Background of the Study
Economics has been defined by different people in different ways. Economics is the study of ways of making choices and allocating scarce resources to satisfy human wants. It is the study of how people and societies make decisions; allocate and manage scarce resources to achieve their needs. In this view, Hall, (2013) defined Economics as the study of how individuals, firms and whole societies identify their most important needs, allocate and manage scarce resources in such a way that satisfies as many needs as possible. Since resources are scarce while human wants are insatiable, Economics deals with the study of how people utilize scarce resources in face of unlimited wants.
Economics is the study of human attitudes towards satisfying their needs. Economics is concerned with human behaviour such as how people earn their living and make choices between alternatives to satisfy their wants; it focuses on the study of firms and the government whose activities are geared towards the production of goods and services for the satisfaction of human want (Yusuf, 2012). Economics could then be seen as the study of human activities dealing with allocation of resources and production of goods and services for the satisfaction of human wants. It is a social science that studies how individuals, firms and governments make decisions and choices in face of unlimited wants and allocate scarce resources to their most important, pressing and preferred needs.
In Nigeria, Economics is taught in senior secondary school using Economics senior secondary school curriculum. Economics curriculum has to do with all the experiences and
activities provided by the teacher/school to the students in course of handling Economics subject in order to achieve the objectives of the subject (Economics). As documented by the Federal Ministry of Education (FME), (2008) the guiding principle of the Economics curriculum is the need to equip graduates of senior secondary school with the basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to better appreciate the nature of economic problems in any society and adequately prepare them for the challenges in the Nigerian economy.
The objectives of Economics curriculum according to FME, (2008) include enabling students:
Understand basic economic principles and concepts as well as the tools for sound economic analysis.
Contribute intelligently to discourse on economic reforms and development as they affect or would affect the generality of Nigerians.
Understand the structure and functioning of economic institutions.
Appreciate the role of public policies on national economy.
Develop the skills and also appreciate the basis for rational economic decisions.
Become sensitized to participate actively in national economic advancement through entrepreneurship, capital market and so on.
Understand the role and status of Nigeria and other African countries in international economic relationships.
Appreciate the problems encountered by developing countries in their effort towards economic advancement.
Economics is of great importance because it is a subject that has direct utility which prepares a student for a wide range of career options, ranging from business to government such as in industries and other professional areas like Banking, Accountancy, and Planning (Hall, 2013). Therefore, the need for economic literacy is obvious because it is a subject that has relevance to everyday life and could prepare secondary school students for an entrepreneurial career. It helps in equipping secondary school students with entrepreneurial skills to becoming useful citizens even if they do not further their education. According to Finkelstein (2011), high school graduates will be making economic choices all their lives, as breadwinners and consumers, and as citizens and voters and they will need some capacity for critical judgment, whether or not they go to college. Thus, it is of great importance that secondary school Economics curriculum is very interesting, enlightening, revealing and addresses important economic issues in the country for students to gain meaningfully from the experiences, knowledge and skills for real life activities. Whether students have gained meaningfully or not from the experiences, knowledge and skills provided through Economics curriculum can only be determined through the academic achievement of students in the subject matter.
Students’ academic achievement shows the success or otherwise of an
academic/educational endeavour. Students’ academic achievement tends to show the efficacy or otherwise of schools and tends to determine the future of students. Aremu (2001), was of the view that academic achievement is a fundamental criterion by which all teaching-learning activities are measured, using some standards of excellence and the acquisition of particular grades in examinations to measure student’s ability, mastery of the content, and skills in applying the knowledge acquired to a particular situation. According to Ernest-Ehibudu & Opurum (2013), the measure for assessing students’ level of academic achievement is through achievement tests/examinations and observations.
Achievement tests may include tests or examinations given at the end of a lesson, unit, term, session, year or programme such as weekly test, mid-term test, termly examination, first school leaving examination, senior secondary school examination (e.g WASSCE, NECO, NABTEB) and other tests/examinations at different levels and areas of education. For instance, the achievement test to be used in this study is Economics Achievement Test as developed by the researcher. The results/grades gotten from these achievement tests/examinations and observations could be high, average, low or poor.
In spite of the importance of Economics and the government’s provision in terms of instructional materials and qualified teachers (Federal Ministry of Education, FME, 2008), students’ achievement in Economics seems not to be encouraging. For example, the West African Examination Council Chief Examiner’s Report (2008 through 2012) revealed that the achievement of students in Economics at the end of secondary education has remained poor. Ojelabi, (2009) observed that researchers’ concern has risen due to the fact that students’ achievements in the Secondary School Certificate Economics have remained poor. Regrettably, Alaka and Obadara (2013) noted that there has been persistent poor achievement of students in West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (WASSCE). This poor achievement of students in Economics, a subject that aids in developing students’ critical and creative thinking is very disheartening. No wonder the seeming dysfunctional, non-creativity, non-productivity and non-employability of secondary school graduates in the country. Various factors have been adduced for this poor achievement of students in Economics such as teaching methods and gender among others (Adu & Ayeni, 2004; Ewumi, 2009; Olatoye & Adekoye, 2010; Emaikwu, 2012; Idris & Rajuddin, 2012; Ifeanyi-Uche & Ejabukwa, 2013; Jensen & Owen, 2013).
Teaching methods/approaches can make or mar students’ potentialities to learn and achieve. Teaching approaches and strategies have been put forward as one of the factors affecting students’ academic achievement. For example, Emaikwu, (2012) noted that the fall in standard of performance at secondary school level is incontrovertibly attributable to pedagogical approaches adopted by teachers in schools. The selection of appropriate teaching approaches for a particular classroom situation enables the teacher and his/her students to accomplish specific goals (Kennedy, 2011). As such, Finkelstein (2011) stated that student’s achievement outcomes are of primary importance and are hypothesized to be mediated by changes in teacher’s knowledge and application of pedagogical practices in teaching-learning process. Observing the importance of teaching methods in teaching-learning process, Hussain and Ali, (2012) postulated that the content to teach is just like the body and the method is just like the soul in the body; the body without soul is of no importance, therefore teaching without the proper method of teaching has zero value. This implies that ineffective or non-students-participatory teaching methods result to little or no learning and the end product – poor or no achievement.
Researchers have called for students to become more active participants in their learning process and for instructors to apply teaching methods that increase students’ participation and their interactions with students (Lammers & Murphy 2002; Kember 2009). Identifying teaching methods that may be effective in different educational levels, Hussain and Ali, (2012) noted that in the lower levels the drill and practice method may be effective and fruitful while at the higher stages the method should be according to the demands of the subject and the interest of the students.
There is no particular teaching-learning approach that is exclusively encompassing or the most excellent. Two or more teaching-learning approaches could be used by teachers to have more meaningful learning outcomes. However, Idris and Rajuddin (2012) observed that it is a common practice in Nigeria where a teacher stands before the chalk board and delivers lesson through verbal instruction while the students serve as passive listeners and take note from the board. However, Kelly (2014) stated that this practice can be of great benefit in that students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style. Also, in a lecture environment, instructors have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information (Kelly, 2014).
However, lecture method seems to promote rote learning since students are simply passive listeners in the process. Accordingly, Olatoye and Adekoya (2010) noted that some methods of conveying knowledge like conventional approaches such as lecture and recitation tend to be relatively ineffective on the students’ ability to master and retain important concepts, and on enhancing critical thinking and collaborative problem solving among students. No wonder, the poor achievement of secondary schools students and the seeming failure of secondary education towards producing sound, creative, functional and effective.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification page iii
Table of contents vi
List of tables viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 9
Significance of the Study 9
Scope of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Conceptual Framework 11
- Concept of audiovisual resources 12
- Users of audiovisual resources in university libraries 15
- The benefit of audiovisual resources 16
- Uses of audiovisual resources in university libraries
- Frequency of use of different audiovisual resources 20
- Challenges in the use of audiovisual resources 22
- Strategies for solving the problems associated with the use of audiovisual resources 27
- Review of Related Empirical Studies 31
- Summary of Literature Review 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 40
Design of the Study 40
Area of the Study 40
Population of the Study 41
Sample and Sampling Technique 41
Instruments for Data Collection 42
Validation of the instrument 43
Method for Data Collection 43
Method of Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA 45
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 62
Discussion of Findings 62
Implications of Study 67
Limitations of the Study 68
Suggestions for Further Research 69
LIST OF TABLES
- The response of lecturers and students on the types of the audiovisual 45 resources available in university libraries in Anambra state?
- Observation checklist result 47
- Mean responses of lecturers and students on the level of availability of audiovisual resources in university libraries in Anambra State? 49
4.4 Mean responses of lecturers on their agreement or disagreement with 51
statement concerning the benefits of audiovisual resources
4.5 Mean responses of students on their agreement or disagreement with statement concerning the benefits of audiovisual resources 52
4.6 Mean responses of lecturers and students on how are audiovisual resources used in university libraries in Anambra state? 53
- Mean responses of lecturers and students on frequency of use of different types of audiovisual resources 55
4.8 Mean responses of lecturers on challenges encounter in the use of A/V resources 57
4.9 Mean responses of students on challenges encounter in the use of A/V resources 58
4.10 Mean responses of lecturers and students on enhancement strategies for improvement in the use of audiovisual resources. 60
ABSTRACT This study investigated the challenges lecturers and students encounter in the use of audiovisual resources in university libraries in Anambra state. The specific objectives of the study are: to determine the types of audiovisual resources in University libraries in Anambra state; to determine the availability of audiovisual resources in university libraries in Anambra State; to ascertain the benefits of audiovisual resources in university libraries in Anambra state; to determine how audiovisual resources are used in universities in Anambra state; to ascertain the frequency of use of different types of audiovisual resources by users; to determine the challenges users encounter in the use of A/V resources in university libraries and to provide suggestions for improvement in the use of audiovisual resources. The population of the study was eight thousand, three hundred and fifty (8, 350), comprising lecturers and students. The sample size is eight hundred and eighty one (881). Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Data was collected through questionnaire, interview and direct observation. Percentage and statistical mean were used to analyze data. The results revealed that there are different types of audiovisual resources in university libraries in Anambra state, though they are located in different units and that most of these resources are not frequently used. It was discovered that users lack knowledge of audiovisual material availability in the library, there is high cost of audiovisual resources, lack of technical know-how in its use, insufficient power supply, and there are improper management and maintenance of audiovisual resources. Recommendations were made, some of which are that government should provide adequate funding to the library and that NGO’s/ individuals should make donations to support the library.
Background to the Study
Academic libraries are located in tertiary institutions like universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. These libraries are an integral part of these institutions of higher learning and are indispensable instrument for intellectual development. Budd (1998) defined academic library as a library which serves an institution of higher learning, such as a college or a university. Akporhonor (2005) defined academic libraries as libraries attached to tertiary institutions such as universities, polytechnic institutions, colleges of education, colleges of agriculture, colleges of technology and also research institutes. According to Ekere (2006) academic libraries in Nigerian context, include all libraries attached to universities, polytechnics, colleges of agriculture, colleges of education, military institutions like the Nigerian defence academy, the war college, Nigerian institute for strategic studies and other post secondary institutions. According to him academic libraries can be grouped into university libraries and college libraries. University libraries are attached to a university while college library are attached to other tertiary institutions. The main purpose of an academic library as stated by Aina (2004) is to support the objectives of an academic environment in the areas of learning, teaching, research, and service. Ekere (2006) noted that the university library is meant to serve the undergraduates, postgraduate, lecturers and other members of the university community and that its supposed to provide information resources in different format.. While Singh and Kaur (2009) stated that preservation and access to knowledge and information is the main mandate of academic libraries along side supporting the mission of their parent institutions in teaching and research. The support of teaching requires materials for class readings, and for student study skill. In the past, the materials for class readings, intended to supplement lectures are prescribed by the instructor. These are called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles.
One of the objectives of setting up a university is to encourage and promote scholarship and conduct research in all fields of learning and human endeavour. This cannot be achieved without the provision of adequate facilities in university libraries. Ajibero (1995) sees the university library as the heart of the university and no other non-human factor is closely related to the quality of university education. University libraries are at the forefront of providing information services in various formats to their respective communities which comprise students, lecturers, and researchers in order to support their teaching, learning and research needs. Popoola (2008) affirmed that the information resources and services available in university libraries must be capable of supporting research activities among the students and faculty members. University libraries collect a variety of materials for preservation and use by the library patrons. These resources include not only traditional print-on-paper media like books, journals, and newspapers, but also audiovisual resources like records, audiocassettes, video cassettes,, maps, microfiches, CD-ROMs, photographs, computers, globes, art works, computer software, PowerPoint presentations etc.
The term audiovisual is made up of two words, audio and visual. Audio materials are materials that appeal to the sense of hearing while the visual materials appeal to the sense of sight. Audiovisual materials are designed to assist teachers in teaching so as to enhance students’ understanding of the subject content. They possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching. They provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Moreover, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered effective presentation of a given topic. Audiovisual materials generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful.
Audiovisual resources, according to Dike (1993), are those materials that do not basically depend upon reading to convey meaning and may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, or through the sense of sight as in visual resources or through a combination of both senses. Prytherch (1995) defines audiovisual as non-book materials such as records, tapes, slides, filmstrips and video tapes, while Norton (1995) defines audiovisual in education as the use of supplementary teaching aids such as recordings, transcripts, tapes, motion pictures and video tapes- radio and television and computers to improve learning. Keena (1996) sees audiovisual materials as items that are not completely dependent on printed word to transmit meaning as they use audio and visual formats. Most, but not all, audiovisual materials require some sort of display equipment to be used. Nwoji (2002) defines audiovisual resources as that field of human expression that employs visual and auditory aids such as filmstrips, slides, projectors, television, pictures, radio and a variety of graphic arts to teaching and learning. Audiovisual resources as seen by different authors simply mean that they are non-book materials that depend solely on sensory experience. These materials make use of sense of hearing, sense of sight or a combination of both senses in transmitting knowledge.
There are three types of audiovisual resources and they include: Audio resource; these include the most common types like tape player which plays tapes and cassette, and radio which is a stand alone device. These are less expensive and more available, portable and make use of either electricity or battery. Most times they are combined in one machine as in the three-in-one (radio-cassette recorder- record player) and two-in-one combination. They are also available in record and cassette form and can be used independently or in combination with visual materials. Audio resources can be used in any subject but mostly in subjects that rely heavily on aural component. For example: proper pronunciation and intonation of a given language can be recorded from a native speaker who may not be available in person to participate in an interview. These materials also play an important role in diagnostic and remedial work. Visual resources; these come in variety of forms which could be projected or non-projected. The projected materials require a piece of equipment containing a lens system and light source by which the image is projected onto the wall or screen; these include slides and transparencies. Examples of those requiring no equipment are real objects, chalkboard, graphs, maps, cartoons, posters, pictures, models, photographs, drawing and art works. Audiovisual combination; these make use of both sound and visual senses. They include the following: sound recordings, films, video, television, and dramatization, filmstrips and multimedia computer programme.
Uzokwe (1991) grouped audiovisual resources into non-projected materials like charts and flat pictures, projected materials like slides, transparencies and filmstrips and audio materials such as radio, records and record players while Obi (1992) grouped audiovisual resources into printed media, three dimensional objects, graphic arts, photographs, electronic media and projectors.
The use of audiovisual resources is based on the principle that teaching can be greatly improved by these resources because they can make learning memorable. These materials enhance teaching and learning, especially subjects that are abstract to the student. Blotiner (1993) states that best results are achieved when a variety of audiovisual resources and printed materials are used together in teaching and learning.
Mika (2012) noted that the teaching profession is filled with countless opportunities to enrich the academic lives of students. While some concepts and educational objectives will be easy for students to grasp, others will require you to think creatively to ensure that important learning objectives are met. Using audio/visual aides in teaching is one way to enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject information. Patil (2012) opined that for effective teaching to take place a good method must be adopted by the teacher. The lecturer is always free to choose effective audiovisual resources in the class room. Audiovisual resources help the lecturer to clarify, establish, co-relate and co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations, appreciation and enable him to make learning more concentrate, effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful, and vivid. Audiovisual resources give the necessary variation and a change of pace in lecture which helps to maintain students’ attention
Student’s ability to comprehend and assimilate subject content is highly improved with the use of audiovisual resources. Obi (1992) revealed that the high, middle and low ability students taught economics by multi-media approach achieved better results in cognitive gains than their counterpart taught the same topics by talk-chalk dictated not method. Patil (2012) noted that a balanced, rational, scientific use of audiovisual resources develops, motivate, experience, attract the attention of the students and provides a variety of creative outlets for the utilization of their tremendous energy and keeps them busy in classroom work. These resources are also good for non classroom situations. They are good for self instruction and in individualizing learning.
The availability of these materials allows the student to learn and to take considerable initiative in education but most often these materials are available in university libraries and students may not make use of them, perhaps they lack the skill of using them or skilled personnel to guide them in their use. Audiovisual resources are also hampered by some challenges that inhibit their uses in university libraries. There is issue of lack of skilled personnel and poor maintenance culture to effectively offer audiovisual services in a library. Mohammed (1994) opined that there is an absence of efficient mechanism for and manpower to properly handle the job of production and maintenance of audiovisual resources. Academic libraries are grossly under funded. Okiy (2005) noted that lack of fund is a big challenge for most libraries in Nigeria. According to her, though the university libraries are allocated 10% of the recurrent annual budget of their parent institutions, such monies are not forthcoming as most university administrators tend to flout this decision. Mostly there is epileptic power supply in the country, this adversely affects the use of audiovisual resources in university libraries.
These materials are important at all levels of learning from the lowest to the highest, including informal education that starts at home, and then the nursery, primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This makes availability of audiovisual resources important in all types of libraries including university libraries.
Universities in Anambra state, according to UTME (2012) include the following: Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State University, Madonna University, Paul University and Tansian University. This comprises one federal university, one state university and three private universities. The researcher selected the federal and state university for the purpose of this study. This is because of the population of students and lecturers in the selected institutions.
University library known
as Festus Aghagbo Nwako Library was established in 1991 following the split of
former Anambra state into two states. The university was taken over by the
Federal Government with effect from September 1, 1992. The library is improving
in its mode of serving its clientele from manual to computerized system. Meanwhile Anambra
Library is the main library of the Anambra
State University. The university formerly known as Anambra
State University of Science and Technology was established by law No. 13
of 2000 by the Anambra State
Government. The University was
conceived on a 2-
Campus structure with the main campus of the university located at Uli and Igbarim.
These libraries offer a wide range of services to users, including reference services, circulation service, serial service, audiovisual services and special collection service. These services help the libraries to meet the different information needs of their users. The libraries are also improving in their mode of services to users.
This research work focused on web based system for student information management using Federal Polytechnic, Ukana as a case study. The study was necessary because of the existing problems which include: absence of a web based student information system that facilitates the capturing, storage and retrieval of relevant information pertaining to its students, the traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back. The objectives of the study include: to implement a system that aid easy uploading of student information, to develop a system that will aid easy verification of student information and to design a system that facilitates easy updating of student information. The significance of the study is that it will provide the management of the institution with a web-based system that can complement the manual system of managing student information, and it will provide an effective means to capture, store update and retrieve student information online. The software development methodology used is Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) and the programming language used is PHP (pHp Hypertext Pre-processor). It was concluded that a web based student information management system is a very important system that will enable management of the institution to organize student information for easy retrieval in no time. It is expected that every institution should develop and make use of the system to facilitate the student information operations of the institution, the system can be used to verify the identity of every student and as such stands as a tool to decipher impersonation. It is recommended that institutions should implement a web based student information management system and dependency on manual methods of recording should be abandoned or only used for back up purpose.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii-ix
List of Tables – – – – – – – – x
List of Figures – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1-2
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 2-3
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study – – – 3-4
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Organization of the Research – — – – – 4-5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 6
2.1 Theoretical Background – – – – – – 6-9
2.2 The Concept of Information Systems – – – – 9-10
2.2.1 Types of Information System – – – – – 11
2.3 Advantages of Information System – – – – 12
2.4 Web-based Students Information Management System 12-14
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
- Introduction – – – – – – – 15
3.1 Research Methodology – – – – – 15
3.2 Analysis of the Existing System – – – – 15
3.2.1 Disadvantages of the Existing System – – – 16
3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System – – – – 16
220.127.116.11 Advantages of the Proposed system – – – 17
3.4 System Design – – – – – – – 17
3.4.1 Input layout – – – – – – – 18
3.4.2 Output Layout – – 19
3.4.3 Algorithm – – 20
3.4.4 Program Flowchart – – 21-24
3.4.5 Database Design – – – – – 25-26
3.4.6 System Architecture – – – – – 26
3.4.7 Use Case Diagram – – – – – – – 26-27
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – 28
4.1 System Design Diagram – – – – – 28
4.2 Analysis of Modules – – – – 28-29
4.2 Choice of Programming Language – – 29
4.4 Programming Environment – – – – 29
4.4.1 Hardware Requirements – – – – – 29-30
4.4.2 Software Requirements – – – – – 30
4.5 Implementation – – – – – – 30-31
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 32
5.1 Constraints of the Study – – – – – – 32
5.2 Summary – – – – – 32
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – 33
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – 33
References – – – – – – 34
Appendix A (Source Code)- – – – – – 35-47
Appendix B (Output) – – – 48-50
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Output Layout – – – – – – 19
Table 3.2: Database design – – – – – 25
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Login page – – – – – – 9
Figure 3.1: Input Layout – – – – – – 18
Figure 3.2: Login flowchart – – – – – 21
Figure 3.3: Main Menu Flowchart – – – – 22
Figure 3.4: Registration Flowchart – – – 23
Figure 3.5:Update flowchart – – – – – 24
Figure 3.6: Database Records flowchart – – – 25
Figure 3.7: Architecture of the System – – – – 26
Figure 3.8: Use case diagram – – – – – 27
Figure 4.1: System Design Diagram – – – – 2
This chapter is focused on the introduction to the web based system for students information management. It presents the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the past few decades, institutions all over the world have been experiencing new paradigms in the way they handle and manage students’ information due to the proliferation of ICTs and its applications such as web-based student information systems. With the adoption of such systems as the web based student information system in academic institutions, the experience is that it has now become easy to harness and fast track all students’ records in one centralized database via the internet technology. While the benefits of the system seem to be celebrated, it has been a hustle for most universities in Africa to completely go digital in their operations due poor ICT infrastructures that seem to be prevalent in the region.
In the pre-digital age, managing student’s information was done manually, using paper-based systems. However, with increasing number of students in educational institutes, the system could no longer handle student’s records effectively. Suffice to say, the dawn of ICT applications and databases presented unparalleled opportunities in managing students’ records in academic institutions which gradually lead to the disappearance of paper-based systems. The major concern with manual systems has been the speed with which business operations and decision making processes are carried out in education institutions. Consequently, to cope up with the rise in student’s enrolment whilst at the same time ensuring efficiency in their operations, universities had to experience a paradigm shift from using manual student’s management systems to online student management systems. Students Management Systems (SMS) whether manual or web-based are there to maintain and provide easy access to student information. As an information system, it is very useful.
An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people’s activities that support operations, management and decision making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. There are two views on (IS) and IS-centered view that includes software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. A second managerial view includes people, business processes and Information Systems. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes .
In an institution for instance, there is need to record information pertaining to members of the institution especially the students so that it will be easy to retrieve needed information instantly without stress. A web based student information management system is a software system that enables the data of students to be captured, such that it will be easy to obtain needed information pertaining to any particular student or group of students. The system can also be viewed as a database system that enables capturing of large amounts of students record to facilitate manipulation by the administrators in charge. For example, every student has a unique registration number which stands as the primary key. In an information system it will be very easy to obtain the record of any student just by querying the database based on the primary key or registration ID of the student.
1.2 Statement of Problem
- The traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back.
- Also, it is difficult for management to get needed information instantly thereby delaying the decision making process that is based on the information needed.
It is in view of these challenges that this research work is carried out to design and implement a web based system for student information management.
Over the past few decades, higher institutions all over the world have been experiencing new paradigms in the way they handle and manage students’ information due to the proliferation of ICTs and its applications such as web-based student information systems. With the adoption of such systems as the web based identity System for campus management in academic institutions, the experience is that it has now become easy to harness and fast track all students’ records in one centralized database via the internet technology. While the benefits of web based identity management system for campus management seem to be celebrated, it has not been implemented in most institutions in Africa to completely go digital in their operations due to poor ICT infrastructures that seem to be prevalent in the region.
The higher education sector is not immune from risks of identity-related fraud and other kinds of dishonest practices, and, as this paper demonstrates, risks are present throughout the sector – from enrolment of students, through the examination process, upon qualification, and during subsequent employment. Reducing the risks associated with identification of students and staff alike entails the employment of a wide range of strategies that need to be implemented uniformly across the entire sector. This paper analyses the nature of the problem and how government, business and individuals can share in the task of preventing identity thieves from enrolling and graduating dishonestly. In undergoing higher education, people are required to establish who they are by providing evidence of unique identifying characteristics. It is usual to produce or disclose something that you have (tokens), something that you know (knowledge), something related to who you are (biometrics), or something indicating where you live (location). Of course there are others, such as the use of a person’s name, and a variety of behavioural and psychological characteristics that can be used to identify people. Depending upon the degree of certainty with which one needs to establish one’s identity, one or more of these methods may be relied upon. Often only one method will be used, and this will generally involve the disclosure of a document. Each has its own vulnerabilities and risks which are able to be exploited by those who want to act illegally .
In the past, identity was more easily verifiable as people conducted most of their transactions in person. With the advent of computers, however, documents can easily be fabricated and personal information obtained from electronic databases either by gaining access without authority, or by tricking unsuspecting users into disclosing their access codes and passwords. In higher education, examples of identity-related fraud and other dishonest practices exist in all aspects of the sector extending from enrolling as a student, undergoing examinations and submitting essays, commencing employment as a staff member, paying fees, receiving salaries, and using technology. There is a continuing need to identify both new students and staff with accuracy and the task for university administrators is considerable. Evidence is needed of previous qualifications and/or eligibility to enroll for new students; previous employment and qualification details for new staff; as well as identification necessary for conducting business transactions including payment of fees and receiving payments such as salaries .
1.2 Theoretical Background
Institutions all over the world have realized the benefits of the web based system in managing records and verifying the existence of records in a few milliseconds. This advantage of the computer system has brought about a migration from manual ways of operations to computerized means so as to facilitate the management of large volumes of information. Every institution recognizes the possibility of identity fraud and to overcome the problem, they need to adopt the computer system so that the identity of students can be easily captured and retrieved when needed. This will mitigate the risk of identity fraud in the institutions. It is in view of the need to properly manage the identity of students on campus that necessitates the development of this study on Web-based identity management system for campus management
1.3 Statement of Problem
The following are the existing problems of identity management on the campus:
- Many students commit the crime of impersonation (i.e claiming to be who they are not).
- The situation is serious as they sometimes take exams and tests on behalf of some other persons, and sometimes they have been convicted of one crime or the other and do not want their identity to be known.
- This poses serious problems to the institution and may affect the integrity of the institution when the student involved is discovered to be incompetent.
- Absence of a Web-based identity management system for campus management
- Manual process of verifying identity of student is time consuming.
- Accumulation of paper files
- High security risk as student information in existing system is not secure.
This report gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Ilorin, Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the studio and studio terminologies.
Chapter three is about light use in production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and possible solution.
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO SIWE
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.
The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs department of the establishment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF SIWES
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.
The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the educational environment or institution.
However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country, in accordance with the education policy of the government.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
The objectives of the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:
- It improves student’s knowledge about the industrial sector or organization.
- It enable the student to practicalised different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
- It relates the student to the labor market and how it’s being operated.
- It also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
- It enable student to know more the technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or involved.
- It enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.
1.3 Description of the establishment of attachment.
The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in 1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.
Between 1977 and date, the station has undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and clients within and outside the state.
At present, the station has staff strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it transmits 24 hours on weekdays.
Apart from contributing its quota in area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of programs from Lagos via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in 1977. Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A. Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R. Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.
The present management team of NTA Ilorin includes:
- Chief T.R. Gyang _________________ General Manager.
- T.A Olasehinsde __________________ General Manager.
- Hajia Moriliat T.O Adamu____ Manager. Administration.
- Yinka Ajayi _______ Manager News and Current. Affairs.
- Taiye Ogunderin ____________ Manager programmes.
- Yakubu G. Oladele ___________ Marketing Manager.
- Samuel Osawu ____________ Chief Technical officer.
- Engr. J.O Babajide ____Manager-In-Charge, NTA Patigi.
- Mrs Remi Awolola ____ Manager-In-Charge, Ogbomoso.
1.4 LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF NTA ILORIN
Although the idea of establishing a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971 by a number of journalists who are indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.
The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money already into the project, there could be no going back.
The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77, Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- Aims and objectives of SIWES (Definition of SIWES)
- Historical background of the organization
- Organization chart
- Major activities of the organization
2.1 Specific function of various section/units of the organization
2.2 Student involvement at various section/ unit
2.3 Interpersonal relationship with the organization
3.2 Relevance experience gained to the student field study
4.2 Personal Impression about the organization
This report gives a good account of the training and experience which exposed student during the student industrial work experience (SIWES) at God Grace Computer Center.
This program called (SIWES) student industrial work experience scheme is compulsory to all ND1 student who offer science course or any other practicable course. It enables student to have the experience of the aspect which have been taught in school. It is a program that takes up to four month in which student are expected to be able practices what they are taught.
- AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be define as a technical skills and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It is also serving as the complement the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.
The objective of the student industrial work experience scheme is as follow
- It enables the student to practically different test from what they learnt theoretically in the classroom.
- It also enlighten student to various s division of industrial or organization of work in which the course of study can be radicalized.
- It relate the student to the labor market and how it being operated.
- To enable student to defend his or her self in
anywhere he or she found itself.
- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION
The name of the organization is InshaAllahuComputer Centre; it is located at No 10&11 adegbodu area iwo Osun State.
It was created in 2000 and was directed by MRS Taiwo Tijani. The aims and objective of the organization is to train both SIWES and its student and also individual in networking in order for them to know much or deep about and they have taught in their various institutions.
Effective communication as a major determinant of organizational development has been a great concern for the co-operation as well as the nation over the decade and more recently.
The need for effective communication in an organization development make the military historian to think or army line of communication in military organization the teacher towards the student, the supervisor towards the subordinate and vice versa.
Also he must allow for the possibility that communication take place not only between individuals but also firm institution and government and various business organization working towards organizational development, it is necessary to obtain and maintain a tight and effective communication gap within the various functions in organization
There should be a good relationship between the superior and the subordinate between on department and the other and more importantly between the organization and the various environment components.
Communication is an organization is mainly concerned with how to send and interprets feeling and well as ideas and information, thus the world communication can be referred to as an act of importing to transmitting information.
Communication in an organization also involves the major’s i.e. the sender and the receiver. An effective communication is of great important in and out of any organization in relation to their set of goals and objectives i.e. if organizational objectives are to be achieved, there must be a sound level in their relationship and this could be attained through the degree of its communication.
In deverell word, there are some communication skill which an organization most develop upon i.e. the writing and reading skills with in an organization, the speaking and listening skill and the proper usage of meeting in an organization
The deliverance of communication towards organizational development can not be achieved with out the following elements or factors
- message information
- feed back – reply
Effective communication can be view in terms of dynamics in in an organization as it occur in inter relationship between the management and staff
However, sound ideas and will reasoned decision becomes effective only if is being transmitted to others achieved the desire action on reaction in such organization the giving of an understanding that the massage involves by subordinate to the point that the is able to respond through appropriate action in what effect communication can be said to be. The purposeful and result exchange through which reality, actions and reactions are being organization in an organization. For purposeful communication to be effective towards an organizational development in any organization the following must be noted.
- The massage send most be specific and unambiguous
- The message within and outside an organization must be simple.
- the timing of various instruction most be strictly adhere to
- the rule must be one word one subject
- The receiver must understand the expected action
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Communication is essential for internal and external functioning of any organization because the integrate the managerial functions especially communication is needed in organization to effect changes to influence action towards the welfare of the organization
The four of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of communication as a major determinant of organization development.
It is also to select develop and apprize member of the organization to lead, direct and create a climate in which its people want to contribute and more so, to control performance for effective organization development.
It is also to relate the enterprises to its external environment it is through information exchange that a manager becomes aware of the suppliers, the claim of stockholders.
It is through communication that any organization becomes an open system interacting that any organization becomes an open system interacting with its environment a fact whose importance in emphazed through out this project.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Importance of effective communication in an organization is the scope range of this project. It is to determine how an organization plan and execute its communication process in order to achieve the aims and objectives of such organization.
This project will also analyse the various ways in which effective communication has been a major determinant of organizational development. With the keep of the case study, it will also determine how the Nigeria bottling company (case study) manages it communication system internally and externally with the sole aim of acquiring an apprehended and.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This has been interns of the following:
Burglar proofs are major essential application to building structure activities for the beautification and security of the house such as school subtraction detached garage and high durability the ability to secure good quality and high durability at less affordable price to an average in Nigeria has been a problem. It aims to prevent animal and unwanted people into the building while is also maintain by painting to prevent corrosion of the burglar proof.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title of project i
Approval page ii
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 Aims 3
1.3 Objective of the project 3
1.4 The Importance for Burglar Proof 4
1.5 Literature Review 4
2.1 Iron Rod Burglar Proof 6
2.2 Flat Bar Burglar Proof 6
2.3 Wire Mesh Burglar Proof 6
2.4 Wooden Burglar Proof 6
3.1 Description of Burglar Proof 7
3.2 Material Consideration 7
3.3 Selection of material 7
3.4 Material Problem 9
4.1 Design Calculation 13
5.1 Construction Procedure 16
6.1 Testing Procedure 17
6.2 Problem Encountered 17
7.0 Conclusion 18
7.1 Recommendation 19
Crime is any act of omission or commission of offence that violates a written code of conduct of the land or any geographical location therefore burglar is a crime that is defined by the law of Nigeria.
Burglar proof is an engineering design to control and prevent burglars from having a direct attach or entrance into our places of having
Construction of burglar proof base on the material used such as iron (mild steel) the discovery of iron makes a turning in mains creative innovation to improve his environment conditions as it makes a basic foundation for technological feet in the field of communication production and transportation. To declare iron and steel as the voice of technology is to sat the least about its benefits taking into consideration their uses and principal properties such ass, atomic weigh 55647, atomic number 26, melting point 15400c, boiling point 30000c oxidation number 2.3 density of 7.85/m3.
The basis of all physical object made of iron depends on the knowledge of history of iron ores wining of the ores, processing of the ore into pig iron and refining of the iron are into steel of various qualities and grades. Man exploits the extensive use of iron as science and technology advances, which brought about the discovery of many uses among which is for making burglar proof.
This iron revolution gave bright hope to main concerning security, in fact it’s advantages over wood which was in use in early years ago has really given satisfaction to man iron burglar proof is termites attach free as a result of its possession of high resistance and high degree of stain this making it highly suitable and durable for security purposes and it has water resistance when coated with anti must or corrosion compare to wood.
As a result of these merits man has substituted the use of wood with metal in burglar proof making metal burglary proof could be of various designs it could be made of mud steel or iron rods throughout and many other shapes for beautification.
This will make it light in weight and more attractive
1. It Aimed So much of enlightening student especially those in engineering field such as civil and mechanical engineering in area of construction as regards to their profession.
2. It provides a workshop model of a true metal protector and economics of material, labour and procedures.
3. It also help the student to be salt reliance hide pendent as well as even when they are out of school.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
Some of main objectives of the project are listed below
(i) To let the student realize that they can bring a new idea to the engineering construction as this is the first attempt of constructing burglar proof with mild steel as a project
(ii) To reduce the risk of danger to human life and properties caused by wooden burglar proof
(iii) To produce decent and stronger type burglar proof
(iv) Topraticalize the theorical work done in the lecture room
(v) To make the student more exposed to the use of some complex machines in the workshop
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE FOR BURGLAR PROOF
a. It encourages the students to be able to put into practice or practical aspect, the theoretical aspect of the work taught in lecture room.
b. It makes the student to produce a stronger and decent types of burglar proof.
c. It serves as a security for human life and his/her properties against
d. It enables engineering student to think on how to protect him an life in their societies
A DELPHI STUDY ON MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) MODEL FOR DECISION-MAKING IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA UNIVERSITIES.
The purpose of the study was to model Management Information Systems (MIS) for decision-making by administrators of Universities in South-East, Nigeria. Seven research questions and seven hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey research. The specific design was panel study and the Delphi technique was used to elicit responses from the administrators and the MIS experts in a two- round survey.
The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Eighty-one items reflecting the components of the MIS Model such as MIS objectives, data collection procedures, data processing and analysis methods, data publication method, data dissemination methods, decision making areas and feedback mechanisms were generated and included in the questionnaire. Three experts from University of Nigeria, Nsukka validated the instrument. The final draft of the instrument had a 4-point scale of Very Appropriate, Appropriate, Inappropriate, and Very Inappropriate.
The instrument was pre-tested on 17 respondents from a public university in Kogi State, Nigeria. Internal consistency reliability estimate of the instrument was 0.98 using Cronbach Alpha technique. The experts’ panel was made up of 30 experts consisting of 10 directors of Management Information Systems/Information Communication Technology, 10 academic staff and 10 administrative staff purposively selected from the 10 public universities in South-East Nigeria. During the round one survey, the 81-item questionnaire was administrated to the respondent. Sixty –nine items reached the panelists consensus while 12 items could not reach the consensus based on a mean cut-off point of 3.00 and standard deviation of less than 1.00. In the round two survey, the 69 items were re-administered to the respondents while the 12 items were discarded. Sixty-eight items that reached the panelist consensus in the round two survey were retained for data analysis while the one item on which consensus was not reached was discarded.
The mean score was used to answer all the research questions. t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The following were the major results of the study. Twelve MIS objectives were accepted as appropriate for the MIS Model, seven data collection procedures, 10 data processing and analysis methods, seven data publication methods, nine data dissemination methods, 14 decision –making areas and nine feedback mechanisms were identified and included in the MIS Model for decision- making.
There were no significant differences between the mean responses of administrators and MIS experts regarding the MIS objectives, data collection procedures, data processing and analysis methods, data dissemination methods, decision- making areas and feedback mechanisms aspects of the model. There were significant differences between the mean responses of administrators and MIS experts regarding data publication methods of the MIS Model.
Based on the findings of the study, one major educational implication was that the MIS has a high potential for making relevant information available. It was recommended that universities in South-East, Nigeria should adopt the MIS model to provide relevant information for effective and efficient management of the institutions.
Background of the Study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) consists of electronic systems used for information collection, processing, storage and retrieval. ICT consists of hardware, software, networks and media for collection, transmission and presentation of information (Pulkinen, 2004). Information occurs in different forms such as voice, data, text and images. ICT is used to communicate, create, manage and distribute information. It includes the newer digital technologies of computers, internet, e-mail, World Wide Web (www), wireless and the older technologies of print, radio and televisions (Pulkinen, 2004).
ICT brings about new opportunities as well as new risks for the goal of sustainable development. Over the last years, the use of ICT in all sectors of education has increased dramatically and continues to do so (Farrel and Wachholz, 2003). Digital technologies have fuelled exponential growth in the society’s ability to generate, exchange and consume information. ICT comprises those technologies that are used for accessing, gathering, processing, and presenting information for decision-making. Modern university education and administration now depend on robust programmes of Management Information Systems (MIS) to support and facilitate teaching, learning,research and management.
MIS involves the collection, processing, analyzing and dissemination of educational data and information and making them available to educational administrators on a timely, routine, reliable and predictable basis for decision-making.MIS, according to Lucey (1989), is a system using formalized procedures to provide the management at all levels in all functions with appropriate information, based on data from both internal and external sources to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible. Similarly,Boorne (2002) defined MIS as a structured, interacting complex of persons, machines and procedures designed to generate an orderly flow of information for use as the basis for decision-making in an organization. MIS, therefore, is a system that collects, processes, analyses, stores and disseminates information for educational planning and decision-making in the universities.
The growth of information systems services in Nigerian universities began about 1990 with the World Bank intervention to improve the institutional capacities of Nigerian universities (National Universities Commission (NUC), 1991). The specific focus of the intervention was on Management Information Systems (MIS), specially designed to meet the information needs of the managerial staff as they make a variety of decisions for the effective administration of the universities.
In Nigerian universities, MIS is designed to achieve the following objectives ׃ to standardize the system of obtaining reports and statistical information , ensure that such information are accurate and timely , and organize such information for planning and decision-making in order to improve utilization of resources (Fadekemi &Ajayi (2007).The National Universities Management Information Systems (NUMIS) developed by the National Universities Commission (NUC) focused only on three major areas namely, student records, staff records and financial records (NUC, 1991). NUMIS was originally implemented using Dbase as a single package running on one system.
The NUMIS main structure consists of five (5) phases; Data entry, Data update, Query, Reports and File maintenance. These phases are linked up with modules like staff and students’ entities, finance, reference tables, students and staff lists, student and staff information. Despite the implementation of NUMIS in the universities, it has not been adequately utilized in decision-making process in Nigerian universities (Ajayi, & Omirin, 2007). NUMIS has not been adequately utilized in decision- making in universities in South- East, Nigeria.
A DELPHI STUDY ON MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) MODEL FOR DECISION-MAKING IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA UNIVERSITIES.