilization of the available resource such as time, money and material resources such as machinery, raw materials and human resources.

The human resources of an organization are its most treasured reassured resources. This is because all other resources are of no importance without the involvement of the human resources (the Gordian 2004) the human resources coordinator, coordinates all other resources into whatever objective they are to achieve. Also, the survival, achievement of productivity and the importance of any organization rests on the human resources, because human resources can think, differentiate between good and bad, and have ability to know what is attainable.

An organization that wishes to achieve its object has to work beyond the survival and relevance of processes procedures, machine and indeed all technology but focus more on the human resources because all technology function as a result of the skill and willingness of the human resources, for the human to be highly motivated.

‘‘Motivation’’ is the general term applying to the entire class of drives, desire, needs, whishes and similar force (Weltrich and Kootz 1993) to say an organization motivation employees means that is does those things which it hopes will safe those deserved and desired manner. Human motivation therefore is that which triggers or propels human beings to act in a required way. It can also be said as that something and make them willing to work hard in other to do it. But before an employee can be effectively motivated to carryout a task, he has to have a motive. These human motives are based on a need, they are either primary need such as their physical requirement for water, air, food, sex, sleep, shelter on secondary needs such as self esteem, status, affiliation with others, affection, accomplishment and self assertion (Weltrich and Koontz 1993) when these things are satisfied in a human being, he may feel highly motivated.

For an organization to effectively co-ordinate its employees’ because employees abilities are not fully productive without motivation. Motivation is a particular drive or desire in an individual and it moves them into performing an action that will enable them achieve a goal. An organization has to know that it cannot achieve its objective by just employing an individual based on their technical qualifications, experience, credential and all material but rather, it should look at the individual person motive as well (Kelner 2000) for an employers to have a long term success than in any given job will depend for more on the energy and emotional engagement he brings to the job than on the training or qualification the person has obtain over a long time, the energy tends to differentiate those who enjoy their work and makes it easier for individual to excel.


The purpose of an organization is to achieve its objectives and to achieve these; it has to have effectives and efficient employees. This, however not the case in most organization what we see are employees who are lazy, slow, to act and unconcerned about their jobs. They are said to lack the zeal, the brightness and the motivation of hardworking, people and generally they dislike hearing anybody talk about efficiency, dedication, honesty, competence and productivity all which characterize achievement of people in an organization (the guardian 2004).

Moreover, most organization does not consider motivation technique as one of the ways in which they can improve their employee’s productivity. They are mostly profit driven and don’t think that by appropriate motivation of their employees, they will achieve their objectives. These organization looks at the technical qualifications experience, credentials and the aims of the individual they employ such that these employees with right credentials, qualifications and experiences are not rightly motivated in their job or work condition, their performances tend to be below par.


The purpose of this study is to show that an organization can achieve its objectives by motivating its employees. The study shows, to the organization, the ways to improve their goals. The study also shows the extent of motivation in the turnover of employees in an organization. The specific objectives of the study are therefore to:

*           Identity the importance of human resources in an organization and also shows the importance of motivating the human resources in an organizational development.

*           It states clearly how the motivation of the human resources can help organization in achieving the objectives.

*           It identifies the organizational context of effective motivation and performance.

*           It states how the management of an organization can use rewards and goals to motivate its employees.


The study is significant in the sense that it will enable the bank and other organizations to be aware of the importance of their human resources and also that by motivation, their human resource will improve their objectives.

The study will also provide information on factors which best motivates staffs of any organization, it is also hoped that this study will serve as a resourceful material for further research into this subject matter and also broadens the knowledge on motivation.


The study focuses on the way motivational techniques are being used in organization using the Guaranty Trust Bank Plc (GTB) Ilorin branch as a case study. It also tries to find out if the organization as ever used any motivational techniques with its employees and to know how the employees responded to such act.

This study is, however, limited as a result of time and resources. Due to the limited time made available to the researcher for the completion and submission of study and also the limited time in getting response from the respondents. It was quite difficult to cover all aspect of the study, although they will be covered and quite acceptable.

Finances have also been a limitation to this research work, it would have been ideal to use several topics by the organization, but this would amount to little financial input than is available.

However, even with the limitation encountered during the course of the research, the quality of information gathered was impressive, and it is hoped that the study will serve as a reference point for other researches.





Title Page———i




Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50






Violence against women or domestic violence has been a serious problem in most societies throughout history especially Nigeria, and this is prevalent on women. This would make most of this work concentrated on women. Women in Nigeria like their counter parts the world over, suffer domestic violence irrespective of age, class, religion, or social status.

Physical violence in particular is very common among intimate partners in both developed and developing countries. Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, and it includes but is not limited to scratching, pushing, shouting, slapping, and shaking, choking.


Apart from CEDAW and other international instruments which Nigeria is signatory to that forbid violence against women, the Nigeria constitution itself forbids it. The provision in section 42 of Nigeria constitution, guarantees all Nigeria including women, the right from discrimination on basis sex. Section 34 also guarantees every citizen the right to dignity of human person which in it subsection (a) it forbids torture and inhuman or degrading treatments, subsection (b) it forbids the subjection of anybody to slavery or servitude yet violence against women continues unabated, unchecked and this has been blamed on the loopholes in our laws, some of which undermine the provision for equality in the constitution.

In our society, many women are violently treated by their intimate partners while they suffer in silence. In some cases, domestic violence leads to the death of these women. This should not be allowed to continue because women are crucial to the growth and development of any nation and the world at large. They are homemakers, custodians of social, cultural and fundamental values of the society; and permanent change is often best achieved through them. Full community development is impossible without their understanding, cooperation and effective participation. Considering all these, women deserve better treatment but opposite are usually the case. Wife battery affects the physical and psychological wellbeing of the abused women and even that of their children. It is on this premise that this paper discusses the meaning of domestic violence against women, types of intimate partner violence, effects of these types of violence on abused women and their children. This paper also discusses causes and management of domestic violence against women. In conclusion recommendations were made to eradicate this menace from the society.






 Violence against women or domestic violence has been a serious problem in most societies throughout history especially Nigeria, and this is prevalent on women. This would make most of this work concentrated on women. Women in Nigeria like their counter parts the world over, suffer domestic violence irrespective of age, class, religion, or social status.

Physical violence in particular is very common among intimate partners in both developed and developing countries. Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, and it includes but is not limited to scratching, pushing, shouting, slapping, and shaking, choking.


Apart from CEDAW and other international instruments which Nigeria is signatory to that forbid violence against women, the Nigeria constitution itself forbids it. The provision in section 42 of Nigeria constitution, guarantees all Nigeria including women, the right from discrimination on basis sex. Section 34 also guarantees every citizen the right to dignity of human person which in it subsection (a) it forbids torture and inhuman or degrading treatments, subsection (b) it forbids the subjection of anybody to slavery or servitude yet violence against women continues unabated, unchecked and this has been blamed on the loopholes in our laws, some of which undermine the provision for equality in the constitution.

In our society, many women are violently treated by their intimate partners while they suffer in silence. In some cases, domestic violence leads to the death of these women. This should not be allowed to continue because women are crucial to the growth and development of any nation and the world at large. They are homemakers, custodians of social, cultural and fundamental values of the society; and permanent change is often best achieved through them. Full community development is impossible without their understanding, cooperation and effective participation. Considering all these, women deserve better treatment but opposite are usually the case. Wife battery affects the physical and psychological wellbeing of the abused women and even that of their children. It is on this premise that this paper discusses the meaning of domestic violence against women, types of intimate partner violence, effects of these types of violence on abused women and their children. This paper also discusses causes and management of domestic violence against women. In conclusion recommendations were made to eradicate this menace from the society.