The study investigated the factor affecting the performances of computer science students in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The questionnaires were constructed by the researchers in line with the research questions. Ten schools out of the fifteen schools in Enugu North Local Government Area were used for the study. The population for the study were all computer teachers 1 each from 5 schools and 2 each in 5 schools. They are all 15 in number. The entire population of the teacher in the 10 schools were used because of their limited number. The data collected was analyzed and presented using mean. Finally the results expose that there is shortage of qualified teachers teaching the subject “computer science”. The Government and schools do not provide adequate instructional materials and computer laboratories facilities which affect the learning of computer science in these schools. The government does not award scholarship to computer teachers who have distinguished themselves in excellent services. There are no standard text books for the teaching of computer in the junior secondary schools in Enugu North. All these factors affect the performance of the computer science students in the junior secondary schools in Enugu North. Recommendations were made by the researchers at the end and suggestions for further studies were also highlighted.
Background of the Study
Nigeria has realized the importance of functional education for the good and services of mankind. This realization is evidenced in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). Where it is emphasized that, the overall philosophy of education in Nigeria among others should be directed to building a united, strong and self reliant nation by educational activities being geared towards scientific and technological progress. In the developing world, educational policy are faced with a major task, how to create chances of success for all children and their citizenry as a whole.
This work is designed to provide a thorough understanding of political stability in Nigeria, and how good governance enhances political stability. The researcher also chooses Imo State as a case study – the aim of the researcher is to discover the persisting problems of political stability and all the factors that affect good governance. It ensures/covers in details the prospects and basis issues concerning the current election in Nigeria. The method used in writing this is survey techniques which will include questionnaire, news papers and journals.
This work also examines the indices of good governance and factors that led to political instability in Nigeria.
Finally, this project recurred events completely and accurately.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definitions of terms
2.0 Literature review
2.2 Indices of Good governance
2.3 Causes of political stability in Imo State
2.4 Causes of Political instability in Nigeria
2.5 Cultural Organization and political stability
2.6 Nigeria political instability a myth or reality
3.0 Research design and methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sources/Method of data collection
3.4 Population and Sample Size
3.5 Sample Techniques
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
3.7 Method of data analysis
Presentation and analysis of data
4.2 Presentation of data
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Interpretation of result(s)
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations
5.2 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of elections in Nigeria dates back to 1922 when the constitution in operation in the country, when Clifford constitution of 1922 introduced the elective principals. A Hallmark was made in the country in 1923 for the first time following the introduction of the elective principle by the Clifford constitution. Four Nigerians were elected into the Nigerian legislature council, one to represent Calabar and three to represent Lagos. The franchise was limited to about 5,000 adults in Lagos and Calabar with an annual income of hundred pounds each. The election was contested by less than nine candidates and between two quasi-political parties, the Nigerian National Democracy Party (NNDP) and the people’s union.
The election was organized by the colonial government. the election was also free and fair and the conduct was peaceful and orderly. The next important election after the 1959 election which ushered in the constitutional settlement for an independent Nigeria, the first ever direct election covering the country. Three political parties emerged during this period and participated in the election.
The National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC) formerly known as the National Council of Nigerians and Cameroons which was the first modern political party in West Africa was formed in 1914 and led by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, the Action Group (AG) was formed in 1951 under the leadership of chief Obafemi Awolowo, and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) was formed in December 1949 under the leadership of Alhaji Ahmadu Bello. In 1959 election, the NPC won 80 seats which the AG won 73 seats. This election was also supervised by the colonial master. It was relatively peaceful and orderly. 1960 – 166, during this period, elections were held on 1961, 1963, 1965, regional elections and 1964/65 federal election. The most crucial elections of 1965, two broad coalitions contested the 1964 federal election. The Nigerian National Alliance (NNA) made up of the Northern People Congress (NNPC) and the Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) a break away of the Action Group (AG), the dominant party in western Nigeria and the United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) made up of the United middle belt congress, the National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC) and the Action Group. The election was rigged and different kinds of electoral malpractices were witnessed. The United Progressive Grand Alliance leaders claimed that many campaigning and that some of them were kidnapped.
1985 – 1993 for the third time in Nigeria’s political history a transition programme aimed at an orderly chance of not just a government but a whole regime type is being consciously and assiduously pursued by an incumbent government. the first and second transition programmes were from colonial regime to an independent democratic regime in the later fifties to October 1960, and from a military dictatorship to a democracy in the late seventies respectively.
Neither attempts at establishing a last democracy succeeded beyond six (6) years. The first attempt lasted from October 1960 to January 1966, while the second lasted from October 1979 to December 1983. It is at this last point that informed the present administration’s decision to introduce a transition programme that is both extensive (its time span is the longest in the history of transition programmes not just in Nigeria but in African continent).
Today, Nigeria is undergoing another transition to civil rule programme and questions bound as to whether the nascent third republic will be a success or failure given in the country’s economic incapacitation, the increasing personification of the downward movement of the people’s social conditions. The unmistakable crisis in the country’s education system, the prevalence of thuggery and electoral malpractices, the recurrence of ethnic religious clashes and the fact that “every good soldier who is advancing in his profession now hopes to end that career in a political office or headship of one civilian institution or the other inter alla.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The essential ingredients of any political system include clear statement of the requirement which citizen must have before he or she is qualified for any elective position, a comprehensive voter’s register and good voting conditions which must ensure that the citizens exercise their franchise without fear of molestation or victimization.
The 1997 general election in Imo State was very important in this case in that being the first stage of the transition to civil rule programme; it could be taken as a test or the extent to which Nigerians were prepared to change their electoral behaviours. For the better and abide by the rules and principles of democratic elections. This is so because from the records available, the election didn’t fulfill the requirement as required by a democratic government.
Moreover, in view of the fact that the first and second republic, politicians were not freely allowed by the military administration for participation in politics, apparently based on he conviction of the government that their roles in the past have been highly unsatisfactory. The questions therefore are did the sponsorship of any of the candidates by the old categories politicians affect the outcome of the elections? Did the electorates base their votes on sentiment or on objectives assessment of candidates? Was the general election in Imo State free and fair? What implications will the outcome of the election have on political stability in Imo State?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research is to examine the key issues surrounding the political stability in the Imo State government election in the light of candidates contesting on multi-party bases on the voting behaviour of the electorates, the voting process and declaration of results. It is also geared towards pinpointing all these process and at which are not part of the normal process and as such led
The work begins by identifying the major problems Nigeria democratic governance from the colonial to civilian military. It highlights some of these problems to include political rigging, voters initiation, political killings incessant assassination of individual(s) lives, appointment of mediocre over government affairs, politics of Godfathers, crude and money politics, lack of education and untimely arrival of electoral boxed and materials to each polling centers and units, poor condition of lives and property. It agrees that good governance can only be achieved with democratic principles. As a form of recommendation, the work state for the democratic principle to be enshrined and effectively practiced in Nigeria, all stake holders e.g. politicians, voters, the military, electoral commission, tribunals the court non-governmental organizations (N G O’s) civilizing common objective.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval page ii
Table of content vi
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 background of the study 1
1.2 statement of the problem 3
1.3 Objective of the study 5
1.4 Research question 5
1.5 Statement of hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the study 6
1.8 Limitation of the study 7
1.9 Definition of terms 8
2.0 Literature review 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Politics and governance in pre-colonial Hausa and
Fulani tribes 10
2.3 Politics and Governance in pre-colonial Yoruba
2.4 Politics and governance in pre-colonial 1960 tribes 12
2.5 Nigeria political development during colonial Era. 13
2.6 The British direct system of leadership 14
2.7 Factors that contributed to the failure of direct
rule in Nigeria 14
2.8 The British indirect rule system in Nigeria 15
2.9 Post colonial Era in Nigeria first republic
2.10 Military rule in Nigeria from 1966-1975 19
2.11 Civilian transitional government in the second
Republic of Nigeria 21
2.12 Military rule in Nigeria from 1983-1998 22
2.13 Civilian transition in Nigeria from 1999 23
2.14 The challenges facing Nigeria democratic governance
from 199, 29th may 2007 till 2011 25
2.15 The needs for enhancing democratic governance
in Nigeria 28
2.16 Causes of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 Nigeria
general election 30
2.17 Agents of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 general
2.18 Ways of enhancing democratic election in Nigeria 33
3.0 Research design and method 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Research design 47
3.3 Sources and method of data collection 47
3.4 Population and sampling size 48
3.5 Sample techniques 48
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 49
3.7 Method of data analysis 49
4.0 presentation and analysis of data 51
4.1 Introduction 51
4.2 presentation of data 51
4.3 Analysis of data 52
4.4 Test of hypothesis 61
4.5 Interpretation of result 63
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 65
5.1 Introduction 65
5.2 Summary of findings 65
5.3 Conclusion 66
5.4 Recommendation 67
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a federated state with multi famous and multiplicity of ethnic groups whose norms and societal values varies in a book titled Authority in government: Nigeria and world politics, Nwankwo (1992) opined that a federated state is that type of government system where authority and power are shared (exclusively, concurrently and residually). Between two (2) levels of government namely, the central (national) government and component states government.
Nigeria as the name implies is the epitome structure of the British colonies starting from 1914 amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate into one legislative council till 1960 when Nigeria gained its political independence and up till today. Through, the system is not that development oriented on the host country rather, for Europeans economic exploitative purpose.
In other words, the Nigeria effects to ensure development and good governance was masterminded on the constitutional conference held at London on may 10th and ended on 19th, 1960. It was as this confab that Nigeria elites sent a communiqué on issues discussed to the common wealth which on the other hand lead to Nigeria independence on 1st October, 1960
Historically, it was quite clear that since inception of leadership on 1st October 1960 till 2007 and general election, democratic governance of Nigeria has been in a like-up for instance, Nigeria has experienced a lot of pitfalls like insecurity of individual lives, incessant assassination, religious rivalries, bribery and corruptions abuse of power, trust position, politics of Godfathers, appointment of mediocrity in piloting public affairs, Falsification of electoral results by INEC officers, intimidation of voter etc. also, the administration till data, has not ensured a notable achievement in the country due to no emerged government had established effective ways of checkmating the public officers in piloting the public affairs.
It was therefore noted that, Nigeria since 1960 till data has experienced Nine (9) military plotted coups, which ruin the democratic governance of the country. The worse is that, the exercise does not significantly altered the structure of Nigeria national development or provide panacea for the stoppage of electoral malpractices.
However, this research work is aimed at examining fulgamental ways through which democratic governance can be enhanced in Nigeria with the view of free and fair election.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has always be argued that there has never been any free and fair election in the history of Nigeria elections of which that of 2007 and 2011 was inclusive for example, four (4) successful elections-federal election crisis 1964, Western Nigeria election 1965 General election riggings 1983, and unsuccessful implementation of the transition programme June 12, 1993 presidential election. More so, there was an opinion that the election was engulfed with political turmoil, incessant assassination of lives and properties, Godfather politics, insecurity of ballot boxes to be filled with ballot papers by party faithfully, falsification of electoral results by the INEC officers, lateness in arrival of ballot elections materials to different poling centers and voters, intimidations during voting process. the political killings of Nigerians for instance, the killing of Chief Anthony Olufunso Williams, PDP state governorship aspirants in Lagos State, Dr Ayodji Daramola PDP state governorship aspirant in Ekiti State, and among others.
Although the tribunal is set –up under electoral Act to adjudicate over vote rigging and other electional malpractice in the country but the fact is that, sentiments and personal prejudices often occur in their verdicts beyond the tribunal verdicts the court (Appllate court) may quash the judgment passed by the tribunal in favour of a particular party. Thus when such verdicts are passed, it may lead to state of anarchy and mistrust on the government by the masses.
In addition, any administration whose election is not free and fair, as experience had shown, the democratic governance of regime will generally lead to:
No sentiment of popular consent and participation in public affairs. The people feel that they have not been consulted, and have not indicated their wishes in the board field of national policy and are therefore, not willing to accept the legitimacy of the power exercise by the electoral system.
It will also be impossible for one government to succeed another in an orderly manner if it occurs, it must be with violence or bloodshed.
It leads to irresponsibility of the government to the people politicians dare become too out of touch with public opinion.
Rational egoism encapsulates Ayn Rand’s ethical system. According to this theory, the only ethically good actions are those that are channeled towards self-aggrandizements. Reason which is the basic surviving and epistemological tool of man is the only means for discovering what is good and bad .Emotions and desires are unreliable for such feat. Hence, the ultimate end of man is survival on earth and so the basic struggle in human existence is struggle for survival. Any action capable of truncating or threatening man’s individual existence is morally bad whereas those that enhance it, are the good. Individual survival becomes the paradigm for knowing the morality of an action. However, the major problem Rand identified in ethics is that moral philosophers before her were unscientific in approach and as such the ethical theories they formulated were equally unscientific. She moved further to assert and propose that ethics should be based on the nature of man, reflecting his survival needs. Consequent upon that, she advocates for “rational egoism”, the ethical system that urges man to always maximize his own rational self-interest
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Obviously, one of the inherent characteristics of human society across history has been the unequal relationship among people and differences in disposition cover a wide range of human activities and conditions. Some of the conditions are necessitated by nature as opined by some philosophers while others are brought about by structural imbalances in the human society. This unequal relationship contrasts with the natural and philosophical ideas that all men are born equal.
The basis for this conviction is that we are so structured by nature and also endowed with reason and conscience and as such ought to act toward others in a spirit of brotherhood. But then, on the contrary, it is noticed that social equality among individuals and groups in the society has been a willow d’ wisp because of the differences in interests and needs. With that people in vantage positions tend to exploit, suppress and even mash underfoot the rights of less privileged of the society. The result of this social inequality has been glaring in our social contexts ranging from war, kidnapping, and murder amongst others.
No doubt, unequal relationship has created a lot of problems in human society and Rand’s ethical system tends to give vent to such a situation. It is against this background, however, that we are motivated to discuss and examine Rand’s ethical system
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Rand’s ethical theory states that man should always act with his own self-interest in view. According to this theory, reason is the only veritable tool for knowing that which is of interest to man. This form of ethics was formed, principally to oppose the ethics of altruism which was prevalent in Rand’s time and to provide man with ethics based on nature. Rand found fault with altruism because it does not reflect the condition of man’s existence, the basis upon which ethics should rest. However, Philosophers have found fault with her theory on the grounds that it fails to reconcile the conflict of interests amongst men. The following important questions have given the Researcher a deep worry:
(1) What is the basis for this form of ethics?
(2) Can the ethics of altruism vitiate man’s ultimate end?
(3) Can rational egoism lead man to a morally acceptable end?
(4) Is there any relevance of this theory to man and to the society at large?
As a matter of fact, the critical problem that this work shoulders and attempts to resolve is provision of sound and convincing answers to the above questions (problems).
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
A major goal of this study is to unveil the primary influences on Rand in her formulation and development of a version of egoism tagged, “rational egoism”. Another aim is to investigate numerous attempts made by some philosophers at denying or refuting rational egoism. This work will also look at the necessary conflict or contradiction inherent in identifying Randian form of egoism with traditional morality.
Moreover, this study will attempt to resolve or put an end to the numerous problems inherent in Rand’s egoism. Hence, there will be a clear juxtaposition between rational egoism and altruism, which is advocated mostly by Christianity and other duty based theories .This work, in addition to these, will establish a link, if any, between rational egoism and Altruism. It will also examine the nature, meaning and any possible value of rational egoism in the domain of moral philosophy.
This research hopes to express the following:
That the concept of egoism as presented by Rand tends to entrench inequality in the society.
That Rand’s theory of Rational Selfishness could not establish beyond reasonable doubt that the peace of the society is guaranteed if all should pursue their self-interest.
That Law should be set up to act as a check to the excesses of our impulses and interests.
That Rand’s theory of self-interest has some positive and vital implications for mankind.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Ayn Rand was a versatile philosopher who dwelt on many issues bordering on: Ethics, Metaphysics, Epistemology, Political philosophy, and Aesthetics. In this work however, the focus would rather be to investigate strictly her contributions to ethics.
It will study the primary and major influences on Rand and her formulation and development of this form of egoism. Furthermore, we will intermittently make references to her famous novels, which underlie the theme of her philosophy.1
Again, this research work will also look at the views of many interpreters and commentators on Ayn Rand.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help to understand the meaning and value of rational egoism which is relatively a novel concept in philosophy. It also advances the course of humanism in the 21st century. This is because it maintains that man is the maker of his destiny, even his moral end is in his hand. It holds that man marries the potentials in him with that latent in nature in order to achieve his life goals. With this, then, the society is made better both scientifically and technologically.
In addition to that, this study equally supports the fact that ethics does not just originates or issues from religion or society, ethics is also possible from man’s nature, ethics for living on earth.
Besides, it will help contribute to the body of literature, not just in Ethics but in philosophy. This work will be of immense help to researchers and students of philosophy in particular.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The information and data needed for this work were largely drawn from published works and articles from the libraries, internet, sand journals, amongst others.In harnessing the collected data, the researcher employed historical, expository and evaluative approaches. With historical method, Rand’s rational egoism was found within a historical perspective. With the use of expository approach, her ethical thought is displayed and expounded for better understanding. Through evaluative method, her ethical ideas were subjected to critical scrutiny with a view to finding out whether or not it is practicable, sound and a good guide to human happiness.
Communication is vital to good patient care in any discipline in the health domain and there is a lot that has been written concerning communication problems in the general practice of Radiology. Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. (Adams and Smith,2003). Interpersonal communication between radiographers and patients plays an important role in the success of radiographic exams.
Some of the patients routinely respond differently from the instructions given by the radiographer during exposure, resulting in delays or having to repeat the examination altogether. Ineffective communication during radiological procedures has many ramifications which include poor quality radiographs, inconclusive examinations, patient delays among others. Often radiographic procedures have to be repeated, which in turn increases the radiation dose to which the patient is exposed and escalates the costs of the examination
Effective verbal communication includes the display of professional conduct, an attitude of respect toward other professionals and the patient and the responsibility to act as a patient advocate through all aspects of the patient’s care. Radiographers are frequently responsible for acting as patient advocates, taking patient histories, providing instructions for fasting before contrast studies and explaining post examination care clearly in a way and language the patient will understand.
Thus, it is important that Radiographers give explicit instructions, answer questions promptly and completely, coordinate patient care efficiently and work together with the patient. This responsibility includes being thorough in their questioning and ensuring the patient understands all instructions. Meyer 3 suggested asking specific instead of general questions, such as “Are you taking any prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications or any herbal supplements?” instead of “Are you taking any drugs?” When a patient is unable to answer questions or comprehend instructions, the patient’s family or guardian should be involved in both the history-taking and the decision-making processes. By encouraging family participation, feelings of stress and frustration toward staff are reduced and system dysfunction is less frequent. Like anyone else, radiographers can be unhappy, short-tempered, rushed and interrupted, ignorant on some subjects, or charmless.
Evidence is that healthcare fails without a conscious informed effort of communication which is the personal and professional responsibility of everyone concerned with the care of the sick. Kaushal, K. (2007).
Improved communication between patient and healthcare providers results in patients who are happier with their overall healthcare experience. L.F.and Strife, L.J. (2011).
Patients want to play an active role in discussing their treatment, and they want to understand the benefits of different diagnostic and therapeutic options. They need to have their questions answered.10 Patients also express a desire to have interactions that feel personal, caring, and respectful. They want medical professionals (Radiographers) to relate to them as people.
Although research has been conducted on the attitudes of radiographers towards their patients, but no research has been done on effective verbal communication especially in Enugu metropolis. This study aimed to assess the level of verbal communication between radiographers and patients, to identify barriers to effective verbal communication and patient’s reaction to towards effective verbal communication.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Communication amongst people is what brings people closer to each other or far away from each other; When it is been done properly can really determine the good relationship and vice versa. In the hospital scenario, where radiographers and the patients are involved, effective communication will determine whether the patient would visit the hospital some other time or not. The problem of effective communication might be that there are no trained radiographers in terms of relating with patients no matter their wildness. Finally, several research has been carried out effective communication but not even a single research has been carried out on the effective communication between radiographers and patients; influence on service delivery and patient satisfaction.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the effective communication between radiographers and patients; influence on service delivery and patient satisfaction. Other specific objectioves of the study include:
1. to determine the effect of effective communication on patients.
2. to determine the factors affecting effective communication between radiographers and patients.
3. to determine the extent to which effective communication improves patients satisfaction and service delivery.
4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of effective communication on patients?
2. What are the factors affecting effective communication between radiographers and patients?
3. What is the extent to which effective communication improves patient’s satisfaction and service delivery?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Effective communication between radiographers and patient has no significant effect on service delivery and patient satisfaction.
H1: Effective communication between radiographers and patient has a significant effect on service delivery and patient satisfaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on effective communication between radiographers and patients will be of immense benefit to the entire radiographers in the sense that it will enable them to understand communication pattern to be used with the patients, in that all the patients are having different temperament and perceptions. It will also enable them to relate properly with the patient about any diagnosis in their body such that when they are being told it will not frighten them so much that they become so instabilised. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on effective communication between radiographers and patient is limited to service delivery and patient satisfaction.
The study on effective communication between radiographers and patients is limited to service delivery and patient satisfaction.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EffectiveIn producing a desired or intended result
CommunicationThe imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.
RadiographerA radiographer is an Allied Health professional who uses x-rays to produce radiographs of patients in order to help diagnose the patient’s medical condition.
PatientA person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment.
InfluenceThe capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Service DeliveryThe act of providing a service to customers
Satisfaction Fulfilment of one’s wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.
Albert Einstein, in a letter to a Rumanian friend Maurice Solvine from Princeton U.S.A. on April 10, 1938, says: “A fashion rule each age, without most people being able to see the tyrants that rule them” Although man as Aristotle opines is a political animal who desires and longs to live in a community with his species, he is the best of all the animals that rule and guided by laws. In the same vein, man could be the worst of all animals when there is anarchy. It is in the light of this that Aristotle opts for a government that would be beneficial to the people. The researcher would make an attempt to explain what a good government is, according to Aristotle, and also analyze them in the light of the Nigerian situation.
The question: Who should rule? For what purpose? And what is the best form of government are fundamental questions in Aristotle’s concept of good government that this thesis intends to answer.
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Government is ubiquitous, its rules and laws affect important aspects of our lives, just as its actions and inactions determine, in very significant ways, the quality of our existence. But although the activities a governments have, for a long time, been fundamental to human existence, not many people have a clear understanding of the foundations of government, particularly, it’s nature, powers and the conditions for the appropriate
performance of its function.1 Aristotle believes that for any society to operate well, it must have a governing body. This has a practical importance to our day-to-day life. If man was left without a stable government, he would still be in a state of nature. It is to this effect that Aristotle sought for the best form of government in his era. In our present day, most people are advocating for democracy because they think it is the best system of government. But in the time of Aristotle, he agitated for Aristocracy. He also recommended a mixture or a combination of Aristocracy and democracy for a balanced government.
Aristotle’s political thought on government is very much relevant to the present day political situation. In considering his thought on what constitutes a government, one sees that everybody wants the type of government that would respect the people’s view. It is the government that unifies the people and makes them know their limitations in life and how to exercise their freedom. This research therefore is aimed at looking critically on the concept of good government as propounded by Aristotle and also to point out what is generally meant by the term ‘government’ from its etymological point of description. It is also an attempt to discover whether Nigeria has had a good government.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The government with all its complexity is a mirror reflecting human nature with its multiple needs. Human nature is the foundation of government or the act of government. Aristotle sees government through the same nominal sense and agitates for the very best. He distinguishes a bad government from a good one. The bad government according to him is that which does not serve its aim of meeting the demands of the people and their common good while a good government he says is that which serves the common good of the people or the society. This compliments the Augustinian dictum that he who fights for the
common good, fight for his own good’2 . Following this line of arguments, Echekwube maintained that the urge for power and quick money has plunged Nigeria as a Country into untold hardship. Arguing further, he remarked in strong terms that since independence in 1960, Nigerians have had civilian governments, which were toppled by the military who believed they had the magic wand to solve all our problems. Despite their seemingly good intentions, the Army is composed of true Nigerians who have connections with their immediate families, tribes and friends. While they have opportunity to stay in office, they are advised to accumulate as much wealth as possible for they may never pass through that way again. This attitude leads to corruption at the expense of the governed3’.
The State, as seen by J. Maritain, is a moral entity with rights as well as obligations to the citizens. He conceives the state as having flesh and blood, instincts, he regards the state as an extension of the human family good – the common good it is a work of reason, born out of the obscure efforts of reason disengaged from instinct and implying essentially a rational order4. In this regards, irresponsible demagogues ought not to be entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the survival of the state. In order that morality and good governance be entrenched
in the nation’s body polity, a conscious coordination of activities of all concerned becomes a necessity; stealing, corrupt acts and betrayal of each other will mar it.
Man is the best of all the animals when he is ruled or guided by laws. In the same way, man could be the worst of all animals, when there is anarchy. It is precisely this complex and organic nature of the society that influenced Aristotle’s decision to opt for a government that would be beneficial to the people. This poses a problem for Aristotle as regards the type of government to be implemented. Among monarchy, Aristocracy and Democracy Systems of government, his preference is for Aristocracy. Aristotle favoured Aristocracy, because he want the few responsible people to govern and rule the society to enthrone justice and equity for all. Now, the question that needs to be asked is that, why are there still injustice in Aristocracy? Aristotle answer; it is because man is naturally selfish, he always seek his own interest first. Therefore we should not allow a man who is ruled by passion to govern. Whoever governs is to be guided by rational principles.
Aristotle when confronted with the problem of who should rule? He uncompromisingly state that the rulers should come from the
middle class. But will the upper class not influence them? Will the lower class not initiate revolutionary campaign against them? These are problems that Aristotle did not tackle within his politics which this research intends to look into.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
As a result of the problem raised, this research is to examine the nature of government. It is an attempt to explain what a good government is according to Aristotle and also analyze them in the light of Nigeria situation. Furthermore, this work will help to a great extent in establishing the responsibilities of a government in any political society.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This work is a critical look into the essence, relevance and nature of government in the philosophy of Aristotle. It is going to expose us to the concept of good government in other philosophers too. This research will be significant because it is going to expose us to the relevance and application of good government in Aristotle. The significance of an essay of this nature in this crucial time of Nigeria’s political history cannot be over-emphasized. It will serve as the basis of ideas and reference point for aspirants to political offices in Nigeria. This research is significant because it is going to show us the risk and dangers in Aristotle’s concept of good government. It is hoped that this
essay would promote a better understanding of the foundations of social order and stimulate debate on the nature and purpose of government.
The need for good working capital management one of the most important aspects of the firms over all financial management is necessary in order to ensure the firms long term success and to achieve its overall goal, which is the maximization of owner’s wealth. From the chapter two, we would be looking at the concept of working capital. The need for good working capital managements, to run day to day activities business enterprise cannot be over emphasized. In view of this problem and short coming the objective of his research was.
To find out manufacturing industries have adequate working capital.
To assess the need for financial auditing.
To also look into the management of cash for day- to-day running expenses.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 INTRODUCTION In this capital such areas like background of the study would be looked into, it is divided into these sub-headings such as statement of problem, purpose of the study, scope of the study of the study research hypothesis, significance of the study limitation of study and definition of terms.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The viability of an organization can be enhanced through effective and efficient management of the firms working capital, working capital management has variously been defined by authors and professional as the capital which can readily turned into each for payment of the day to day expenses of the firms. The need for financial resources are limited and costly and even where it is available, the scope into which we could be applied and diverse. A business that is just about to start production needs a fixed assets and adequate working capital to pay staff salaries, wages and other administrative expenses. The need for good management of capital should be the most important aspect of a firms over all financial management. This is because efficiency in this area of financial management as necessary to ensure the firms long term success and to achieve its overall goals which is maximization of owner’s wealth. Working capital has also defined by western brigham’s as a firms investment in short term asset each short term securities, account recruable and inventories” from the foregoing working capital management refers to all aspects of the administration of both current assets and current liabilities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study entitled “Need for good working capital management in manufacturing industry (A case study of sunrise Flour Mill Limited times). Has the major problem of studying how working capital management could be managed so as lead to reduction in cost and improvement in profit potential of the firm, Another problem that would be looked into the study is the adequacy of working capital management in manufacturing industries further the problem that affect the effective implementation of working capital policy will also be dealt with. As a follow up these other problems would be looked into (a) Flow much cash does the business need to operate its day- to-day activities adequately. (b) Whether the business has as inventory policy. (c) Also to be looked into as how the firm manages its cash. Finally, the researcher would look into the problem of the understanding and acceptability of members of staff of such organization to the capital management policy.
1.3 NEED FOR THE STUDY The need for the study is to run day-to-day business activities cannot be over emphasized. We will hardly find a business firm which does not require any amount of working capital, indeed, firm differs in their requirement of working capital. We know that firms aim at maximizing the result of shareholders. In its endeavour to maximize shareholders wealth, the firm should corn sufficient return requirement successful sales activity. The firm has to invest enough founds in current assets for the sales do not convert into cash instantly. In as much as a firm need adequate working capital to run its business operation it should keep watch over situation that could lead to both excessive and in adequate working capital position sincere that could be dangerous from the firm’s point of view.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main purpose of the study is to highlight the importance of the need for good working capital management in manufacturing industries generally, with particular reference to sunrises flour Mill Emene. The work intends to determine the existence and evaluate the adequacy and quality ;of the firms’ working capital policy. Further, the working capital is also aimed at filling the gap existing in the study of need for good working capital management which has been created by financial managers.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study intent to cover the need for good working capital management in manufacturing industries around Enugu Localities with particular reference to sunrise’s flour Mill limited Emene Enugu.
Is capital properly managed in sunrise flour Mill?
What are the problems that engulf sunrise’s flour Mill?
What are the measures that can be taken to improve the performance of sunrises?
What government regulation affects the performance of the company?
Have auditors ever audited the current.
To what extent can the efficiency of sunrise be measured?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The work as intended generally for the benefit of stores and owner of manufacturing industrial who have adopted, and policy on working capital management . The work will contribute immensely to the management of working capital management in Sunrise flour Mill limited. They would study the work and make recommendation where necessary also the work will be useful to investors and creditors who might have been dealing with company. This work would be made available after successful completion in the institution library probably for other students who may embark on the study on need for good working capital management in their future programmes. Finally, the general public may find this work valuable in cases where they wish to broaden their knowledge of working capital management policy in business enterprise.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Some technical terms used in the project are defined as follows: CURRENT ASSETS: Assets which are really convertible into cash acquired for short term using such as stock. CAPITAL: Wealth owned by an individual or business organization in form of money or goods as to be used for the creation of additional wealth. CREDIT POLICY: This is how a firm plans to give out its credit and collection of debt owned to it by its customers. WORKING CAPITAL: This is the capital that can be readily converted to cash for used in day- to- day expenses of the firm. IDLE FUNDS: Funds which are not used in production and does not earn interest or divided. MARKET SECURITIES: These are short term securities which can be richly converted into cash. MANAGEMENT: These are the act of getting things done, more especially management of business which involves setting company’s goals and directing human and physical resources to achieve these goals. GROSS CAPITAL: Refers to the firm’s investment in current Assets. CURRENT LIABILITIES: These are short credit owned by the company to other individual or companies.
This research studies Good Governance and conflict resolution in Anambra state with focus on the Umuleri and Aguleri communities’ experience. Both communities were engulfed in intractable conflicts over the ownership of Otuocha land. Aside the contest over land, both communities have been engaged in the reconstruction of their history with each claiming to be the direct descendant of Eri. The research adopts qualitative evaluation method. The research basically draws from primary and secondary sources. The research hypothesized that good governance is the major ingredients in conflict resolution. The research from its findings discovered that good governance promotes peace in Nigeria policy and can be achieved through a transparency and accountability, Respect for the rule of law, Prudent management of resources, strict adherence to the principle of federal character in appointments. It further discovered that good governance is a critical element for peace, security and sustainable development. The research among others recommend that the present administration should endeavor to bridge this wide gap by showing true political will in resolving the mistrust, revamping the economy and effectively address the development needs and aspirations of citizens.
1.1Background to the Study
Governance, according to the World Bank Report (2010) is the exercise of political power in the management of a nation’s affairs. This definition thus implies that governance encompasses the state’s institutional and structural arrangements, decision-making processes and implementation capacity, and relationship between the governing apparatus and the governed-that is the people in terms of their standard of living.
Odock (2011) in his analysis sees good governance as “a system of government based on good leadership, respect for the rule of law and due process, the accountability of the political leadership to the electorate as well as transparency in the operations of government”. Transparency, Odock opined that it has to do with the leadership carrying out government business in an open, easy to understand and explicit manner, such that the rules made by government, the policies implemented by the government and the results of government activities are easy to verify to the ordinary citizens. Accountability as a component of good governance refers to the fact that those who occupy positions of leadership in the government must give account or subject themselves to the will and desire of the society and people they lead. Unfortunately, this is lacking in the public domain in Nigeria. Governance typically emphasizes leadership which suggests the way political leaders meaning the apparatus of the state, use or misuse power, to promote social and economic development or to engage in those agendas that largely undermine the realization of the good things of life for the people. Good governance is in tandem with democratic governance which is largely characterized by high valued principles such as rule of law, accountability, participation, transparency, human and civil rights. These governance qualities have the capacity to provide the development process of a country.
Onifade (2011) has posed a critical question as to whether it’s possible to have good governance without good leadership. Our understanding of reality points to the fact that the former is logically derived from the latter because where there is effective and efficient leadership, there is bound to be good governance. Achebe (1983) had argued convincingly in his seminal book, ‘The Trouble with Nigeria’, that the failure of leadership to rise to its responsibility, to the challenges of personal exemplary life clearly shows why the nation has the problem of true leadership. It is exemplary leadership that can uplift the people, better the lives of the citizenry and see that the people as much as possible enjoy the public resources without ado as is the case in most advanced democracies such as the United States, Canada, Switzerland and some upcoming developing nations such as Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan and Korea, theoretical explanations have been advanced by such scholars Migdal (1988), Zartman (1995) about the fact that in the absence of governance, a nation may experience state collapse or failure. This has been the lot of most African countries including Nigeria where lead governance has held sway. A state ideally is meant to be an organization, composed of several agencies led and coordinated by the state leadership (executive authority) which has capacity and authority to make and implement the finding rules for all the people and applying force if necessary to have its way.
Zartman (1995) specifically notes that the status of a state is reviewed as failed or collapsed when it exhibits inability to fulfill the functions of a state such as the sovereign authority, decision-making institution and security guarantor for its population. This can lead to structure, authority (legitimate power), law and political order falling apart.
On the other hand, conflict has become an evitable phenomenon in human existence. As long as there are social relationships between individuals and groups in the society, conflict will persist. Although, conflict often initiates change in society, its violent form is negative and reverses societal progress, promoting poverty and anarchy. There is n o doubt that violent conflict has wreaked havoc on our communal and national social fabrics since 1999, in particular, when electoral democracy was enthroned in Nigeria. Compounding the problem of underdevelopment in Nigeria is micro nationalism, ethnic, religious and communal conflicts which pose great threat to peace, security and progress. The crises had closed the doors of friendship, interaction and rapport among the various ethnic groups in the nation. Therefore, attempts at promoting peaceful co-existence among the various identities that exists in the nation becomes contradictory if not elusive as various ethnic, religious, political, economic and social catastrophe keep one reoccurring in the polity. This has compounded the situation of insecurity in Nigeria’s fragile federal system which, over the years, has experienced ethnic, religious and political crises of monumental proportions. The most devastating amongst these have been communal conflicts in all parts of the country. The frequent occurrence of conflict in Nigeria in recent times is a threat not only to democracy but also to the corporate existence of the country as a political entity. Since good governance is an essential ingredient in the promotion of peaceful coexistence in the society given its indispensable elements of rule of law, human right protection, free and fair election, accountability, independent court of law as well as creating the right environment for socio-economic development (AbdulMaleek 2011).
Therefore, this work seeks to evaluate the relation between good governance and conflict occurrence with special reference to Aguleri and Umuleri conflict.
The co-ordination of the system, people, and the polity is the responsibility of government who is the custodian of the sovereignty of the entire citizenry which collectively and willingly they have submitted to it in return for peaceful and meaningful co-existence propelled by law and good government. It is therefore pertinent to say that the responsibility of the government is to provide effective and efficient framework and enabling environment to enhance the social, physical, financial and general well-being of the populace or efforts of the components of the state especially human beings are effectively and efficiently galvanized towards productive activities and in the best interest of the state and the citizens determines the extent of the “goodness” or otherwise of its government. It is again not dubitable that a critical instrument for the organization of the state is law which government relies on day in, day out to ensure societal equilibrium. Legislation which is a product of institutionalized law-making process is by far the most important arsenal from which government derives its laws. The foregoing, therefore, lends credence to the avowed roles and responsibilities of legislation as a source of law in any society and by implication, on the Legislature which is wholly and constitutionally responsible for making these laws. The task of this research is to examine the extent to which legislation can promote good governance and sustainable development and to analyze, against the idiosyncrasies of the law, the constitution and constitutionalism in Nigeria, the extent to which good governance had been promoted through legislation. This task, as daunting and challenging as it may appear, is best navigated by citing concrete illustrations from Nigerian jurisprudence.
Good governance involves far more than the power of the state or the strength of political will. The rule of law, transparency, and accountability are not merely technical questions of administrative procedure or institutional design. They are outcomes of democratizing processes driven not only by committed leadership, but also by the participation of, and contention among, groups and interests in societal processes that are most effective when sustained and restrained by legitimate, effective institutions. Never have these concerns been linked to more momentous opportunities. In the Fall of 2002 the 191 Member States of the United Nations committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and developing a global partnership for development. 1 As daunting as these goals are in technical and resource terms, they are no less challenging to Member States’ abilities to mobilize people and resources, to make and implement difficult policy choices, and to involve their citizens in initiatives that will shape their futures. In this paper I suggest that good governance, the rule of law, transparency, and accountability embody partnerships between state and society, and among citizens— partnerships sustained not by good intentions alone but by lasting, converging incentives and strong legislative institutions. Governments provide the legal and policy frameworks that are necessary for successful and sustainable natural resource and landscape management programmes. Community-based approaches can only be effective if the institutional setting in a given location has in place policies, laws, regulations and fire management agencies that provide a contextual framework for participatory approaches, rights and benefits. The successful implementation of any program, including CBFM, often requires changes to the supporting policy, rules and regulations at three distinct levels of administration: the national level, the local/district level and the intermediate/provincial level. At the national level, policies and supporting legislation need to create an environment that enables CBFM and makes it attractive to local communities. At the provincial level a model of decentralized natural resource management needs to be promoted that is most likely to work under the relevant political circumstances (Treue and Nathan, 2007). In Cambodia, for example, government policy, laws and regulations all influence villagers regarding their use of fire. According to the Cambodia Forest Sector Review (2004), government field staff, specifically cantonment (district) offices of the national Forestry Administration (FA) often enforce specific laws at the district and commune levels. As a result, the government and its policies are seen to be explicitly linked to traditional fire use and, in broader terms, to the socio-economic situation in many rural villages. Community involvement in natural resource management is also a priority in Mozambique’s existing policy on forestry and wildlife resources. This focus is reflected in the government’s efforts to manage natural resources in partnership with rural communities and the private sector. This approach represents a policy shift both in Mozambique’s agricultural and natural resource sectors, which results in the potential for significant impact in economic development (Nhantumbo, Dent and Kowero, 2001). The development and the eventual implementation of relevant policy and supporting legislation require, at a minimum, good governance. The term “governance” is used extensively and in many contexts, but is difficult to capture in a simple definition. In a natural resource context, governance is used to refer to the body of formal and informal policies, and the arrangements developed between relevant stakeholders, to manage and to make decisions about a particular resource. Governance provides the framework by which groups, such as communities, define their interests, rights, responsibilities and the ways in which they will interact with each other and with institutions of authority to manage a particular resource.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Good governance and legislation goes in pari passu. If according to barron de Montesquieu in his principle of separation of power if the legislature were free from executive influence and lobby by politicians and other stake holders in the polity. In Nigeria 7th assembly, the problem of legislation has been hampered by the imposition of legislature who sometimes are not qualified to, thereby breeding ineffective legislation and incompetency among the legislatures.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the role of legislation in good governance, this is because there is no government without laws, and this laws are made by qualified persons called legislature, and the laws are legislation. However, the study seeks to ascertain:
i) The challenges of effective legislation
ii) To ascertain how independent and efficient are the legislation made by the legislature
iii) To evaluate the relationship between legislation and good governance
iv) To proffer solution to the lapses if any in the 7th assembly
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In other to achieve the objective of the study and proffering solution to problem of study, the following research question were formulated:
H0: there are no challenges to effective legislation in Nigeria
H1: there are challenges to effective legislation in Nigeria
H02: there is no significant relationship between legislation and good governance in Nigeria
H2: there is a significant relationship between legislation and good governance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is conceived that at the completion of this studies, the findings will be beneficial to the employee of the National assembly and the legislatures who are responsible for law making.
The study will be of benefit to the media who will evaluate the effectiveness of the legislation in other to ensure good governance and appraise the performance of the government of the day, and criticize when necessary for better governance.
It is also conceived that the study will be beneficial to the teachers, lecturers, academia, students and researchers
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study covers legislation and good governance with emphasis on the 7th assembly, however the study has some limitations which include:
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: finance is a major constrain to the scope of the research as available fund does not permit further expansion of the scope of the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Legislation is defined as the making of laws, the process of writing and passing laws. However, a common and also more acceptable meaning refers to it as a laws passed by an official body especially a government assembly. According to the Black law Dictionary, legislation is the act of giving or enacting laws, the power to make laws, the act of legislating, preparation and enactment of laws, laws enacted by law-making body. Thus, legislation either refers to the process of making laws or the laws that emanate from such process. An important feature of it is that it must have emanated from a government body known to the laws of that society and this body is known as the legislature
The term “Good Governance”, no doubt, has very wide connotations. 6 In its widest connotation, it can be described as governance that meets or satisfies the yearnings or needs of the people in terms of development and good life. Governance that institutionalizes procedure for guaranteeing and protecting the rights of the citizens at all times within the framework of the constitution. Governance that promotes self-actualization and abhors poverty. Governance that recognizes the inalienable rights of the citizens to education, good health, constant and uninterrupted electricity, good water system, e.t.c.
Rule of law:
The exercise of state power using, and guided by, published written standards that embody widely-supported social values, avoid particularism, and enjoy broad-based public support
Official business conducted in such a way that substantive and procedural information is available to, and broadly understandable by, people and groups in society, subject to reasonable limits protecting security and privacy
Procedures requiring officials and those who seek to influence them to follow established rules defining acceptable processes and outcomes, and to demonstrate that they have followed those procedures
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed on Triton X-100 induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Triton X-100 and the rats were later treated with aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed at different dosage levels (50,100 and 200mg/kg body weight) and 10ml/kg/day of standard drug (Astrovastatin) for seven days. Another group received 0.9% Normal saline (1 ml/kg/day). Animals were euthanize by anaesthetization at the end of the experiment to harvest serum used for the biochemical analysis. Aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed extract prevented triton- induced increase in serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.05) and reversed the elevated serum LDL/HDL ratio comparably to Astrovastatin, The results demonstrated the amelioration of triton- induced hypercholesterolemia in rats by aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed. Consequently, we can hypothesize that the part of Punicagranatum seed mediated therapeutic effects is associated with its antiatherogenic/hypolidemic component.
Hypercholesterolemia is a lipoprotein metabolic disorder characterized by increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols or decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). It was reported to be one of the most important risk factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis that lead to cardiovascular diseases (Rerkasem et al., 2008). Hypercholesterolemia poses a major problem to many societies as well as health professionals because of the close correlation between cardiovascular diseases and lipid abnormalities (Matos et al., 2005; Ramachandran et al., 2003).Hypercholesterolemia is highly prevalent in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria. It ranges from 60% among apparently healthy Nigerians to 89% among diabetic Nigerians (Oguejiofor et al., 2012). Clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive reduction of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels could reverse atherosclerosis and decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (Brown and Jessup, 1999; Ichihashi et al., 1998).
Punicagranatum commonly known as pomegranate is a member of monogeneric family, punicacae and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin (Facciola, 1990).Punicagranatum can be divided into several anatomical compartments including seed,juice,peal,leaf,flower,bark and root each possessing interesting pharmacological and toxicological activities. Punicagranatum has extensively been used as a traditional remedy against acidosis,microbial infection,diarrhea (Kim and Choi, 2009).Punicagranatum seeds have also been shown to contain estrogenic compounds,oestrone and oestradiol (Kim and choi, 2009).The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy astringent pulp (Stover and Mercure, 2007). Punicagranatum is known for its high antioxidant capacity, it has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries (Syed et al 2007). Punica granatum products have also been reported to possess among others anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial and protective effects on liver function and lipid glucose metabolism(Medjakovic and jungbauer, 2013).According to Al-Muammar and khan 2015, the routine supplementation of Punica granatum may prevent or even correct obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Justification of study
Hypercholesterolemia is a problem faced by many societies since it constitutes one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and its complications, acute infraction of themyocardium or hypertension (Robbins, 1991; Gerhardt and Gallo 1998; Gomeset al., 1998). In view of the adverse effects associated with hypercholesterolemia, the quest for natural products with lipid-lowering potential and with minimal or no side effect is needed.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
The main aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum seed on triton X-100 induced hypercholesterolemia in male albino rats.
order to achieve the aim, the following specific objectives are followed.
To estimate total phenol content in aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed.
To estimate invitro radical scavenging of power aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed using 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as substrate.
To estimate inhibitory power of aqueous extract of Punicagranatum seed on lipase enzyme activity.
To induce hypercholesterolemia in rats using Triton X-100.
To study the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum seed on serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.
The project was carried out to examine the Effect of Computer Literacy on the Teaching and Learning of Social Studies in Ilorin Metropolis.
Two hundred respondents were randomly selected from Twenty (20) in Ilorin Metropolises. The data were collected, using questionnaire method. The data collected were analysed using frequency counts percentages and t-test four hypotheses formulated for the study. All the hypotheses were 8 tested at 0.5 alpha level.
Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised to guide the study. A researcher made questionnaire and was validated by experts and the supervisor of this work and the reliability co-efficient of 0.62 was ensured through test-retest method using Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient statistical techniques.
With these affirmation, it was therefore, recommended that more qualified teachers should be employed, they should give them opportunity to attend seminars and workshops, the school library should be well stocked, while adequate funds should be provided to purchase spare parts and maintenance.
Background to the Study
Computer is considered to be important
in many aspect of human endeavour. It plays a vital role in the life of
peoples; computer aids the development and achievement in so many aspect of
human endeavour. Computer makes life so easy and bearable; it assists business
enterprises, organization, education and technological centres (Charles, 2006).
According to Ajah (1982) and Ologo (1988) we are living in a world where
science and technology have become integral parts of the world’s culture, and
any country that over looked such significant tools does so at the risk of
remaining backward in technologically fast moving world.
To ensure a greater advancement in technology, everybody needs to become computer literate to a greater extent, whether at home, schools, banks, industry or offices. A greater effort has to be made by government in many countries such as Nigeria where at least little knowledge of computer has been introduced into most courses, starting from the primary school to tertiary institutions the role of computer in teaching and learning is now on the increases worldwide. In Europe, America and Asian countries, computer play significant roles in learning processes in all levels of education, including the world of E-mail and Internet.
It has been observed that, Nigeria can not
develop modern technology and sustain it, if she fails to play more emphasis on
computer education at the tertiary institution level.
The National Policy on Education (2004)
stressed that students should be well equipped to live effectively in our
modern age of science and technology. In order to solve the multitude of
problems facing the educational sector, there is need to put forward an
innovation right from the lower level of primary schools, which would lead to
effective, efficient, quantitative and individualized learning in spite of all
odds. This is the use of computer and individualized learning in spite of all
odds. This is the use of computer for classrooms teaching and learning.
The issue of poor usage and lack of
computer education is so bad that most teachers in our school don’t know how to
operate or interact with computer neither could they use one to teach their
students. The problems therefore, inspired the investigator to research into
factors militating against proper implementation of computer education in Ilorin metropolis, and
provide solution to such problems.
Statement of the Problems
A lot of challenges face the students’ acquisition of computer education. Some of the problems affecting effective teaching and learning of computer education include: inadequate facilities for teaching and learning computer education, there also the lack of enough qualified teachers for the study. This becomes important when we consider the effect. These could be on students’ performance in the subject. This then calls for investigation into the influence of computer education on parents’ performance.
The purpose of this study is to investigate on the characteristic of good future partners as perceived by students in tertiary institutions in Oyo town. The variables of interest were gender, age, family background, institution and religion.
Two hundred respondents were sampled for the study. Five hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts and simple percentages were used to analyse the demographic data of respondents. While t-test statistic and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical procedures were used to test the null hypotheses generated.
The result of the study revealed that the major characteristics of a good future partner is that a good future partner must be morally upright and God fearing, this characteristics ranked first in the ranking table. Next to this are “a good future partner must be a very caring person and someone I really love. These two characteristics are strong and important characteristics needed in choosing a good future partner.
Base on the findings of this study it was recommended that effort should be made by professional counsellors to organize seminars to enlighten youths on the need to be conscious of their choice on characteristics of good future partner. And that the curriculum planners should design curriculum in such a way that marriage education will be given the proper place in Nigerian tertiary institutions, to ensure that the right values are inculcated into the youths.
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 10
Research Questions 15
Research Hypotheses 16
Purpose of the Study 17
Significance of the Study 17
Operational Definition of Terms 19
Scope of the Study 20
TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept and meaning of Marriage 22
Importance of Marriage 27
Types of Marriage 32
The Spouse Selection Theories 37
Qualities of a Good Future Partner 44
Characteristics Considered in
Selecting a Good
Future Partner 47
General Limitations on Selection 57
Summary of the Review of Related
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Sampling Procedure 67
Properties of the Instrument 69
for Data Collection and Administration
Data Analysis 71
Demographic Data 72
Hypotheses Testing 80
of Findings 85
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION,
for Counselling 92
for Further Studies 94
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Gender 73
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents on the basis of age 74
Table 3: Distribution of Respondents on the basis of family background 75
Table 4: Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Institution 76
Table 5: Distribution of Respondents on the basis of Religion 77
Table 6: Rank order of items on the characteristic of good future partners 78
Table 7: Means, standard deviation and t-value
of respondents on the basis of Gender 80
Table 8: Mean,
standard deviation and t-value of
respondents on the basis of age 81
Table 9: Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) result comparing
the mean scores of responses on the
characteristics of good future partner as
perceived by respondents on the basis
of family background 82
Table 10: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) result on the characteristic of good future partner as perceived by respondents on the basis of institution 83
Table 11: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) result on the characteristic of good future partner as perceived by respondents on the basis of religion 84
Background to the Study
Selection of a mate is an integral part of life, it is a step needed in building a good marriage. Many human needs for happiness can be satisfied in the family circle between partners, and a warm family relationship can fill human’s normal longing to be loved, to be appreciated to feel needed in a wonderful way. History have it that marriage remains the most respected institution in the world and man has been known to seek for a partner with whom to spend his life time, because it’s a life time commitment (Kumuyi, 2005). It is a natural trait that humans want to have mates or companions with whom they share the various aspects of their lives: in order to satisfy sexual, social and other psychological desires.
Human behaviour is because of stimuli
from environment acting upon instincts and emotions (Sundharm and Vaish, 1978).
Hence, at a certain stage in a person’s life, due to such societal stimuli, he
or she becomes more concerned with the idea of having a family. Family
arrangement or as an institution is a societal recognized means through which a
man and a woman become husband and wife. Culturally until the twentieth
century, it was relevantly rare for adults to go through life without marrying
(Sundharm and Vaish, 1978). Basically, marriage is publicly recognized as a
conjugal unit, or more or less as a permanent alliance between a man and a
woman. In most societies, the families of the partners have a role in
establishing the relationship. Often choosing the mate, and at the least
manifesting their approval of the choice. Most often, they participate in rite
of passage, which constitutes formal marriage.
The characteristics that one looks for
while choosing a good mate vary from one individual to another, one family to
another and even culture to culture. Some young individuals have had a say or
at least a veto in their choice of their marriage partner, while others were
dependent on family backing. Individuals who want to make independent choices
can pay their own way and get marry even when their family strongly disapproves
it. Most people however, seek family consent for their choice of life partner.
Although the choice of spouse may give rise to interpersonal conflict, most
young people still consult their parents about it.
It is a firmly established societal
view that the issue of selecting a mate and marriage itself goes beyond the
couple alone. The immediate families of the two and even extended families
often influence the life of the couple and dynamic of the marriage. Willingness
on the part of the couple in co-operating with such external influence is often
due to their dependence on the relative for financial and moral supports have a
special reason for seeking parental or family approval in selecting her mate.
She is more likely to receive sympathy and attention should there be a marital
break up if the folks approved the alliance initially.
To summarise the above points some
characteristics that an individual looks for in selecting his or her marriage
partner can be referred to as yardsticks by which an individual measure. Oloko
(1994) observes the following as characteristic of selecting a good spouse;
physical beauty, discipline, social aptness, love, proper grooming and wealth.
Other yardsticks mentioned in the reference cited above include religious
affiliation, modesty, and humility. Odofin (2005) also stated that if a wise
choice of ones life partner is to be made, the following attributes have to be
Such a life partner must be a responsible person.
He or she
must be submissive, obedient and reliable.
He or she must be sexually appealing.
He or she must not be loose
He or she must not worship money.
He or she must be humble and mannered.
He or she must be neat and presentable
He or she must be a person to be proud of at any
characteristics are reflection of the person’s educational religious and
cultural background as well as his or her general social orientation. An
individual’s perception of what he would like to become and his prospective
future circumstances are also strong determinant. This is simply due to the
fact that one’s mate can go along way actively or other wise influencing one’s
personality and future prospects. Although these criteria are a measure that
shows what type of person an individual is. It is therefore vital that one
selects a mate that will serve to complement him or her.
Islamic perspective marriage is sacred and must be under taken by believes. The
Prophet Muhammed (S.A.W) said “marriage is lawful relationship, whoever defiles
it, is not of me”. Hadith. Allah in the Glorious Quran stated that: “And of
this signs is this: He created for you helpmate from yourselves that ye might
find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy lo, here indeed
are portent for folk who reflect” (Quran chapter 30 Vs 21). The general purpose
of marriage in Islam is that the sexes can provide company to one another, love
to one another, procreate children and live in peace and tranquility to the
commandments of Allah. And there is no place for celibacy in Islam. Also in
Islam, marriage is seen as “mithag” a solemn convent (agreement). It should be
entered into with total commitment and full knowledge of what it involves, it
is not a matter which can be taken lightly. Marriage is also a form of “Ibadah”
(worship) because it is a means of obeying Allah and His messenger, that is
marriage is seen as the only possible way for the sexes to unite. One could
choose to live in sin, however, by choosing marriage one is displaying
obedience to Allah. (Tannah, 2005).
In the Holy
Scriptures, the Bible emphasizes the importance of choosing or having a good
spouse. On selecting a good mate: I Corinthians 7:39 says “….. she is free to
be married to whom she wants only in the Lord.” This statement assumes that a good
spouse can be found only within the Lord, that is in the Christian
congregation. Also Genesis chapter 2 Vs 18 reads as follows: “And the Lord God
said, it is not good for the man to continue by himself, I am going to make
helper for him as a complement of him”. The word “helper” and complement are
used to signify that it is a good wife that can really complement the good qualities
in a man. The book of Proverbs chapter 18 Vs 22 says: “He who finds a wife
finds a good thing and obtains favour from the Lord”.
In the work
of Dominion (1968), Mbiti (1962) and Blood (1972) all of whom agreed that the selection
of a mate is either made by the Traditional African Society or by the family
and relatives. Mbiti (1969) reported that at times, the choice of spouse or
marriage partner was made even before the child was born. Lucy (1969) reported
that until recent times, it was common in Nigeria for both boys and girls to
be betrothed before puberty. Blood (1972) writing on the same issue, stated
that in the past ageing parents whose children were still not married would
struggle valiantly against illness and old age. They could not afford to die
until they had discharge their obligation to their ancestors by successfully
completing the marriage arrangements for their children.
Traditional African setting therefore, the selection of a spouse was mainly
that of the family or relative with or without the knowledge and consent of the
would be couple. According to Ibidun (1977) marriage, and family life form an
integral aspect of the extended traditional Nigeria, marriages is a family
based affair for parents made the selection or choice of partners for their sons
to the above practice Ojo (1988) stated that, in making a choice of marriage partner,
youths and other educated elites believe that it is the responsibility of
intending couples to make their choice. While parents should only serve as
counsellors where and when necessary. Later the couples will then introduce
themselves to their parents while they continue until they ask for their
parental acceptance from the two homes. Selection of spouses or good spouses
entails a lot of investigations by the two parties involved so as to assure the
quality they want in their spouses. Such as love, beauty, grooming, discipline,
interesting to note that in Nigeria,
there are different types of marriage with full legal implications. Among these
types of marriage enumerated by Adeoye (1975) are: church marriage, court
marriage, and traditional marriage. According to Fadeiye (1995), there is
Muslim marriage which allows for polygamous family. Those not receiving
parental or family approval often settle for court marriage or ordinance”
performance of traditional or customary marriage is clear indication that the
couple sought and receive family approvals.
This study is aimed at finding out the characteristics of good future partners, using the students in tertiary institutions in Oyo town as case study. This is intended to assist youth in mate selection exercise, since they are the leaders of tomorrow.
Leading assurance did not progress with 1970. The lead way company was incorporated in 1970 to make out full assurance business in Nigeria. The company registration office is in Kaduna.
The Head Quarter of lead way assurance is located at Kaduna town in Kaduna State. They have branches, which are refers to as ‘collecting centres’. These collecting centres are situated in almost every state of the federation.
Some of them are found in the following towns, Abuja, Akure (Ondo State), Bauchi (Bauchi state), Ibadan (Oyo state), Port Harcourt (River state) Sokoto (Sokoto state), Zaria (Kaduna state), Warri, Yola (Adamawa state), Gboko (Benue state), Jos (Plateau state), Kano (Kano state), Ikeja (Lagos state), Makurdi (Benue state) and Maiduguri (Borno state).
In these companies the following forms of the insurance business are: fire policies, motor vehicle business policies, accident policies, workmen compensation and life assurance policies.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Before the 19th century, there was nothing existing like Insurance business, nevertheless there were some association or communities who were organized in the form of material, social insurance schemes which had the common feature of today’s modern insurance. Among such were the age grade associations, extended family system and the cultural unions. These unions and associations maintained funds collected periodically from members out of which financial assistance were extended to decease members of the family who has experience some calamity.
In Nigeria, even up till today, this system of social insurance still exists as part of cultural life or many communities. In addition, we have the emergence of social club of Nigeria the kook kats club of Nigeria among many others which provide some form of social insurance schemes to their members as well as use part of the accumulated premiums for national development and charity donations.
The modern insurance business was first introduced in Nigerian 1921 by the Royal exchange assurance company Ltd and it remained the only insurance company in Nigeria. Until 1949 when three other British owned insurance companies were also established. Before 1921 however, some form of insurance business operated in Nigeria, mainly in marine (for export produce) sector, and a few in the motor insurance sector. One can understand the reason for this because by 1920 records showed that there were about 300 cars and a total of 17 miles of tarred roads in Nigeria, so the chance of knocked down a motor vehicle were very slight.
By the time Nigeria got her Independence in 1960, the number of Insurance companies operating in Nigeria had risen to 25. They were all mainly foreign-owned. However, by 1984, there were 88 insurance companies operating in Nigeria most of which are now indigenous companies. In addition to that there were no registered insurance brokers.
Available statistical information that the insurance market in Nigeria has grown rapidly since 1960, not only in numerical strength but also in assets. By 1983, the insurance business in Nigeria attracted a gross premium income of N634 million.
The first insurance act was promulgated in Nigeria in 1961 by the federal government known as “the insurance companies Act 1961”. The act introduces for the first the necessity for the registration or licensing of the insurance companies. At the same time there came the marine insurance Act 1961, which still governs the operation in Nigeria.
There were subsequent registration, the most prominent being the Nigeria insurance Decree 1976, which was promulgated to regulate the insurance business the way previous legislation did not do.
The federal ministry of finance and the office of the director of insurance altogether control insurance companies in Nigeria and the insurance business. The insurance department of this ministry is responsible for controlling the activities of insurance companies so as to ensure compliance with the provision of Nigeria insurance Decree 1996 and other relevant regulation to the business of insurance in Nigeria.
Some of the major insurance companies operating in Nigeria are under the National Corporation of Nigeria, which was established by Decree No. 22 of 1969 to transact the business of insurance in Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Insurance business in Nigeria specifically offers a number of protections to many risks to which the economy is exposed. Insurance companies perform a good number of functions in the Economic development of the country. Prominent among them is:
Safe-guarding the immeasurable risks to which capital is exposed and
Reducing the burden of loses for the entrepreneur or investors.
In as much insurance business facilities safer economic development many mere people are yet to recognize the relevance of this sector of trade.
The research work titled an assessment of public relations strategies in the Nigerian financial institution which focused on UBA bank Gboko is aimed at evaluating the duty of public relations in the banking sector which the researcher employed some research method in explaining the method which the research is been carried out.
Public Relations is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their organizational consequences, counseling management and implementing planned programme of action which will serve both the organization and its publics.
It is in this light that United Bank for Africa of Nigeria Plc as an organization needs to adopt and implement public relations strategies which is also the role of public relations in building a favorable image for an organization or a bank.
The research method used in this project work is a survey method and data collection form and questionnaires, because the research needs really to assess the strategies employed or adopted by public relations in banking sector which the researchers findings and recommendations were based on results obtained during the course of this research work.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
the world we live in today is dominated by improved technology like wise public relations seems to be growing rapidly to attract good measures of recognition within and outside immediate environment of organizations either public or private.
Similarly, the emergence of public relations have made among organizations to adopt it to maintain good and effective management function, creating goodwill as well as mutual understanding the world over. And it is most interesting to note that there is nothing on the surface of this earth that public relations cannot be employed to support through policy decisions. However, most organizations have adopted advertising rather than public relations in trying to convince consumers towards product patronage. This is to say that most organizations have failed to acknowledge the service of public relations.
Like other fields or areas of specialization, public relations is been looked upon by many authors, according to Chile (2002.2) as have stated by Public Relations Associations of America have released the latest definition of public relations chronicle on the 13th of April, 2012; thus “Public Relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationship between organization and their publics”. Listed as definition no. 2 in he public vote, it received 671 votes, or 46.9 percent of 1,447 total votes. Simple and straight forward, this definition focuses on the basic concepts of public relations as a communication process, one that is strategic in nature and emphasizing “mutually beneficial relationship”. “process is preferable” to management function”, which can evoke ideas of control and top-down, one way communication. “relationship relates to public relations’ role in helping to bring together organization and individual with their key stakeholders. “public” nature of public relations, whereas “stake-holder” has connotations of publicly traded companies. Meanwhile, other definitions are still relevant.
Also public relations (PR) is all about maintaining relations with publics. It is a profession with varying definitions held of its many functions and the differentiating perceptions held by its practitioners and thee public. Public relations (PR) is a profession that includes the functions of communication, community relations, crises management, customer relations, employee relations, mediation, publicity, speech-writing and visitor relations.
This project points out the important and necessity of good human relations aimed at improving secretarial functions in an organization. Essentialities of Good Human Relations itself are a reflection of effectiveness and efficiency of the secretary. The success and growth of an organization is based among other competing factors on the effectiveness of the secretary applying good human relations with his or her co-workers and outsiders.The following are outlines treated in the study:Ø What is the implication and meaning of Essential human relations and computerization?Ø The secretary function.Ø Applying essential human relations to secretarial functions.Ø Qualities of a secretary.Ø Essential human relation in offices.Ø Importance of essential human relations in offices.Ø Cardinal principles of essential human relation.
The motive of the research that leads to this topic is to look into and study the good human relations of a secretary to the enlistment of an organization. It will be helpful for the growth of an organization if the issue of good human relations development is allowed and likewise the organizations staff and customers will be equally encouraged and treated in the same manner. Processing good human relations with direct experience will lead to effective performance of secretaries in organizations. The improved performance of any organization, be it the government or private, depends on how well its members are trained i.e. How the secretaries relate with the management team, co-staffers and the customers. Good human relations of a secretary in an organization lead to general improvement in any section in an organization because by paying positive attention to the boss, it can lead to promotion of the secretary.
assessment of financial statement in decision making is of great important in
any organization the coca cola in ilorin.
Assessment and statement in decision making.
the prominent of financial and other decision making cannot be over emphasized
most especially in coca cola depot.
one contain the historical background of the coca cola which happen to be the
mother of companies.
two contain literature review, the introduction, the concept of the study and
source of the study .
three contain research methodology, research design, source of data and the
four contain the data analysis and interpretation.
Chapter five contain the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Table of content
background of the study
statement of the study
significance of the study
scope of the study
limitation of the study
plan of the study
definition of terms
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
financial statement and decision
importance of book-keeping and
financial statement for management
purpose of financial statement to
financial statement and planning
financial statement and control
financial statement as an aid to
interpretation of company annual
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
historical background of Nigeria
research design in assessing financial
statement in decision making.
Population study in assessing
financial statement in decision making
Sample and sampling techniques in
assessing financial statement in decision making
Data collection instruments
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis in assessing
financial statement in decision making
Limitation of the methodology
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION,
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
data presentation and interpretation
testing of the hypothesis
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
a brief introduction of the chapters
summary of the whole study
summary of the findings
suggestion for further study
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
statement has been defined by the statement of accounting standard no. 2 (sas
2) as the means of communicating to interested parties, information on the
resources obligation and performance of the reporting entity or enterprises
financial statement therefore, are statement of statement of summarized
transaction of a business organization, prepared and presented basically for a
time period for various decision making situation by a variety of users.
to SAS no 1 financial statement are
on conversion derived from experience. The conversion originated from such
concepts as entity, going concern, periodicity, realization, matching,
consistency and historical cost. The purpose of this statement is not evolve a
basic theory of accounting but to identify some of these concepts wh1ich are
generally accepted. Finance statement are there generally accepted. Financial
statements are there fore expected to be simple, clear and easy to understand by
all users. The publisher financial statement are prepared inform of reports.
many people think of financial statement as statement highly technical
documents which can be understood by those with accounting knowledge financial
statement provide information needed as a basis for making business decision
that will enable management to guide the company on a profitable and solvent
statement consist of balance sheet profit account and loss account, notes to
the account cash flow statement, value added statement and historical financial
making is normally derived as a choice. Between at least alternatives courses
of action. If a choice does not have to be made to solve problem. An
individuals is not actually involved in a decision are influenced by a
combination of objective and factors. In most situations, it is possible to
analyze some of the consequences of alternative action in decision. Financial
statements of provide a means for such quantitative analysis. Users of
financial statement include investors, potential employer, potential director,
and rvenue and regulatory, authorities (sas1).
need information about business organization in making business decision but
have neither direct access to the reporting organization records legislature
power to them in special manner.
of the company therefore, met the needs of these users preparing general
financial statement covering the result of business activities and the economic
resources entrusted to them and obligation incurred by entrusted to them and
obligation by them.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
was unfortunate, that the management of the business organization and some
other users of financial statement do not use them when making vital business
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
main objectives of this project is to collect information and understanding of
the use of information, the financial statement provided on the affair of a
company (i.e coca cola bottling company, ilorin) and server as an aid to the
management decision making. Much emphasis is going to the laid on the
interpretation of accounting figure rather than the process of data
accumulation and statement preparation. Nevertheless, for read approach and
professionals in accounting sector who wish to give an understanding of how
accounting serves as an aid to management decision making which goes beyond the
narrow professional approach found in day of fay running of organization.
Therefore, the study will critically examine the extent to which financial
statements decision making. It which show the principles that will guide the
financial management accounts of coca cola company in preparing their financial
statement for management consumption. The study will pinpoint some weakness
that need retredy and financial statement should be related upon to be used as
to planning, policy and control in an organization. It will provide the ways of
measuring pass operations, regulating performance and future estimate.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Serving as a future for further research in demonstration that an assessment of financial statement is decision making will be beneficial.
An effective tool in assessing financial statement will be beneficial to other organization
Educating people that without an assessment of financial statement a good decision will not be made.
In distant past, the people that lived as families and clans in villages and towns communicated among themselves with different communication media. From the Stone Age up to the present computer generation, communication has been a tool with which to interact and sustain individuals and societies in general.
Communication is the sharing or exchange of ideas, information, knowledge, attitude or feeling among two or more persons through certain signs and symbols with or without the purpose of affecting or changing the receiver either positively or negatively. Communication is central and critical to all human activities such as rural and national development as well as promoting good health habits. No community ever survived without communication.
In recent years, health professionals have developed a growing appreciation of the critical role that communication plays in healthcare. The effective communication of information on medical conditions and healthy lifestyles has played an important part in the improvement of the health status of people in the society. Communication thus plays an integral role in the delivery of healthcare and the promotion of health habits. Communication is used in creating public awareness, encouraging healthy behaviours, changing attitudes and motivating individuals to adopt recommended behaviours. This shows that communication and health are closely related and this dialectical relationship between communication and health has given rise to a specialized field of communication known as health communication.
Health communication, according to Ratzan (1194), cited by Batta and Wilson (2013), is the act and technique of informing, influencing and motivating individuals, institutions and the public on important health issues. It encompasses the study and the use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual’s and community’s knowledge, attitude, practices and decisions with regard to health. Health is not just about the absence of diseases or infirmities, but also the same condition of man, physically, mentally and socially. Without good health, not much is possible. Politics, education, agriculture, trade and commerce; all depend on an optimal enjoyment of good health (Batta, 2013).
Health promotion is in the province of public communication, which confers a responsibility on individuals toward their fellow citizens. It serves the primary purpose of softening the ground for effective take-off of individual and national development. Thus when people are adequately informed about what it means to be in good health, and how they can be in good health, there is need to further persuade them to take practical steps toward achieving this in order to live a better life. The notion of promotion therefore operates on the premise that those living at the periphery where poverty, hunger and diseases are more pronounced, need to be educated, sensitized and be motivated continually to practise and participate in programmes and projects that will help them to be aware of their actions and activities towards the achievement of good health.
Health promotion is a communication action. Hence, the message code needs to be properly conceived and delivered in order to bring about the desired attitude and behavioural change of human, community, state and the nation at large. The people in Uruan, like those in other communities in Akwa Ibom State, are people afflicted by the vicious cycle of poverty, ignorance and illiteracy. The dominant means of communication in Uruan are those of traditional communication.
objectives of SIWES (Definition of SIWES)
Historical background of the organization
activities of the organization
function of various section/units of the organization
involvement at various section/ unit
Interpersonal relationship with the organization
experience gained to the student field study
Impression about the organization
This report gives a good account of the training and experience which exposed student during the student industrial work experience (SIWES) at God Grace Computer Center.
called (SIWES) student industrial work experience scheme is compulsory to all
ND1 student who offer science course or any other practicable course. It
enables student to have the experience of the aspect which have been taught in
school. It is a program that takes up to four month in which student are
expected to be able practices what they are taught.
OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
The student industrial work experience scheme
(SIWES) can be define as a technical skills and acquisition of knowledge from
the organization, industrial sector. It is also serving as the complement the
learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.
The objective of the student industrial work
experience scheme is as follow
It enables the student to practically different
test from what they learnt theoretically in the classroom.
It also enlighten student to various s division of
industrial or organization of work in which the course of study can be
It relate the student to the labor market and how
it being operated.
To enable student to defend his or her self in
anywhere he or she found itself.
BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION
The name of the organization is InshaAllahuComputer
Centre; it is located at No 10&11 adegbodu area iwo Osun State.
It was created in 2000 and was directed by MRS Taiwo Tijani. The aims and objective of the organization is to train both SIWES and its student and also individual in networking in order for them to know much or deep about and they have taught in their various institutions.
The project “The effect of good corporate governance on the profit of Zenith International Bank Plc. is intended to look into the principles by giving the definition, objectives, significance, problems and other study relating to the company to enable the auditor make necessary recommendations.
Furthermore, the research went further to discuss the methodology adopted, in conducting the research, how data was collected and appropriate analysis and interpretation was done to make the project meaningful.
Finally, interference was drawn, and the whole project was summarized and conclude based on researcher findings.
Corporate Governance can be defined as the system by which companies are directed and controlled. Statuary control of corporate governance has been with us for a long time and has increased overtime. Corporate Governance is the system by which companies are directed and managed in the best interest of the owners and investors. It refers to the role of the board of directors, executives and non executives. Shareholders right and other actions taken by shareholders to influence corporate decisions.
Corporate Governance covers all the general mechanisms by which management are led to act in the best interest of the companies’ owners.
According to Piplock (2004) “Corporate governance is the set of rules and practices that government relationship between the managers and shareholders of corporations as well as other stakeholders like employee creditors, tax authorities, trade unions, suppliers and other public authorities.
THE ESSENCE OF GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
1. Corporate governance aims to promote culture in which directors will give privacy to the ethical pursuit of shareholders best interest.
2. Corporate governance allows a review of audit regulation corporate disclosure framework and shareholders participation to improve the accountability and transparency of companies.
3. It ensures that audit committee assist the board of directors in its oversight of the integrity of the financial statement of the company, as well as compliance with legal and regulatory requirement and the performance of the company’s internal audit function.
4. It renders companies to be more credible, domestically and internationally, and ensure managerial system that promote creative and progress entrepreneurship.
5. Corporate governance helps to maximize corporate value by enhancing the transparency and efficiency of corporation for the future.
6. The role of corporate governanceis to prevent expropriation to investors by managers.
7. Good corporate governance would prevent theft and fraud thought mechanisms designed by the board and management.
8. Corporate governance deals with the ways providers of finance to companies assure themselves of getting a return on their investment.
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Strategic management is the process of making and implementing strategic decisions or corporate decision it is about the process of strategic change (Adeleke, Ogundele and Oyenuga 2004).
Bowman and Asch (1987) define it as the match an organisation makes between its own resources and threats, risks and opportunities created by the external environment in which it operates. Strategy can be seen as the key link between what an organisation wants to achieve its objectives and policies adopted to guide its activities and plans for achieving those goals stated in a way as to define the business the organisation is engaged or is to be engaged in.
The importance of strategic management within he framework of Corporate Governance are:
(1) The concept of strategy is assumed to be concerned with the organisation as a whole.
(2) It is concerned with the long-term direction of an organisation.
(3) It is distinguished from operational matters which are concerned with the day-to-day aspects of running an organisation.
(4) The skills of strategic management are considered to be a high order and often assumed to be found at the senior levels within the organisation.
This research work focuses on the role of salary increase as a means of increasing productivity of workers particularly in NDL.
The need for salary increase, qualities of a good salary increase, different types of incentive scheme were highlighted. Questionnaires were drawn up and administered on the worker in other to know and examine the cause of low productivity of workers.
The findings indicate that there are shortages of certain vital incentives such as lack of participative management, provision of salary upfront and granting of loan, periodic review of salary etc.
This work then recommend that the provision of upfront salary, periodic review of salary, participative management amongst all should be adopted in the organisation.
Conclusively, the use of salary increment serves as a catalyst for productivity and also the provision of a conducive atmosphere / environment is also necessary for best job performance.