The research work examines the relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm and to achieve the purpose. Past contributions and the opinions at experts were reviewed. The research design adopted in carrying out this research work is quas – experimental design and the primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaire from ten (10) respondents draw from three small scale firm in Owerri. The data was subsequently analyzed using frequency table and percentages via analysis of variance solution software package (SPSS). After critically analyzing the data, the following were the findings that there is a significant relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm and secondly moderating factors do interfere in the relationship between marketing firms and recommendations were made, that firm should be enlightened on the relevance of marketing research and how it attest marketing performance positively, adapt in order to have an edge over technological tools to suit current market situation. The relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm (A case study of some selected manufacturing firm in Owerri Metropolis).



Marketing research involves conducting report to support marketing activities and the statistical interpretation of data into information. This information is then used by managers to plan marketing activities, gauge the nature of firm marketing environment and attain information from supplier. Marketing researchers uses statistical method such as qualitative research, quantitative research, hypothesis test chi- squared test, linear regression, correlation, frequency distribution etc to interpreter their findings and convert data into information.

The marketing research process spans a number of stages including the definition of problem development of research plan, collection and interpretation of data and disseminating information formally in the form of a report. The task of marketing research is to provide management with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid and current information.


The Nigerian economy for long has been characterized with little wonder, Nigeria is often known as a reseller market. The few manufacturing firm still operating are either muiti-national cooperation or government establishment. This scenario has adversely affected the Nigeria economy to an extend. It has become dumping ground for other countries.

Although a lot of economics reform programms were initiated in Nigeria to make the manufacturing industry vibrant and allow infant industries to grow, such programms were never sustained to the later due to political instability and mismanagement of funds by stakeholders. Nevertheless, the recent programmes of the federal government has given hope to the manufacturing firms or industry as small and medium scale manufacturing firm are gradually emerging everywhere.

However, due to mildness and inexperience of the infant manufacturing firm, there has been a continuous cry of out consumers of low quality products and service. The major reason for this poor performance has been attributed to the lack of marketing research by large cooperation in Nigeria.

Marketing research plays a vital role in the success of every business entity. Expect believe that marketing research is the main pilot of commercialization.

Kotler (200) defined marketing research as the systematic and objective identification, collection and analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Armstrong (2004) defined marketing research as the function that links the marketer to the consumer and the public through information. He further said that marketing research is used to define and identify marketing opportunities and problems to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance and to improve understanding of the marketing process from the above definition of marketing research, it is assumed that marketing research is a discipline approach to problem and prospect of ensuring efficiency and portability in any firm.


With the recent proliferation of small and medium scale enterprises in major cities Nigeria is sure to become an industrialized economy in the next decades. If these enterprise are given the necessary support (security, fund, expertise, conducive environment and industry protection) by the government.

Nevertheless, the manufacturing industry just as the financial sector has suffered enough economic crisis and the result is evident in the quality of service provided by firms in this sector. In spite of the presence of  regulatory such as Nigeria standard organization (NSO), National agency for food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) and consumerist the quality of products and service rendered by manufacturers is on the decline. This decline is on the evidence of the negligence of firms to properly determine and fill in the need and wants of consumers.

This shows that marketing research has not this been properly embraced in this industry or by manufactures despite valuable studies and write up of experts, all shows that the contribution/benefits of marketing research to the success of business organization is immense.

In fact, most managers and elite nurse are of the note that marketing research have no value in developing nation like Nigeria, and that has been one major reason for this negligence.

As a result, this study was embarked upon to investigate the extend of relationship between  marketing research and the service level delivered by small and medium scale manufacturing firm in Imo State.


This study has its major purpose of investigating the extend of investigating the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm. The study also examines the following specific objectives.

1.       Whether marketing research is conducting in the manufacturing industry.

2.       The extend to which marketing research is conducted.

3.       The extend of qualification of the personnel.

4.       The extend to which marketing research tools (Research plan, data collection, and analysis instrument) are validated.

5.       How frequently is marketing research conducted by manufactures?

6.       The extend to which manufactures (management) implement their research findings.

7.       Whether marketing research contributes significantly to the performance / growth of the manufacturing industry.

8.       How frequently are the marketing research personnel exposed to exposed to training and motivation.

9.       Whether moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and service level desired by manufacturers


1.    What is the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firms in Imo State?

2.    Do small scales firm carry out marketing research?

3.    How frequently is marketing research carried out by manufacturers?

4.    To what extend do manufacturers validate their marketing research tools before conducting a research

5.    To what extend do manufacturers execute the findings of a research study?

6.    Does marketing research contribute significantly to the performance of the manufacturing industry in Imo State?

7.    Do moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm?


The study has it’s main significance to enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm among which are the benefit derived by the sponsoring companies and it’s customers when marketing research is properly used.

Secondly, it helps the firm to make better marketing decisions, which inturns results in product and services that better meets the need of the consumers. Marketing research also provides the information that links marketer with their customers, and the background needed to make effective decision on a wide range of issues.

Also marketing research is very vital in the aspect of employment opportunities. That is it service as a means of employment opportunities there by improving or enhancing the economic stand of the country.

Finally, through marketing research, companies learn more about consumers; need result in more resulting products and services.


The research works covers the goal, strategies and implementation of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm.

The research work encountered some short coming in trying to get some necessary information and materials for successful completion some of which are.

Time Constraint: the time that was given for the research work was not sufficient enough for a through work to be carried out.

Financial Constraint: the short of funds limited the researcher to only three small manufacturing firms in Owerri metropolis and also restriction to printing and administrating questions to selected few among which are the wholesaler and customers of the firm ORANISATIONAL BUREAUCRACY

THE EFFORTS TO COLLECT ALL THE NEEDED DATA FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF THE SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRM IN Owerri metropolis was not very easy because of their official protocol and organizational bureaucracy.


Marketing Research: This is a systematic and formal process of obtaining, collating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the findings relevant to specific marketing problems.

Marketing: It is the human activity which involves identifying and satisfying human wants and needs through the exchange process.

Research: This is a systematic orderly service for solution to a problem. It is finding out about something so as to sort out   solution.

Marketing Research: It is the study on itself in a particular service advertisement to determine it’s effectiveness on a target audience.


It is an organist or acting on it’s belief on a particular business that can be started with less that 100 employee and the minimum of N750,000 and the maximum of N500,000

Service: it is anything of benefit that one party can offer to another, it is essentially intangible and does not involve in the ownership of anything.

Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a marketing for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can satisfy a need or want.

Price: It is one of the marketing mix (4p’s) this is the value agreed upon by the members in the exchange  process. It is the means that allow product or service to get value in the eyes of both the buyers and the sellers.

Satisfaction: Generic belief or pleasures someone derives from consuming a given product or service.

Manufacturing Sector: These are segments of the economy that engages in the production and distribution of goods for human consumption.

Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is a moderation techniques in which participant are asked to place the names of product or services on a grid. It also means how item are ground on diagram to stimulate discussion or use.




This study investigated the utilization of library oriented software packages in   academic libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States. Six research questions were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey design was used and purposive random sampling was adopted. The population consisted 412 library staff which includes librarians, system analysts and library officers in these academic libraries. Sample used was 120 library staff. The instruments for data collection were observation checklist and questionnaires. Data obtained were organized and analyzed using simple descriptive statistic which includes simple percentages, mean scores and frequency tables. The result showed that the library oriented software packages available in these academic libraries are Tinlib software which was not in use and SLAM which is presently in use in these libraries. The method of acquisition of these software were through gift from NUC and purchase from computer firm and vendor. The purpose of utilization of these software was for searching for information online and internet surfing/browsing. The extent of utilization of these software was only in internet browsing and information retrieval. The problems associated with software utilization are computer incompetency among library staff, lack of steady power supply, lack of appropriate funding. The strategies for enhancing software utilization includes provision of adequate power supply, provision of adequate funding,  provision of computer training among library staff, involving library staff in decision making. The researcher recommended that There should be a good feasibility study by the library management on the proposed software to be acquired for library automation and also there should be compulsory staff and user training on computer and software for all library staff so as to be able to fit into this new era of information delivery.


Title Page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval Page            –           –           –           –                 –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –                    –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –           –             –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of Contents       –      –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of Tables  –           –      –           –           –           –           –           –           ix   


Background of the Study-      –          –           –           –           –           –           1

Statement of the Problem –     –             –           –           –           –           –           7

Purpose of the Study  –           –                  –           –           –           –           –           8

Research Questions     –           –                –           –           –           –           –           9

Significance of the Study-      –               –           –           –           –           –           9

Scope of the Study-    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10


Conceptual Frame Work –       –           –           –           –           –           –           11

Types of Application Software Packages in Library  –   –           –           –           13

Methods of Acquisition of Library Oriented Software Packages-      –           20

Purpose of Utilization of Library Software    –           –           –           –           23

Extent of Utilization of Library software Packages   –           –           –           27

Problems Associated with Software Utilization         –          –           –           28

Strategies for Enhancing Software Utilization in Academic Library           31

Review of Related Empirical Studies-                    –           –           –           38

Summary of Literature Review-     –           –           –           –           –           41


Research Design-        –           –     –           –           –           –           –           43

Area of the Study       –           –          –           –           –           –           –           43

Population of the study-         –           –           –           –           –           –           44

Sample and Sampling Technique-       –           –       –           –           –           44

Instrument for Data Collection-         –      –           –           –           –           44

Validation of Instrument-       –                     –           –           –           –           45

Method of Data Collection     –            –           –           –           –           –           46

 Method of Data Analysis-     –                 –           –           –           –           –           46

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA-         –           –           –           48

Research Question 1   –           –           –       –           –           –           –           49

Research Question 2   –           –                     –           –           –           –           50

Research Question 3   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

Research Question 4   –               –           –           –           –           –           –           52

Research Question 5   –       –           –           –           –           –           –           53

Research Question 6   –           –           –            –           –           –           –           54

Summary of Major Findings   –           –         –           –           –           –           55


Discussion of findings –          –           –           –           –           –           –           56

Implication of findings –         –           – –           –           –           –           –           59

Conclusion –    –           –           –                     –           –           –             –         61

Recommendation of the study –          –           –           –           –           –           62

Limitations of the study –       –           –         –           –           –           –           63

Suggestions for further research –      –           –           –           –           –           63

Summary         –           –           –         –           –           –           –           –           64

References-     –           –             –           –           –           –           –           –           66

Appendix A    –           –            –           –           –           –           –           –           72

Appendix B    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           73

Appendix C    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           74

Appendix D    –              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           75



  1. Types of Software used in Academic Libraries in

      Akwa Ibom and Cross River States   –           –           –           –           –           – 49

  • Method of Acquisition of Library Software in

      Academic Libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States  –               -50

  • Purpose of Software Utilization in Academic Libraries

      in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States           –           –           –           –           -51

  • Extent of Software Utilization in Academic Libraries

      in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States           –           –           –           –           -52

  • Problems Associated with Software Utilization in Academic

       Libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States             –           –           -53

  • Strategies for Enhancing Software Utilization in Academic

      Libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States              –           –           -54



Background of the Study

Academic libraries are libraries which serve institution of higher learning such as Colleges of Education, Universities and Polytechnics. Academic libraries serve the teaching and research needs of students and staff. It always serves two complementary purposes which are to support the school curriculum and to support the institution, faculties and students. Since they are higher institutional libraries, they are charged with the duty of gathering and assembling all the necessary resource materials the students and researchers may need. The totality of the students and researchers performances is highly dependent on the quality and effectiveness of the library the institution breeds. Modern libraries provide resources to students and researchers through the online search. It also provides avenue for students and researchers to access resource materials across other automated libraries. 

Library automation is one of the latest technological development which involves the application of computer technologies, library software, C.D.-ROM, telephones and other ICT facilities in library functions to make library resources available to users and also accessible online. An automated library refers to library which consists mainly of materials and services in electronic format transmitted over network and also accessible online (Geisler 2005).

Since the development in software technologies has made it less expensive to compile and disseminate scholarly information to users, many academic libraries are on the race to join the library automation in order to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date resource materials to their users. According to Calhoun (2006), libraries of the future may be evaluated based on their ability to provide their users with technologies that allow application to communicate across platforms and programming languages using standard protocols based on extensible markup language (XML) to connect catalogue and other library resources to search engines, e-learning system, portals, amazons etc. This is however hinged on libraries running operating systems that will leverage their automation projects on the “switching layer” platform. This “switching layer” platform runs on computer software.

Computer software package is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instruction, telling a computer what to do and how to do it. According to Oketunji (2006), computer software packages refer to one or more computer program and data, held in the storage of the computer for some purpose. It is a series of instruction designed for a computer to carry out specific functions. According to Ceruzzi (2000), there are two main types of computer software packages which are system software and application software. System software is responsible for managing variety of independent hardware components so that they can work together harmoniously. It provides the basic function for computer and helps run the computer hardware and system. It includes the combination of the following-device drivers, utilities, operating system, window system, and servers. Application software is the second type of software which is developed to aid in any task that benefit from computation. It is a broad category and encompasses software of many kinds, including the internet browser, library software, business software, computer aid design, spread sheet, mathematical software, educational software etc. For the purpose of this study, emphasis will be placed on the application software since it embodies the library software.

Library software packages are computer software packages designed to perform and accomplish library functions. The tasks designed for the software to accomplish in the library are in cataloguing, acquisition, circulation, reference sections etc. The advent of computer and software as a product of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) makes it easy to automate library operations, thereby facilitating students and staff in higher institution in searching information and carrying out research in their respective fields.  Raseroka (1999) asserted that the application of ICT has created in the library a new information service unit providing electronic acquisition, electronic cataloguing, electronics serial control Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), inter library loan and electronic circulation control. The application of computer and software in the library has brought into the world a data base for students and researchers to acquire knowledge or engage in participatory research. Illorah et al (2007) posited that computers are now being made use of in importing knowledge acquired. They also maintained that the application of computer and software in the library enables the library user to take charge of their own learning through direct exploration, expression and experience.   

            The advances in the area of software as well as breakthrough in the field of communication brought about a great revolution in the way libraries deliver their services. Also the arrival of the internet has moved the revolution beyond the imagination of information seekers both in terms of speed with which queries are answered and the volume of materials available in response to the given query (Olanlokun, 2003). Some of the library oriented software packages which are commonly used in academic libraries includes:- TINLIB Software, Resources Mate, Polaris ILS, Atrium, SLAM, X-Lib, Evergreen Software, CDS/ISIS, D-space, Alice for window, Oliver Koha, Fedora etc. From previous research reports,the methods of acquisition of library oriented software includes purchase, gift and exchange. In acquiring software for library, there are things to be considered before acquisition. The choice of software is an important, issue, its price, availability of manual and the type of training it gives (onsite or online) matters. Idahosa (2001) confirmed the in house development of software to be one of the best way of acquisition because it allows the developer to access the hardware and software available, the purpose of the software and other requirements before developing the software. Such software is only meant for the purpose it was created and cannot fit into any other library. 

            The purpose of utilization of software is to make resource materials available on line for students and researchers. These library software support library functions and are designed to meet all the library requirements which include online catalogue, circulation control, acquisition (Monographs), serial control, data import, data export, inter-library loan, report generation, CD-ROM interface and telecommunication and above all,  most of them are available separately as well as together in a fully integrated system.

            Moreover, to ascertain the extent of usage of these software, UNESCO developed CDS/ISIS to benefit developing countries in which library and information services had to easy and affordable access to software. It is a package that has been developed for bibliographic information, which is information about documents such as books, journals articles or conference proceedings. Some academic and special libraries have used the software for instance the Lagos Business School (LBS) which adopted the CDS/ISIS because of its no-cost nature (Idahosa 2001).

            On the other hand, Tinlib, widely used system application software in library was introduced in 1993 as part of the World Bank Loan Project in Nigeria. The National Universities Commission (NUC) introduced Tinlib software for online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) for use in Federal University Libraries. It is user friendly and only easy to understand. Oyinloye (2004) listed some of the features that make Tinlib preferred over other library software as availability of catalogue and retrieved module, circulation control, acquisition module, and serial management module.

            Software Library for Appearance Matching (SLAM) is widely used library software recently licensed and distributed by the Columbia University to a number of educational institutions for appearance learning and matching problems in computational vision. Appearance learning involves use of principal components analysis for compression of a large input set to a compact low-dimensional subspace, called the eigenspace, in which the image will reside as parameterized manifold. SLAM enables the user to obtain this parametric representation by providing modules for eigenspace computation, projection of image to eigenspace and interpolation of multivariate manifolds through the projection ( Nayar et al, 1994).

            Also, x-lib is library oriented software that is being used in most academic libraries in Nigeria. It was developed at the Raw Material Research and Development Centre (RMRDC) Abuja, as a local library software developed to meet the immediate needs of academic libraries in Nigeria (Bozimo 2006). It is commonly used in Polytechnics and Colleges of Education, although some Universities have adopted it. The system according to Oyinloye (2004) completely automates the management of the library in acquisition, catalogue and other allied readers services. It has been used in Nigeria libraries since 1996. However, it has been improved upon and the latest version of it is the lib +. The only difference between the two is that, the latest one has some new features incorporated in it.

            According to previous studies, the problems militating against proper utilization of software in library includes erratic power supply, lack of staff training, and wrong choice of software. There are ways of enhancing software utilization in academic libraries of Nigeria which includes adequate power supply, proper choice of software, adequate maintenance of software and installation of antivirus in the systems.  Despite the efforts made by some higher institutions in Nigeria to get their library automated, effective utilization of the library oriented software is yet to be achieved.

            This study aims at determining the acquisition and utilization of library oriented software packages in academic libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States. Six higher institutions were examined in both states which includes two Federal Universities, two State Universities and two Colleges of Education. The two Federal Universities are the University of Uyo located in Akwa Ibom State and the University of Calabar located in Cross River State. These two Universities are degree awarding Universities. The State Universities include the Akwa Ibom State University Mkpat Enin and the Cross River University of Science and Technology (CRUTECH]. Also, the Colleges of Education include the Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afaha Nsit located in Akwa Ibom State and Federal College of Education Obudu, located in Cross River State. These Colleges of Educations are NCE awarding institutions. The above higher educational institutions under study are located in the South-South geo-political zone of Nigeria. Their libraries have been trying to improve upon their service delivery to their users. Interaction with colleagues revealed that some of them have had history of automation which dates back to late 2000. Although the World Bank organized and distributed computers and software through NUC to some Federal Universities in Nigeria to kick start their automation projects, many academic libraries abandoned it while some migrated to other software they found to be more user friendly.

            The University of Uyo library migrated to other software because of the features they realized in the new package while the University of Calabar library abandoned the projects thus making use of the manual system of librarianship couple with the existence of LAN to make information materials available for users. However, the Akwa Ibom State University and the Cross River State University of Science and Technology, although they are planning to adopt a software for their library automation, they are currently making use of the manual system of librarianship in making information resources available to users, likewise the Akwa Ibom State College of Education and the Federal College of Education Obudu. .

Although software plays a vital role in developing more effective automated data acquisition and control in academic libraries, the nature of its utilization is yet to be determined in these academic libraries under study. At this juncture, this study is therefore aimed at examining acquisition and utilization of library oriented software packages in academic libraries in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States. 

Statement of the Problem




Title page                                                                                                                   i

Declaration                                                                                                                ii

Certification                                                                                                               iii

Dedication                                                                                                iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                     v

Table of contents                                                                                                       vi

Abstract                                                                                                                vii


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                   1

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                     1   

1.2       Aim and objectives                                                                                       2

1.2.1    Objectives of the study                                                                            2

1.3       Justification of the study                                                                             2

1.4       Scope of study                                                                                    3

1.5   Methodology                                                                                                        3


2.0       Literature review                                                                                   4

2.1       Cement                                                                                                           6

2.1.1    Properties of cement                                                                                   7

2.2       Water                                                                                                          8

2.3       Sand                                                                                                           8

2.4       Granite                                                                                                       9

2.5       Grading of aggregate                                                                        9

2.6       mix proportion method                                                                          9


3.0       Research methodology                                                                           10

3.1       Mold acquisition                                                                                       10

3.2       Quantity of materials needed for a concrete cube                             10

3.2.1    Procedure uses                                                                                          13

3.3       Mix design                                                                                               14

3.3.1    Sorting and mixing procedure                                                                    14

3.4       Sieve size analysis                                                                                     15

3.4.1    Sieve analysis test                                                                                            15

3.4.2    Preparation for sieve analysis test                                                         16 Procedure for sieve analysis test                                                            16

3.5       Concrete slump test                                                                                   16

3.5.1    Principle of slump test                                                                            17

3.5.2    Apparatus                                                                                                      17

3.5.3    Procedure for slump test                                                                             17

3.5.4    Limitation of the slump test                                                                          18

3.5.5    Differences in standard                                                                              18

3.6       Compressive strength test                                                                         18


4.0       Result and discussion                                                                       28


5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                                         32

References                                                                                                                32


            This report comprises the use of aggregate both fine and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete, these coarse aggregate are strong in compressive strength of concrete. The coarse and fine aggregate that posses both physical and mechanical properties in the production of concrete which in a correct proportion to give desire strength of the concrete. The mixing ratio that was used is 1:2:4 which known as pure mixing and the other ratio is ratio 1:3:6. 1:2:4 gives 1 head pan of cement with 2 head pan of sharp sand or fine aggregate while 4 head pan for coarse aggregate. After the production of the casted cube, curing was carried out. The duration of the curing is 7 days, 14 days, 28 days. After the curing days, compressive strength test was performed to determine the suitability of the sand and gravel materials in the strength of concrete generally used in the building construction.



Sand and Gravel (Aggregate) are generally used in construction of building and other structures such as Lintel, Slab, Beam and Column. When concrete is freshly mixed the aggregates are suspended in cement, water, air bubble paste. Selection of types and size gradation of the aggregate depend upon the nature of the aggregate employed, a fairly precise balanced between the amount of fine and coarse aggregate size fraction may have to be maintained to achieve the desire mobility, plasticity and freedom from segregation (Olajide B.T 2013). Presence of aggregate provides an enormous contact area for intimate bond between the paste and the aggregate surfaces. Rigidity of aggregate greatly restrains volume change of the whole mass. Aggregate (sand and gravel) can be classified by their mineral, chemical, and physical properties, aggregate physical properties and direct result of its mineral and chemical properties, significantly improve the workability of the fresh concrete are contributed by proper choice of aggregate, this improvement is important in the properties of hardened concrete as well, such as properties and pavement slipperiness.


This research work is comprises the finding of the fine and coarse aggregate from different area in Ilorin metropolis and uses of different aggregate size for the production of concrete and the compressive strength test is carryout to determine the compressive strength of concrete produced with different sizes of coarse aggregate.


The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material use in the construction of buildings.


  1. To determine how gravel can be use for commercial purpose.
  2. To determine the strength capacity of the two materials i.e. sand and gravel for the purpose of construction.
  3. To be able to recommend a particular practicable design ratio for aggregate in the construction of a building.


The sand and gravel has been the principal construction material worldwide. Sand and gravel represent loose sediments originated by transport and deposition of more or less worn rock fragmented of certain size (Gravel 2 to 129mm, sand 0.065 to 2mm) which is the product of the weathering of rocks.

The ultimate use of sand and gravel determines the ratio of combination of sand and gravel size, the shape, rock type and composition. Sand and gravel are used mostly in the building industry in concrete mixtures, as drainage and filtration layers, road base fill and for foundation stabilization, e.g. sand are used in the building industry in mortar and concrete mixtures as an opening material in production of bricks.




Title Page                                                                                 i

Certificate                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgment                                                             iv

Table of Contents                                                             vi

List of Tables                                                                   ix

List of Figures                                                                  x

List of Plates                                                                    xi

Abstract                                                                           xii


1.1   Introduction                                                             1

1.2   Aims and Objective of the Project                            3

1.3   Justification of the Study                                         4

1.4   Scope of the Project                                                         4

1.5   Proposed Methodology                                             5


2.0.  Literature Review 

 2.1  Preamble                                                                  6

2.2   Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks                   7

2.3   Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks          10

2.4   Laying Patterns                                                        13

 2.5  Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks           16

2.6   Materials Involved                                                   17

2.6.1        Granite (Stone Dust)                                               17

2.6.2        Cement                                                                   18

2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production               20

2.6.4 Water                                                                      20


  • Procurement of the material components                        22
    • Equipment used in interlocking paving stone

        production                                                               22

  • Mix Ratio                                                                23
    • Determination of the Quantities of Materials           24
    • Sieve Analysis  of the Material                                         24
    • Experimental Tests                                                  25

3.6.1 Compressive strength test                                       25

3.6.2        Flexural Strength Test                                            26


4.0.  Analysis of Result and Discussion                           29

4.1.  Material Tests Performed on the Materials and

Samples                                                                           29

4.2.  Material Tests                                                          29

4.3.  Determination of Quantity of Materials                   30


5.0.   Conclusions and Recommendations                                    38

  • Conclusions                                                             38
    • Recommendation                                                     39

References                                                               40


Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per

Each Shape                                                     32

Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust             33

Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking

paving stones                                                     34

Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving

blocks produced in laboratory                                    35

Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                       35

Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                        36

Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                        36

Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                       37


Fig 2.1a:   Small element pavement structure                  8

Fig 2.1b:  Load spreading in the small element top

layer through shear forces in the joints           8

Fig 2.3a:   Categories of Block shapes                              11

Fig 2.4a:   Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles                14

Fig 2.4b:  Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks

and concrete blocks                                                16

Fig 4.1:    Particle size distribution for quarry dust          43


Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles

Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles

Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles

Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles

Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles

Plate 6A:  Crushing of the materials in progress

Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials 


        Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface.

        This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water.

        The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.   

        So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2)     


  1. Introduction

Researchers have work on various materials for paving and method of pavement construction that will provide adequate support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford, 1994).

The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and strength (Wilford, 1994).

Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.

In developing countries paving stone are used for the construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992).

It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman, zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include, stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are used in order to determine various strength  and durability of the paving material. (Shackel, 1990).

Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010).

All those variations in materials and production account for variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.





Title Page———i




Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50