The study examined the effects of school location on academic performance Students in Nigeria. The purpose was to determine whether the geographical location has any impact on the achievement of the students in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The design adopted for the study was an ex-post facto of survey type. The targeted population for the study was Senior Secondary III (SS III) Physics students of public secondary schools in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) science students were used as samples for the study. The sample consisted of twenty (20) science students that were randomly selected from six (6) public secondary schools selected for the study. Computerized result sheets sent to each school by WAEC were collected on the 2010-2013 May/June West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSSCE) from all the selected schools for the study. The average of the scores of each candidates selected that formed the population of this study were computed in Biology Chemistry and Physics, these serves as the achievements in science. Three research hypotheses were formulated and analysed using t-Test statistical analysis at P< 0.05 level of significant. The findings showed that there was no statistical significant difference in the achievement mean scores of male and female students in the rural school areas and also there was no statistical significant difference in the achievement mean scores of male and female students in the rural school areas. The findings further revealed that there was statistical significant difference in the achievement mean scores of students in rural and urban school located areas. Conclusion and recommendations were also made in this paper.



1.1      Background of the study

School is one of the social institutions that is responsible for the development and training of the mind and skill of man. It is also for the preparation of man for the challenges and responsibilities in the society at large. The importance of education has been well accentuated in all societies whether developed or developing; ancient or modern.  It is as a result of this obvious truth that every country accords great emphasis to education both in terms of quality and access. In other for colonial government and the missionaries to have well trained Nigerians as either clerk, clergies, few secondary schools were established; but the increasing desire for salaried job and the acquisition of Western values forced the Nigerian government in post independent era to massively establish secondary schools both in urban and rural areas, Bloodsworth (1993). The role of secondary education in national educational system cannot be underscored.  It is the intermediary level between the primary and tertiary education.





The impact of manpower in the social, political and economic training and retraining of any local government can hardly be over-emphasized. The organization more especially local government system is never known to have attained or sustained any high level of economic growth and retraining without an ample supply of qualified or effective administration and management to the establishment. People of that locality are usually used to manage their affairs and achieve the set goals of the community. The above statement explain that local government system are establishment and expected to perform and as well carry out some specific responsibilities in improving the living standard of their local dwellers and this cannot be achieved without improving the workers productivity through training and retraining .

According   to   Orewa. A and Adewumi, E. (1992) “ local government is a system of local communities and towns which are organized  to maintain law and order to provide some limited range of social service and operations to the inhabitants in joint endeavors toward. The improvement of their condition   of living”.

This simply implies that local government provides the community with formal organization framework which enables them to conduct their affairs effectively and regulate the actions of members.

According to Akingele (1981) defined it as “a political submission of law which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs “this connotes that they are established for the improvement of the standard living of the local dwellers.

According to federal republic of Nigeria guidelines for” local council is government exercised through representative council established by law to exercise specific powers within ones as. Local government system constitutes the third tier of government in a direct contact with the grassroots. By this very fact it is therefore, expected to play a major role in the rural or local communities. More specifically, they have to find solution consistently to the pyramids of socio-economic problems paying the administration of local government of Owerri municipal council. These problems include poor finding, lack of qualified staff or personnel material inadequacies, poor manpower disposition reflected staffing, placement, ineffective or greedy leadership and lack of motivation, use or poor training and re-training of staff. Use of wrong personnel. Etc. The fact has been widely acknowledged that local government of Owerri municipal council is still a far cry from their mission. Today it is recognized as part of   the reason why most of the local government cannot completely make use of both human and material (non-human) resources available to them. The manpower training is a critical favor in economic development of Owerri municipal council. The local government which is unable to employ skills and knowledge of its manpower and utilize them effectively will not develop. The essence of any manpower training is to enhance the welfare of workers by maximizing their skill and the quality of their employment opportunities and in so doing. It will add to the country’s economic strength.

According to Nwankwo (1993) defined manpower as “the process by which an organization ensure that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people, at the right place at the right time. Doing things for which they are economically most useful”.

Thus all manpower training is aimed at human resources development and utilization. The quality of manpower as the most important factor that will determine whether an organization will be successful and achieved its stated objectives.

Manpower training is usually essential for new local government members, as well as seasoned chairman, councilors, personnel, treasure etc. Which requires skill and knowledge to carry out administrative work, employees at all levels in the local government such as the clerk, secretary, accountant etc, will requires  some training and retraining at one or more points in time to enhance productivity on the Owerri municipal council local government area.


The Owerri municipal council of Imo state was created under the eastern region legal. Notice No.218 of 1955. But it was abolished because of many military interventions. In 1982. Governor Sam Mbakwe, created new local government area in Imo state during the second republic and Owerri urban was created. This did not last long as the military struck again in 1984 and returning all government to their original state before the civilian regime.

By 1989. Following the adjustment made by degree 15 of 1989 Owerri local government was spilt into two Ngor – Okpala and Owerri local government area. But another major local government review headed by chief author Mbanefo was carried out during the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida and on December 5, 1986, the federal government gave Owerri, urban. The original owerri people a municipal council area which comprise the following villages; Umuoronjo, Awawon,Umoyeche Umuodu, and Umuoyima popularly called Owerri Nchise. Others were divided in the federal and state housing estate as well as commercial and adjusted layouts. The Owerri municipal council has about fifteen (15) winds, each council wind elects that will be representing them in the municipal. They also have a state constituency and senator district with about five hundred and nine (509) staff that is

Administration                                   222

Finance                                      74

Health social welfare                    100

Planning unit                              14

Agric department                        29

Work transport                           70 / 509






In any administrative organization, a large or small, public or private, competent personnel are required for the actualization of the organization’s goal and objectives. After workers have been hired to work for an organization, one striking thing about them is that they have different backgrounds, though they may have the same qualification.       Also by having not worked for that organization before, they may not have indebt knowledge for the techniques, procedures, and culture of the organization.

In the same vein, Okezie, Obi and Abonyi (2005) stated that; Life is dynamic and new inventions and ways of doing things are continually evolving change is now regarded as anything permanent in life. In the work place, the workers need to be aware of these changes and also innovate accordingly.

As people work and rise in the hierarchy, they take on more responsibilities which may not even bear much resemblance to the ones they were exposed to at the early stage, hence they are supposed to be prepared early enough so that future challenges would not overwhelm them. They above in a nutshells, under show the need to equip the workers with necessary skill that will help in both present jobs and future responsibility and which can be achieved through training and development.

It is common for people to see training and development as the same thing. However, it is important to point out that though, they are similar but are not the same things.   In the work of Campbell 91971), training “is a planner learning experience designed to bring about permanent change in an individual knowledge, attitude or skill”        Cole in Obikeke, Obi and Abonyi (2005) opined that training – any learning activity which is directed towards the acquisition of a specific knowledge and skill for the purpose of an occupation or task.

In addition, Ogunna (1996) opine that training “is a process by which the attitude, skills, technical knowledge and abilities of the employee to perform specific job are increased”.    Development on the other hand, according Onuoha in Obikeze Obi and Abonyi (2005) states that staff development involves “preparing employees for high responsibilities in the future”  It is also a programme with the intent to improve employees conceptual and human skill in preparation for future jobs.

In addition to that Cole in Obikeze, Obi and Abonyi (2005) opine that staff development is refers to any future needs rather than the present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.

Writing on the staff development and training in organization, Ubeku (1975) state that “employees who have received adequate training before being assigned responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carryout their job”. That the employees should be helped to growth into more responsibilities by systematic training and development so that he will be confident enough to carryout the responsibilities of their jobs.

However, Campbell (1971) states that the distinction between training and development is that development aimed at the managerial personnel and that training course are designed for short term and stated set purpose, such as operation of some pieces of machinery and others.

From the above, it is now clear that there is a major different between training and development. Though both of them are geared toward increasing or improving the skills of workers.

Training is concerned with teaching the workers specific skills that will assist them in their immediate task while development is concerned with teaching the workers more general skills that will assist them in career growth, thereby enquiring for the future.

Commenting on the inevitability of training and development, Onyemesim (2008) indicate that effective training programme   can result in increased productivity, reduce labour turnover, and greater employee satisfaction.

Countless writers on the subject on the other hand come out with the conclusion that the need for training and development cannot be overemphasized, yet public organization place it at the bottom of their priorities.

Still on that Ogunna (1996), opine that “training of personnel has not been given adequate alteration in Nigeria while Federal Ministry are specialized bodies of government and norms peculiar to it.

Britain gives specific alternation to regular specialized training for public organization staff. So, this was inherited by Nigeria during colonial era.

The Federal Government in its programme of training designed three universities, namely Obafemi Awolowo University for the western zone, University of Nsuka for the Eastern zone and Ahmadu Belo University Zaria for the Northern zone as national training centers for organizational personnel. In addition to formal academic training. The centre organized regular seminar and workshops for the public and private organizational personnel. However, various categories in addition to these national centers were also ill equipped, poorly financed and inefficiently managed staff towards the development of workers.

Secondly, the training of staff in the organization and handled by non experts and in some cases by people who never studied Public Administration as a subject.

Thirdly, sometimes the training programme contract is awarded to in-law, friends and relation in a manner that will heavily enrich the officer that controls the training vote.

Moreover, training programme contract is often fives as a form of public political patronage or friendship favour. Sometimes that training contract is given to non-existence consultancy firm. There is an absence of well articulated and properly designed training programme for the Federal Ministry of education personnel. In some case they are poorly planned ill-organized and ineffectively executed. In short, the Federal ministry of Education training in Nigeria is haphazardly gross inadequate and in inadequate and inefficient, which has led to low productivity in almost all the Federal ministry of the federation.

Federal ministry of education Abia State was established in the year 1993 under the military head of state, major General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida. This ministry was established for inspectorate service of both government and private schools. This ministry was sited at No 3 Ojike Street Umuahia in Umuahia North Local government of Abia State. The ministry is made up of coordinator of inspection (CJ) as the head of the ministry and other departments of Administrative department, Account, Store, Registry, Typing pool and technical department that made up the driver and security section.

Like other Federal ministries in the Federation, Federal ministry of Education Abia State has the primary goal of carrying out inspection on the positions of schools and with regard to the provision of:

  1. Good management of the school
  2. Quality of teachers
  3. Conducive environment
  4. Data of the number of schools and staff
  5. Staff and overall standard.
  6. Conducting workshop which as a problem living oriented discussion meeting. These handle very technical issues and strive to find solutions or generate information and ideas about them.
  7. Recruitment of workers on grade level 1 to 6 through the “Junior staff Committee (local)” in the primary and secondary schools.

But it has failed abysmally in this quest for development because there a high rate of economic underdevelopment show cased inform of lack of well trained personnel, Godfatherism, bribery and corruption. The most crucial problem facing Federal Ministry of Education in Abia State is not from financing but inadequate quality manpower resources. Staff are not well qualified and lack the requisite experience. Training and development programme are hindered by those factors mentioned above.

In conclusion, personnel are the life of any organization. Its effective management is therefore very central and crucial in the achievement of organization objectives. The effectiveness of Federal ministry of education Abia State depends to a large extent on the efficiencies of its staff. What emerges as a conclusion is that staff is not given specialized training and development that will give effects to professionalism of the Federal ministries services.







Manpower training is a dynamic life giving demand in every nation, without it every of her resource cannot be put to see in a competitive economy above all, it is the quality and performance of workers that determine the sales, survival and continuity of any nation. The quality and performance of the leadership of every nation is what makes it outstanding over other. Therefore, the importance of manpower training and development in nation cannot be over emphasized and should not be under estimated. Manpower training is distinct from ordinary classroom leaving in specific technical skills and attitudinal concerns, manpower training is under and more diffused and its over all impact on national performance is consequently for more significant than the classroom work. The study of manpower training identifies the different training techniques and development programmes but it strictly based on the effect of workers effectiveness who undergo such training and the result it produces in the life of the nation.


Title page

Certification                                                    ii

Acknowledgement                                            iii

Abstract                                                         iv

Table of content                                              v


  • Introduction 1

1.1  Background of the study                            1

1.2  Statement of problem                               5

1.3  Objectives of the study                              6

1.4  Research questions                                   7

1.5  Significance of the study                            8

1.6  Scope of the study                                    9

1.7  Limitation of the study                              10

1.8  Definition of terms                                    11


  • Literature review 13

2.1  Introduction                                             13

2.2  Sub-topics and Sub-headings                      24



  • Research design and methodology 35

3.1  Introduction                                             35

3.2  Research design                                        35

3.3  Sources/methods of data collection                    35

3.4  Population and sample size                         36

3.5  Sampling technique                                   38

3.6  Validity and reliability of measuring instrument    39

3.7  Method of data analysis                             39


  • Presentation and analysis of data             41

4.1  Introduction                                             41

4.2  Presentation of data                                         41

4.3  Analysis of data                                        47

4.4  Interpretation of result(s)                          48


  • Summary, conclusion and recommendation 50

5.1  Introduction                                             50

5.2  Summary of findings                                 51

5.3  Conclusion                                               51

5.4  Recommendations                                    52

References                                               54

Appendix (ces)




The impact of training and development programme in a nation cannot be over stated. It is the life wire of every nation. A nation is viable when the employees are competent and qualified to carry out the work assigned to them, which cannot be achieved without training development programme.

Training and development programme add values to the employees, keep them abreast with new findings, and skills in their various area of responsibility which therefore guarantees the success of the nation.

Both private individuals are corporated bodies, even the government in the recent past, have learned to invest fortune to make training and development programme a success owing to the fact, the growth of any nation depends on the value or quality of her human resource.

To this end, the government in her contribution establish different agencies including the national orientation agency charged with the responsibility of informing, enlightening and education the masses on moral and contemporary issues through seminars workshops and other possible means.

However, employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilization, productivity commitment, motivation and growth. Many employees have failed in nation because their need for training was not identified and provided for as indispensable part of management function. Nation and individuals should develop and attain mutual goals.

Modern management has to develop the nation through resource development. Employee training is a specific function and is one of the fundamental operative functions of human resources management.

Meanwhile, lifetime learning is the role in today’s fast paced global economy. No matter how carefully, job applicants are screened, typically a gap remains between what employees do not know and what they should know. Training is needed to fill this knowledge gap. Employees in the United States spend up to $44 billion annually on training. As large as this amount is it not really enough. How the $44billion is spent is also a problem. Most of it is spent by big companies training already well educated manages and professional. Meanwhile, according to the American society for training and development, some 50 million workers mostly non-professional need technical or their training to perform their current jobs at peak efficiency per work, Japanese and German companies old spread their American counterpart on training and development.

Formerly defined, training is the process of changing employees behaviour and attribute through some type of guided experience. We now focus on the center and delivery of modern training, the ingredients of a good training, programme and the important distinction between skill and factual learning.

Reference to 1993 survey training magazine which covered 100 or more employees, sheds instinctive light on today’s training practices. The companies survey represented all major industries, small at least two employees medium and huge firms represented. Although training needs and approaches vary managers can get the most out of their training budgets by the following a few guidelines. According to Beach (1979:11) a training specialist every training programme should be assigned along the following lines to maximize relation and transfer leaving to the job

Thus, management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which managers develop abilities to manage.

It is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience it is concerned with improving the performance of the manager by giving them opportunities for growth and development. It is any planned effort to improve current of future management performance. “The role of the company in management development opportunities for its present and potential managers” exposing the employees.

To lecturers use studies, reading, job rotation, assignment and like does not guarantee that they will learn what is more important is the effort of individuals. Each individual has to make his own contribution to the development of himself. As others can only create opportunity.

Executive development is eventually something that the executive has to obtain himself. But he will do this much better if he is given encouragement, guidance and opportunity by his company.

The role of the company is to provide conditions that accelerate growth. And these conditions should be part of the national climate itself. In order to be away from the unrealistic expectation that we can create and develop managers only in the classroom.


It was a clear fact that there are many factors militating against the manpower training and development programmes. These problems have over the year delayed the growth of national development of our economy, such problem of dishonesty on the part of the nation, poor management planning, ethnicity among the nation and lack of training and development to the personnel.

Meanwhile, employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilization productivity commitment, motivation and growth.

Many employee have failed in nation because of their need for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part of management function.

A case study of national orientation agency Aba North south, Abia State.


The purposed which this seeks to includes among other things the following:





Background to the Study

Adult education refers to the provision of instructed learning events for adults after earlier terminated or interrupted education within the regular education system. It is characteristic that adult education is arranged and organized specifically with adults in mind (Fulah, 2003). The differences to education within the regular education system can be such as the time and modes of instruction. Adult education is defined on the basis of the organization providing education and training to adults (Jenny, 2001).

Adult education is instructional and related support services for adults who are not enrolled in the school. It is for adults who lack the educational foundation expected of a high school graduate. It is a form of education for adults whose inability to speak, read, and write the English Language, compute and solve problems constitutes a substantial impairment in their ability to obtain, retain and/or function on the job, in their family and in society commensurate with their real ability, to achieve their goals, and develop their knowledge and potential. This category of people is in need of a programme that helps them eliminate such inability and raise their level of education and self-sufficiency (Aback, 2000). Adults are taught in adult education classes by professionals known as adult educators.  An adult educator is one who practices the profession of facilitating the learning of adults by applying the principles of androgogy. An adult education student is a student who studies adult education as a course in any institution in a bid to become a qualified adult educator after graduation. An adult education student is supposed to pass through some training to enable him/her qualify for the career.

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (Frank, 2009). Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life (Sidney, 2002). People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.

Freire ( 2005), believed that education and training should not be a ‘banking‘ process, where students are filled with lecturer-determined content, and are then asked to reproduce it. He argued that students at whatever stage of learning are capable of conscientization, of reading the world and breaking the culture of silence in order to create their own instructional agenda. The training methods utilized in the traditional setting for the training of adult education students include lecturing and questioning techniques. The lecturer presents and explains the topic to the adult education students and asks questions to check for understanding or not.

Lecturing is a well known teaching method used in education. In this teaching method the lecturer plays a more active role than learners. The lecturer prepares the lesson before entering the class by collecting teaching materials and developing a good teaching/learning plan. This method helps the learners to focus on the specific subjects delivered by the lecturer. It can be useful for a class wanting only to learn to read and write. However, it limits learner participation since it gives more chance to the lecturer to dominate.

A lecturer is someone who dispenses knowledge, someone who lectures, tells, feeds, disseminates, covers material, and teaches the subject matter more than the students. The students sit passively while the lecturer is going on. Desks in rows and a blackboard and podium up front are forms of arrangements designed for this type of teaching method. However, Huntington (1997) suggests that lectures are an effective method for giving short sets of instructions, background information, guidelines, or other information that is needed in a short time frame.

The integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs), training methodologies in tertiary Adult Education is a new teaching methods, which has added a new dimension to teaching and learning in Adult Education. Integration is the act or process of integrating; the state of becoming integrated; the bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation (Alako, 2006). Integration can be said to be a way of applying/introducing a particular concept or method to improve a system or an organizational activity, be it a company, industry, educational institutions e.t.c. Such a concept or method could be necessary to the aim of such an organization to better their previous activities or mode of operations in a bid to obtain a better result or output. Hence, there is need to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are defined as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information” (Brandford, 2008). ICT implies the technology which consists of electronic devices and associated human interactive materials that enable the user to employ them for a wide range of teaching – learning processes in addition to personal use (Clarlson, 1999). These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephone. ICT is that technology which uses the information to meet human need or purposes including processing and exchanging. Information and communications technology (ICT) in education is the processing of information and its communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education (Dowling, 2003). Anzalone (2001) opined that some ICT facilities like PowerPoint presentation packages, Data projector, Internet services can boost the academic achievement of students if applied in teaching and learning.

When these technologies are applied in the field of education, it is termed as ICT in education. The term too can be used to connotate the term Educational technology, because it also uses any hardware and software approaches that can enhance better learning outcomes (Eric, 2004). In the era of Computer technology, ICT mainly focuses on the infrastructure, devices and sources of computer technology and thus it is imperative to discuss about the use of ICT in education by focusing mainly on Computer based technology.

ICT in education is any educational technology that is applied in the educational process. It encompasses Hardware approach like use of machines and materials, Software approach like use of methodologies and strategies of teaching learning and Systems approach that uses the management technology that deals with the systematic organization of the hardware and the software (Johnson, 2006). It also include different software packages for use in different departments of education; e.g library software, administration software, software related to managing the entire teaching learning process. Ogan (2006) stated that an appropriate use of PowerPoint can enhance the teaching and learning experience for both staff and students.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) — which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet — have been proven as potentially powerful tools for educational change and reform (Jack, 2006). When used appropriately, different ICTs can help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by helping make teaching and learning into an active process connected to real life. ICT materials should be readily available for integration into the training of adult education students. Eric (2004) suggested that ICT should be properly integrated to enable adult education students to source information at ease. Freire ( 2005) is of the view that It is important that lecturers and students acquired the needed skills for integration of ICT in the training of adult education students.





1.1     Background to the Study

Staff training must be based on a need analysis derived from a comparison of actual performance and behavior with required performance and behavior. Staff training is one of the major ways organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and even in the foreseeable future.

Organizational effectiveness rests on the efficient and effective performance of workforce that makeup the organization. The efficient and effective performance of the workforce in turn, rest on the richness of the knowledge, skills and abilities possessed by the workforce. In – service training in most organizations is a continuous act/exercise. The inexorable march of time and the ceaseless glamour for social change combine to make adaptability and continuing preparation of the workforce as inevitable as the initial acquisition of knowledge and skills. This cannot happen if employees training do not occur in an enterprise. In other to maximize the productivity and efficiency of the organization, every executive, manager or supervisor in a public or private organization has the responsibility and indeed the bounding duty to ensure the development of their employees who have requisite knowledge and expertise.

Training is like sharpening an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in technology and other social –cultural environmental changes of an organization. Productivity is the goal of today’s competitive business world and training can be a spring board to enhance productivity. The aim is to enable them contribute their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the organization (Onah 1993). The main objective of training and development in service organization is to increase efficiency of employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity. This accounts for why a large number of fund and time is expected by organization at one period or the order in the improvement of the skills of their employees at various levels.

The principal intention of training according to Akpan (1982:128), is to equip people with the knowledge required to qualify them for a particular position of employment, or to improve their skills and efficiency in the position they already hold. Staff training therefore, improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the employee.

Teachers, like other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development. Therefore, the research tends to examine the impact of in-service training on teachers performance in secondary in Nigeria with reference to selected secondary schools in Keffi of Nasarawa State.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The teaching profession has not had defined career path and this has had a lot of implications for conditions of service, performance and personnel development. The way teachers teach has direct impact on the learning outcomes. Therefore, investment in teachers is critical in achieving quality education. Teachers in active service are expected to grow continuously through upgrading, refresher courses, induction, ethical and moral training, workshops, seminars and or research.

Despite the fact that the ministry, the government authorities and school managers in government aided secondary schools in Nigeria are required to offer training for their staff at different levels, this has not been given due attention in some schools. This has led to lack of morale among the teachers, inability to teach new subjects they never qualified for like entrepreneurship, lack of quality assurance procedures and strategies in the orientation to and implementation of new syllabus, teachers funding them for training in fields not related to teaching profession and increased absenteeism from duty. It is only unfortunate that there is no study that has been carried out to establish the impact of training on teachers ‘work behavior.

  1.3   Purpose of the study

`      The purpose of this study includes the following:

i.                   To examine the relationship between in-service training programme and teachers pedagogical skills in secondary schools.

ii.                 To ascertain the relationship in service training of teachers and academic performance of students in secondary schools.

1.4     Significance of study

The research study shall be significant in a number of ways.

In the first place, it is understood that investigation into this broad area of study will exposed so many things hitherto dominant facts and which previous researchers in this field has failed to investigated. This analysis will therefore help in the small way to a better understanding of in service training programme especially as it’s relate to teachers productivity in secondary schools in Nasarawa State

Secondly, the utilization of the basic tenets of this research study in general and the body of facts in particular will to a very far extent enhance a government efforts towards ensuring a systematic re-training programmes for teachers currently in secondary schools across the country in general and Federal Government College Keffi in particular.

It will also add inputs to government efforts in ensuring sound more effective and efficient teachers that will improve the falling standard of education in the society as well as contribute to high academic performance of students in secondary schools which variably will be leaders in different capacities of human endeavors.

Furthermore, the study will assist policy makers and educational planners to fashioning a more variable, teaching and learning environment and an educational system that will enable the country to free the currently challenge of globalization with its emphasis on professionalism and increase productivity.

Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and researchers a like as it will contribute to the existing literature in order to add to the body of knowledge in this field, and to the researchers, it will provide inputs into their studies and hence increase their knowledge.

1.5     Research questions

The following research question has been formulated to guide the study.

i.                   Does in service training programme improve teacher’s pedagogical skills?

ii.       Does in service training of teacher lead to improved academic performance of students in secondary schools?

 1.6    Research hypotheses

The following hypotheses have been formulated and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance appropriate statistical tool analysis.

i.                               There is no significant relationship between in-service training programme and teacher improved pedagogical skills in secondary schools.

ii.                             There are no significant relationships between in service training of teachers and high academic performance of students in secondary schools.     

1.7   Assumptions

In this study the following assumptions were made:-

i.                   Poor standard of education in the country is a tone indication of teacher’s low productivity.

ii.                 The poor scores of the promotion examination for the previous academic years are true indicator of teacher low productivity.

iii.              An in service programme for teachers will lead to more knowledge and skill acquisition and an improve productivity.

iv.              The data collected from each of the subject through the use of research instrument (records an questionnaire) were accurate and variable.

1.8   Scope and Delimitation of the study

For the purpose of the study the researcher has limited the study to secondary schools in Keffi metropolis of Nasarawa State. Generally, every research study like all other investigation both public and private is often bedecked with numerous constraints.

This particularly work is not an exemption, thus many administrative bottle necks posed severe threat to the continuity of the study.

The geographical distance between the various schools in the area of the research constituted serious transportation problem.

The study has been inheritably hindered by the lean purse and economic depression that bite seriously on the researchers.

    1.9          Definition of terms

In-service Training

According to the United State of America Department of Education (1985) in service training is a system of systematized activities promoted and directed by the school system that contribute to the professional or occupational growth and competence of staff members during the time of their service to the school system.


Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production to measure of output. A measure  of the  efficiency of a person in converting input into useful outputs.   
In more common meaning, it refers to producing good result.

School Teacher

 One whose profession or occupation is teaching, school teacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education.





To a large extent, the social, economics, and political development of a country depend on the quality of man power that it has at disposal. In commenting on this ‘‘Kuznets’’ said the major man power of an industrially, advanced country is not it’s physical equipment, it is the body of knowledge harnessed from tested findings and discoveries of science and the certainty of training of its population to use the knowledge.

The important of manpower has forced countries to invest in manpower and training for example, countries in the developing world emphasize training of quality manpower because they believe that availability of skilled manpower would increase the productivity of workers.

Nigerian government has invested on it and has done this by offering training scholarship and encouraging state government to operate manpower training schemes. This effort led to the establishment of the federal training center in 2008 in Nigeria.

In the second development plan [2003-2007] the government also established three parastatals to train manpower both in private and public sector. These includes; the Industrial Training Fund [ITF], Nigeria Council of Management Development and Administrative Staff college of Nigeria (ASCON). These institutions were established in 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. Then importance given to training and staff development in any organization cannot be over emphasized.

Indeed, training is an investment rather than a cost to any organization. In commenting on this, “Oshisami” said that training is an investment and that investment is a commitment of resources to be generated in the future. With training as an investment, the commitment constitutes the cost of training.

The asset acquired can be regarded as education, skill, mental or managerial capability, while the expected future stream of increased earnings constitutes the benefits.

International Tobacco Company was established in 2004 in Nigeria and was firstly registered as Kwara Tobacco Company Limited. The building of the factory and its offices and installation of machinery took place during 2005 in a site in the industrial area at Ilorin and production of cigarette commenced early 2006. Meanwhile, the company was commission on the 8th of May, 2008, and was presided over by His Excellency and late Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sarduna of Sokoto. The company was owned by the United African Company Limited in partnership with the Northern Nigeria Investment Limited. Kwara Tobacco Company introduced a market during the following years and a staff of about two hundred and twenty one people. In April 2008, Philip Morris incorporated purchased controlling interest in the company.

Philip Morris is one of the largest Cigarette Companies in the world with its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Philip Morris Cigarettes are sold in virtually every country of the world and are manufactured in over thirty-three countries. After becoming part of this organization, the name of the company was changed to Philip Morris Nigeria with the research facilities and technical knowledge of Philip Morris available. Philip Morris Nigeria embarked in a large scale expansion to increase the production capacity of the factory to produce the different types of cigarette and pectin required for the Nigerian market and to ensure that the quality of its products would meet international standards.

The marketing leaf, account personnel, engineering and purchasing departments have expanded accordingly and the head office of the company is now situated at 7up building Apapa Lagos.

In companies with the indigenization decree, 40% of the shares were sold to Nigerian, including the employees of the company. Consequently the name of the company was changed to International Cigarette Company Limited in 2008 but the company retained the Anme Philip Morris Nigeria as its trading name.


The organizational structure of International Tobacco Company, started with the board of Directors who were appointed by the company shareholders and are directly responsible to the vice chairman assisted by the secretary. They are also responsible to the board of Directors.

Meanwhile, the vice chairman in the necessity is the director such as the technical director, the marketing director, the general sales director, the personnel director, and the financial and commercial directors.

Administrative manager, factory personnel manager and corporate affairs manager are under personnel director. These managers are responsible solely to the personnel director and nobody else.


Production planning and its control may be defined as the firm’s material and facilities towards the attainment of specific production of goods and services in the most easily available ways. Ten, this will show how to embark on the actual production. International Tobacco Company, using the present and past record postulates what the future would look like and what to produce in future.

International Tobacco Company planning usually starts from the marketing section. It embarks on marketing output which the market comfortably7 absorbs the firm requisition for the quantity of raw material, labour, capital expenditure etc. that must be met. Meanwhile, it should be noted that ITC Ilorin, has a leaf growing areas that supplies high quantity Tobacco to the factory. The department provides manpower for the companies research and development farm at Odo-Giwa as well as provision of agricultural extension service to Tobacco Farmers located in Tobacco growing areas throughout the nation. The specialization major brands of cigarette are link plain Maribaro green sport and target cigarette.


The international Tobacco Company plays a dominant role in the economic well being in Africa, especially Nigeria. Besides the staff training and development embraces all the steps that are necessary to increase the capabilities of individuals and institutions to attain corporate objectives. Training and development needs program designed to meet the needs and implementation and evaluation of the program. A planned training and development process generally that the task of staff training as become a major management problem all over the world that organization that seeks to achieve success cannot afford to overlook.



Maternal, new-born and child mortality have been on the front burner of public health policy makers and implementers for decades especially in developing and under developed countries. The inclusion of Maternal, New-born and Child Health (MNCH) targets in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) highlights the enormity of the challenge and the efforts taken towards reducing maternal, new born and child mortality in Africa. The MNCH training for health promoters was developed towards improving health promoters’ performance; thus a reduction in maternal and infant mortality. The study therefore examined the influence of training on the performance of health promoters in maternal, newborn and child health education.

Triangulation research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised 155 health promoters and 43000 mothers in Akwa Ibom State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 125 respondents. Questionnaire, Interview Guide and Focus Group Discussion Guide were the instruments used for data collection. Data collected was summarized, coded, analyzed and presented using frequency distribution tables;charts were generated for the variables. Qualitative data was transcribed, coded and synthesized based on prevalent themes expressed by the interviewees. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis.

Findings revealed that health promoters in Akwa Ibom used flipcharts, diagram boards, slides, manuals and papers designed specifically for MNCH training. The training environment and duration were discovered to be inadequate for training of health promoters. The instruments of social mobilization used by health promoters were identified as mass media, local traditional heads and mothers’ word of mouth. However, findings from the respondents indicated that socialization was averagely low in the aspect of door to door counselling, involvement of mothers in implementation and monitoring of MNCH programmes. Health promoters noted that the health behaviours of mothers have been positively impacted by health messages disseminated to them. It was discovered the mothers revealed that mothers’ health behaviours were impacted upon by the health promoters, but disagreements exist in the aspect of exclusive breastfeeding where some mothers found it difficult to breastfeed exclusively for six months. From the test of hypotheses with a 0.05 pre-set level of significance, it was discovered that health education and/or social mobilization did not significantly influence mothers’ health behaviour.

The study concluded that the training for health promoters in Akwa Ibom state is to an extent deficient as the health promoters do not significantly influence mothers’ health behaviour. A major obstacle for the MNCH campaign planning and execution was discovered to be funding. This study therefore recommends that health promoters should identify sustainable ways of financing health trainings. Also, consideration should be given to selecting the training environment to ensure proper spacing and suitability for learning. The techniques and strategies for socialization and health education should be revisited in Akwa Ibom State with a strong framework included for testing mothers’ adoption of the health information as a measurement of health promoters’ level of efficiency.

Keywords: Training, Health promotion, Health Education, Social Mobilization, Health Behaviour


Content                                                                               Page                              

Title Page                                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                                         v

Table of Contents                                                                                            vi

List of Tables                                                                                                   ix

List of Figures                                                                                              x


  1. Background to the Study                                                                            1
    1. Statement of the Problem                                                                      4
    1. Objective of the Study                                                                             5
    1. Research Questions                                                                              5
    1. Hypotheses                                                                                             6
    1. Scope of the Study                                                                       6
    1. Significance of the Study                                                            7
    1. Operational Definition of Terms                                                         


2.0 Introduction                                                                                                 9

2.1 Conceptual Model                                                                              9

2.2 Review of Relevant Concepts                                                              10

2.2.1 Training and Health Promoters’ Performance                                   10

2.2.2 Health Promotion and Communication                                      12

2.2.3 Health Promotion Strategies                                                                       14 Social Mobilization                                                                         14 Health Education                                                                                  15

2.2.4 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Promotions                            17 Immunization                                                                                   17 Breastfeeding                                                                                       18 Hygiene                                                                                             20

2.2.3 Maternal Health                                                                                 21

2.2.4 Newborn and Child Health                                                                       24

2.3 Theoretical framework                                                                             27

2.3.1 Trans-theoretical or Stages of Change Model                                          27

2.3.2 Social Penetration Theory                                                                    29

2.2.3 Goal Orientation Theory                                                                       31

2.4 Empirical Review                                                                                        32

2.5 Summary                                                                                   37

Content                                                                                                      Page


3.0 Introduction                                                                                                   38

3.1 Research Design                                                                                      38

3.2 Population                                                                                                        38

3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique                                                     39

3.4 Research Instruments                                                                          43

3.4.1 Structured Questionnaire                                                                       43

3.4.2 Interview Guide                                                                 43

3.4.3 Focus Group Discussion Guide                                                           43

3.5 Validity of Research Instrument                                                                44

3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument                                                   44

3.7 Administration of Research Instrument                                                   44

3.8 Method of Data Analysis                                                              45


4.0 Introduction                                                                                           46

4.1 Presentation of Results                                                                     46

4.1.1 Presentation of Qualitative Results                                              46 Communication Materials                                                 46 Adequacy of training environment                                          47 Duration of Training for Health Promoters                                 47 Social Mobilization carried out by Health Promoters                      48 MNCH Education and Mothers’ Health Behaviour                           49

4.1.2 Presentation of Quantitative Results                                              50 Interpretation of Quantitative Results                                          55

4.2 Test of Hypotheses                                                                              65

4.2.1 Decision Rule                                                                                      65

4.3 Discussion of Findings                                                                   67


5.1 Summary                                                                                             72

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                    73

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                   74

5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                  75

      References                                                                                             76

      Appendices                                                                                                    83


Table                                                                                                                        Page

2.1 Key Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Indicators                               21

3.1 List of Selected Local Governments, Ward, Health Facility and Number of Registered Mothers                                                       40

3.2 Proportion of the Number of Registered Mothers per Health Facility   42

3.3 Proportional Distribution of Registered Mothers’ Sample Size                42

4.1 Respondents Socio- Demographic features                                                    50

4.2 Mothers who vaccinated their babies                    53

4.3 Mothers who believed that Breastfeeding a baby is a good habit            54

4.4 Mothers who give hygiene a lot of attention                                                 54

4.5 Level of Social Mobilization by Health Promoters in Akwa Ibom            55

4.6 Extent to which MNCH Education is given to mothers by Health Promoters                59

4.7 Level of Health Promoters Influence on Mothers’ Health Behaviours 62

4.8 Influence of Social Mobilization on Mothers’ Health Behaviours     65

4.9 Influence of Health Education on Mothers’ Health Behaviours         66

4.10 Influence of Health Education and Social Mobilization on Mothers’ Health Behaviours                                                                       66


Figure                                                                                                                Page

2.1 Conceptual Model                                                                                         9

4.1 Respondents’ Age Range                                                                                51

4.2 Respondents’ Marital Status                                                                         52

4.3 Respondents’ Household size                                                                       52

4.4 Respondents’ Number of Children                                              53       

4.5 Mothers who had vaccinated their babies and mothers with Positive perception of breastfeeding and hygiene                                     54

4.6 Level of Social Mobilization by Health Promoters in Akwa Ibom           58

4.7 Level of Health Promoters influence on Mothers’ Health Behaviours   61



1.1Background to the Study

Nigeria accounts for about ten percent of maternal deaths in the world with an estimated 814 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (World Bank, 2015). The morbidity and mortality among children in Nigeria is  10,900 per 100,000 live births and the infant mortality rate (IMR) which is at 6,900 per 100,000 live births is still higher than many other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with similar GDP as made known by WHO (2015). Maternal New-Born and Child mortality have been on the front burner of public health policy makers and implementers for decades. Ogunjimi, Ibe and Ikorok (2012) define maternal death as the “death of women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy from any cause related to, or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes” (P.34). Child mortality “is the death of a child under five years, while infant mortality is the death of a child under 1 year” (WHO, 2006; 2).

Illnesses during pregnancy or within forty-two (42) days of termination of pregnancy as well as pregnancy management issues contribute to maternal death. Some of the acute illnesses that lead to maternal mortality are anaemia in pregnancy due to malaria, intra-partum and post-partum hemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labour, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. However, Pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea, under nutrition and malnutrition, are major causes of childhood morbidity in Nigeria. It is estimated that 24% of children under five (5) years of age are underweight and 36% of children are estimated to be stunted (WHO, 2015).

The enormity of the challenges of maternal new-born and child health issues influenced the creation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). According to the WHO (2014), for an increased success rate of achieving the number four (4) (reducing child mortality) and number five (5) (improve maternal health), MDGs were highly needed because of the encouragement noted in the reduction in global child and maternal deaths (50%) from 1990 (baseline for the MDGs). Despite the efforts put into achieving the goal of reducing maternal mortality and infant morbidity, women and children across the world still die from preventable illnesses.  The inability to realize the MDG’s objective of reducing maternal and child mortality led to the Maternal New Born and Child Campaign in Nigeria as part of the Sustainable Development Goals – SDG’s (National Primary Health Care Development Agency, 2015). The Maternal New-born and Child Health campaign adopted development communication activities supported by trainings for health promoters in an attempt to boost their performance.




Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and the leading causeof cardiovascular disease in the world.Many people with hypertension are unaware of their condition making treatment infrequent and inadequate. According to Seven Joint National Committee Criteria (JNC7), the precise rule for the treatment of hypertension begins with lifestyle modifications and ends with medication. Unfortunately, many patients diagnosed to be hypertensive don’t usually have proper education about lifestyle modification.  Lifestyle modification is advised for all patients with hypertension, in respective of pharmacological treatment, because it may reduce or even abolish the need for medications.

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of a training programme on knowledge about hypertension, lifestyle modification and practice .Quasi experimental method was used for this study to determine the effect of a training programme on knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification.  Sample size of 60 participants diagnosed to be hypertensive and registered at the general out-patients and medical out-patients clinics were used. (Control group n=30, intervention group n=30). Two research settings were selected randomly from the three tertiary hospitals in Lagos state. One of the hospitals was randomly selected to be the control group and the other the experimental group. Purposive sampling was used to select the participant from each setting. Data were collected through administered questionnaire using a modified structured questionnaire from World health organization for hypertensive patients and hypertension knowledge-level scale (HK-LS). Data obtained were coded and analysed using SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. Variables and research questions were analysed using descriptive analysis e.g. percentage, mean, and standard deviation and to show relationship between dependent and independent variables. Hypotheses were tested using inferential t-test at 0.05 level of significance.

Demographic data showed that female were more prevalent in the study, level of literacy was fair in both groups. Above ninety three percent were Yoruba in the control group and above 44% in the experimental group. This is because this study was carried out in South-west Nigeria which is mainly dominated by the Yoruba. Results suggested that pre-test general knowledge of hypertension was low in both groups (t=2.836, p=0.065). Knowledge about lifestyle modification was also low in both groups (t=0.256, p=0.7989).  Practice of lifestyle modification as reported by the participant was also inadequate (t=1.390, 0.1705). Intervention was given and there was significant increase in the level of knowledge about hypertension and lifestyle modification (t=2.665, p=0.010) and (t=4.741, p=0.001) and improvement on their practice ((t=5.599, p=0.001)) after intervention.

The study concluded that, there is relationship between knowledge and practice, hence, it is pertinent that health care providers especially the nurses should help provide continuous and focused health education and training for the hypertensive in order to improve their knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification therefore controlling their blood pressure and reducing the risk for cardiovascular diseases. It is therefore recommended that health sector should intensify efforts on health educating the populace on the type of lifestyle that put them at risk of developing hypertension.

                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content                                                                                                           Page

Title Page                                                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                                             iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                                                        v

Table of Contents                                                                                              vi

List of Tables                                                                                                        ix

List of Figures                                                                                                         x

List of appendices                                                                                          xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                       

  • Background to the Study                                                           1
  • Statement of the Problem                                                                                                             3

1.3 Objective of the Study                                                                            4

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                 4

1.5 Hypotheses                                                                                               5

1.6 Scope of the Study                                                                                         5

1.7 Significance of the Study                                                                          5

1.8 Justification for the Study                                                        6

1.9 Operational Definition of terms                                                     6         


2.0 Introduction                                                                                    8

Content                                                                                           Page

2.1 Definition, Types, Causes and Signs and Symptoms                8

2.2 Prevalence of Hypertension                                                                9

2.3 Management of Hypertension                                                    12

2.4 Hypertension Morbidity and Mortality                                             14

2.5 Existing Programs/Interventions for Controlling Hbp                          15

2.6 Empirical Review                                                                                    18

2.7 Theoretical Review                                                                      22

2.8 Conceptual Model                                                                         23


3.0      Introduction                                                                                                24

3.1     Research Design                                                                                   24

3.2 Population                                                                                 25

3.3    Sample size and sampling Technique                                         25

3.4Instrumentation                                                                                         26

3.5    Validity of Instrument                                                                                27

3.6   Reliability of Instrument                                                                           27

3.7    Method of data Collection                                                        27

3.8    Method of Data Analysis                                                          29

3.9   Ethical Consideration                                                                          29

Content                                                                                           Page



4.0 Introduction                                                                                              30

4.1 Socio-demographic data of the participants                                 30

4.2 Pre-intervention                                                                                      31

4.3 Post intervention                                                                             42

4.4Hypotheses Testing                                                                                     56

4.5 Discussion of Findings                                                                               57

4.6 Application of the conceptual model (precede procede theory)            60


5.1Summary                                                                                       62

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                  62

5.3 Recommendations                                                                            63

5.4 Limitation of the Study                                                                      64

5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies                                                              64




Table               Page

4.1       Socio-demographic data of the participants   30

4.2.1    Pre intervention knowledge about hypertension        32

4.2.2    Summary of responses on knowledge about hypertension     33

4.2.3    Significance of knowledge about hypertension pre intervention 33

4.2.4    Pre intervention knowledge about lifestyle modification       34

4.2.5    Summary of responses on knowledge about hypertension pre intervention   34

4.2.6    Significance of knowledge about lifestyle modification pre intervention      35

4.2.7    Practice of lifestyle modification pre intervention; Diet section        36

4.2.8    Summary of responses to practice of lifestyle modification pre intervention            42

4.2.9    Significance of practice of lifestyle modification pre intervention    42

4.3.1    Knowledge   about   hypertension post intervention  43

4.3.2    Summary of responses on knowledge about hypertension post intervention 44

4.3.3    Significance of knowledge about hypertension post intervention  44

4.3.4    Knowledge about lifestyle modification post intervention    46

4.3.5    Summary of responses on knowledge about lifestyle modification post        intervention 47      

4.5.6    Significance of knowledge about lifestyle modification post intervention    47

4.5.7    Practice of lifestyle modification post intervention: Diet section     48

4.5.8    Summary of responses on practice of lifestyle modification post intervention          54

4.5.9    Significance of practice lifestyle modification post intervention       54

4.5.10 Effect of the training programme on control group    55

4.5.11  Table Effect of the training programme on Experimental group        55

4.6.1    Effect of the training programme on knowledge about hypertension and lifestyle   modification in both control and experimental groups. (Post intervention).            56

4.6.2    Effect of the training programme on practice post intervention in both groups         57


Figure                                                                                                          page

2.7 Application of Procede-Preced theory                     22

2.8 Conceptual Model                  23


Inform consent


Teaching plan

Notification for ethical clearance

Ethical approval

  2. LUTH


LASUTH – Lagos State University Teaching Hospital

LUTH – Lagos University Teaching Hospital

HIN – Hypertension

BP – Blood Pressure

SBP – Systolic blood pressure

DBP – Diastolic Blood Pressure

DASH – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 

DALYS – Disability adjusted life years

US – United State

UK – United Kingdom

AHA – American Heart Association

JNC7– Joint National Committee on detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7)

ADA – American Diabetics Association



1.0 Background to the Study

Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. Many people with hypertension are unaware of their condition making treatment infrequent and inadequate, which is responsible for it poor control and not always taken seriously (Neutel & Campbell, 2008). Majority who are suffering from hypertension have a type of hypertension called essential hypertension or type one hypertension. Heredity and unhealthy lifestyle have been widely acceptable has being responsible for this type of hypertension. This has become a menace especially in Africa because of the adoption of western lifestyle, coupled with its challenges of unhealthy environment, poverty, lack of health seeking behaviour, lack of health insurance and sedentary life lived by many.

According to Seven Joint National Committee Criteria (JNC7), the precise rule for the treatment of hypertension begins with lifestyle modifications and ends with medication. Unfortunately, many patients diagnosed to be hypertensive don’t usually have proper knowledge about lifestyle modification. Studies on lifestyle modifications have revealed that modifications such as weight loss, taking Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, exercising and reducing salt consumption would be effective in lowering blood pressure and reducing its complications especially the rate of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (Jafari, Shahriari, Sabouhi, Farsani & Babadi, 2016).

Lifestyle modification is advised for all hypertensive, in respective of pharmacological treatment, because it may abolish or even reduce the need for medications. The goal of prescribed lifestyle changes is to lower blood pressure. This lifestyle changes also offers a lot of health benefits and better outcomes for common chronic diseases (Huang, Duggan & Harman, 2008). Yet studies have showed that ignorance and lack of knowledge and awareness are some of the barriers to having a healthy lifestyle and not controlling and preventing high blood pressure. It is assumed that increased knowledge about the role of lifestyle in the occurrence of high blood pressure would cause people to start modifying their lifestyles and enhance their preventive behaviours as supported by the results of a study which says `when the score of knowledge in high blood pressure patients increases by one, their score of practice would increase by 0.12. (Jafari, Shahriari, Sabouhi, Farsani & Babadi, 2016).

However, studies have shown that improving knowledge and awareness alone could not be enough to control the effects of diseases by itself but by increasing the score of attitude toward high blood pressure through reinforcement, systolic and diastolic blood pressures would decrease significantly. There are a lot of other barriers that can prevent individual to modifying their lifestyle but studies have showed that increased knowledge, attitudinal and change of perceptions will all lead to practice of lifestyle modification (Jafari, Shahriari, Sabouhi, Farsani & Babadi, 2016).

The recommended lifestyle modification such as, moderate alcohol intake, weight loss of 3% to 9% of body weight, the DASH diet, regular aerobic exercise, and reduced dietary salt are lifestyle modification that controls blood pressure. Depending on the type of intervention, blood pressure reduction of 3 to 11 mm Hg systolic and 2.5 to 5.5 mm Hg diastolic, are believed to have great influence on blood pressure reduction and ability to potentiate antihypertensive drugs. The recommended diet called DASH diet is low in total and saturated fat, sugar, sugary drinks, refined carbohydrates, and red meat  but high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy products. This DASH diet has long been documented to lower weight, risk of type 2 diabetes, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and is accompanying by a lower incidence of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality (Lochner, Rugge & Judkins, 2006).

In a premier trial, it was also documented that a reduction of 14.2/7.4 mmHg in blood pressure is attained when DASH diet is accompany by salt reduction and alcohol, aerobic exercise and weight loss, which also reduces the prevalence of hypertension from 38% to 12% over the period of six months. Reduce salt consumption by hypertensive patents, possibly the   single most important hypotensive measure, entails regularly checking food labels for salt content, staying away from processed foods, and using spices and herbs for flavour. It is generally acceptable that personal efforts from the patients and reinforcing and enabling environment from health personnel will lead to a great success in diet and behavioural modification (Nicoll & Henein 2010).

Knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification among patients with high blood pressure has however been showed to be inadequate in some studies. In UK, Nicoll and Henein (2010) in their study revealed that many hypertensive patients are unwilling to accept that their lifestyle practices or choices have made a worthwhile contributed to their condition and may refuse advice to change, this may be true of other hypertensive patients. Therefore, health education about hypertension, its consequences and lifestyle modification is been advocated to begin as early as possible in population identified to be at risk (American Heart Association, 2010).

1.1 Statement of the problem

Despite the treatment guideline and numerous drugs available for the treatment of hypertension, having patients bringing their blood pressure under control has always been a mirage. Part of the guidelines for the treatment of hypertension is lifestyle modification. In terms of economic burden, morbidity, mortality, poorly controlled blood pressure is a considerable important public health concern among older adult in the world. High blood pressure is the leading and most significant modifiable risk factor for, stroke, heart diseases, renal diseases and retinopathy. Recent recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hypertension has placed importance on modifying lifestyle. It has been proven that lifestyle modifications that is capable of lowering hypertension include increased physical activity, weight loss, reduced sodium intake. This include, a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products reduced in total and saturated fat (Al-wehedy, Abd Elhameed, & Abd El-Hammed, 2015).

Despite the above fact, it’s been documented in several studies that most hypertensive patients don’t have enough knowledge about lifestyle modification. In a study carried out among 101 participants on perception and practice of lifestyle modification in South-East Nigeria, it was revealed that about 87.1% of the participant were not aware that exercising regularly is part of lifestyle modification while 60% were not aware that alcohol intake should be of moderate consumption. The roles of unsaturated oil and reduction in diary food intake, vegetables, and fruits in the control of blood pressure were not aware by 80% and above. A little above 60% practiced salt restriction among 88% that has some knowledge of salt restriction. This is also applicable to the few with knowledge of weight reduction, regular exercise, fruit intake, cigarette smoking and alcohol moderation, respectively.  The study shows there was a negative relationship between diastolic and systolic blood pressures and the level of practice. This typifies that knowledge level and practice of lifestyle modifications were poor among the studied participants. (Okwuonu, Emmanuel & Ojimadu, 2014).

This is in congruence with the researchers experience with patients, colleagues and family members who are diagnosed to be hypertensive, and are far away from modifying their lifestyle. This may be due to lack of adequate knowledge, belief and lack of reinforcement and enabling environment motivating them to modifying their lifestyle as documented. Jafari, Shahriari, Sabouhi, Farsani & Babadi, (2016), postulated that having knowledge or a partial knowledge and awareness alone will not lead to a change in health behaviours and practical application of knowledge but enhancement of awareness through appropriate educational programs. Therefore, this study is aimed at bridging the gap in knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification through a training programme.

1.2 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study, is to determine the effect of a training programme on the knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification programme among hypertensive patients attending out-patient clinics in Lagos. The specific objectives are to:




The human resources are the most dynamic of all the organizations resources of all the organizations resources. They need considerable attention from the organisations management; if they are to realize their full potential in their work. Thus motivation, leadership, communication work restructuring payment systems and training and development may be included in the issue which has to be faced by management today. Most of these issues will be considered in this research work, but now it is time to consider the role of training and development activities in the organization.




This study is on the effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made accountants, human resource managers, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies



  • Background of the study

Interest is the reward that accrues to people who provide the fund with which capital goods are bought (Soyibo and Adekanye, 1992). Interest can also be defined as the payment made to a lender by a borrower for the use of a sum of money for certain period of time. The charging of interest on loan was initially abolished during medieval days, both was later legalized by King Henry VIII in 1545 when he abolished the usury laws in it was condemned. These usury laws were established during the medieval time when the payment of interest rate was strongly condemned and termed usury. During that time, it was believed that loan was an aid to an individual or neighbour who is distressed, for such reason, they felt charging of interest on loan was not proper (Bhatia and Khatkhate, 1973)

There have been several policies in Nigeria which includes Protection and tax holidays for Infant Industries, liberal credit facilities for industrial and Agricultural Investments, interest rate policies amongst others. These measures are geared towards boosting the level of investment in the country which will ultimately grow the economy of the nation. However, investment is influenced by several factors which include Exchange Rate Instability, Poor Infrastructure, Political Instability, Poor Credit Ratings, Interest Rates, Exchange rates amongst others. Interest rate boosts the level of investment as a result interest rate is a major determinant of investment. Interest rate is the price paid for the use of money. Investment is the change in capital stock during a period. Investment plays a very important role in economic growth in a country. Countries rely on investment to solve economic problems such as poverty, unemployment etc.(Muhammad 2004). As such determinants of level of investment become paramount in an economy. Banks as intermediaries move fund from surplus units of the economy to deficit units by accepting deposits and channeling them into the appropriate sectors. The extent to which this could be done depends on the rate of interest and level of development of financial sector as well as the saving and investment habit of the people. Hence, the availability of investible fund is therefore necessary for all investment in the economy which eventually translates to economic growth and development (Uremadu,2006). Interest rate policy is among the emerging issues in view of the role it is expected to play in the deregulated economy in inducing savings which can be channeled to investment and thereby increasing employment, output and efficient financial resource utilization (Uchendu 1993). Also, interest rates can have a substantial influence on the rate and pattern of economic growth by influencing the volume and disposition of saving as well as the volume and productivity of investment (Leahy, 1993 as cited in Lensink 2000). The behaviour of interest rates, aids to determine the investment activities and hence economic growth of a country. Investment depends upon the rate of interest involved in getting funds from the market by investors, while economic growth to a large extent depends on the level of investment. Therefore, the need to promote an interest rate that will ensure increase in investment and consequently enhancing economic growth cannot be over emphasized.


Over the years, achieving sustainable growth and development in Nigeria has been very challenging. There has been low level of savings and investment, instability in Monetary and Fiscal Policies, Falling Crude Oil Prices in the International Market, High level of interest rate, and Poor infrastructural development amongst others. As a result of the instability in the country, the Nigerian Government with the aid of the International Monetary Fund adopted the Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986. The aim was to restructure the productive and consumption patterns of the economy through the elimination of price distortions and reduction in the dependency on crude oil export and import of raw materials and consumer goods. Prior to the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme in Nigeria in 1986, the Monetary Authority, the Central Bank determined interest rate with a specific range between deposit and lending rates. Banks were required to channel specific percentage of their credits to the priority sectors of the economy. The Agricultural and Industrial sectors were the priority as well as the productive sectors of the domestic economy. Despite these measures put in place by the Government, stimulating the productive sectors of the economy have not been achieved. Interest rate has been unstable and high level of Investment has not yet been achieved.


The objectives of the study are;

  1. To determine the impact of real interest rate on Domestic Investment
  2. To investigate the effect of prime lending rate on Domestic Investment
  3. To determine the effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there is no impact of real interest rate on Domestic Investment

H1there is impact of real interest rate on Domestic Investment

H02: there are no effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria

H2there are effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria


The study will give a clear insight on effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria. The study will be significant to students, Nigeria government and the general public. The study will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this study


The scope of the study covers effects of interest rate in domestic investment in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


INTEREST RATE: the proportion of a loan that is charged as interest to the borrower, typically expressed as an annual percentage of the loan outstanding.

DOMESTIC INVESTMENT: investment in the companies and products of someone’s own country rather than in those of foreign countries: On the whole, China depends more on domestic investment and consumption than on exports to generate its growth.




This research work was carried out to investigate into the effect of industrial training scheme on the training of Office Managers.  It was discussed under the following sub headings according to the purpose of the study: Objectives of Industrial Training, benefits derived from Industrial Training, causes and remedies to the poor implementation of Industrial Training programme. It was observed that the management problem of industrial training on the training of Office Managers was on how to achieve the organizational goal, poor visitation of students by supervision staff during training and non-payment to students on attachment.  This study helps students to achieve the practical aspect of learning, which enable them to perfect on the theoretical training.  The population of the study was made up of 253 managerial students both Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Federal Polytechnic Oko and Abia State Polytechnic Aba.  Four (4) research questions were formulated which guided the study. Thirty (30) structured questionnaires were used for data collection which was distributed to 165 managerial students from HNDI and HNDII in the selected tertiary institutions.  Also, tables, percentile method were used in analysis of data collected and the statistical tool employed in testing the hypothesis was Chi Square.  The findings reveals that the programme organized by the industrial training fund is relevant to students involved in skilled courses.  It was recommended that the activities of the establishment in which they had their IT exposure are related to their course of study.  There should be a line between the industries and schools so that the performance reports of the students would be sent to Industrial Training Fund (ITF) office after each industrial training experience for further assessment.



1.1    Background of the Study

Industrial Training is the training given to the students in tertiary institution in order to know the responsibilities of human resources development and how they will tackle their work/job after their school career.

The Industrial Training Funds was set up by (SIWES) Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme programme to help students in tertiary institutions especially those offering practical courses such as Office Technology and Management students, Art and Applied Sciences, Engineering students etc. to achieve their required training skills for their professions.

This programme has brought about many positive effects on the students.  As the manager’s job is to provide service to the general public, industrial training helps to expose managers to industrial behaviour in order to improve on practical aspect of their course.  According to Okafor (1993), this type of experience would expose students to the world of work and help them remedy the deficiencies of the classroom in terms of its practical components.

Thus, the Industrial Training Fund programs help Office Managers to perfect in their profession.  For instance, some courses in Office Technology and Management line is Office Management System, Office Practice, Principle of Law, Advance Transcription, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Human Capital Management etc. are being taught theoretical in school.

In Polytechnics, Office Managers due go to four months Industrial Training (IT), in their first year, in second year another one year Industrial Training making them acquire the necessary skills to perfect in their course of study.

Students experience during the course of their training will definitely help them to carry out their managerial work effectively provided that the programme of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) is a continuous process.  The experiences gotten by students is a good tool that responds to a certain basic aspect of the students fullest development in the Office Management and Technology course making them acquire the necessary skills.

The most serious problem facing the students before the introduction of the Industrial Training (IT) is unemployment.  Many of them do not possess the relevant and employable skills needed by employers, students are being faced with the problem of acquiring the needed practical knowledge.  Thereby, making the students to imagine everything that are being taught.  But the introduction of this IT programme has helped Office Managers to perform well, especially in getting direct contact with some of the new office gazettes that have been taught theoretically in school.

The SIWES objectives is to help students to find solution to the problem of unemployment, to take their steps in the journey through their life career with pleasure, confidence, and to prepare students for the world.

Taylor (1983) had concluded that students who have benefited from SIWES opportunities pass on to the next level and are ready to accept any challenges of learning skills in their career.  For this reasons the potential managers that went through the industrial training fund programme benefited from many effects needed for their experiences and exposure.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The management problem of the industrial training is on how to achieve the organization goal.  And the effort of well trained managers as Folayan (1998) stated is a sine quo non for the achievement of the organizational corporate goal.

Before the introduction of Industrial Training Scheme, the Office Manager’s attitude and performance in school and outside school was very discouraging.

The Federal Military Government introduced this programme (IT) to guide and direct the Office Manager’s learning so that they will carry out their work/job effectively and accurately.






It should be recanted that a decision is a choice where by a person forms a conclusion about a situation. Costello, and zalkind, (1963:334), confined the term decision making, to a choice process, choosing one from among several possibilities.

However, decision theory in Costello, et al (1963: 387) largely considers decision making as the process of making a single choice among course of action at a particular point in time, this depicts a course of behavior about what must be done or vice versa. Decision is however, the point at which plans, policies and objectives are translated into concrete actions. Planning engenders decisions guided by company policies and objectives, procedures and programmes. The aim of decision making is to channel human behavior towards a future goal.

Decision-making is however, one of the most germane activities of management. It has been the preoccupation of all the management of multifarious organization ranging from small-scale organization to multinational corporations.

Decision in an organization involves the process of taking action by some official person or body to approve, modify or reject a preferred position on an issue or group of issues. This could in the form of enactments of legislation or an issuance of an executive order in an organization. This process involves the art of day -to -day decisions that are applied in the running of an organization.

For decision to be assumed to be effective there must exist competing alternatives. Before effective  decisions are taken some proposals will be rejected, others accepted,   still others modified. The differences will be narrowed: bargains will be struck until ultimately, in some instances, the decision will be only a formality. In other words, the question will be in doubt until the votes are counted or the decision is announced.

Managers many at times consider decision making to be the heart of their job in that they must always choose what is to be done, who will do it, when, where and most of the time how it will be done.

Traditionally, managers influence the ordinary employees and specifically, their immediate subordinates in the organization. This has resulted in managers making unnatural decision even in areas effecting their subordinates.

In Germany, around 1951, a law enacted which provides for code termination and requires labour membership in the supervisory board and executive committee of certain large corporations. However the participation of labour in decision making process resulted to relatively and peaceful labour management relations.

Additionally, the Japanese management uses decision making by consensus in which lower-level employees initiate the idea and submit it to the next higher-level unit it reaches the desk of the top executive. If the proposal is approved, it is returned to the initiator for implementation.

It is in this context, that the researcher wishes to assess the impact of employees participation in decision making on organizational productivity in Nigerian public sector organizations, using ANAMMCO Ltd as a case study.


There has been lots of controversy as to whether an employee should participate in managerial decision making or not. Some writers argued that employees should contribute in making decision more especially where it affects them or their jobs. It is expected that such participation will serve as training and testing ground for future members of upper management.

In Nigeria, experts that refuted the above assertion see the arrangement as a symptom of mal- organization. They maintained that, qualified, reasonably, honest and company oriented individuals are not available at these lower organizational levels. But, the big question is, are qualified individuals really available? All these underlay the need for an investigation study.


The general purpose of this empirical study is to assess the impact of employees participation in managerial decision making in public sector organization in Nigeria with reference to ANAMMCO Ltd.

The specific objectives are:-

To assess the impact of employee participation in management decision – making of ANAMMCO Ltd.

To ascertain the impact of employee participation or non-participation in management decision on productivity of the organization.

To make recommendations based on the research findings.




This project work is aimed at examining the training secretaries as an effective tool in information and Communication Technology in every organization.Training can simply be defined as the ability to achieve a particular skill or knowledge to do a particular job, while information and communication technology on the other hand is the study of use of electronic equipment for storing or analysis information. It is the bedrock for national survival and development of rapidly changing global environment. The prospective and present secretaries should be given training within and outside the country and adequate financial support should be given to them in the course of their training.


1.0 INTRODUCTION           

The vital role of training secretaries in an organization and its effect on Information and Communication Technology cannot be over-emphasized.It is importance for organization to create an easily adapted  labour force in this time of technological changes by systematic training so long as secretaries are used to obtain organization goals, they should be given proper training as an effective tool in information and communication in order to make them productive. The fundamental goal of any personnel policy is to obtain maximum utilization with the firm of the potential ability to each individual worker. To achieve this goal, a sound training in this information and communication technology programme is mandatory.  With this goal in mind, the training manager with the assistance of heads of other departments should plan the training on information and communication technology programmed for categories of secretaries. Individual acquire one type of training or the other right from the beginning the first training which a child receives is from the parent, the society and formal education setting.           

 Training is to help employees to contribute their maximum usefulness to the firm at the shortest possible time, so it is something that is done once for new employee, it should be a continuous process in every organization and in the life of every individuals. Training is directed towards changing the behaviour of attitude of an individual to achieve an acceptable rescue and she must also retain in information technology so as enable her meet the satisfaction of her employer. The numerous benefits which the employees derived from training cannot be over-emphasized. Money spent alone in training is money well invested. 

Information technology is the bedrock for national survival and development in a rapidly hanging global environment and challenges us to devise bold and courageous initiatives. Without technology Nigeria would have still be in the dark, not knowing what s going on in other developed countries the growing use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) worldwide has resulted in increasing awareness of the critical role that information play in supporting the development process. Training of secretaries in information technology makes them skillful in their profession and has a wider general knowledge of techniques, which may be required in the future to meet anticipated future needs organization.


Every organization adopts different strategies towards improving, the skill of their employees on technological problems in order to ensure effective realization of the organization goal. Meanwhile, one of the strategies of improving human skills in an organization is through training but it is painful that most of the well-known organization in the country do not lay much emphasis on training of their employees on the new techniques and the resulted in low productivity as well as low profit.

On the other hand, it is also noted that few of the organization that train staff fail to adapt appropriate technique in carrying out training programme for their employees and consequence of this led to poor performance on the part of the employees and wastage of money the might have been spent in training such.

It is also observed that technological equipment needs to be carried out by organization to their employees are not done accordingly and this lead to de-moral of workers and consequently leads to poor productivity. 




The topic of this research is the role of industrial Training scheme on the Development of manpower in selected business Establishment in Anambra state. At the time of writing this project, five companies Ibeto Group of Company and Premier Brewery Onitsha, ITF area office Awka, Lento Aluminum Company Awka and Nigeria Brewery Onitsha  were sampled for the survey. In collecting the data for this research, the instrument used were the questionnaire.

The need for business establishment to embark on industrial training was introduced. The researcher found out that  the employers of labour witness work  improvements of workers trained with ITF training programmes. The researcher recommended that the training programmes of ITF should be wide enough to cover the specific need of the contributing company. From the analysis of the data collected, the researcher found out that ITF is doing a good job though it has some problems hindering its progress. The research ended up in concluding, summarizing and putting up a number of recommendations for further studies.



1.1 Background to the Study         

Some years back, the concept of training and development of manpower in some business establishment were vaguely understood in most of our developing countries. This was supported by Dr. Akinku in his book “Nigeria Today” when he said; we are yet to find out what it is, are the 4m’s absent in our midst. All efforts to improve on our productivity yield no result. Referring to his 4m’s, he meant Man, Materials, Machines and Money. With the turn of events, and increased awareness both the developed and developing countries have come to appreciate the problem of employee development and training in many organizations.         

In his inaugural lecture on supervisor management training course. Layemo said that the basic problem of developing countries is not lack of natural resource but the underdevelopment of their human/manpower resources. In a similar perspective, Eze in his book” sources of management motivation”, showed that manpower in the third world countries are underdeveloped. In support of this, a report by Ashby of (1959:58) showed that manpower resources in the third world countries were still developing. Following Ashby’s recommendation, the National manpower Board was established in 1962. As a follow up, the manpower in 1963 undertook a comprehensive manpower survey which brought to governments notice the following.

a.     The quality of management in all level is one of the major problems of economic development.

b.     The need for effective co-ordination to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts in manpower training.In 1969, the International Labour Organization (ILO) emphasized the inadequate of manpower development programmes in Nigeria which was necessary for her to carry out her economic development plan occasioned by the civil war, hence the need for rehabilitations, required to develop technical and progression of manpower training.    

The second National manpower development plan (1970:74) also said that there was high level of incompetence in positions in our industries and it identified the following factors as  being responsible for it

a. Inadequacy of education and professional qualification

b. Poor quality of employees

c. Inadequate experience.

Irrespective of these poor quality skilled manpower, employers have neglected the need to train their workers for increased productivity and efficiency of their work. The federal government create industrial training fund in 1971 by decree No 47 and its main objective is to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills with a view to generate a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the developing needs of the country.




This research project titled “The impact of on-the-job training to effective performances of secretaries” was carried out using Union bank of Nigeria PLC, Challenge, Ibadan as case study. Top executive and practicing secretaries were used to gather information on the above topic questionnaires and ink views were the methodology adopted.         

It was discovered that trained played a major in the impact of or the job training to effective performances of secretaries but it was not in isolating as other factors also contributed to the performance of secretaries. It was been recommend to all students and secretaries should make use all the available training facilities at their disposal meaningfully.

Conclusively of impact on the job training to effective performance secretaries cannot be over emphasized.




Secretaries are not born but made, although there are people with the potentiality of becoming good, effective and efficient secretaries. Before anybody can be called a Secretary, she must have unclear gone certain trainings. The period of training varies from time to time and depends on the level of operation.In other words, the degree of training will determine where the secretary works.

Generally, it is however required that a person must have gone through series of trainings before she can qualify as a secretary.          

During the period of training, no matter how short or long at takes, it is expected that all the skills and knowledge required of her to be able to discharge her duties effectively must have been acquired.          

Having acquired these, the end result is to be able either to impact these skills and knowledge into others or make the best use of them in various places where such are needed.



Secretaries are not born but made, although there are people with the potentiality of becoming good, effective and efficient secretaries. Before anybody can be called a Secretary, she must have unclear gone certain trainings. The period of training varies from time to time and depends on the level of operation.In other words, the degree of training will determine where the secretary works.

Generally, it is however required that a person must have gone through series of trainings before she can qualify as a secretary.         

 During the period of training, no matter how short or long at takes, it is expected that all the skills and knowledge required of her to be able to discharge her duties effectively must have been acquired.          

Having acquired these, the end result is to be able either to impact these skills and knowledge into others or make the best use of them in various places where such are needed.





Managers and management researchers have long believed that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members of the organization.

Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system etc., in converting inputs into useful outputs. Productivity is computed by dividing average output per period by the total costs incurred or resources (capital, energy, material, personnel) consumed in that period.

Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve high levels of performance through theory.

This means giving close attention to how individuals can be best motivated through such means as incentives, reward, leadership and importantly what they produce and the organization content within which they carry out the work.




This Project work is “An Analysis of Training as Tool for improvement of secretarial Efficiency in an organization.” This was necessitated by the fact that most organizations fail, not because their workers, especially secretaries are not efficient, but as a result of lack of constant training.

This is necessary in view of continuous technological changes nowadays. The data generated using a structured questionnaire administered to all the 80 secretaries in Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State using the percentage method. It was found out, amongst others that increased learning made the secretaries more competent.

In view of this, it was partly recommended that organizations should have a consistent policy of sending their staff on regular training and developments programmes, as well as seminars, workshop and conferences. 




This research project “THE IMPACT OF INPLAINT TRAINING ON JOB PERFORMANCE ON SECRETARIES IN ORGANISATIONS” was carried out using ECO BANK OF NIGERIA PLC Ikotun, Lagos State as a case study. Top executive and practicing secretaries were used to gather information on the above topic, questionnaire and interview were the methodology adopted. It was discovered that training played a major impact on the job performance of secretaries, but it was not in isolation of other factors which also contribute to the performance of secretaries.         

It was recommended among other things that student and secretaries should make use of all the available training on job performance of secretaries cannot be over emphasized.




Secretaries are not born but made, although there are people with the potentiality of becoming good effective and efficient secretary. Before anybody can be called a secretary, he/she must have undergone certain training which varies from time to time and depends on the level of operation. During the period of training, no matter how short or long it takes, it is expected that all the skills and knowledge required of her to be able to discharge her duties effectively must have been acquired.

Having acquired these, the end result is to be able to either impact this skill and knowledge unto others or make the best use of them in various places to effectively perform the work of a secretary after training. The secretary either lives up to the expectation by meeting the requirement of the job or fails her duties. Whatever happens to the performance of a secretary after training could be attributed to the quality and quantity of his or her training to a great extent.         

Nevertheless, training remains a great contributing factor to the performance of secretaries.




This research project titled impact of training on the effectiveness of secretaries was carried out using First Bank Nigeria Plc Challenge, Ibadan as a case study. Top executives and practicing secretaries were used to gather information on the above topic.  Questionnaires and interview were the methodology adopted. 

 It was discovered that training played a major impact on the job performance of secretaries, but it was not in isolation as other factors also contributed to the performance of secretaries.It was been recommended to all students and secretaries should make use of all the available training facilities at their disposal meaningfully. Conclusively, the impact of training on the job performance of secretaries cannot be over emphasized.



Secretaries are not born but made, although there are people with the potential of becoming good, effective trained and efficient secretaries. Before anybody can be called a secretary, he or she must have undergone certain trainings but the period of training varies from time to time and depends on the level of operation. In the words the degree of training will determine where the secretary will work. Generally, it is however required, that a person must undergo series of trainings before he/she can be called a qualified secretary. 

During the period of training, no matter how short or long it takes, it is expected that all the skills and knowledge required of a secretary to be able to discharge her duties effectively must have been acquired. Having acquired these, the end result is to be able to impact these skills and knowledge into others or make the best use of them in various places where such are needed.