The main instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The instrument was structured according to strongly agree, agree, disagreed and strongly disagreed. In our study, we find out that the teachers still have along way to go in the world of computer.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This century has witnessed the transformation of the human society from the industrial age to information age. The volume of information that circulates in an economy is now a measure of the level of advancement of any economy. Industries enjoy relative advantage over their competitors if they have monopoly of some classes of business information. Nation is stronger than others because they have more information. It is therefore, not surprising that government and private business organizations invest significant proportion of their budget in information technology. The computer plays a central role in the acquisition, processing, storage, dissemination, and use of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information. The use of computer has revolutionized the way we do business, study, work, and social activities and so on, as well as continue to touch and change our daily lives in a profound way. So significant is the impact of computer that it is regarded as an enabling technology, the facilitator of change and the creator of hitherto unimaginable possibilities.
This research work investigated the attitude of students towards students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) using the descriptive survey research design. The research conducted among undergraduates students of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. 200 students were randomly selected from the department of Vocational and Technical education. The instrument was a 20 item question name score in likert type response format; Strongly Agree (5), A =Agree (4), U= Undecided (3), DA= Disagree (2), and SD =Strongly Disagree (1). The research questions were analyzed using the mean rating, and the findings showed that:
School equipment were not found replicating those in the industries
The schools lack adequate infrastructures that discouraged students further in showing concern for industry’s based training
Knowledge of I.T was found to be valuable in giving students an idea of industrial management
SIWES enhance student’s ability to tackle technical problems
Attitude as a concept is concerned with individuals’ way of thinking, acting, and behaving. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. Attitude is fundamental to understanding social perception of people because they strongly influence people. Ojo (2000) said that it is the disposition of men to view things in a certain way and to act accordingly. This notion of attitude however, could be said to have propelled students who gain admission into universities to have preference for a particular course of study. Furthermore, some students still hold divergent views based on their attitudinal disposition to the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), which motivate them towards the studying of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in tertiary institutions.
According to Akerele (2007) the present state of technological development in Nigeria calls for appropriate orientations towards technological and vocational education as a springboard for skills acquisition. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) in her national policy on education defined technical and vocational education as acquisition of demonstrable skills that could be transformed into economic benefits. It also refers to those aspects of education process involving general education, the study of technologies, science and acquisition of practical knowledge and skills.
Labour management which is a subject area in the curriculum of industrial relations and areas of practice in vocational education in the business world was born in North America in the late 1910s and 1920s. In the beginning, a plethora of names were used to describe this subject area. Names that were commonly encountered include employment management, labour management, personnel management, personnel administration, labour relations and industrial relations.
Traditionally, labour management was considered as a relationship between employees and employers, but in recent times, this has become a burning issue consisting of the relationship between workers, employers and social environment of the organisation. It is a dynamic social process that makes a social dialogue possible among employees, employers and the organisational social environment.
David (1997) opines that labour management include aspects of industrial life such as collective bargaining, trades unionism, discipline and grievance handling. Industrial disputes, employee participation in management and the interpretation of labour management relations which aims at reaching an agreement for all employees and workers in a given company or work place. Usually, it focuses on issues such as wages, working hours, promotions, benefits, allowances, conflict management, health and safety of employees and other terms. Labour management aims to protect the interests of labour and management. It targets the highest level of mutual understanding among all sections in the industry which take part in the production process. It seeks to prevent industrial conflict and works for harmonious relations, a key factor progress. The objectives of labour management variables are: increased productivity, enhanced worker efficiency, elimination or reduction of the number of strikes or lockouts by provision of reasonable wages, improving healthy living and safe working environment through the provision of basic amenities to the workers.
According to Nel, Gerber, VanDyk, Haasbroek, Schuhz, Sono and Wemer, (2004) employers have various expectations within the workplace, and for organisation to address and meet these expectations a thorough understanding of the variables that motivates workers is needed. Labour management variables play important roles in achieving goals or the objectives of the academic institutions in Nigeria through ensuring that the Business education teachers are in place with respect to organisational influences.
Aliyu (1998) asserted that business education teachers can be found in post-primary, tertiary or professional educational institutions. Anyanduba (1987) stated that business education is education for business and about business; while Ulinfun in Aliyu (1998) postulated that it is the education for business or training in business skills, which is required for use in business office and clerical occupation, and business policy analysis. Aina (1986) defined business education as the total knowledge skills and attitudes that are required for successfully promoting and administering a business enterprise.
In furtherance of the objectives of business education in equipping its recipients with an all round education to possessing appropriate skill, knowledge and making them self-reliant, the person responsible for these endowments is the business educator (Olusola 2002). The business educator, therefore, can be said to be that person or teacher who equips his students with the necessary talents to succeed in the world of business: cognitive, effective and psychomotor skills inclusive. Business education teachers involves teachers that train students the fundamental, theories and processes of business and management courses in all levels of academics for self-reliance and employment creation.
Many factors affect the job performance and productivity of business education teachers. Among them are intrinsic and extrinsic levels of job satisfaction, and it is only a satisfied worker that can be productive and committed to his job. Babatunde (1992) believes that only satisfied teachers will be more stable and productive; and Agbunno (1994) asserted that job performance of teachers is the measure of how much the educator offered and has turned out people who are intellectually, morally, emotionally, attitudinally, culturally and above all functionally and relevantly equipped for useful living within the society.
George and Jones (2002), postulated that job performance may contribute to workers being satisfied with their job only if they are fairly rewarded for good performance. Perception maybe that workers’ motivation can be confused with their job performance and that both are distinct aspects of behaviour in an organisation. Ehiametalor (1990) indicated that the teaching profession has witnessed negative forces that tend to affect its image adversely. It must be emphasised that labour management variables, which are also motivational factors relating to staff job performance are problems bedevilling education and the teaching profession. Labour management variables are problems which are of nation-wide concern that affects all level of educational institutions and deserves national urgent attention.
The purpose of this study is to examine the system of administration of industrial conflict in higher institution in Nigeria with a case study of Federal Polytechnic nekede, Owerri, Imo State. the result of findings shows that individual conflicts in Nigerian higher institutions occurs in the forms of lockout, strike, work –to-rule and lock-in. the factors responsible for these include workers demand for improved welfare scheme, governments refusal to comply and breach of terms of settlements disputes. Such conflicts are resolved through collective bargaining, vnilateral actions of the government and appointments of mediator and conciliation. The problem in industrial conflicts administration includes the attitude of the institution authorities, government union leaders. The effect of industrial conflict in Nigeria higher institutions involves decline in productivity of all staff loss of much man-hours, laxity among students staff, deterioration of relationship between staff and government. The work recommends that the government should provide adequate funds for effective administration of Nigeria higher institutions, these will make the authorities able to provide adequate remunerations, compensation and welfare scheme for the staff. This will always ensure industrial peace in the institutions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification page ii
Table of content vi
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms
Meaning of industrial conflict
Meaning of conflict
Types of conflict
Effect of industrial conflicts in higher institutions
Procedures for settling trades disputes.
Factors responsible for industrial conflict in higher institutions
Research design and methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sources / Method of data collection
3.4 Population and sample size
3.5 Sampling techniques
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
3.7 Method of Data analysis
Presentation and Analysis of data
4.2 Presentation of data analysis
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Test of Hypothesis
4.5 Interpretation of result(s)
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.2 Summary of findings
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Industrial conflict has been defined by many authors in their perspectives. But before going in details. The meaning of conflict has to be known. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English defined conflicts as a situation in which people group or countries are involved in serious disagreement or arugment. The term conflict is seen or experienced in every organization made up of staff and trade unions.
Conflict is based on the incapability of goals that arises from opposing behaviours. Individual differences are bound to produce some conflict, but they will also produce the flexibility, creativity and specialization necessary for modern organization to survive. Having know what conflict is all about, industrial conflict is therefore any dispute or incompatibility of interest between employee and employer or employers and employees connected with employment or non-employment.
In the formation of the nation’s industrial policy the federal government was influenced by the country’s social and economic conditions and the standards set by the international labour organization (ILO) of which Nigeria is a member. In Nigeria, trade unions services and industrial relation department are under the federal ministry of labour and productivity they are primarily responsible for the promotion and maintenance of industrial peace and harmony in all trade disputes which have failed to settle through internal machinery designed to reach amicable settlement of disputes. The increase in strict and industrial tension could be blamed on deeprated suspicions between employers and workers as well as intra-union crises. In a bid to maximize their standard of living which often eroded by initation, workers demand higher pay and better condition of service and employer resist such request because they fear that it might reduce their profits.
The causes of inter and intra union disputes may be traced to communication gap between the official’s and member alleged misappropriation or embezzlement of unions found, arbitrary dismissal of national officers by the union, refusal to call national delegated conference as and when due, in recent years, trade dispute especially those of inter and intra union cases have resulted in litigations in the law courts. Some disputes has led to the institution of more than 40 court cases involving different trade unions. The industrial relations degree of 1996 sets the detail of law disputes between employees and trade union are to be settled. Employers and unions are required to attempt internal settlement through joint constitution and collective bargaining. Where this fails, there is provision for the declaration of formal trade dispute and for the matter to be referred to the ministry of labour and productivity. The ministry can then refer the case to the industrial arbitration panel which renders a binding decision, if any of the parties resorts to the decision. The matter will be lasting referred to the national industrial court.
In the past ten years, the history of industrial relations in our institutions of higher learning is maintain by constant industrial actions. The first was in 1988 when the academic staff union of Nigeria universities (ASSU) embarked on a strike action against their employers. National universities commission and federal ministry of education and their individual universities. Again the academic staff unions of Nigeria polytechnic (ASSP) embarked on a three months nation-wide strike in 2013. in Nigeria, institutions of higher learning have experience so many period of industrial unrest. Trade disputes are often declared by the trades unions in these institutions. Some of the trade disputes have been resolved through internal conflict resolution while other through mediation and conciliation by a third party. Thus, administrative of industrial conflicts in Nigeria institutions of higher learning have been done through many amicable procedures.
The study was aimed at examining the spatial pattern of industrial production subcontracting in Onitsha Metropolis Anambra State Nigeria. Data were collected from documentary materials, questionnaire, in-depth interviews and field observation and were analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation, nearest neighbour analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study revealed that production subcontracting by firm size was more prominent in small and medium scale industries than large scale industries with 36.7%, 53.3%, and 10% respectively. The result of the nearest neighbour analysis revealed that the pattern of distribution of industries in the study area generally was relatively clustered while relatively dispersed within the industrial groups.The PCA analysis performed on 15 variables of factors influencing the location of industries reduced them to 5 components namely availability of economic cost elements, influence of infrastructural facilities, family ties, influence of cluster/agglomeration economies, and influence of government policy. The underlying dimensions together explained 74.12% of the total variance leaving 25.88% of the total variance unexplained. The factors influencing the use of production subcontracting by industries revealed that subcontracting factors such as reducing operational cost, concentrating on core business function, improvement in quality of service, and increased flexibility respectively were the major factors influencing production subcontracting in the study area while the factors influencing the selection of subcontracting partners revealed that high quality of service, high degree of mutual trust, good reputation, location and lower cost respectively were the major factors influencing the selection of subcontracting partners in the study area. The analysis of benefits and problems of production subcontracting revealed reducing cost of operation, improving service quality, enhancing core business capacity and releasing key internal resources respectively were the most commonly accepted benefits while subcontracting limitations such as disclosure of commercial secrets, interest conflicts, decrease compatibility of innovation and unfulfilled orders respectively were the most commonly observed problems limiting production subcontracting in the study area. The study recommended that a code of business behaviour encompassing a body of laws and principles guiding this production process be established in the study area. This will help the firms to makerational decisions or to seek redress once there is a bridge of contract.
An industry is a group of businesses that produces similar products or provides similar services (Comanor, 2004). A firm on the other hand is anindustrial unit or entity carrying out a portion of business which involves the manufacturing and processing of items as well as the creation of new commodities under a single management (Beaker and Dietz, 2004). An aggregation of this unit of production called firm which produces similar products or services is known as an industry (Ikejiofor, 2012).
Manufacturing however is the production of goods for use or sale using labour, tools, machines, chemical and biological processes or formulations (Norrie, 1999). Manufacturing may also refer to a range of human activities, from handcraft to high technology but most commonly applied to industrial production in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale (Bailey, David and Soyaung, 2009).
The success of industrial production or manufacturing largely depends on the establishment of useful linkages between industries (Khac, 2013). Industrial linkage is the interrelationship among various industrial activities through the input-output relationship or the economic value chain. Industrial linkage according to Mayhew (2009) can also be referred to as vertical disintegration, which is the various diseconomies of scale or scope which have broken a process into separate companies each performing a limited subset of activities required to create a finished product.In the views of Hussian (2004), Industrial linkages usually come in the form of alliance, clustering and networking. An industrial alliance is formed by firms coming together in some contractual arrangement. The well known types of contractual arrangements include; subcontracting, licensing, joint venture, strategic alliance and consortium (Hussian,2004).Production subcontracting which is a type of industrial linkage based on alliance is a work contract that seeks to outsource certain typesof work to other companies (Teresia, 2011). It has been observed that over the past 50-60 years, the world has seen major changes in the composition of its production process, falling transportation and composition cost, coupled with rapid technological changes, intensified competition and economic librations have facilitated the process of global economic integration (African Development Report, 1998). This has in turn enhanced international trade flows, and especially trade of intermediates products through subcontracting.
Subcontracting is a step down from general contracting, which is contract overseeing a much broader project in many cases. It is expected to create gainful employment and alleviate poverty through sustained facilitation of young industries and inter-firm linkages (Gakure, Kimemia, and Waititu, 2014). Industrial production subcontracting in the views of Holl (2007) is geared towards increasing production and employment in small and medium scale industries, upgrading the manufacturing processes, improving productivity and international competitiveness of all local produce.
In Nigeria, industrial production subcontracting; a strategic positioning of industrial activities started in the early 1960s, the post-independence period (Ajayi, 2007). The earliest stage in the adoption of production subcontracting as an industrial production technique in Nigeria was characterised by insignificant growth and rapid growth thereafter. Production subcontracting became very important after the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986, and it is perceived by industrialist as very important in reducing the cost of production (Ajayi, 2007). Production subcontractors are concentrated in Lagos, Ikorodu, Sagamu and Ibadan in the Southwest; Jos, Kaduna, Zaria, Kano, and Sokoto in the north; and a few other locations such as Benin, Owerri, and Port-Harcourt in the south and Ilorin in the (middle belt).
The process of production subcontracting is important in identifying the spatiality in the distribution of manufacturing industries through a network of inter-firm relationships. It is also important in identifying the industrial agglomeration that is, the development of clusters of industries in a particular geographical centre as well as an industry’s investment decisions (Grossman and Heplman, 2005). The need to study industrial production subcontracting arises because the arrangement plays different roles in different industries and in different geographical areas.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigateindustrial production subcontracting in Onitsha metropolis in Anambra State, Nigeria in order to understand the benefitsof production subcontracting to industrial activities in the study area.
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Around the world, large companies try to become smaller in terms of employment (downsizing). Most companies now rely on others to look after some of their internal operations such as external security, transportation, distribution, logistics and operations. Manufacturing was long seen as a core activity, in a number of industries it still is but in sectors such as textiles, and clothing, rubber and plastics, metallic products, motor vehicles, leather, chemical industries etc, with highly standardised production processes and great differences in the labour-capital and skill intensiveness of the different stages that make up these processes, it is now common to subcontract parts or components of an operation to independent firms so as to enable the industry to focus on its core activities (Holl, 2007). Industries resort to subcontracting because it helps them spread risks, lower costs, gain access to key technologies reduce working capital and adjust their level of production more flexibly by passing on the burden of idle overheads to the development of industries most especially small and medium sized subcontracting firms as globalisation and new technologies challenge supply system in mature industries (Holl, 2008). For example, Chrysler and Ford subcontracted most of their minicompact and subcompact cars and only produce less than one-half of the value of all their vehicles (Gilley, 2000). Conversely, new industries maybe setup to supply established firms with certain parts, materials or components leading to the production of a product in a subcontracting arrangement or linkage. Some of the small and medium sized industries have developed in and around the larger industries leading to production cost reduction, employment generation and ensuring a certain standard regarding quality of output and delivery times.
In recognition of these facts, industrial production subcontracting has received little attention in the empirical research in Nigeria and indeed Onitsha metropolis. Most of the studies on industrialisation in the study area have focused mainly on the characteristics of industries- firm size, ownership, and firm type (Nwaocha, 1985), Industrial input- optimization of energy and manpower (Kajogbola, 1997), Industrial Management (Ekechukwu, Madu, and Nwanya, 2011) and Technological capacity of Industries (Muogbo,2013). The importance of these variables on the performance, growth, and development of industries cannot be over emphasized or ignored but in addition, there is the need to address the linkage relationship among industries in the area through industrial production subcontracting in order to establish the network of inter-firm relationship among industries in the area.
The few known studies on production subcontracting in Nigeria, however are the works of Ajayi (1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2007), Arimah (2002), Oyeyinka (2004), Alarape (2007) and Makinde, Abdulganiyu and Dikko (2011). These works focused on production subcontracting in manufacturing industries in Nigeria while the work of Makinde, Abdulganiyu and Dikko (2011) focused on subcontracting in construction industries in Nigeria. Ajayi (2002 and 2003), posited that production subcontractors are concentrated in Lagos, Ikorodu, Sagamu and Ibadan in the Southwest; Jos, Kaduna, Zaria, Kano, and Sokoto in the north; and a few other locations such as Benin, Owerri, and Port-Harcourt in the south and Ilorin in the middle belt. This position is arguable. This is because his work left out oldand prominent industrial areas in Nigeria such as Aba in Abia State and Onitsha and Nnewi in Anambra State all inNigeria. Onitsha metropolis for instance is one of the fastest growing industrial and commercial cities in the South-eastern Nigeria with an appreciable number of industries and a host of emerging ones. Some of these industries are located in Harbour Industrial layout, Bridge head industrial Layout, Fegge layout, Awada industrial layout etc.The industrial configuration of Nigeria has gone beyond the traditional: Lagos-Ibadan-Benin axis; Jos-Kano-Kaduna triangle and Port Harcourt-Enugu axis (Ajayi, 2007) to include the Nnewi district (Oyeyinka 2003) and the Onitsha nucleus with a significant upsurge in manufacturing activities.
Moreover, much of the previous works had concentrated on the country as a whole and as a result may not give detailed account of production subcontracting arrangements in a local scale hence, the need to study industrial production subcontracting in Onitsha metropolis.
Industry is an important segment of the economy, the collapse of which will result in the collapse of the economy (South East Queensland (SEQ), 2001; Judy, 2002; and Slogett and Wood, 2005). The activities involved and the result of industrial processes permeate all aspects of society because it is all-encompassing. It improves trade balance because home-grown products, substitute imports, thus saving valuable foreign exchange (Ekholm, 2003), and the more the foreign exchange earned the better for the nation (Cortright, 2001a, Inamura, 2003, Gates, 2006).
Industry generates benefits such as the creation of wealth via the multiplier effect, prosperity, employment and is a vital component in foreign trade. Industrial activities can operate and export to gain more foreign exchange that structurally diversifies the economy, which grows faster and becomes more resilient. It is one of the processes of spatial transformation especially with migration and information flows. There has been traditionally wide support for the leading role of manufacturing in generating wealth and income, which in turn can support expansion in other sectors (Mano and Otsuka, 2000; Feldman, Aharonson and Baum, 2006). Development is based upon growth, which results from further industrialization and increased industrial production.
The location or the locality where an industrial plant situates is accepted to be significant in the processes of economic change. In location of industries, assembly, processing, and shipment are vital because input materials are collected to a point where processing takes place, and production and shipment of the outputs to areas of consumption. For instance, the preferred location of each individual producer is that where demand is large or supply of inputs is particularly convenient. In general, this is the location chosen by other producers (Krugman, 1991a). Such agglomeration is a strategy whereby producers ease the tasks of transactional interaction because proximity translates into lower costs and wider opportunities for matching needs and capabilities and only by close agglomeration can the industrializing country/region usually afford the necessary infrastructure (Mano and Otsuka, 2000; Galan, Benito and Vicient, 2006; and Feldman et al, 2006;). Also, manufacturers are attached to a region by the fact that such agglomeration can sustain a well-developed transport network and a wide range of specialized technical and financial services.
Furthermore, there are certain places in which it is most convenient for the exchange of commodities to take place. These are great business centers or commercial towns. There are special conveniences for exchange that have favoured their rise and growth, and the mere fact that a town lies about the middle of a densely populated district is likely to make it the most convenient place of exchange for the products of that district and for articles brought from more distant parts. Thus, towns situated where a number of roads converge are likely to grow into more important business centers (Cortright, 2001a; Badri, 2007; and Wong, 2007).Therefore, it is only by studying industry as it is already located, and by investigating the principles which lie behind successful industrial location in an area, can we hope to guide its spread and progress spatially.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Geography is a science of location that is interested in the decoding spatial similarities and variations (Onyenechere, 2011). As a result, geographers are often concerned with the spatial distribution of phenomena and human activities including industries, and the processes which influence that distribution. Specifically, the processes which contribute to determine the location and distribution of industries are complex and dynamic (Grahame et al 2001; Sloagett and Woods, 2005; Badi, 2007; and Kefela, 2010). Also, not all industries choose the same plant site because their production (costs) and market needs differ. The location problem is complicated by changes occurring over time. For instance, a location because of high market demand may suffer a serious disadvantage when competitive industries begin to carve out that market (Rural Businesses Forum (RBF), 2007).
As a result of changes in location factors, the degree of industrial concentration fluctuates widely according to the type of industry, and industrial plants producing many different types of goods cluster in a region that provides the needed resources. Regions according to Stategy for Economic Vitality (SEV) (2002a), Sloagett and Woods (2003), Yang (2004), Agboli and Ukaegbu (2006), and RBF (2007) that provide such better location opportunities will attract industries and growth away from regions with less favourable initial conditions. In this regard, access to individuals or designated firms, whether physical (via transport) or non-physical (via information links) is vital. Access is considered in terms of costs of production variables, reliability, and convenience. This is one of the many factors that promote regional disparity in location decision (SEV, 2002a; Sloagett and Woods, 2003; Mertins, 2010; and Onyenechere, 2011). At times a region may or may not possess all the location variables either as a result of geographical position/environmental conditions or due to spatial inhibitions in relation to variations in industrial location requirements. Again, the existence of active industry may make the location attractive to other industries since some industries may use the products or by-products of already established firms as their raw materials (Feldman et al, 2006). Conversely, new industries may be set up to supply established firms with certain parts or materials. As the nucleus grows, it becomes a center of concentrated earning power, and therefore, of purchasing power. As such, it becomes attractive to industrial location and a better market for the products of industries. Therefore, location decisions are tied to the degree of availability of the necessary and required variables. Moreover, in the recognition of importance of location of industrial activities, there is increase in research for better location decisions because location can either make or break a business. However, many of such studies focus more on the characteristic descriptions and the effects of each of the location factors (Crafts and Mulatu, 2006; and Ogbu, 2008, 2011) without adequate involvement of different industrial types in order to determine the relative position of each location factor in accordance with industrial types. In addition, studies abound on the cluster benefits in the more developed countries as in Europe, America, and China among the industrial plants and industrial pull towards regions where resources are available, but few of such studies and studies on the multiplier effect from the activities of industry exist especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
Moreover, researches by 20th Century geographers in Nigeria were based on the reasons (Location factors) for the concentration of industries in the Lagos – Ibadan axis, Port Harcourt-Aba-Enugu area, Kaduna- Jos-Kano triangle, and Benin-Sapele-Warri region. Also, shortfall exists in the various studies conducted in Nigeria in the 21st Century by Ikpeze, Soludo and Elekwa (2004), Ogunkola and Jerome (2006), Amsterdam (2009), Ugbajah (2010), and St. Mathew-Daniel (2012). These various studies mostly dwelt on the development of conducive environment especially on regulatory policies (Amsterdam, 2009; Ugbajah, 2010; Kashim, 2011), and infrastructure (Sambo, 2010; Musa and Ndawayo, 2011) for both local and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria. Other studies like that of Monday (2011) were on the factors that push industries out of Nigeria.
At regional levels in Nigeria, researches were mainly on the challenges and opportunities available for industrial development (Olokesusi, 2011) in the south western Nigeria. In the southeast of Nigeria, Majuk, Erim and Ajor (2010) studied location characteristics of speific (pottery) production activities, while Onyenechere (2011) was interested in the spatial distribution of informal economic activities in rural areas. Therefore, studies pertaining to industrial locations in many parts of Nigeria were in such areas as factors in the concentration of industries in four main areas of southeast, west, Niger delta, and north; industrial attractions through resource and infrastructural development; and factors in the locations of specific industries. Thus, few location studies exist on the new and emerging industrial areas like the 9th Mile. In addition, the few available studies on industrial areas like that of Areola and Okafor (1998), Alokan and Onyemelukwe(1994), Onyemelukwe(1983), and Okeke (1982) are old and cannot be relevant in assessing the present location conditions in modern industrial areas.
These circumstances make it desirable for the application of techniques such as Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in the location assessment of industrial plants at the new industrial area of the 9th Mile in order to detect the major location variables and issues on benefits and problems in contemporary industrial locations in the study area.
The study investigated the effects of industrial effluents discharges on stream water quality in Onitsha urban area of Anambra State. Effluents quality assessment was carried out on samples collected at eight (8) locations of the sampled industries while water quality assessment was carried out first on three (3) samples collected upstream or at control sites as well as on eight (8) samples collected at discharge locations in Onitsha urban area in 2015. The control sites were located upstream 500 meters before contact with discharge effluents. The physico-chemical and microbiological parameters analyzed were Temperature (T), pH (Hydrogen ion concentration), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Magnesium (Mg), Nitrate (NO3), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn), Sodium (Na), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Total Heterotrophic Counts (THC) and Total Coliform Group (TCG). The results of the analyses revealed significant concentration of many dissolved salts, heavy metals and pathogenic organisms in the water samples due to effluents intrusion. Discharged effluents deviate radically from the WHO(2011) standards: Temperature ranged from 290C to 360C, TDS ranged from 0.7mg/l to 6.10mg/l, DO ranged from 35mg/l to 143.6mg/l, Turbidity ranged from 100ntu to 400ntu, BOD ranged from 2.06mg/l to 41.9mg/l, COD ranged from 2.08mg/l to 53.9mg/l, Mg ranged from 0.12mg/l to 3.09mg/. These values were above WHO (2011) standard limits for drinking water while others like pH which ranged from 5.5 to 12.0, Ca which ranged from 0.60mg/l to 8.24mg/l, Zn ranged from 0.01mg/l to 0.70mg/l, Na ranged from 0.14mg/l to 2.69mg/l, and Cu which ranged from 0.02mg/l to 1.68mg/l were below WHO (2011) recommended standards for drinking water. The microbiological parameters like Total Heterotrophic Counts and Total Coliform Groups are highly above WHO standards. The analysis revealed statistical significant differences between the water samples at control and the water samples at discharge locations. MANOVA was used as a test instrument in this study because it allows for maximum interactions between all the variables. Taken together the findings show that there are contaminations of the streams investigated by industrial effluents and that the stream waters are not safe for drinking purposes. Appropriate management measures were suggested to minimize effluents contamination of surface water in the study area.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Governments and organizations all over the world recommend industrialization as the quickest track to economic development (UNDP, 2010). The major advantages of industrialization as a short and quick path to economic development are the massive production of goods and services, short gestation of investments, high net worth yield of capital and near total economic independence (Uchegbu, 2002). In addition, employments are created by direct linkage and trickle down effects in the national economies (Ajayi, 2007). Industrialized countries generate more funds directly from their manufacturing industries which they use to procure other items needed in their countries. These advantages commend industrialization to all the countries of the world as a quick means to economic development (Uchegbu, 2002). Based on this, various countries create laws and policies that favour and promote industrialization (Bichi and Anyata, 1999).
But industrialization, though beneficial, has quite a lot of environmental problems that result from the manner of the production streams in the various industries, as each type of production process and the nature of the inputs in the production process, yield diverse types of industrial wastes (Uchegbu, 2002). Industrial wastes and effluents refer to the wastes that are generated from industries as a result of the production processes of the industries (Uchegbu, 2002). Industrial wastes and emissions contain toxic and hazardous substances most of which are detrimental to human and animal health (FEPA, 1991). Some of these substances are lead, cadmium and mercury (heavy metals), and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phenotic compounds. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1990 identified industrial waste as a major environmental problem requiring urgent attention in Nigeria and noted that many chemical industries in the coastal areas contribute to increases in the amount of chemical effluent load pollution in the Nigerian coastal waters.
Industrial wastes exist in three forms; – solid wastes, liquid and gaseous effluents (Uchegbu, 2002). Liquid industrial effluents are liquid wastes which are produced in the course of industrial production activities (Echiegu and Liberty, 2013). These wastes are residues of either uniform or diverse composition which have been found to be of various degrees of toxicity (Echiagu and Liberty, 2013). There are, in many countries, policies and laws which guide and control the production and management of industrial wastes because of their hazardous nature (Uchegbu, 2002; Ubachukwu, 2012).
Nigeria has laws and policies on industrial waste production, control and disposal (Uchegbu, 2002). The laws are the Federal Hazardous Waste Management Regulation of 1991; The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 2004; The Harmful Waste Act of 2004; The National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Acts of 2007 etc. According to Mozie (2011), the problem in Nigeria is not the absence of regulatory laws but the low obedience to and the poor or the near non-enforceability of the many environmental laws of the country. The non-enforcement of the environmental laws over the years, has led to the improper disposal of industrial effluents and this has now become a major problem and a source of concern to both governments and industrialists in Nigeria (Mozie, 2011).
In many developing countries, such as Brazil and India, the disposal or discharges of effluents, (even when these are technologically and economically achievable for particular standards) do not always comply with pre-treatment requirements (Echiegu and Liberty, 2013). When this happens, the human society pays a great price for improper disposal of industrial wastes. In Amazon, Brazil for instance, Di-Mario (2004) reports that prospecting for gold has resulted in rivers and fish being severely contaminated with mercury used in the refining process in the country while Charles and Margaret, (1993) and Mason, (1998) also describe the effects of acetaldehyde and chloride discharged from a factory into Mina-Mata Bay in Japan in 1950s which killed many animals such as dogs, cats and pigs involved in the consumption of water extracted from Mina-Mata Bay in Japan. In 1958, when the number of victims exceeded 50 people, 21 of whom died, a ban was placed on the sale of fish from Mina-Mata Bay, though there was no restriction on disposal of industrial effluent on surface waters. The effects of industrial effluents on surface water can remain a threat for long period of time because of bioaccumulation of toxins in animal or human tissues.
There is at present general lack of information on the effects of effluents discharged by these industries on the water quality of the streams crossing the urban areas in Nigeria. The choice of Onitsha for this study is based on the fact that many effluents producing industries are located in the urban area. Onitsha urban area is slopy which means that runoff water can easily drain the effluents and discharged them into nearby streams. The drainage pattern and topography make the available streams in the urban area vulnerable to pollution from industrial activities particularly by effluent discharges. Still, the urban residents depend on the urban streams for domestic and related purposes. See plates 1, 2 and 3.
Therefore, to effectively and properly protect the available streams and their uses in the study area, it is crucial to assess the effects of effluents discharge chemistry and translate the information (which is currently lacking) into reliable and sustainable management strategy that will guide urban planners, policy makers, stream end users and water resources providers to prevent or minimize harmful impacts of stream water contamination and ensure sustainability of fresh water resource availability for urban users and the ecosystems. Based on these therefore, this work seeks to characterize the liquid effluents discharged by industries in Onitsha urban area and establish their deleterious effects on the water quality of streams in the study area. Uchegbu (2002) reports high incidence of diseases and deaths in the study area and noted that the causes of such deaths may not be unconnected with the use of contaminated surface waters in the area for domestic and other purposes.
Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations and dates back to prehistoric times when man first created the first fires. Environmental pollution was a direct result of the industrial revolution, where the industrial revolution era caused the emergence of great factories and increased consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels .
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a common industrial pollutant resulting from the incomplete burning of natural gas and any other material containing carbon such as gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, or wood. Forges, blast furnaces and coke ovens produce CO, but one of the most common sources of exposure in the workplace is the internal combustion engine. Carbon monoxide is harmful when breathed because it displaces oxygen in the blood and deprives the heart, brain, and other vital organs of oxygen. Large amounts of CO can overcome you in minutes without warning—causing you to lose consciousness and suffocate. Besides tightness across the chest, initial symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea . Sudden chest pain may occur in people with angina. During prolonged or high exposures, symptoms may worsen and include vomiting, confusion, and collapse in addition to loss of consciousness and muscle weakness . Symptoms vary widely from person to person. CO poisoning may occur sooner in those most susceptible: young children, elderly people, people with lung or heart disease, people at high altitudes, or those who already have elevated CO blood levels, such as smokers. Also, CO poisoning poses a special risk to feotuses.
Real time monitoring and data acquisition have important role in industry and also in everyday life. For example, in literature can be found description of systems used in pollutant detection , and greenhouses air quality monitoring .
In last few decades attention is especially focused on environment (air, soil and water) pollutant monitoring. These systems require sensing elements with high accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity. Data acquisition in these systems is also very important and systems have to be able to store data in long time period for analysis and decision making.
The emergence and development of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) chips and digital sensors has made function of monitoring system more and more powerful. RISC processors are designed to perform a smaller number of types of computer instructions so that they can operate at a higher speed, performing more millions of instructions per second (MIPS) . By stripping out unneeded instructions and optimizing pathways, RISC controllers provide outstanding performance at a fraction of the power demand of complex instruction set computing (CISC) devices. In this research, an environment pollutant monitoring system used in the vicinity of industrial plants and in the general atmosphere based on the RISC architecture and digital sensors is designed. The system measures environment data (gaseous pollutants) concentration, which is transferred and displayed on the LCD monitor in real time, achieving the real-time monitoring of gaseous pollutant level; analyses the data collected over a period of time to obtain the additive effects and exposure levels; compares periodic exposure levels with employees’ past medical history and periodically suggest those that might be at high risk, thereby enhances employees’ health surveillance. The system will also triggers CO alarms and oxygen gas at exposures below those at which symptoms occur, while occupants still have time to take action to protect themselves. For healthy adults, CO becomes toxic when it reaches a level higher than 40.075mg/m3 or 35 ppm (parts per million) with continuous exposure over an eight hour period . When the level of CO becomes higher than that, a person will suffer from symptoms of exposure. Mild exposure over 2-3 hours (a CO level between 35 ppm and 200 ppm) will produce flu-like symptoms such as headaches, sore eyes and a runny nose. Medium exposure (a CO level between 200 ppm to 800 ppm) will produce dizziness, drowsiness and vomiting in as little as 1 hour. This level of exposure is deemed to be life threatening once three hours has passed. Extreme exposure (a CO level of 800 ppm and higher) will result in unconsciousness, brain damage and death in as little as a few minutes. United States’ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines state that the maximum exposure over an eight hour time period is 35 ppm. Measurement to determine employee ceiling exposure will be taken during periods of maximum expected airborne concentration of carbon monoxide. Air samples are taken in the employees’ breathing zone (air that would nearly represent the one inhaled by the employee).
1.1Statement of Problem
Exposure to gaseous pollutants in the workplace is common. This can occur through inhalation, absorption through the skin or ingestion. Most exposure occurs through the inhalation of vapours, dusts, fumes or gases. For some substances, absorption through the skin may also be a significant source of exposure. These substances or mixtures may cause immediate acute health effects or it may be decades before the effects on the body become evident thereby reducing employee productivity. However, several environmental data monitoring systems have been developed to help monitor gaseous pollutant concentration in the workplace. Besides, these systems have the following challenges:
Several of the environmental monitoring systems do not provide reliable data monitoring and subsequently cannot respond to sensitive emergency situations in industrial vicinities.
Data acquired by these systems are not being utilized for decision making especially in maintaining efficient employee health surveillance.
1.2 Aims and Objectives of Study
The aim of the study is to design an environmental data monitoring system using a microcontroller for industrial air pollution concentration measurement. The developed should be able to:
Provide reliable gaseous pollutant monitoring which can respond to sensitive emergency situations in industrial vicinities.
Use the data acquired from the monitoring system for decision making, especially in maintaining effective employee health surveillance.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The system provides more precise, time sensitive and responsive environmental pollutant monitoring in industrial facilities. This was achieved by using sensitive digital gas sensors and digital microcontrollers. Pollutant monitoring is made easy, simple and reliable.
Data acquired and analyzed would help to perform employee medical surveillance to ensure improved Health and Safety (H&S) of workers. Organizations may not need worry about employees being over exposed to these industrial pollutants. This is achieved by adding employee health information to the system and periodically querying the system for employees that could possibly be at risk.
This work examined inflation targeting in emerging economies: evidence from Nigeria. This was motivated by the need to understand the adoption of inflation targeting as a framework for the control of inflation in Nigeria and how it has influenced productivity in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted which enabled the researcher to gather secondary data from CBN statistical bulletin 2016 from 2005 to 2016. The data collected was analysed using multiple regression results and this was done in order to achieve the following research objectives earlier raised in the study: to examine the relationship between growth rate of money supply and inflation rate in Nigeria; to determine the relationship between cash reserve ratio and inflation rate in Nigeria; to access the relationship between monetary policy rate and inflation rate in Nigeria; to examine the relationship between interest rate and inflation rate in Nigeria; to determine the relationship between treasury bills rate and inflation rate in Nigeria and to examine the relationship between productivity and inflation targeting in Nigeria. From the analysis, the findings made include that growth of money supply has a positive and significant relationship with inflation; interest rate has a positive and significant relationship with inflation rate; cash reserve ratio has a negative and significant relationship with inflation rate and that both money supply growth and interest rate affects real GDP in Nigeria. It was concluded that inflation targeting has no significant effect on inflation rate but that the control of such aggregates such as money supply and interest rate can help bring down inflation and that inflation targeting impacts on productivity. Recommendations made include the widening of the scope of inflation targeting, the effective control of both money supply and interest rates in order to reduce inflation and to enhance productivity.
1.1 Background to the Study
In most countries of the world and particularly in Nigeria, the economic policy makers such as Central Banks amongst others have come to the realization of the need of pursuing price stability as their primary objective. Price stability is generally assumed to mean having a low level of price fluctuations and the achievement of stable inflation rate in an economy. This situation has become necessary because of the inherent negative effects of high inflation in an economy. To a developing economy like the Nigerian economy, high inflationary trends would be considered disastrous if not properly checked. These effects may manifest in the form economic downturn and negative influence on the standard of living of the citizens.
In line with this opinion, the Central Bank of Nigeria (2009) observed that the period covering from 1990 to 2000, the average inflation rate had been above the double digit level (26%-51%) which rendered most deposit rates negative in real terms. According to them, this also eroded domestic savings and investments as well as real income. Suggestions by the monetary authorities in Nigeria state that high rate of inflation in Nigeria before and in the early 21st century was as a direct result of policies that focused on stimulating faster rate of economic growth and development. The inflationary trend since independence shows that inflation in Nigeria has attained higher levels more than 40% especially in the early 1980s and 1990s and during this period the economy witnessed several economic distortions.
Similarly, the control of inflation in Nigerian shows that from one political administration to another, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has tried to initiate various monetary and other policies in an attempt to control inflation. However, in spite of all these efforts and policies, inflation rate still remains high and unyielding with pronounced implications on economic growth and development. High inflation rate has helped to force up interest rate, thus decimating investments and reducing the real values of aggregate consumer wealth (as government debt and money), and hence inhibits and distorts consumer spending. It also has raised domestic prices relative to foreign trade, inhibits exports and stimulates imports thus depleting the nation’s scarce foreign reserves and worsening the balance of payments. High rates of inflation also distort savings and that investors tend to divert scarce resources from productive uses.
Furthermore, the stress on price stability or low inflation as the main objective of monetary policy may not be that other goals of macroeconomic policy, such as maintaining a high level of employment, achieving sustainable economic growth and attaining favourable balance of payments are of less essence but that it could only be comprehended that price stability can later promote economic growth and attainment of full employment level. Consequently, there is therefore, an emerging unanimity that Central Banks can consistently promote sustainable economic growth objective by pursuing sustainable price stability through inflation targeting as a policy technique.
Inflation targeting in this case refers to policy measure to direct inflation rate towards an expected level using monetary tools such as interest rate to achieve it. The actions of the Central Bank in this regard is expected to be very transparent as this will enable investors to factor in possible interest rate changes in their investment portfolios leading to a better economic stability or fluctuations in price. It could then be established that inflation targeting helps in stabilizing the financial system thus enabling reasonable level of inflation rate in the economy. Inflation targeting since its adoption first in New Zealand in 1990 have become promising that some Central Banks of the industrialized and developing economies have declared that maintaining price stability of the lowest possible rate of inflation is their only mandate(Riti and Kama, 2015).
From early 1990s, many developed countries especially in Europe and the Americas have moved towards implementing inflation targeting (IT) as a framework for monetary policy while developing counties in Nigeria especially Nigeria were not ready for it. In Africa, South Africa and Ghana were the first to implement inflation targeting in 2005. The move to use this framework by countries around the world has been attributed to several factors but prominent amongst these factors is the strong determination to bring down inflation rate to a minimal level to encourage domestic savings and moderation in prices such that aggregate demand and income levels can be improved. Nigeria had indicated its intention to transit into inflation targeting as a framework for monetary policy since 2005 based on the positive results to which the framework have had on the development path of the countries that had adopted it. The country had a smooth take-off of inflation targeting as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) had successively transited from its monetary targeting framework into that of inflation targeting. This study attempts to provide an examination of the impact of IT on economic performance in Nigeria and assess its relationship with other macroeconomic variables to cross check their level of performance in the country.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The major challenge of the Nigerian economy has been the issue of price instability. It could be observed that price stability is not a major policy objective of the monetary authority in the country over the years hence incessant increases in price levels. This could be that the management of domestic policies in Nigeria seem not to have a fair or better understanding of stabilization policies as prices kept rising almost on daily basis to the detriment and impoverishment of the citizens. At the same time wages were not increased commensurately as frequently as the price levels were jumping. Again, this could it be that nothing was being done to ameliorate the persistent rise in the prices of goods and services within the domestic settings. During these periods it was expected that the interest rates pattern and other policy instruments need to be managed in ways that would not exacerbate high prices in the economy.
Difficult socio-economic situation arises at high inflation rates. It becomes a device in deterring investments, causing high poverty incidence, reduction in the real values of aggregate consumer wealth. This distorts consumer spending by raising domestic prices above the reach of most citizens and in comparison to foreign prices. This also inhibits exports while stimulating imports to the detriment of the domestic economy as high import would deplete the nation’s scarce foreign reserves and worsen the balance of payments statement. It also discourages savings and investments since there may not be effective demand for the produced items causing huge inventory build-up. Inflation targeting could be seen to be the needed policy measure that is needed to curb the menace of incessant price hike and hence the study is to find out the impact of inflation targeting on the Nigerian economy and where possible proffer solution as to the linkages to abate the effect.
1.3 Objectives of Study
Broadly, the objective of this study is to examine inflation targeting in emerging market economy: the Nigerian experience from 2005-2016. The specific objectives are:
1. To examine the relationship between growth rate of money supply and inflation rate in Nigeria.
2. To determine the relationship between cash reserve ratio and inflation rate in Nigeria.
3. To access the relationship between monetary policy rate and inflation rate in Nigeria.
4. To examine the relationship between interest rate and inflation rate in Nigeria.
5. To determine the relationship between treasury bills rate and inflation rate in Nigeria.
6. To examine the relationship between productivity and inflation targeting in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the objectives of the study, the research questions can be generated thus:
Is there any relationship between growth rate of money supply and inflation rate in Nigeria ?
1. To what extent does cash reserve ratio influence inflation rate in Nigeria?
2. Does monetary policy rate affect inflation rate in Nigeria?
3. Is there any relationship between interest rate and inflation in Nigeria?
4. Does any relationship exist between treasury bills rate and inflation rate in Nigeria?
5. Does inflation targeting have any impact on productivity in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
To guide the success of the study, the following research null hypotheses (H0) were formulated:
H01: There is no significant relationship between growth rates of money supply, cash reserve ratio, monetary policy rate, interest rate, treasury bills rate and inflation rate in Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between inflation targeting and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. The findings of this study will help to add to the body of knowledge on the management of inflation in Nigeria using inflation targeting. This will help people understand what inflation targeting does in the Nigerian economy. The practical significance of this study stems from its value to some groups of people. These include the monetary policy officials of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), officials of the Federal Ministry of Finance, experts on economic and monetary matters, researchers and students.
To the officials of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Federal Ministry of Finance, the study will help them work towards the better implementation of inflation targeting policies in order to make it work better. To experts on economic and monetary matters, this study will enable them to map out further strategies through new resolutions to strengthen inflation targeting in Nigeria. Finally to researchers and students, this study will help them to become interested in this area and with that carry out further research in this area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is on assessing inflation targeting in emerging market economy: the Nigerian experience from 2005 to 2016. The choice of the period for the study is based on the period that inflation targeting was introduced in Nigeria. Prior to this period, the Central Bank of Nigeria has adopted different policy regimes in the monetary policy implementation ranging from exchange rate peg, targeting various types of monetary aggregates and presently inflation targeting. The main focus is how inflation targeting has helped to reduce inflation rate and increase output levels in Nigeria within this period of study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Inflation: This refers to a continuous or persistent rise in the price level.
Inflation Targeting: Inflation targeting as a framework of constrained discretion in which the constraint is the inflation target which may be a point or a range and the discretion is the scope and flexibility to take account of economic and other considerations.
Emerging Economies: This describes a nation’s economy that is progressing toward becoming more advanced, usually by means of rapid growth and industrialization. These countries experience an expanding role both in the world economy and on the political frontier
Emerging Markets: An emerging market is one that is in the transitional phase from a developing country to a developed one.
Productivity: Refers to the level of economic activities or level of output produced within a given economy.
Industrial harmony refers to a friendly and cooperative agreement on working relationships between employers and employees for their mutual benefit (Laden, 2012). According to Puttapalli and Vuram (2012), industrial harmony is concerned with the relationship between management and employees with respect to the terms and conditions of employment and the work place. In effect, it is a situation where employees and management cooperate willingly in pursuit of the organization’s aims and objectives.
In the words of Lester, “Industrial harmony involve attempts at arriving at solutions between the conflicting objectives and values; between the profit motive and social gain; between discipline and freedom, between authority and industrial democracy; between bargaining and co-operation; and between conflicting interests of the individual, the group and the organization.
The term ‘industrial harmony’ comprises of two terms; ‘industrial’ and ‘harmony’. Industrial refers to any productive activity in which an individual or a group of individuals is (are) engaged. ‘Harmony’ that means the peaceful co-existence within the industry between employee and management which stems directly or indirectly from union employer relationship. The relationships that arise at and out of the organizations are form to promote their respective interests at all levels. Industrial harmony also includes the processes through which these relationships are expresses (such as, collective bargaining, workers’ participation indecision making, and grievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict between employers and worker when it arises.
Individuals are part of an outgoing but independent social system. The behavior, actions and role of the individuals are shape by the cultures of the organization or society, the value system and other characteristics of the organization influence the process and determine the outcome or response of the individuals. J. P. Dunlop 1958. According to Dunlop, the industrial relations system comprises certain actors, certain contexts, and ideology, which binds them together and a body of rules created to govern the actors in the organization. The actors in the systems are the managers, the workers and representative.
The roles of employers in enhancing industrial harmony in organizations have received wide attention in the literature of industrial relations. This is because many organizations in Nigeria are bedeviled with a myriad of industrial challenges caused by inefficient and ineffective management style or strained relationship between management and labour unions (Osamwonyi and Ugiagbe, 2013). Consequently, productivity in most organizations as comparatively been hampered due to frequent industrial conflict. Industrial harmony implies a healthy and cooperative working relationship between employers and employees. It is against this background that the researcher sees the subject matter: Industrial harmony and its impact on organizational performance in Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, while most workers are on job, they do not produce more simply because of the un-healthy relationship they have with their fellow colleagues and employers. A recent study conducted by Blyton (2008) revealed that employees do not put up their best performances at workplaces when they are un-happy with management, government, or even their fellow colleagues. Bad employee-employer relationship results in strike actions and lockouts. All these actions taken by employees to display their grievances only do the organization harms than good, as productivity will be reduce drastically.
However, the pure state of harmony scarcely exists in organizations, as grievance between employees and management which erodes the set objectives of the organizations thus making productivity in the organizations comparatively hampered due to frequent industrial conflict and it intended negative consequences such as down toll, which will affect sales, patronage and profit margin.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The central objective of the study is to examine industrial harmony and its impact on organizational performance in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To identify the factors that strengthens industrial harmony and its impact on performance in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
2. To examine the strategies/methods employed by management to enhance industrial harmony in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
3. To identify various employee relations practices, and its effect on the productivity in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
4. To analyze ways of enhancing healthy relationship between employees and employers in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following questions are use to achieve the above objectives:
1. What are the factors that strengthen industrial harmony Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria?
2. What are the strategies/methods employed by management to enhance industrial harmony in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria?
3. What are the various employee relations practices and how do they affect productivity in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria?
4. To what extend can healthy relationship be enhance between employees and employers in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is a tentative statement linking two or more variable in a correlation to establish a relationship that, further subjection to test will confirm such relationship as either positive or negative. The following are the two hypotheses that are to be tested.
1. Ho: Industrial harmony does not have any significance impact on performance in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.
Hi: Industrial harmony has significance impact on performance in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria..
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study examines the role of employers in enhancing industrial harmony in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.. The paper posits that conflict is inevitable in all organizations and, as such, the employer who has the responsibility of making major organizational policies to achieve corporate objectives must play a dominant role in ensuring industrial harmony. It further exposes some of the factors that strengthen an organization; as well as help to close conflict loopholes that hinder industrial harmony.
Most importantly, the study will go a long way in putting unnecessary unrest in the corporate and will enhance productivity, peaceful co-existence between management and employee, which will have positive impact on sales, profit, motivation and maximum enhancement of labour hours.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
To examine the performance of industrial harmony and it influence in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria.. The study will equally identify the causes of conflict in achieving industrial harmony in Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria., and would offer solution to such problems. The study will cover a period from 2016-2018.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to bias in respondent opinion about the subject matter as well as the use of a single study area and the uncertainly about the generalization of finding sequel to the use of a single research design as well as instrument. For the fact that only Refiners Technical support (RTS) Limited, Ekpan, Delta state, Nigeria. Was use as the sole area of study, it is not certain if the same result would be obtained in other organization.
Respondent bias and nonchalant attitude also constitute a greater limitation to this research. For the fact that questionnaire constitute the only instrument use to collect data and survey research design the sole design used for the study.
Some of these constraints are encountered are as follows:
a. FINANCIAL FACTOR: We are handicap financially due to recent increment of our tuition fee which make our parent /guardians to strive and see that we are able to register for the new session, so that it could not warrant us to spend the more in order to acquire more information for the compilation of the research work both in the area of study and necessary textbooks needed.
b. TIME FACTOR: We are actually constrained by time, because time allowed for the project is not adequate enough for us to obtain the required detail information for the research. because time allowed for project coincide with the area of study KRPC busy period likewise our semester test and assignment period also coincide with the time frame.
c. CONFIDENTIALITY FACTOR: Most importantly, some key information necessary for the project could not be at our reach due to confidentiality of such information to the organization.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Industrial Harmony: It is the ideal state of peace where in workers engaged in production of goods and services feel content, thereby are propelled to give the best of their talents and talent potentials for the development and progress of the organization
Industrial Relations: It is the relation of individual or group of employee and employer for engaging themselves in a way to maximize the production activities.
Management: It is a process of planning, organizing and controlling activities of the sub-systems and relates them to the environment. It also refers to those individuals or groups who are responsible for promoting the goals of employers and their organizations
Collective Bargaining: It is machinery for setting conflict issues between employers (management representative) and employees (union). It examines and resolves differences between both parties in terms of benefits.
Productivity: It is the measure of the achievement of an enterprise when compared to its purpose, goals and objectives within a specified period. In economics, it is also define as a measure of the relationship between the output and the input in the production process.
This study is on environmental audit report of industrial companies. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected industrial companies in Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made of engineers, production managers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Background of the study
Environmental quality is an important determinant of human health and the state of environmental conditions are a major contributory factor to poor health and quality of life that hinder sustainable development. Globally, pollution from industrial activities is a major environmental issue facing the world. The World Bank (1992) reported that about 1.3 billion urban residents worldwide are exposed to pollution levels above recommended limits. The environmental quality in most developing countries including Nigeria is increasingly affected by diverse sources of pollution including industrial activities. Hospital based studies and epidemiological studies conducted in different cities in the world produced evidence that pollution causes significant morbidity in the human respiratory and cardio vascular system. The children, elderly, smokers and those with chronic respiratory problems are the most vulnerable group of population to the effects of pollution. The degree of economic development often determines the type of environmental health hazards. Today, Nigeria like many other countries is at risk from the hazards produced from air and water pollution, solid waste, unsafe use of chemicals including pesticides, noise pollution and work place hazards. Consequent upon the consistent increase in nuisance associated with pollution, Nigeria is committed to a national environmental policy that will ensure sustainable development based on proper management of the environment. On this background the researcher wants to investigate the environmental audit report of industrial companies
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The environmental quality in most developing countries including Nigeria is increasingly affected by diverse sources of pollution including industrial activities. Hospital based studies and epidemiological studies conducted in different cities in the world produced evidence that pollution causes significant morbidity in the human respiratory and cardio vascular system. The children, elderly, smokers and those with chronic respiratory problems are the most vulnerable group of population to the effects of pollution. These make the researcher to carry out the research on environmental audit report of industrial companies
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
To ascertain the impact of industrial activities to the environment
To ascertain the adequate environmental information in industrial companies that are potential environmental risks that are likely to be caused by its operations to the immediate environs
To ascertain the environmental problems and risks to be responses to
To ascertain the effect of environmental audit report of industrial companies
The following have been put forward for testing
H0: there is no effect of environmental audit report of industrial companies
H1: there is effect of environmental audit report of industrial companies
H0: there are no environmental problems and risks to be responses to.
H1: there are environmental problems and risks to be responses to
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will give a clear insight on environmental audit report of industrial companies. The study will be beneficial to student, industrial companies and the general public. The study will serve as a reference to others researcher
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers environmental audit report of industrial companies. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT: Environmental audit is a general term that can reflect various types of evaluations intended to identify environmental compliance and management system implementation gaps, along with related corrective actions. In this way they perform an analogous function to financial audits.
INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES: The industrial goods sector includes companies involved with aerospace and defense, industrial machinery, tools, lumber production, construction, waste management, manufactured housing and cement and metal fabrication
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD: An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people’s health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes
This research studied the impact of tax incentives on industrial sector development in Nigeria from 1981 to 2009 using time series data. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was adopted using a Classical Linear Regression Model and the E-View version 6.0 software. Two models were used to determine the impact of subsidies, government expenditure and exports on both industrial output and investment respectively. The result showed that subsidies and government expenditure have significant impacts on industrial output and investment and thus have a great potential to boost industrial output, promote investment, and bring about industrial sector development in Nigeria. Overall, the result suggests that tax incentives have a significant impact on industrial sector development in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The industrial sector remains a strong and vibrant sector of the economy and an integral part of development, structural change and self-sufficiency; playing a vital role in the economic growth and development of any given nation. The development of the industrial sector would therefore, also mean or translate into the development of the economy. Thus, resources have been channeled into this sector through heavy public sector investment, especially import – substitution basic industries, through general financial incentives and tax incentives in addition to a high level of protection for private investment.
According to Anyanwu (1993), the industrial sector is made up of four sub-sectors viz: manufacturing, processing, craft and mining sub sectors. The manufacturing sub-sector is involved in the conversion of raw materials into finished consumer goods or intermediate or producer goods. The processing sub-sector is involved in the treatment of raw materials or food for preservation or conversion into consumable commodities. The craft sector carries out activities involving a special skill at making things, especially with the hands or simple tools. And mining sub-sector carries out activities of mining, exploration of mineral or natural resources like crude oil, etc.
The socio-economic environment of Nigeria has been most devastating for the industrial sector, especially the manufacturing sub-sector. As at last count, more than 850 manufacturing companies have had to close shop in a short space of time due to problems in the country’s operating environment. In 2009, 37 of such companies stopped operations, undermining utilization and the contribution of the manufacturing sector to the country’s GDP.
The problem assailing the operation of the sector include chronic lack of infrastructure, multiple and excessive taxation as the government continues with the relentless drive to increase internally generated revenue; exorbitant costs of raw materials, delay due to bureaucracy at the ports as goods are cleared, lack of adequate security among others.
In Nigeria, taxation is used as a major fiscal policy tool for the attainment of macroeconomic objectives and to influence the working of the economic system in order to achieve specific economic goals and the desired level of investment needed for economic growth and development. It is also a primary source of government revenue in Nigeria besides oil. However, taxation has posed a lot of problems to the development of the industrial sector. When the government taxes earnings from investment, it becomes a problem for firms to raise adequate resources in the capital market. When retained profits are taxed, firms fail to depend on their internal resources for expansion, but resort to borrowing if they can obtain such loans. Thus, the total capacity to invest is likely to decrease.
In pursuit of the achievement of economic goals set, government introduces a number of incentives in the annual budget. These incentives are designed to encourage investments in certain preferred sectors of the economy, and which are sometimes geared towards attracting inflow of foreign exchange to complement domestic supplies for rapid development. Tax concessions have therefore been given to pioneer or newly established industries for a number of years, in the form of tax exemption, reduction of tax rate, reduction of import duty on imported raw materials, among others. All these measures have been adopted by the government to reduce production costs (subsidize production) and encourage the establishment and expansion of industries in Nigeria.
Justifiable concern has however been often expressed by developing countries over the potential effect of their incentive schemes. Some have openly acknowledged their inability to attract the desired level or quality of investment, in spite of the generosity of their incentive programmes. One basic fact is that industries are likely to produce a limited response no matter how lavish they are, if the general investment climate is not favourable. “No amount of incentives would for instance, compensate for a small internal market, a stagnant economy or political instability”. (Okafor, 1983).
The industrial sector still faces a lot of difficulties which hamper its development. Firms are not encouraged to invest and are not interested in investing in projects with long gestation periods, and the level of tax evasion, avoidance and capital flight is still on the rise. It is against this background that the research is undertaken, to study the impact of tax incentives on industrial sector development in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Nigeria in its quest to develop the industrial sector encounters some bottlenecks or factors that militate against such attempts. For the purpose of this research, it is necessary to study such problems and proffer solution to such problems.
A major problem facing the industrial sector thereby impeding its development is the problem of excessive taxation in the form of high tax rate, double and multiple taxation. Although taxation forms one of the major sources of revenue to government apart from oil, it affects firms negatively. Thus higher tax rates serve as disincentive to firms for investment and expansion as it leaves firms with less money to reinvest thereby discouraging productivity and investment and a decrease in the level of output by the industrial sector.
Another problem that hampers the growth and development of the industrial sector in Nigeria is the problem of low price elasticity of exports and lack of comparative advantage. This means that Nigeria’s foreign market share cannot appreciate despite the incentives granted the industrial sector.
Non-availability of data was a major research problem as there is currently no data on tax incentives in Nigeria.
TABLE 1: INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT AND INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA
INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT GROWTH
SOURCE: CBN Statistical Bulletin 2009
From the above table, it can be observed that the level of investment declined between 1981 and industrial output also recorded negative values (decline). But from 1985 and 1986 industrial output and investment respectively began to record positive growth.
From the foregoing, the following questions are relevant to guide the research:
What are the impacts of tax incentives on industrial output in Nigeria?
What are the impacts of tax incentives on investment in Nigeria?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study, industrial output and investment are adopted as measures of industrial sector growth. The broad objective is to determine the impact of tax incentives on industrial sector development in Nigeria.
The specific objectives are:
To determine the impact of tax incentives on industrial output in Nigeria.
To determine the impact of tax incentives on investment in Nigeria.
The research is guided by the following hypotheses:
H0: Tax incentives have no significant impact on industrial output in Nigeria.
H0: Tax incentives have no significant impact on investment in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will be of benefit to the government – policy makers and tax revenue authorities. It will provide a framework for the critical evaluation of tax policies, provides a basis for the modification of tax incentive design and identify loopholes in the present tax system that serves as disincentive to investment.
It will also benefit other researchers, forming a basis for further research on the subject in future.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research covers a period of 29 years from 1981 to 2009
The limitation of the study includes non-availability of related or necessary data for the research.
This chapter gives a brief discussion of the general description of the study, problem statement, purpose of study, research questions and hypotheses, definitions of terms, scope and limitation of the study, as well as the significance of it.
1.1GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
Most earn their living as employees, employers or self-employed workers. The employees in the proper meaning of the term are people who work for compensation in cash and/or kind under the direction of employers.
The employers, whether acting collectively or individually, are interested in production and distribution, trade practice, efficiency, cost, prices, buying, selling and maximization of profit while the employee’s scope and character of collectivism centre on the quest, not only for economic benefits of increasing salaries and wages and other fringe benefits but also for psychological and social motives so as to be able to participate actively in making decisions that vitally affect them in their work and community life and hence, seek to advance the cultural and social status along with occupation and economic status of their members and the interest of the labour group.
At this point, it is imperative to know that for there to be a labour group, there must have been a Trade Union. A Trade Union is a combination of employees who share common statutory objective in relation to regulations between employers and employees as to the benefits and welfare of their members (Ola, 1987). The activities of employers and employees in an organization centre on not only how to produce goods and services but also how to form Unions to protect and promote collectively their respective interests and to regulate, in particular, management-labour relations.
In an attempt to achieve this common objective by both the employees (workers) and the employers (the management), Unions respectively base on the identified differences in their interest thus necessitate the need for both parties to reach an agreement through a collective bargaining process.
A modern view of collective bargaining is that it must be recognized as an institution for regulating labour-management as well as the labour market. Dunlop identified one of the major activities of collective bargaining as involving the determination of priorities with each side in the bargaining process, it involves the process of compromise and assessment of priorities with each side, the rejection of some claims and the assessment of priorities to others within the Union and the bargaining across the table, it involves the processes of administration and application of the agreement.
The success of any organization depends not only on the ability to effectively and efficiently coordinate and control the available resources or profitability but largely on its ability to enhance good relation within or among individuals and groups in the work environment. As a result, the inability of the management to ensure peace and harmony in the working environment may lead to misunderstanding which if unresolved will eventually lead to industrial conflict.
Conflict is defined as the disagreement of organization members of groups over means or ends and an attempt to establish their views in preference to others. In other words, it means dissatisfaction arising from the interaction between labour and management in the work place as against the cordial industrial relations of the organization.
Three major factors have been identified in Nigerian organization as the cause of industrial conflict in the working environment. Among others are the inadequacy of agreement, that is, where certain issues are left unresolved during the cause of agreement, relation of agreement which may be deliberate and interpretation problem i.e. a situation where agreement has been signed but the two parties give different interpretation to it which eventually led to industrial actions.
This research examined the Impact of Technological Change on Organizational Success with special reference to Multichem Industrial Limited. The research adopted survey research design. Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents.
Data garnered were presented on table using percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that advanced technology will significantly enhance employees’ performance. Also, the way people behave in the organization will significantly depend on the type of technology adopted. The success of technological change in a manufacturing sector depends on the know-how of the employees. And finally, the effectiveness and efficiency of any company depend on the quality of its technological inputs
Based on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff and management of Multichem Industrial Limited.
The only constant phenomenon is change. This is most instructive to industrial manager who have been forced to operate in an environment where an avalanche of change is taking place.
Globalization and economic recession which the world is experiencing have made the need for a more innovation and cost effective sources of doing business.
Change is inevitable, pervasive and permanent feature of all organization. Technological change has been the key to the success of many organizations of the twenty-first century and the cause of failure of numerous others. From the time immemorial, industrial revolution ushered in an era of factory system. A system where machines were used to replace crude manpower.
Sophisticated technology has brought in new innovations and more powerful machines in swift response to the challenges posed by constant change. Technological change has led to the invention of assembly line, flow line production system, Henry Ford was reputed to bring monumental development and changes to production process. The most innovatory aspects of the moving mechanized assembly line.
The topic of this research is the role of industrial Training scheme on the Development of manpower in selected business Establishment in Anambra state. At the time of writing this project, five companies Ibeto Group of Company and Premier Brewery Onitsha, ITF area office Awka, Lento Aluminum Company Awka and Nigeria Brewery Onitsha were sampled for the survey. In collecting the data for this research, the instrument used were the questionnaire.
The need for business establishment to embark on industrial training was introduced. The researcher found out that the employers of labour witness work improvements of workers trained with ITF training programmes. The researcher recommended that the training programmes of ITF should be wide enough to cover the specific need of the contributing company. From the analysis of the data collected, the researcher found out that ITF is doing a good job though it has some problems hindering its progress. The research ended up in concluding, summarizing and putting up a number of recommendations for further studies.
1.1 Background to the Study
Some years back, the concept of training and development of manpower in some business establishment were vaguely understood in most of our developing countries. This was supported by Dr. Akinku in his book “Nigeria Today” when he said; we are yet to find out what it is, are the 4m’s absent in our midst. All efforts to improve on our productivity yield no result. Referring to his 4m’s, he meant Man, Materials, Machines and Money. With the turn of events, and increased awareness both the developed and developing countries have come to appreciate the problem of employee development and training in many organizations.
In his inaugural lecture on supervisor management training course. Layemo said that the basic problem of developing countries is not lack of natural resource but the underdevelopment of their human/manpower resources. In a similar perspective, Eze in his book” sources of management motivation”, showed that manpower in the third world countries are underdeveloped. In support of this, a report by Ashby of (1959:58) showed that manpower resources in the third world countries were still developing. Following Ashby’s recommendation, the National manpower Board was established in 1962. As a follow up, the manpower in 1963 undertook a comprehensive manpower survey which brought to governments notice the following.
a. The quality of management in all level is one of the major problems of economic development.
b. The need for effective co-ordination to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts in manpower training.In 1969, the International Labour Organization (ILO) emphasized the inadequate of manpower development programmes in Nigeria which was necessary for her to carry out her economic development plan occasioned by the civil war, hence the need for rehabilitations, required to develop technical and progression of manpower training.
The second National manpower development plan (1970:74) also said that there was high level of incompetence in positions in our industries and it identified the following factors as being responsible for it
a. Inadequacy of education and professional qualification
b. Poor quality of employees
c. Inadequate experience.
Irrespective of these poor quality skilled manpower, employers have neglected the need to train their workers for increased productivity and efficiency of their work. The federal government create industrial training fund in 1971 by decree No 47 and its main objective is to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills with a view to generate a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the developing needs of the country.
This study examined the influence of government support agencies on promoting entrepreneurship development in Uyo Local Government Area, as the study area. Three research question were formulated to guide the study. Ex-port factors research design was used in the study. Simple random sample technique was used to selected 60 respondent out of 100. The research instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “the influence of government support agencies on promoting entrepreneurship development questionnaire” (IGSAPEDQ). The validity of the instrument was ascertained by two experts in test and measurement. Data from 60 completed questionnaire forms were used for analysis. The research questions were tested with simple percentage. The finding indicated that government support agencies on promoting entrepreneurship have been realized has the engaged for economic development. Based on the findings, recommendation were made that government should look inward and provide adequate raw materials for entrepreneurs in Nigeria.
Background of the Study
Small and medium scale enterprises are sub-sectors of the industrial sector which play crucial roles in industrial development (Ahmed, 2006). Following -the adoption of economic reform programmed in Nigeria in 1985, there has been several decisions to develop entrepreneurial institutions which have better prospect for developing domestic economy, thereby generating the required goods and services that will propel the economy of Nigeria towards development. Recognizing the indispensability of small scale enterprises in generating economic development, many Local Governments have instituted enterprise support network and structures to fuel the development of these institutions. Nigeria is not an exception in this regard. At various times since the 1970s, the government has designed and introduced a variety of measures to promote small and medium enterprises development. These included fiscal, monetary, and export incentives. Fiscal incentives introduced included tax holidays and tariff concession. For instance, small enterprises were given a tax holiday for the first six years of their operation. In terms of monetary authority support, the Development Bank of Nigeria (DBN) introduced credit guideline requiring commercial and Merchant Banks to allocate a portion of their loanable funds to small enterprises. In the same vein, a number of developments at financial institution and schemes were also established to aid the development of the small and-medium enterprises (SMEs) in the country. These included the Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI), Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB), Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC), the National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND) now merged to form Bank of Industry. In other words, some government agencies/institutions and schemes have been set up to support and promote entrepreneurship practices in Nigeria. Since the office job that people desire are no longer there for the teaming population, and the few ones are succeeded in getting the jobs are thrown out as a result of the factors identified above, the need for the government and the people to have a rethink on the way out of this problem became imperative. Hence, the need to reposition small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) to solve some problems, such as self-reliance, employment creation, resuscitating import substitution, effective and efficient utilization of local raw materials and stimulating of economic growth and development in Nigeria. All the foretasted benefits of small and medium scale enterprise cannot be achieved without the direct intervention of the government and financial institutions. Over the years, a number of policies have been formulated by the government with a view of developing small and medium scale enterprises. The Nigerian government under the then leadership of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo promulgated micro-finance policy and other regulatory and supervisory framework in 2005.This paper will therefore examine several policies aimed at developing small and medium scale enterprises roles played by the government and financial institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In under-developed or developing nations like Nigeria, the populace depends solely on government and large scale industries for employment. The populace has failed to understand that even the multinational companies were once small scale enterprises. Against this backdrop, successive governments in Nigeria have given great attention to the concept of entrepreneurship development. Consequently, several support agencies in promoting entrepreneurship practice in the country have been established. Among them are Industrial Training Fund (ITF) established to promote the acquisition of skills, training and manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy, National Directorate of Employment (NDE) established in (1987) to train school leavers to acquire skills and then empowering them in terms of equipment and working capital. The Raw Material Research and Development Council (RMRDC) which was established in (1987) to develop local raw material and coordinate research efforts especially in relation to raw materials acquisition, exploitation, conservation and development, etc. However, the activities of Entrepreneurship in the country have been abysmal particularly as the issue of unemployment still lingers. At this juncture, it is germane to perhaps ask if these agencies established to invigorate entrepreneurial practices in the country have really lived or played the expected roles for which they were established. Against the dwelling state of entrepreneurial activities in the country, this research work is therefore poised to examine the supposed roles of government, support agencies in the amelioration of entrepreneurship challenges in the country. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The study intends to achieve the following objectives: To determine the Influence of Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission on the Development of Entrepreneurship. To determine the Influence of Corporate Affairs Commission on the Development of Entrepreneurship. To determine the Influence of Development Banks on Promoting Entrepreneurship. 1.4 Significant of the Study This will make a researchers work to be beneficial in both small scale and medium scale enterprises especially in the formulation of entrepreneurship.
Since Government shows great concern about the development of entrepreneurship, it will since to measure the performance of entrepreneurship development. Individual and student will find it useful both as a reading and research materials for further studies in additional to adding to existing stock of knowledge in this field.
ABSTRACT The issue of distribution channels in marketing consumer goods has become a problem in Nigeria. The aim and objective of this project therefore, is to find out the loopholes that is associated with distribution of consumers good so that an amicable solution can be proffer to it. In the course of carrying out this study, I intend to use both primary and secondary data as well as the distribution of questionnaires in order to make my finding a successful one.
1.1 INTRODUCTION Food Specialties (Nigeria) limited is one of the nation’s leading food processing marketing and distribution companies. It’s head office is situated at 10/21 industrial avenue, Ilupeju, Lagos. While her modern factory is at Agbara Industrial estate in Ogun state. The company’s modern distribution center is at Otta, also in Ogun State. The company has branch office is following town in Nigeria etc. the Area Sale Manager who head these branches help to ensure that food specialties goods are distributed into every corner of the country. The company state operation in Nigeria over 50 years ago with importation of Nestle product into the country the product gained rapid popularity and acceptance by consumer in Nigeria because of their, high quality. Among these high quality products are Maggi cubes, Nescafe, milo, Gactogen, Nan, Nido and Cerelac. The company was by them known as Nestle Products Limited which was a subsidiary of Nestle South Africa, Switzerland. The company Food Specialties(Nigeria) Limited was formally incorporated in Nigeria in 1969 as a private company. It was about this time that Food Specialties (Nigeria) Limited started to give serious consideration to setting up a manufacturing unit in Nigeria in order to develop the volume of trade it’s products were enjoying as well as to exploit new business pastures. In 1971 the company established a factory at Illupeju industrial Estate in Lagos which started in the same year to press and wrap it’s popular Maggi cube locally. Facilities for the production of packaging materials were added to the plant at the same time. In 1975 Food specialties (Nigeria) Limited started to broaden it’s equity base by offering for sales to Nigerian citizen and organization 40% of it’s share capital in compliance with the Enterprise Promotion Decree of 1972. The company formally became a public company in 1978 when it’s authorized share capital was increased from N5m to N7.5m. At the same time in compliance with the Enterprise promotion Decress of 1977. The company sold further 20% of it’s share to increase the proportion of share of Nigerian holding to 60% with the continuing growth in demand for food specialties products the company took the far-sighed decision in 1979 to expand it’s industrial base by acquiring 16 hectare of land for the construction of a food processing plant at Agbara Industrial Estate on the Badagary Express way. The factory which was build at a cost of N30m was commissioned in February 1952. Food specialties (Nigeria) Limited also decided to build a modern distribution center at the cost of N5m at Otta. As a result of backward integration, Food Specialties (Nigeria) Limited established in 1954 a subsidiary company, Agro Development (Nigeria) Limited in Benin, Kaduna. For the production of local raw material like maize, soya bean and sorghum. Food Specialties (Nigeria) Limited produce the following range of products at Agbara: Milo, Nescao, Maggi cube, Maggi Super, Golden Morn, Cerelac maize, Nutrient and Choco milo. She also import Nido, Nescafe, Nan and Hactogen into the country for distribution.
In our society, the state of the environment influences the inhabitants because environment is one of the key determinants of the optimal health or well being. It includes the living and non living things that man have to interact with and which can influence his state of health.
A characteristics which has set man apart from other species has ability to control many aspect of his environment throughout recorded history, people continually struggled to manage their natural environment in order to improve their health and well being. The sanitary code of masses in the old testament which is as sound today as it was when written gave direction to people’s efforts, but it was not until the “sanitary awakening” following the industrial and scientific revolutions that major environmental control progress was made.
There are variables in the environment that may influence man’s health and these include customs food, air, water, soil, chemical and industrial waste, micro organisms and other living things. Whether one will achieve the quality of his life and potentials passed to him by his parents depends to a large extent on his environment. If these variable and not favourably manipulated or controlled, they can cause environmental hazards.
Modern technology and increased out nation have done much to improve man’s quality of life. However, they also brought to manufacturing increased environmental hazards or problems when they are not properly disposed.
So, we intend to study manufacturing and his inter-relationship with his environment. The causes and effects of improper disposal of human waste in the environmenta especially Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
Human waste seen around the environment of institute of management and technology Enugu is always an awful sight for one or visitor coming to the school for the first time, especially behind the hostels.
Dirty environment creates a bad image for any Institution no matter how high their academic perormed is, No one will like to live in an environment that is dirty and feel comfortable. Improper disposal of human waste has a serious adverse effect on the environment and Individual living in that environment.
The problem it has on the environment and Individual living in it are:
1. POLLUTION OF WATER:
Water is independence in our daily activities when this water contain impure substance and obstruct the grow of plants and animal and manufacturing, the water is said to be polluted. Water pollution is a very serious matter as our environment is concerned. Polluted crater contains harmful water borne diseases such as guinea warm, typhoid, ameobiasis etc. All these makes water until for drinking, kills aquatic animals which are used by manufacturing as foods eg fish.
Are these criticisms justified or are they just a mere rundown of baking industry because they are making profit in an era of economic slump.
2. POLLUTION OF LAND (SOIL)
Improper disposed human waste makes the environment to be dirty and unsatisfactory especially when it rains. The rain will make the environment to dump and unpleasant to walk upon smoothly. Human waste gives out offensives pengent odour and ugly sight which attracts insects which may pick up disease causing bacteria and carried by into human food.
Old scrabs occupy land space and may pollute air in case of metal scraps having lead as imparity. Also non biodegradable recomposition of the soil. It also hampers the growth of plants where they are dumped in heaps.
3. DISEASES TO MANUFACTURING AND CONTAMINATION OF FOOD
The most important and most neglected item of sanitation is the proper collection and storage of waster. The sanitary storage of waste is as important as the disposal. Improper storage can provide breeding founds for flies, mosquitoes, rodents, micro-organism and bacteria. This waste can later contaminate our food by transferring the genus and micro-organisms from the improper storage and causing disease such as gastro intestinal disease, typhoid, dysentery, cholera etc.
So, it is wise for every student to be careful in protecting of the food they eat.
study researched into consumer satisfaction as a key to industrial growth and development.
It examined the significant impact of
consumer satisfaction on the industrial growth and development.
survey was conducted to elicit opinion on porously formulated hypothesis. The
study discovered that effective consumer satisfaction improved the growth and development of an industry as opposed to
the tentative hypothesis. it was concluded that consumer satisfaction serve as a key to industrial growth and development.
This is a proposal on project topic consumer s satisfactions as a key to industrial growth and development.
This work is a part of requirement for the award of higher national diploma (HND) in marketing of kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin kwara state.
In this project, the research would comment on consumer satisfaction as a key to industrial growth and development.
This research would visit dangote group of company PLC Ilorin for collection of necessary on the project, and for collection of necessary on necessary data to be used, the problem to be finding would be analyzed in the project. The view of many authors the organization itself, manager and the people, involved in the process would also be discussed extensively. Based on the summary of findings and conclusion, the authors reasonable recommendation of how to improve the skill of consumer satisfaction processing in an organization development would be discussed.
Chapter one of these projects shows the introduction, statement of of the study, limitation and constraint of the study, significant of the study, historical background of the study, objective of the study scope of the study.
Chapter two shows the literature review chapter three of the project shows the research methodology, justification of research methodology adopted, and method of data collection.
Chapter four of this project shows the presentation and analysis of data.
Chapter five shows the summary conclusion recommendation and bibliography.
Finally, the researchers hope the write up would not only attract attention of various organization in Nigeria, but would also form an important topic of discussion among business education manage is and industrialist . Therefore, the researcher hope to summarize their findings drew conclusion and suggestion, recommendation, which would be put to valuable uses by the cause study organization and other industrial alike.
BACDROUND TO THE STUDY
business organization aims is to prosper, increase sales and maximize profit,
trying by all means to ensure the occurrences of losses are perfectly
controlled. More so, they want to make effective use of available resources most
profitably so their aims and objectives will be achieved (profit maximization).
sellers make the mistake they offer
than to the benefit attained form the
product of customers. They see themselves
as products producers and seller rather than provision of solution to the
while every consumers intention is to
choose the right product and services form reliable producer that on can
meet their request and also provide product and serviced that can
effectively maximize their satisfaction at a reasonable and affordable prices .
Customer’s satisfaction depends on a products perceived performance in delivery value relative to buyer’s expectations. Consumer which to get the right product of the right quality at the right price, at the right time from the right sources and derive the right maximum satisfaction. They do emphasize on the contraction of price and quality.
In the recent
years, the experience has shown that it is a known fact that is both developing
and developed nations, that small-scale business from the bedrock for rapid and
sustainable growth and development of national economics.
reality, Nigeria is underdeveloped nation where small-scale business are not
well developed to number of factors, improper finance and economy depression
and the government has emphasized and encourage the development of large
industries which are party owned by Nigeria and foreigners.
Small-scale business finance by an
interested investors requires the business to be a sound management good
business and long term survival.
It is understandable that the main
objective behind the establishment of small-scale business is to make profit,
and the continuous survival of the business but, in most cases, small-scale
business to fail even with good ideals because of finance and economy
In a depressed economy, careful finance
planning is a continuing necessity. A current shortage of funds is see and
agreed that finance is pillar of any small-scale business.
Finance constitute the major success
factor if a small-scale business is financed in economy depression depends upon
the yardstick and investor is using in lending, it’s money to the growth of
It must be categorically state that banking
institution is not the only way of raising fund for a small-scale business, we
also have individual financials and credit facilities granted by suppliers.
Some of the small-scale business ranges
from sole-traders, wholesalers, retail business, partnership enterprises,
co-operatives societies such as food processing, leather industries, garment
industries, printing, candle making, soap and detergent making, agricultural processing
and block industries.
As a catalyst to the economies the importance of small-scale business need not to be over emphasized especially in a less industrial state like, kwara state which has in recent times been given reasonable suitable incentives, mostly design to complement finance and management to these small-scale business so as to create employment opportunities and boost the economic activities of Kwara State, mobilization of resources and minimize rural-urban drift.