This research work investigated the attitude of students towards students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) using the descriptive survey research design. The research conducted among undergraduates students of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. 200 students were randomly selected from the department of Vocational and Technical education. The instrument was a 20 item question name score in likert type response format; Strongly Agree (5), A =Agree (4), U= Undecided (3), DA= Disagree (2), and SD =Strongly Disagree (1). The research questions were analyzed using the mean rating, and the findings showed that:

  1. School equipment were not found replicating those in the industries
  2. The schools lack adequate infrastructures that discouraged students further in showing concern for industry’s based training
  3. Knowledge of I.T was found to be valuable in giving students an idea of industrial management
  4. SIWES enhance student’s ability to tackle technical problems

It was however recommended that ITF should ensure that regular visitation of the IT officers to supervisors, agencies, institution, employers and students on attachment. Also, checking of log –book issued to students at place of attachment by institutions is recommended in order that the average vocational students can develop a good sense of work commitment.


Background to the Study

Attitude as a concept is concerned with individuals’ way of thinking, acting, and behaving. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. Attitude is fundamental to understanding social perception of people because they strongly influence people. Ojo (2000) said that it is the disposition of men to view things in a certain way and to act accordingly. This notion of attitude however, could be said to have propelled students who gain admission into universities to have preference for a particular course of study. Furthermore, some students still hold divergent views based on their attitudinal disposition to the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), which motivate them towards the studying of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in tertiary institutions.

According to Akerele (2007) the  present  state  of  technological  development  in  Nigeria  calls  for  appropriate  orientations  towards technological and vocational education as a springboard for skills acquisition. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) in her national policy on education defined technical and vocational education as acquisition of demonstrable skills that could be transformed into economic benefits. It also refers to those aspects of education process  involving  general  education,  the  study  of  technologies,  science  and  acquisition  of  practical  knowledge and skills.



1.1. Background of the study

In Africa and in Nigeria in particular, governments are making efforts to promote technical and vocational education in institutions with the belief that skills acquired through vocational and technical training enhances productivity in work environment. Abban and Quarchie (1996) pointed out that a shift towards practical skills training with technical and vocational education in Africa is increasingly under reform to make it more attractive, effective and efficient.
One of the most important features of technical and vocational education, as recognized by African governments, is its orientation towards the world of work with the curriculum emphasizing the performance of technical and vocational trainees in the work environment. African Union (2007) report also highlighted the current vision of African countries in developing a new strategy to revitalize technical and vocational education will promote skills acquisition through competency-based training. If this vision should materialize, it will require ability testing for employment in order to promote sustainable livelihoods and responsible citizenship.
In achieving the goal of work place performance of technical and vocational graduates, Roeske (2003) explained, the Nigerian Industrial Skills Development Center was established in 2002. This center, working in close collaboration with the Association of Nigerian Industries and the Nigerian Employers
Association, was tasked to harness the financial and material resources required for achieving and promoting excellence in skills training. A number of other institutions like Integrated Community Center for Employable Skills, the Opportunities Industrialization Center and the Department of Social Welfare’s Vocational Centers are parts of government effort to produce skillful technical and vocational personnel. Other innovative programmes like the Skills Training and Employment Placement (STEP) and the Vocational Skills Project were also kept in place to bring out the talented and skillful technical and vocational personnel for the job market (Roeske, 2003). The Nigeria Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service and the Intermediate Technology Transfers Units are also providing technical and vocational education graduates with additional and enriched practical skills to enable them set up their own enterprises. All these interventions have not yielded the expected result.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor performance of graduates in other disciplines has become a menace in that it has grossly aected
the economic output as a nation. Regardless of the various interventions to ensure that technical institute graduates are well equipped with the required practical skills for the job/labour market and the campaign about the benefits of technical and vocational education, it has not attracted the youth in the southern Nigerian region to move into technical and vocational training at all because most technical graduates have not been able to enter into employment in their respective fields of training. The poor transition from school to the labour market by graduates has an appreciable amount of technical and vocational education graduates, who are mostly young
people, leave to the southern part of the country for menial jobs. This trend of affairs may suggest that technical vocational training programs offered by technical institutes probably fail to develop the skills required for employment within the southern Nigerian region and beyond and this has significantly contributed to the poor socio economic development of Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study sought to discover the views of students, and technical and vocational education teachers on the state of practical skills training to meeting the socio-economic needs of the region.Specifically, the study sought to;
1. Know the challenges facing the effective preparation of technical students for employment and work output.
2. Determine the extent to which teachers’ qualifications and quality of teaching affect technical vocational graduates work place performance.
3. To examine the performances of technical vocational education graduates in the labour market.
4. Know how relevant technical and vocational skills are to graduates in the work place environment.
5. To examine the performance of technical and vocational education graduates in delta state.





The benefits of securing a committed workforce and retaining organizational competitive advantage over other organizations are crucial for the success and sustainability of organization and this is increasingly becoming indispensable. One of the essential sources of such competitive advantage according to researchers is the human capital (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004; Cunningham and Sagas, 2004). Being proactive is about taking control to make things happen rather than watching things happen. It involves aspiring and striving to bring about change in the environment and/or oneself to achieve a different future (Bindl and Parker, 2011; Grant and Ashford, 2008).

Extra-role performance, which includes taking charge behaviours, refers to discretionary behaviours (i.e. sportsmanship, civic virtue, and helping behaviour) on the part of the salesperson that are not objectively related to his/her sales productivity Podsakoff,  MacKenzie, Paine and Bachrach (2000). Even though taking charge is not part of individual‘s assigned duties, they are still beneficial to the organization, its members and the employees themselves. In the sales context, it has been demonstrated that OCB have a strong, positive, and consistent effect on the evaluation of the employees‘ performance, in several contexts, Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1994).

One of the arguments used to explain the influence of organizational citizenship behaviour on performance evaluation lies in the mediating effect of affective variables (Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1994). According to this idea, employees that engage in these behaviours will be rewarded with the positive liking of their supervisors (Lefkowitz, 2000). Despite these arguments, there is still the need to empirically confirm them in the sales context.

Recently Parker and Collins (2010) showed through empirical investigations that taking charge can be classified as important extra-role behaviour. Existing studies also provide extensive proof of the diverse ways in which workers express proactive behaviour, including seeking feedback (Ashford, Blatt & VandeWalle, 2003), breaking rules (Morrison, 2006), implementing ideas and solving problems (Parker, Williams, & Turner, 2006), taking initiative in pursuing personal and organizational goals (Frese and Fay, 2001) , taking charge to bringing about change (Morrison and Phelps, 1999) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), (Allen, 2006; Li, Liang, & Crant, 2010; Organ, 1988; Onyishi, 2006). As suggested by these studies, attention to discretionary work behaviour has most often grown out of interest in a particular field. These phenomenon-driven approaches have led to rich array of proactive behaviours that have been important in diverse areas. Recently, focus has shifted to, taking charge, a less researched form of extra role behaviour that is capable of facilitating the initiation of innovative behaviours that are critical to modern organizational competitiveness and sustainability (Morrison & Phleps, 1999). Using both individual-level and contextual predictors, Morrison and Phelps (1999) demonstrated that taking charge behaviours are a function of an employee‘s felt responsibility to change the workplace, their belief in their capacity to perform and the perception of the top management‘s openness to change.

Despite the significance of taking charge at the workplace, its antecedents are relatively understood. Most attention has been given to reactive concepts of performance in which it is assumed that there is a set job to which an individual must be matched (Frese & Fay, 2001). For instance, much research has been devoted to investigating the predictors of standard task performance (Viswesvaran, 2001) as well as citizenship behaviours (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000). These concepts, however, have been criticized for their emphasis on rather passive behaviours (Morrison & Phleps, 1999). Researchers have proposed that both individual differences and contextual factors are antecedents to proactive work behaviours (Parker, Bindl & Strauss, 2010). To date, scholars have largely emphasized individual differences as antecedents to proactive work behaviour. Proactive personality, (Parker & Collins, 2010), general self-efficacy and felt responsibility (Morrison & Phleps, 1999) have well been linked with proactive work behaviour and some specifically to taking charge at work.

Conventionally, reseachers who have studied extrarole bahaviours have generaly focused on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). However, Morrison and Phleps (1999) expanded the taking charge concept in response to the shortcomings of overly

narrow conceptualization of extrarole behaviours, defining it as ― voluntary and constructive efforts, by individual employees, to effect organizationally functional change with respect to how work is executed within the contexts of their jobs, work units, or organizations‖ . According to Moon (2008), much studies on OCB has focused on helping contemporaries, being punctual, and attending nonrequired work functions, as opposed to more extensive behaviours embedded in a desire to help one‘s organization develop, advance, and improve. Clarifying the concept further, Van Dyne, Cummings and Parks, (1995), likened taking charge to be ― challenging-promotive‖ in that it fits into the general class of extrarole behaviours. Moreover, taking charge, has been largely examined as discrete form of behaviour. It occurs when workers go one step further, informing their superiors of how they actually attempted to resolve problems (Morrison & Phleps, 1999).

Tucker (2007) in the same light sees taking charge as ―leverages of workers‖ firsthand knowledge of the details- and often the root causes- of problems, which enables them to offer particularly well-informed ideas about how to resolve them. Moon et al. (2008) succintly puts taking charge as innovative citizenship behaviour and posited that it is change oriented. Related concepts are role innovation (Schein, 1971), voice (Van Dyne & LePine, 1998), role innovation, breaking rules (Morrison, 2006) and task revision (Staw & Boettger, 1990). Compared to voicing concerns, Morrison and Phleps (1999) further asserted that taking charge is more constructive form of speaking up because it can mitigate consequences and prevent recurrence. It is also motivated by desire for organizational improvement and is not necessarily rooted in principle or in a belief that current practices are wrong or bad.

Collectively, Frese and Fay (2001) refer to these concepts as ― active performance concepts‖ for the reason that, in contrast to traditional performance concepts that assume a given task or goal, these concepts imply that people can go beyond assigned tasks, develop their own goals, and adopt a long-term perspective to prevent problems.

Finally, taking charge occurs when employees seek to improve the way work is executed (i.e., work structures, practice, and routines) (Morrison & Phleps, 1999; Parker & Collins, 2010). Chiaburu and Tekleab (2004) further extended this model‘s ability to classify predictors not only according to their level (individual vs. contextual) but also according to their orientation (proactive vs. passive; VanDyne and LePine, 1998). This increases the model‘s power to examine antecedents that favour taking charge (e.g. propensity to trust and positive employee exchange ideology) as well as conditions that hinder such behaviour (e.g. monitoring styles that focus on process rather than output control). Both studies found that those employees on a higher job level were also more likely to engage in taking charge behaviour.

Even as the above research presents a foundation for a theoretical framework for the assessment of ‗challenging-promotive‘ (Van Dyne, Cummings & Parks, 1995) type of extra-role behaviours such as taking charge, it is not without its limitations. A wider range of predictors need to be assessed in order to better understand taking charge behaviours, such as examining the individual work control beliefs in taking charge behaviour (Onyishi, Ugwu & Ogbonne, 2012). This brings to term the question Ashford

and Black (1996) asked ―whether employees are more likely to take charge if they perceive that the organization would be supportive if they were to engage in such behaviour.

Scholars have suggested that individuals‘personalities, and more specifically their dispositional states, play a key role in the determination of job attitudes and work-related behaviours (Judge, Locke & Durham, 1997). Core self-evaluations (CSE), a broad personality construct, has recently generated a great deal of research attention. However, while CSE has been found to be related to numerous relevant work outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction and job performance) and appears to be growing in its theoretical importance to the understanding of behavior at work, its relationship to taking charge at work has not been investigated. The concept was introduced by Judge, Locke and Durham (1997) who suggested that CSE represents the fundamental bottom-line assessment that people make about their worthiness, competence, and capabilities. In short, CSE are viewed as representing a cluster of four conceptually related traits: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism or emotional stability. They further argued that a key characteristic that differentiates people from one another is the fundamental evaluations we make about ourselves and how we relate to our environment. These fundamental beliefs are called ―core self-evaluations‖. People who have positive core self-evaluations see themselves positively across a variety of situations, and approach the world in a confident, self-assured manner. They believe that they are capable of solving problems (high self-efficacy), worthy of respect and regard (high self-esteem), in control of and responsible for what happens to them (internal locus of control), and prone to be optimistic and free from doubts and worries (high emotional stability) (Judge, Erez, Bono & Thoresen, 2002).

Bono & Judge (2003) submit that there likely exist many other criteria which CSE may significantly predict. Surprisingly, scholars have almost totally ignored/or are not even exploring the relationship between CSE and taking charge, an important extrarole behaviour. A study by Judge, Thoresen, Pucik & Welbourne, (1999) examined the relationship between CSE and organizational commitment. Yet, in this study only three of the four traits comprising CSE, in combination with positive affectivity, were assessed. The study, despite not utilizing the complete CSE construct, found a relationship between a proxy of similar core traits.

Given that Judge and Bono (2001) have successfully linked positive core self evaluations with job and life satisfaction as well as job performance, it seems reasonable to extend the CSE concept to other settings and populations. Specifically, if people who consider themselves worthy and able to cope with life’s exigencies bring a positive frame to the events and situations they encounter at work and in life then follows that employees who have positive core self evaluations should also bring a positive frame to both the financial service and educational context and life. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the extent to which both the concept and the measure of core self evaluations could be extended to mobile money organizational setting.

The idea that stable differences in human personality can systematically influence individuals‘reactions to the workplace has a long history in organizational

studies. Although the relevance of personality variables for predicting work related outcomes was once suspect, there is now ―abundant evidence for the robustness of many personality characteristics in understanding work-related attitude‖ (Day & Schleicher, 2006). It is argued that the recent study of personality in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology is characterized by two limitations: (a) almost complete reliance on the Big Five to the exclusion of other personality variables (most notably, self-monitoring) and (b) insufficient theoretical attention paid to the criteria in work-related personality research. Personality plays an important role at work. To best appreciate the many influences that personality—and particularly self-monitoring personality (Gangestad & Snyder, 2000). We turn to self-monitoring, another individual variable of interest.

Self-monitoring refers to the extent to which people monitor, control and modify their expressive behaviour to meet standards of social appropriateness (Synder, 1974). According to Snyder, (1974); Ickes & Barnes, (1977) and Lennox & Wolfe, (1984), self-monitoring is defined as degree to which one is attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and the degree to which one adjusts one‘s performance to create a desired impression. Individuals scoring high in self-monitoring better perceive socially-relevant stimuli than their low self-monitoring counterparts (Baumeister & Twenge, 2003). These studies indicate that high self-monitors use information present in their social environment to adjust their self presentation. A variety of behaviours and speech techniques can be used to adjust one‘s self-presentation in different social situations, but one simple means of adjusting self-presentation is to copy the behaviours of others

At the heart of self-monitoring theory is the proposition that individuals differ meaningfully in the extent to which they can and do engage in the expressive control required for the creation of appropriate self-presentations (Snyder, 1974). One class of individuals, high self-monitors, tend to be highly attuned to cues of situational appropriateness; chameleon-like (Snyder, 1974) they adapt their behaviors and attitudes to suit different situational requirements. Faced with a social situation, high self-monitors ask: ―Who does this situation want me to be and how can I be that person?‖

(Snyder, 1979). By contrast, the other class of individuals, low self-monitors, tend to be less attuned to the requirements of different situations than to their own inner beliefs and values. The very nature of organizations as the typical context for work is especially relevant for the study of self-monitoring. Organizational work is characterized by exercises of power and authority, enacted and perceived leadership, job performance and performance assessment, attitude formation and expression, and, most importantly, relationships. Indeed, there is a relationship imperative at the heart of most, if not all, organizational work (Gabarro, 1987). All of these phenomena—and especially work relationships—influence and are influenced by the expressive control of individuals engaged in social interaction. Establishing and maintaining effective work relationships allows for task coordination, information flow, and other work processes that are necessary for accomplishing the goals and objectives of an organization. In addition, relationships are central to many leadership functions, such as setting direction, building commitment, and creating alignment (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Put simply, work would not be accomplished (at least not effectively) without a foundation of networked

relationships in an organization. Self-monitoring personality is an important construct in understanding how such relationships are formed and maintained.

Supervisory career support is a key factor affecting an employee‘s career progression. Employees‘ careers are likely to be enhanced by supportive relationships with their supervisors (Wickramasinghe and Jayaweera, 2010). Supervisory support entails career enhancing functions such as providing challenging assignments, sponsorship, visibility, as well as psychosocial functions such as counselling, friendship and acceptance (Wickramasinghe and Jayaweera, 2010). Good supervisory feedback and constructive communication between an employee and his or her supervisor enhance the opportunity for advancement in the employee‘s capabilities (Van der Heijden, Kümmerling, Van Dam, Van Der Schoot, Estryn-Béhar and Hasselhorn, 2010). This support received and reduction in pressure may increase employee satisfaction and organizational commitment. Supervisors have the power to act as gatekeepers, as they have control over whether or not employees have access to and feel comfortable using work intiatives (Straub, 2012).

Powell (2011) opines that supervisory support is the extent to which leaders value their employee‘s contribution and care about their well being. In an organization where the supervisor is a team supervisor, the subordinates are heard, valued and cared for. A leader with high supervisory support will definitely bring about higher employee performance and a higher yield in organization.

Kossek, Pichler, Bodner and Hammer, (2011) agree that it is important to research informal workplace supports due to the rising trend of workplace stress today because informal supervisory support important in determining employee outcomes compared to formal supports (policies). Kossek et al (2011) argue that we need to form a better understanding of informal workplace support and how it affects work (Kossek et al., 2011), although it seems plausible that informal networks are equally as valuable in predicting other related work outocmes (i.e., the experience of commitment and proactive work behaviours such as taking charge).


Recently, researchers who have begun investigating the possible reasons to this question have advocated that more contextual and individual variables be examined, specifically within the Nigerian work environment (Onyishi & Ogbodo, 2012).

In this study therefore, attempt will be made to provide answers and expand the taking charge concept which according to Morrison and Phleps (1999), is a response to the shortcomings of overly narrow conceptualization of extra role behaviours that has

mainly focused on helping contemporaries, being punctual, and attending to non-required work functions, as opposed to more extensive behaviours embedded in a desire to help one‘s organization develop, advance, and improve (Moon, et al., 2005).

  1. What is the role of core self-evaluations on salespeople taking charge at work?
  1. Will self-monitoring play a significant role on salespeople taking charge at work?
  1. Will supervisory support play any meaningful role on salespeople taking charge at work?


This study tries to investigate the role of core self-evaluations, self-monitoring and supervisory support on taking charge at work.

Specifically, the purpose of the study is:




Counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) by employees is an uncommon occurrence in organizations. Thus, given the prevalence and economic impact of CWB, researchers have given a lot of attention to research in this area. Thus the present study examined the role of job characteristics and personality in CWB among aviation workers; a group neglected in the CWB literature. Four hundred (400) workers (178 females and 222 males) from AkanuIbiamInternationalAirportEnuguState participated in the study. The participants responded to the validated measures of CWB, job characteristics, and personality scales. The result of regression analyses indicated that job characteristics did not significantly predict counterproductive work behaviour. The result revealed that among the dimensions of the Big Five, only openness to experience and conscientiousness were correlated to counterproductive work behaviour, while openness to experience can significantly predict counterproductive work behaviour. Demographics variables (age and length of service) were found to be a significant predictor of CWB. It is recommended that employees in high emotionally demanding jobs should be retrained at regular intervals. This may help in increasing their capacity to handle the demands of customers and reduce the occurrence of counterproductive work behaviour.





This project work is concerned with application of Petri Net in protocol specification. In this project work, definition of Petri Nets and Protocols are given. The role and importance of formal specification techniques are also discussed. Petri Nets are a graphical tool and could be used for the formal description of the flow of activities in complex systems like protocol. It is gaining popularity in recent years as a tool for the representation of complex logical interactions like synchronization, sequence, concurrency and conflict among physical components or activities in the system. This project work presents a specification of a chosen protocol using Petri Net and implemented the specification using JAVA programming language.  Conclusively, Petri net is shown to be 70% better than other formal protocol specification methods.




The importance of protocol arises from the fact that protocols form the nervous system of teleprocessing networks and as such are responsible for ensuring that the pieces of the system work as a harmonious whole. The complexity and size of today’s systems and the fact that they are put together from subsystem components manufactured in different locations and even by different companies, virtually demand formal specification and there are many side benefits. And so, as open systems and standard network architectures encompass an ever growing segment of the computing industry, the need for clear and precise protocol specification becomes more important. Traditional methods of informal narrative specifications and ad hoc validation have demonstrated their shortcomings as protocol bugs and incompatible implementations crop up. Problems of ambiguous and incomplete specifications are particularly severe for the ever growing number of protocol standards that must be implemented by a wide community of users with diverse equipment (Rudin, 2003).

There has been recent work on formal protocol specification and verification. In addition to individual researchers, several national and international standards organizations have become active in this area.  These include the International Standard Organization (ISO) TC16/1 working group on Formal Definition Technique (FDT), the Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony (CCITT) SG VII special report on question 39-System Description Techniques (SDT), and major protocol development projects by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and Defense Communication Engineering Center (DCEC) in the US. It is pertinent to note that good protocol specification methods or languages provide precise notations to facilitate implementation of standard and enhance technical quality. As their syntax and semantics are precisely specified, every word and symbol has a well-defined meaning and its use must follow exact rules. This makes standardized specifications unambiguous while improving intuitiveness, increasing consistency and making it possible to detect errors during standardization rather than implementation (ETSI, 2013). Thus to make protocol specification less complex, the use of Petri net as a modeling tool, graphical notation as well as a compact way to specify behaviour (protocol) has been employed. Most modeling languages have graphical notations, and these have good reasons. Models are used as a means to specify concept and ideas, and to communicate them between humans. Nearly everybody would use some kind of graphics to express his or her understanding of a system, even without using any explicit modeling languages. It does not need psychological research to state that graphics employing two dimensions allow for a better understanding of complex structures than one dimensional text. Since specification of systems and communication of models are the main application of Petri net in practice, understandability for human is among the most crucial quality criteria for modeling languages. Petri nets have nice graphical representation using only very few different types of elements, which is good basis for an easy understandability of a model and for the learnability of the language. These two criteria for modeling languages belong to the most important ones recognized in the “Guidelines of Modeling” (Desel and Juhas, 2001).

Manufacturers who use precise and graphical languages report good results and considerable productivity gains. Their use within standardization increased along with the general increased acceptance of such techniques (ETSI, 2013). The most core issue of Petri nets is that they model behavioral aspects of distributed systems, i.e., systems with components that are locally separated and communicate which each other (Desel and Juhas, 2001). Since its invention by Carl Petri (Murata, 1989), Petri nets have been found useful in modeling systems with distributed states such as concurrency, synchronization, conflict(choice or decision) etc.


  • Traditional methods of informal narrative specifications and ad hoc validation have demonstrated their shortcomings as protocol bugs and incompatible implementations crop up. Problems of ambiguous and incomplete specifications are particularly severe for the ever growing number of protocol standards that must be implemented by a wide community of users with diverse equipment. Poor Protocol specification languages provide imprecise notations. This reduces implementation of standard and does not enhance technical quality.
  • Poor Protocol specification languages makes standardized specifications ambiguous thereby degrading intuitiveness, decreasing consistency and making it impossible to detect errors during standardization rather than implementation.

Thus the project seek to answer the question

  • Are there advantages of using Petri net over other protocol specification methods?







Most employees in organizations today engage in one deviant behaviour or the other which violates organizational norms and threatens the well-being of their organization and such deviants include; theft, fraud, lateness to work, putting up laiz-affair attitude, wasting raw materials during production, making long unnecessary calls while on duty, destroying properties belonging to their organization and co-worker and so on. Every employee has personal goal, aspiration and expectations which they wish to achieve while working in their organization and when these goals, aspirations and expectations are not met, they (employees) tend to believe that they are not being treated well by their organization. Employees tend to make “psychological contracts” with their employers (organizations) right form the first day they are employed. Once these goals and expectations of employees are not met, the (employees) perceive a breach in psychological contract with the organization (Chiu & Peng, 2008). Employees may resort to workplace deviant behaviours as one of the ways to express their grievances to either the organization or coworkers for the unfair treatment to they received. One of the critics is that workers most time perceive that they are treated in a bad manner even when they are not.

Workplace deviance may arise when the worker’s perceive that their organization has mistreated them in some manner. Workplace deviance may be viewed as a form of negative reciprocity. This is consistence with the proverbial maxims, which states thus, “an eye for an eye”, or “tooth for tat’;, a concept which almost all employees strongly believe is a suitable approach to most situations in their organizations (Anderson & Pearson, 1999). Workplace deviance is a phenomenon which occurs in several organizations not withstanding the age, levels/position, of an employee. Research has suggested that manager’s behaviour influences employees’ ethical decision making and organizational behaviour of employees who perceive being treated respectfully and valued, such individuals are less likely to resort to workplace deviance.

Griffin and O’ Leary-Kelly, (2004) defined workplace deviance as a voluntary behaviour that violates institutional norms and in doing so threatens the well-being of the organization. Workplace deviance could be described as a deliberation or intentional desire to cause harm to an organization. Robinson and Benneth, (1995) defined workplace deviance as a voluntary behaviour by employees that violate significant company norms, policies or rules and threatens the well being of the organization. Employees who perceive treatment they receive from their organization as “unfair” tend retaliate to their organization by engaging in workplace deviance. Employees see workplace deviance as a means of pay back, or balancing inequity by themselves in a way of causing harm to their organization. These deviant workplace behaviours include; withholding effort, Coworker backstabbing, withholding information, stealing, acting rudely to co-workers and management, lateness to work, wasting raw-materials during production, involving in demonstration, tarnishing rather than protect organizational image outside, sabotage, destroying organizational properties and so on.

Workplace deviance include those behaviours that are directed at the organization which includes, theft, sabotage, lateness to work, making calls while on duty, putting little effort into work (duty) and so on. Other deviant behaviours directed at individuals in the workplace like supervisors, co-workers management include; playing pranks, acting rudely, arguing during duties, stealing individual (co-workers) properties, fighting and so on. Workplace deviance could be also addressed as uncivil behaviours which are characteristically rude, discourteous, displaying a lack of respect for others.

Bennet and Robison (2000), classified workplace deviance into four types which include; product deviance, property deviance, political deviance and personal aggression.  Product deviance is a type of deviant behaviours are directed to the production department of an organization with examples like; making unnecessary phone calls during work time, intentionally slow working, telling stories during work period being wasteful with raw material and so on. Property deviance is a type of deviant behaviour is directed at destroying Organizational property, stealing properties belonging to the organization and co- worker. Political deviance occurs when managers and supervisors asks employees to engage in overtime work and also additional duties beyond their job description of such employee not considering such employees plight. This behaviour shows management and supervisors’ willingness to have a full political control over subordinates during and after work period. Most times supervisors direct employees to engage in overtime or extra work time without payment or any form of compensation. These behaviours include, fighting with employees, sexual harassment, verbal aggression, that brings insult to supervisors, management and co-workers. Managers and supervisors most time misuse their power or authority on their sub-ordinate which may trigger negative reaction or emotions in the workplace deviance and ultimately lead to personal aggressive behaviour from such employee.

Robinson and Bennet, (1995) also identified two types of workplace deviance which is based on deviance target, they include; interpersonal and organizational deviants. Pulich and Tourigny, (2004) supports that interpersonal deviances are misconduct behaviours targeted at specific stakeholders such as the supervisors and co-workers. Other examples of the interpersonal deviance include, gossiping about co-workers, blaming co-workers, backstabbing (Pulich & Tourigny, 2004).  The second type of the work place deviant based on the deviance target is the Organizational deviance which workers direct or aim at the Organizational property or production. Employees engage in this type of deviant behaviours which include, stealing Organizational properties, withholding efforts and information, wasting raw materials during production and so on (Robinson & Benneth, 1995). Tangirala and Ramannjam, (2008) described employee “silence” as form of Organizational deviance behaviour in which that employee intentionally or unintentionally withhold any type of information that might be useful to the organization due to the injustice or unfair treatment they receive from their organization. Recently, due to the development in information and technology in the workplace, a new deviance known as “cyber loafing” had emerged because it is carried out on the internet. During work hours, employees engage in non work related task instead of work related task on the internet using the computer and their mobile phones. Example is employees who chat in the social network such as face book, twitter, badoo, nimbuzz and so on (Zoghbi, 2006).

There are numerous consequences of workplace deviance which include; reduction in productivity, increase in absenteeism, job dissatisfaction, sabotage, decrease in employees’ morale, turnover, decrease in quality of products, counter productivity, financial involvement and so on. Employees sometimes suffer from psychological effects such as anxiety, anger, and irritability which may lead to physical aggression (Fitzgerald, 2002). Deviant workplace behaviours are both pervasive and costly not only in term of finance but also in social and psychological perspectives (Peterson, 2002). The negative consequences of deviant behaviours to work organization are significant (Vardi & Winer, 1996), therefore, this explains why deviant behaviours within organization should not be neglected anymore. Researchers suggest that workplace deviance is a reaction to inequity in the workplace or employers’ violation of obligation owned to employees (Greenberg & Scott, 1996). Workplace deviance could occur in the organizations/ workplace where working environment is hostile, unconducive, and also where employees feel powerlessness, voiceless, perceives unfairness and inequity (lack of Organizational justice) in the workplace. Employees feel cheated when they perceive absence of Organizational injustice (distributive, procedural, interactional and informational justice) (Blau & Anderson, 2005). When employees are not treated in an unfair manner, workplace deviance could be the resultant outcome.

There are many factors which could propel employees towards engaging in workplace deviant but the researcher is interested in two among others which include; Organizational justice and Workplace deviance. The issue of fairness which is known as organizational justice has being a very key concern to all employees. Vardi and Wiener, (1996) stated that workplace deviant behaviours were related with the perception of inequity and mistreatment (organizational justice) in Organizations.  According to Folger, (1977), employees’ response to work depends on the type of treatment they receive which may be either fair of unfair. Also, employees’ attitude and commitment to work most times is determined by their perception of the level of Organizational justice that exists in their organization (workplace).

Organizational justice is based on Adams’ (1963:1965), equity theory, also to current work of (Greenburg, 1987; Folger, 1977). It’s root could be also traced to the Homan’s, (1961) Social exchange theory. Adam, (1963), explained that man suffers from cognitive dissonance when things do not go in the manner they are expected. When an employee do not get reinforcement or reward he/she expects from their employed organization, such employee’s private, family, social, emotional and other personal aspect of life would be affected and in return, it would effect his/her performance at their workplace and general commitment to work.

Organizational justice was first used by Greenburg, (1996) as a concept expressing the employees’ perception about how fair they were treated by their organization and how these perceptions affected loyalty and satisfaction in terms of Organizational behaviour. When employees perceive that there is no favourable, “outcome”, such as, attractive salary, promotion, incentives, and also organization treating workers with dignity, respect, and so on, their perception about the “outcome” will be seen as unfair, and this could motivate them to indulge in workplace deviant behaviour in a quest to restore equity within them selves. The civic virtue of employees depends on their perception of the level and form of existing organizational justice in their workplace. An employee’s civic virtue is the levels of employees’ reaction persuading the management of organization behave properly (Organ, 1988). Eskew, (1993) supports the view of the organizational behavioural scientists which believe that the interest in employee’s perception about Organizational justice has increased in the last ten (10) years. Organizational justice in workplaces is based on fairness in perception. Moreover, in organizations, employees’ perception of unfairness results to negative reactions such as, withdrawal, absenteeism, theft, tardiness, resistance to change, and retaliatory behaviours.

The issue of fairness is a key concern to virtually all individuals in our society. Every employee in their work settings often try to strike a balance to know whether the rewards they receive from their organization match their contributions to the organization or the rewards received by their colleagues (Adams, 1965; Leventhal, 1976). Employees in organizations also judge the fairness of the decision making procedures used by Organizational representatives, to see whether those procedures are consistent, unbiased, accurate, correctable, and representative of worker concerns and opinion (Greenberg, 1986; Leventhal, 1980; Thibant & Walker, 1975). Employees go to the extent of considering the interpersonal treatment they receive as procedures are implemented by authority figures (Bies & Moag, 1986; Greenberg, 1993). Organizational justice researches in our organizations (workplace) could help us explain why employees retaliate against inequitable outcome or inappropriate processes and interactions (Alsalem & Alhaiani, 2007).

Different groups of scholars studied Organizational justice had explain and classify it in several models or dimensions. Some scholars classified and explained Organizational justice into four models or dimensions namely; Distributive justice, Procedural, Interactional and Informational justice. The researcher in the study explains Organizational justice according in three models or dimension. The first dimension of Organizational justice is the Distributive justice, according to Adams, (1965), it is refer to as an employee’s perceptions of the extent to which the outcome he or she receive from their organization such as pay, salary, allowances and so on are fair. He was of the view that a fair distribution within allocation processes is established when outcomes comply with internal norms such as equity (Adams, 1965), equality, or need (Deutsch, 1975; Leventhal, 1976). This dimension tend to focus more on outcome, satisfaction or the evaluation of some final decision concerning an individual more than attitude about the system (McFarlin & Sweeney, 1992; Sweeney & McFarlin, 1993). Distributive justice is related to workplace deviance because when employees perceives that the extent to which the outcome he/she receives pay such as salary and allowances from their organization is not fair, they would like to strike a balance or earn equity by themselves and this may result to workers engaging in work place deviance in other to retaliate the unfair treatment they get from their Organization. This describes and explains why employees individually engage in workplace deviance such as; lateness to work, being wasteful with raw materials, destroying organizational properties, laiz affair attitude to work, insulting supervisors and co-workers.

The second dimension is the Procedural justice, which according to Greenberg, (1990), concerns that fairness of the ways to determine the distribution and determining job involvement in organization. This dimension of Organizational justice is very important and explains how employees meet their socio-emotional needs through human resources management polices and practices like reward allocation, organizational justice and employee’s support programs which are available in their organization. Procedural justice examines the perceptions of fairness about the processes and procedures used to make allocation decisions (Folger & Greenberg, 1985). Procedural justice has been shown to predict various important organizational behaviours and attitudes such as performance (Cropanzano & Prehar, 1999) and organizational commitment (Folger & Konovsky, 1989; McFarlin & Sweeney, 1992). Procedural justice has been shown to be related to identify concern of individuals (Tyler & Blader, 2003) and this is because it moves the employees to check whether they are full-fledged and respected members of a group or organization (Tyler & Lind, 1992). Fairness in decisions concerning resources distribution should have a strong cumulative effect on perceived organizational support and perhaps job involvement by indicating a concern for employee’s welfare (Shore & Shore 1995).

Procedural justice perceptions are affected by the extend to which employees believe they have a voice in the decision making process (Thibault & Walker, 1975) and when decision making is perceived as consistent, ethical, lacking bias,  possible to appeal, and based on accurate information (Leventhal, Karuza & Frye, 1980). Recent meta-analysis studies have found that Procedural justice can predict counterproductive behaviours (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001, in Forret & Love, 2008), non cooperative management behaviour (Rahim, Magner & Shapiro, 2000, in Forret & Love, 2008), and aggression directed at one’s supervisor (Greenberg & Barling, 1999, in Forret & Love, 2008). Employees are likely to retain positive attitudes towards their organization when the procedures determining the decision were fair, moreover when the decision itself resulted in an unfavourable outcome (McFarlin & Sweeney, 1993; Schanbroeck, May & Brown, 1994). Whenever employees in any organization perceive that they don’t have a voice or contribution in decision and policies making in their organization, most times employees engage in workplace deviance regularly to show their grievances about the poor level of Procedural justice in such Organization. These employees may decide to demonstrate their grievances through destruction of properties, indulging in strike actions or rejecting or resisting Organizational change in their organization. The third model or dimension is the Interactional justice which is referred to as an individual’s perception of fair treatment by an organization’s decision makers (Bies & Moag, 1986) and this includes; treating employees with dignity, honesty and respect, as part of interpersonal justice while Informational justice treatment include; providing explanations for procedures and negative events) components (Colquitt, 2001 & Greenberg, 1993). It is important to note that Organizational justice should have a strong symbolic function which is to provide information about the value and respect given to individuals (employees) by their organization as suggested by Tyler & Lind, (1992). Researchers overtime had adopted this approach were by the human resource decisions, policies and practices are evaluated in terms of employees’ perceived of Organizational justice by and then those perceived feeling are measured with job commitment in non-profit organizations to know it’s outcome. Perceived Organizational justice and support are related to not only job involvement, but to job satisfaction and Organizational identification process (Jones, 2007).

Many organizations today have a zero or little employee-employer relationship, organizational friendly culture, family friendly policy and support programs which are part of the Procedural justice, and this affects the behaviour of the employees in workplaces. Few organizations today had improved on their employees’ family friendly and support programs, Organizational culture and policies while other organizations had decided not to improve on theirs. The family is a very important domain in every individual’s live and it has a very high influence on employees’ work live. This is the reason organizations and their management should put in their best in other to help employees manage their roles from the work and family domains. Organizations today need to improve the welfare of employees and introduce supportive programmes which include employees’ work-family friendly cultures and policies to reduce the work-family conflict which are caused by multiple role conflict thereby reducing workplace deviance which are it’s product.




TITLE PAGE                                                                                            i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                   ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                  iii

DEDICATION                                                                                     iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                      v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                            vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                          ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                             xi

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION                                                                1

Background of the Study                                                                                        1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                        7

Purpose of the Study                                                                                               9

Significance of the Study                                                                                        9

Research Questions                                                                               11

Hypotheses                                                                                                               11

Scope of the Study                                                                                                   12

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                             13

1.         Conceptual Framework                                                13

  • Concept of Wastage in Vocational Technical Education                                  14
  • Factors Leading to Wastage among Self Employed Metalwork Graduates                                                                                    17
  • Organization of Workshops/working Environment for Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                     18
  • Working Methods and Procedures for Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                      27
  • Entrepreneurial Skill Training required to reduce Wastage        30
  • Skill Acquisition in Technical College                          37
  • Factors that influence Skill Acquisition                       58                                                                   
  • Teaching Methods, Instructional Activities and Facilities relevant

to Metalwork                                                                                   59

  • Structure of Educational System                                         68
  • Employment Status in Nigeria                                     71

2.         Theoretical Framework                                                               74

3.         Review of Related Empirical Studies                                           79

4.         Summary of Related Literature Reviewed                                84

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY                                                         86

Design of the Study                                                                       86

Area of the Study                                                                                                     86

Population for the Study                                                                                         86

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                              87

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                  88

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                  88

Method of Data Collection                                                          88

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                        89


Research Question 1                                                                                          90

Research Question 2                                                                                91

Research Question 3                                                                               93

Research Question 4                                                                              94

Research Question 5                                                                                     96

Hypothesis 1                                                                                              97

Hypothesis 2                                                                                                       98

Hypothesis 3                                                                                             99

Hypothesis 4                                                                                                      100

Hypothesis 5                                                                                              101

Findings                                                                                                                     102

Discussion of Findings                                                                                            108


Restatement of the Problem                                                                    113

Major Findings                                                                                                 115

Implication of the Study                                                                        115

Conclusion                                                                                            115

Recommendations                                                                                 116

Suggestion for Further Study                                                                117

REFERENCES                                                                                           118


Appendix A:             Letter to the Respondent                                                   123

Appendix B: Questionnaire                                                                           124

Appendix C: Distribution of Self Employed Metalwork Graduates         132

D: Distribution of Technical Teachers                                                     133

  E:  Result of the Analysis                                                                           134


Table                                                                                                  Page

  1. Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Determinants of Wastage among Self Employed Graduates of Technical Colleges               90

2.         Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Training Activities for Retraining Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage   92

3.         Mean Responses of the Respondents on how Workshops/Working Environment should be Organized by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                                                     93

4.         Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Working   Procedures to be Adopted by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                               95

5.         Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Entrepreneurial skill Training required by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                                                                           96

6.         The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Determinants of Wastage among Self Employed Graduates of Technical Colleges                                                  97

7.         The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Training Activities to be Organized for Retraining Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                            98

8.         The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents   on how Workshops/Working Environment should be   Organized by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                                                                                  99

9.         The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Working Procedures to be adopted by self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                                                                                  100

10.       The ANOVA of the Mean Responses of the Respondents on the Entrepreneurial Skill Training    required by Self Employed Metalwork Graduates to Reduce Wastage                                                                                      101


The study was carried out to determine strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of technical colleges in Kogi State. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 50 comprises of 30 technical teachers in technical colleges and 30 self employed metalwork graduates. A structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated. Mean was used to analyze the data for answering research questions while analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out that twenty one determinants were found to be causes of wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of technical colleges, twelve training activities were found for retraining self employed metalwork graduates to reduce wastage, workshops/working environment should be organized in seventeen ways by self employed metalwork graduates to reduce wastage, twenty five working procedures were found to be adopted by self employed metalwork graduates to reduce wastage and ten entrepreneurial skills were required for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates. It was recommended that seminars or workshops or retraining programme on how to reduce wastage should be organized for self employed metalwork graduates already in the field and technical teachers. Curriculum of vocational and technical education programmes in technical colleges should be also reviewed to meet up with modern needs/technologies in the society. 



Background of the Study

            Education in general is an indispensable tool for the continued existence and growth of any nation.  Education is a process by which individual is enabled to develop capabilities through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value and attitudes for the benefit of society (Onuoha, 1986).  Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) described education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development.  Osuala (1999) stated that education in general is an exercise that engages everyone.  Individual either goes through liberal, general or vocational education. In their view Ogwo and Oranu (2006) opined that vocational education programme depend on general education to provide theoretical explanation on scientific principle and general information on the environment.  Technical and vocational education is an integral part of general education (UNESCO and ILO, 2002 in Ogwo and Oranu, 2006).

            Technical and vocational education refers to those components of the general education curriculum which introduce students to the elements of technology in order to acquaint them with the role of technology in contemporary life and permit them to develop basic practical skills in the manipulation of simple tools and materials (Osuala, 1999).  Encyclopedia Britannica (1994-2001) described technical education as the academic and vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology.  Similarly, National Policy on Education NPE (2004) defined Technical Education as that aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge.  This type of education is obtainable either in secondary or tertiary institutions across the nation.

            The aim of establishing technical colleges is to produce graduates with saleable skills.  To achieve this, it requires a laboratory setting as a unique learning situation in which the learner may experiment, test, construct, disassemble, repair, design, create, imagine and study (Ezeji, 2004).  Technical colleges according to Okorie (2001) are the institutions where craftsmen are trained to the craft level of National Business and Technical Examination leading to award of National Technical Certificate (NTC).  Okoro (2006) described technical colleges as the principal vocational institutions designed to prepare students in various occupation areas for employment.  If the stated educational objectives are not strictly followed and observed, then it becomes educational wastage.  There are several patterns of educational wastage such as school dropout, unguided selection of vocational/technical courses and inadequate educational fund.  Manama (1985) observed that to determine efficiency, time and energy invested are compared with the cost utility of other method.

            Salami (1993) also explained that wastage is the degree to which human and material resources developed and made available are grossly under-utilised or neglected.  Similarly Brunner and Paul in Ajayi and Mbah (2008) added that wastage is the degree to which the actual output fails to correspond with stated goal of education within a given period of time.

            In this study, wastage refers to the loss in utility of skill acquired by graduates of metal-work trade.  Obialor (1989) explained that wastage connotes a deliberate inadvertent discarding of a useful material or asset, allowing of material to be unused, wrong use of material, or under-utilization of material.  Nwimo (2004) said that wastage literally means something not occupied or used for any purpose.  This implies that wastage is an error committed that militates against the output of self-employed metalwork graduates.  Wastage has been observed among metalwork graduates.  Self-employed metalwork graduates are the products of technical colleges who studied metalwork and work for themselves after graduation.  These graduates sometimes damage their tools, equipment or machines, materials or even cause more havoc to the work contracted to them.  This may be due to little or no skills acquired while in training.  In order to reduce these wastages among the self-employed metalwork graduates, strategies are required to be put in place.

            Strategies are plans that are intended to achieve a particular purpose.  Oziegbunam (2011) described strategies as important features that can be used to promote the effectiveness of a programme or an attempt to bring solution to any area of difficulties.  Training activities is one of the strategies to be considered in reducing wastage among self-employed metalwork graduates.  Training activities need to be organized for them in form of retraining programme.

            Organization of workshop and working environment of self employed graduates may also contribute to wastage if not properly planned and organized.  Unplanned workshops and unarranged training equipment and tools may cause accidents during practical.  This may also result to damages of worthy equipment and materials.  Poor working methods and procedures can also lead to wastage of materials and other expensive tools and machines.  Proper working methods and procedures could be adopted as strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates in the workshop.  Salami (1993) mentioned structure of the educational system, admission of students into the system, guidance of students admitted into the system as sources of wastage in vocational technical education.  Similarly, Okorie (2001) emphasized that technical teachers need to improve their knowledge because technology is fast changing and there is need for the re-training and upgrading of technical teachers to enable them embrace the change.  The technical teachers should also possess the ability of helping others to learn from wealth of vocational skills. A vocational teacher who has the job skills but is unable to help others acquire the skills is a source of wastage in vocational education.  The annual report from Annual General Meeting of principals of all Federal Technical Colleges (1998) submitted that there is problem of inadequate qualified technical teachers in the country.  It was further explained in the report that the picture of staffing depicted show total weakness in all trade areas.

            Inappropriate methods of assessing students’ performance in practicals are factors influence wastage in vocational education.  Azubuike (2006) said that wrong methods and approaches are always adopted by teachers in various technical colleges in measuring students’ performance in practical assignments and project work in school workshops.  Most gainful skills acquired by students of vocational programme is on practical assignment or project work, this require a close monitoring of students performcne and assessment.  Osuala (1991) observed that practical project has been found useful in examining technical and human skills and competencies acquired by trainees especially in Master-apprentice on-the-job training.  Practical training of workers in any pursuit brings both immediate and lasting economic returns in increased production and wage-earning capacity (Okorie, 2001).

            Technical teacher should be practical oriented so as to impart those practical skills to the learners.  Ezeji in Sogeyinbo (2006) pointed out that teachers’ role should be of facilitating learning through the use of materials and skills, and not merely transferring the knowledge.  Lack of practical skills among graduates of Technical Colleges in Nigeria is responsible for their low productivity.  Skill can be defined as the established attitude to work.  Ede (2001) described skill as a expertness or dexterity or practiced ability facilitating doing something. Okorie (2000) classified skills into human and technical.  The author further described human skills as those involved in critical thinking, imagination and creative ideas that result in designing, while technical skills as those developed through application of principles of science and engineering.

            The major factors causing low productivity and wastage among graduates of technical colleges is lacked of saleable skills.  According to Anaele (1991), most graduates of Technical Colleges who studied various trades and could not go for further studies neither gain employment nor practice the profession on their own for lack of employable skills.  Similarly, Olaitan and Ede (2008) reported that many graduates of Technical Colleges and Polytechnics now resort to the use of commercial motorcycle (Okada) for their livelihood due to lack of employable skills from their institutions.  Another wastage factors influencing low productivity in vocational technical education is the shortage of technical experts or operators to install and operate those equipment and machines that were imported and delivered to various Technical Colleges in Nigeria.  Collin (2003) said that productivity is the quality of being productive or having the power to produce.  Encarta (2008) explained influence as the effect of something on a person, thing, or event.

            These equipment and machines are still found not activated.  Fafunwa (1991) observed that a lot of equipment imported to accelerate technological education in this country has remained uncatered for.  Mbata (1994) observed that some workshop equipment and tools are substandard, not to talk of being properly managed.  Oranu (1991) said that the nature of the tools and equipment used in training are not properly related to the world of work.  This will result to low productivity of metalwork graduates.

            Metalwork is among the trades offered in Technical College s in Kogi State.  Metal work is a trade that has casting, foundry, welding, fabrication, machinery and forging as its components.  In each of the components, students learn relevant practical skills for employment after graduation.  Oranu (2002) described metalwork as an occupation that entails designing, processing and fabrication of metal product.  They further explained that in metalwork, activities such as foundry, forging, machine show and welding are always carried out.  Metalwork technology is the art of manipulating or forming a piece of metal into the desired shape with accurate dimensions.  Metalwork is purely a practical field that requires practical skills.  Activities in Metalwork are always carried out in the workshop.  Sulaiman (2000) said that well equipped workshop or laboratory be provided for learning situation in which a learner could experiment, study, imagine, create, design, construct, dismantle, repair and build equipment.

            It is very important that the Technical Colleges equip their students with the needed skilled required to be self-reliant, therefore Metalwork trade in Technical Colleges was designed to produce competent craftsmen in Metalwork.  For one to be self-employed in metalwork one needs to be well equipped with adequate metalwork skills that would enable one undertake that Metalwork activities encountered in the world of work.  Metalwork skills are the type of skills required by graduates to carry out technical activities in metalwork technology.  These skills are required in reaming, making soldering and brazing, using layout tools, arc welding, grinding machine cutting tools, and cutting operations on the lathe.  According to Oranu (2002) there are several operations that can be carried out on the various machines such as drilling machine, shaping and milling machine.  Iwuoha (1989) observed that the knowledge of maintenance and repair of equipment is very essential in the manning of any machine shop.

            Omoregie (1989) explained that education should have inputs processes and expected outputs which can be evaluated to ascertain their usefulness.  He observed that wastage factors as experienced in technical institutions could be responsible for the low productivity of most technical college graduates engaged in self-employment.  This study became necessary to identify strategies for reducing wastage among self employed metalwork graduates of Technical College s in Kogi State.

Statement of the Problem





This chapter gives a brief discussion of the general description of the study, problem statement, purpose of study, research questions and hypotheses, definitions of terms, scope and limitation of the study, as well as the significance of it.


Most earn their living as employees, employers or self-employed workers. The employees in the proper meaning of the term are people who work for compensation in cash and/or kind under the direction of employers.

The employers, whether acting collectively or individually, are interested in production and distribution, trade practice, efficiency, cost, prices, buying, selling and maximization of profit while the employee’s scope and character of collectivism centre on the quest, not only for economic benefits of increasing salaries and wages and other fringe benefits but also for psychological and social motives so as to be able to participate actively in making decisions that vitally affect them in their work and community life and hence, seek to advance the cultural and social status along with occupation and economic status of their members and the interest of the labour group.

At this point, it is imperative to know that for there to be a labour group, there must have been a Trade Union. A Trade Union is a combination of employees who share common statutory objective in relation to regulations between employers and employees as to the benefits and welfare of their members (Ola, 1987). The activities of employers and employees in an organization centre on not only how to produce goods and services but also how to form Unions to protect and promote collectively their respective interests and to regulate, in particular, management-labour relations.

In an attempt to achieve this common objective by both the employees (workers) and the employers (the management), Unions respectively base on the identified differences in their interest thus necessitate the need for both parties to reach an agreement through a collective bargaining process.

A modern view of collective bargaining is that it must be recognized as an institution for regulating labour-management as well as the labour market. Dunlop identified one of the major activities of collective bargaining as involving the determination of priorities with each side in the bargaining process, it involves the process of compromise and assessment of priorities with each side, the rejection of some claims and the assessment of priorities to others within the Union and the bargaining across the table, it involves the processes of administration and application of the agreement.

The success of any organization depends not only on the ability to effectively and efficiently coordinate and control the available resources or profitability but largely on its ability to enhance good relation within or among individuals and groups in the work environment. As a result, the inability of the management to ensure peace and harmony in the working environment may lead to misunderstanding which if unresolved will eventually lead to industrial conflict.

Conflict is defined as the disagreement of organization members of groups over means or ends and an attempt to establish their views in preference to others. In other words, it means dissatisfaction arising from the interaction between labour and management in the work place as against the cordial industrial relations of the organization.

Three major factors have been identified in Nigerian organization as the cause of industrial conflict in the working environment. Among others are the inadequacy of agreement, that is, where certain issues are left unresolved during the cause of agreement, relation of agreement which may be deliberate and interpretation problem i.e. a situation where agreement has been signed but the two parties give different interpretation to it which eventually led to industrial actions.




          This study assessed the Secondary School Students Enrolment of Islamic Studies in SSC Examination 2012-2016 in Abeokuta.

Simple Random Sampling Techniques was employed to select 100 Students as Sample. Questionnaire was administered to collect Data.   

          Three hypotheses was formulated and tested using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Statistics. The finding reveals that there was significant difference on the interest of Students and Enrolment of Islamic Studies in SSC Examinations.

Base on the findings; it was recommended that the interest of students need to be given serious consideration before their enrolment into Islamic studies class so that it will not have a negative effect on their performance. 



Background to the Study

          Islamic Education is a system which transmits the revealed and acquired knowledge to the younger generation of Muslims in order to prepare them for life and enable them to discharge their duties as the vicegerent of Allah on this earth

          Education is the first duty of a Muslim, male or female. Knowledge of God is equated with the process of learning and teaching. The well-documented process of preserving Islamic scripture demonstrate the early emergence of a literate tradition of its transmission among Muslim community from the beginning to commit the words of God and the teachings of Muhammed (SAW) to memory and to writing. (Douglas and Munir 2004). According to them, Islamic education can literally refer to efforts by the Muslim community to educate its own, to pass along the heritage of Islamic knowledge, first and foremost through its primary sources, the Qur’an and the Sunnah. This education of Muslims might take place in Mosques, Schools or Universities and other Organisations established by Muslims over the centuries.(Douglas and Muniru, 2004).

          Islamic Education is defined as the process by which values spelt out in the Holy Qur’an and the Traditions of prophet Muhammad (SAW) are handed over from generation to generation (Abiri and Jekayinfa 2010).

          Islam as a universal religion appreciated and recommends knowledge acquisition for human development and recognition of Almighty Allah as the creator of the cosmos. This is why the very first revelation to prophet Muhammad (SAW) was specifically on seeking knowledge thus:

“ Read in the name of your Lord who creates.

He creates man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood.

Read! Your Lord is the most Bountiful He who teaches (The use of Pen).

He teaches man that which he knows not” (Q96:1-5)

          The above verses commended man to seek for knowledge not by reading alone but also by making use of pen for record purposes. Azeez and Adeshina (2013).

          Interestingly, the philosophy of Islamic education is to inculcate moral values that constitute a wide range of virtues of such as honesty integrity, tolerance, truthfulness, self discipline, humility, patience, industrious and others. Hence, morality should be the basis for every education given by a country to her citizen in order to record success. This is exactly what Islamic studies set out to achieve. Furthermore, the acquisition of the knowledge of Islamic moral value transform life of a  child to a meaningful one as he would be able to relate politely with his follow human beings which also make him to achieve Allah’s pleasure in the hereafter (Azeez and Adeshina (2013) Islamic studies is an academic study of Islam and Islamic culture. Nanji A.(1997).

          Islamic Studies is the totality of learning experiences which centre on the relationship between man and his creator and between man and his fellow man. Islamic studies is aimed at the recognition of Allah as the Creator and Sustainer of the Universe and the sole source of values. In the individual, it cultivates the sense of gratitude’s of Allah and submission to his guidance and moral law, both in our worship of Him and in our behaviour towards our fellow man. Islamic studies awakens the faculties of the intellect and reasoning of the child in accordance with Qur’anic Injunction which says:-

          “Will you not use yours reason?”

          “ Will you not ponder and reflect?”

It encourages the pursuit of useful knowledge in accordance with the saying of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) thus:

“The search for knowledge is an incumbent duty on every Muslim, Male or Female”.

Islamic studies promotes the realization of human equality and brotherhood with emphasis on practical means of achieving social solidarity and ethic harmony in place of greed and selfishness. It is the concern of Islamic studies to ensure a balance development of the individual and community by giving him physical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual training. Islamic studies instills in the heart the consciousness of the presence of Allah as a witness of all our actions, thought and behaviours. This acts as a control on wrong doing, whether in public or private and as a motivation to a good behaviour.( National Teacher Institute, 2000).

Islamic studies is one of the major subjects for the Senior Secondary School Students in the Art Department in lieu of Christian religious studies. It is a subject that principally focus on good knowledge of the Holy Qur’an and Hadith. It is a subject that teaches moral and the words of wisdom from God through the Prophets.

Islamic studies is one of the basic subjects in the current National Senior Secondary School Curriculum and one of the subject entered for by students in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination. This subject is sometimes made compulsory to be passed by students seeking admission into faculty of law  Arts and Education in the universities for Muslim students while Christian religious studies is for the Christians Abdul (2011).

However, Nigeria being a “Multi-Religion” nation has not realized importance of religious education. It regulates religions education to the background. It makes Islamic studies an elective subject and provides no adequate teachers in secondary schools (Azeez and Adeshina, 2013). According to National Policy on Education (2004), Islamic studies is not a core subject at the senior secondary schools, rather, it is an elective subject.

This gives the Senior Secondary School Students the option to either offer it or drop it. This is a factor that led to the statement of Bidmos (2003) that Islamic studies is offered by less than one percent of student population of any institution where it is offered at all (Azeez and Adeshina 2013). 




The aim of this research work is to find out the effects of unemployment on Nigeria economy. Generally, many researches have tried to work on this topic to see how unemployment can be reduced if not eradicate unemployment   from Nigeria economy. In the cause of this study, questions where sent out and interview conducted with a case study of Ifako-Ijaiye Local government. This work is divided into chapters, each dealing with specific matter. In the last chapter, the summary, conclusion, and recommendations were given which if implemented would reduce or eradicate unemployment totally in the nation.



1.1      Background of the Study

Unemployment is generally seen as a macro-economic problem as well as socio-economic problem .Unemployment arises as a result of insufficient and non-availability of jobs to correspond with the growing population, even those who are employed sometimes live with the fear of being unemployed due to job insecurity and retrenchment of workers. There is employment of factors of production if they are engaged in production. The term unemployment could be used in relation to any of the factors of production which is idle and not being utilized properly for production. However, with reference to labour, there is unemployment if it is not possible to find jobs for all those who are eligible and able to work. Labour is said to be underemployed if it is working below capacity or not fully utilized in production (R.A.I Anyawuocha 1993)

Unemployment can either be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary in the sense that one chooses not to work because he or she has means of support other than employment. Example is an idle rich man. On the other hand, involuntary unemployment exist when persons who are eligible and willing to work at the prevailing rate of pay are unable to find work. (Anyanwa 1995).

According to the central bank of Nigeria (2004), unemployment rose to 30% during 2004 statistics on unemployment rate. Unemployment has been seen as a world-wide economic problem and has been categorized as one of the serious impediments to social progress. Apart from representing a huge waste of a country’s manpower resources, it generates welfare loss in terms of lower output thereby leading to lower income and wellbeing of the people (Akinboyo, 1987, and Raheem 1993). Unemployment is a very serious issue in Africa (Vandemortele, 1991, and Rama 1998), and particularly in Nigeria (Oladeyi, 1994 and Umo, 1996). The need to avert the negative effect of unemployment has made the tackling of unemployment problems to feature very prominently in the development objectives of many developing countries.

In the study of unemployment in Africa Okonkwo (2005) identified three (3) cause of unemployment, the educational system, the choice of technology which can either be labour intensive or capital intensive and inadequate attention to agriculture. The use of machines to replace work done by labour and computerization has contributed to these social problems in the sense that what for example forty (40) men can do manually a machine will only need like five (5) men. Therefore, the remaining thirty five (35) are unemployed. More so, lack of enough education and skill to have access to credit and capital.

One particular feature of unemployment in Nigeria is that it was more endemic in the early 1980‟s than any other period. According to Udabah (1999:62), the major factor contributing to low standard of living in underdeveloped countries in their relative inadequate or inefficient utilization of labour in comparism with advanced nations. Unemployment rate is measured by the proportion of the labour force that is unemployed divided by the total number of the labour force. The total labour force was projected at 61,249,485 in 2007 indicating an increase of 3.9%. Total employment in 2007 stood at 52,326,923 compared with 50,886,836 in 2006. This represents an annual increase of 2.8%. The labour force consists of the number of people ageing 18 and over who are employed (that is, those who currently have jobs) and unemployed (those who do not have jobs but who are actively looking for work).Individuals who do not fall into either of these group such as retired people and discouraged workers are not included in the calculation of the labour force.

The international labour force organization (ILO) defines unemployment as the proportion of the labour force which was available for but did not work for at least one hour in the week preceding the survey period. National Bureau of statistics (N.B.S). Nigeria defines unemployment as the proportion of the labour force that is available for work but did not work for at least thirty nine (39) hours in the week preceding survey period.




This research work examines the impact of Conflict Management on Organisational Effectiveness with special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Plc.

This project is patterned into five chapters, the first deals with the study; it also reveals the statement of problems, objective of the study, significant of the study, research questions and limitations of the study and equally mentions the definitions of terms.

In addition, chapter three deals with methodology and thus adopted the technique of personal interview.

There is a great emphasis on sources of data, population sample and determination of sample size.

Meanwhile, chapter four deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study.




According to Kornhanser, Dubin and Russ (1954), conflict can be referred to as “the total range of behaviours and attitude that express opposition and divergent orientation between individual, owners and managers on one hand and working people and their organization, on the other hand. Furthermore, a conflict situation is therefore one that is characterized by the inability of those concerned to iron out their differencesand this does not necessarily have to result in strikes.

Flanders (1968) defined conflict as the difference between an actual state of affairs and a desired state of affairs.

In other words, conflict is the gap between where one is and where one wants to be. Crises are un-expected problem that lead to disaster if not resolved quickly in an acceptable manner. No one can avoid crises and the intensity of the corporate crises in the modern world.

Conflict is an inevitable byproduct of inter-personal dealings. This is particularly true of work groups because-they generally are expediently assembled collection of individuals with different back grounds, perceptions attitudes, and value.

Conflict can be good, bad or ugly and it can be managed in goods, bad and ugly ways. In an organization the issue that generate the most, emotion and frustrated comments is conflict within the organization, we generally do not look at conflict as opportunity but we tend to think about conflict as unpleasant, counter- productive and time consuming.

Conflict that occurs in organization need not be destructive, provided the emergency associated with conflict harnessed and directed towards problem solving and organizationalimprovement, however managing conflict effectively requires that all parties understand the nature of conflict, in the workplace.

The dysfunctional view of organizational conflicts imbedded in the nation that organization are created to manufacture goods by creating structure that perfectly define job responsibilities, authority and other’ job functions, like a clockwork, watch each “Cog knows where it fits, knows how it relates to other part. This traditional view of organization value orderliness; stability and the repression of any conflict that occurs. Using the timepiece analogy we can see the sense in this.

What would happen to traditional watches decide to become less traditional, and redefine their role in the system?

To the “Traditional” organizational thinkers, conflict implies that the organization is not designed or structured correctly or adequately common remedies would be to further elaborate job descriptions, authorities and responsibilities, increase the use of central power (discipline), separate conflicting members etc.

This view of, organization and conflict problems. Unfortunately most of us consciously or unconsciously value some of the characteristic of this “orderly” environment. Problem arise when we not realize that this ways of looking at organization and conflict only fits organization that work in routine ways where innovation and change are virtually eliminated.

The functional view of organizational conflict sees conflicts as a productive process, one that can stimulate members of the organization to increase their knowledge and skills and their contribution to the organizational innovation and productivity unlike the position maintained above, this more modern approach organization then NEEDS conflict so that diverging views can be put on the table, and new views of doing things can be created.

The functional view of conflict also suggests that conflict provides people with feedback about how things are going even “personality conflict” carry information to the manager about what is not working in an organizational affording the opportunity to improve.

We have the good (conflict is positive), the bad (conflict is to be avoided) and now we need to address the ugly.  Ugly occurs where· managers (and perhaps employers) attempt to eliminate or suppress conflict in situations where it is impossible to do so. You know you have ugly in your organization when:-

–        Many conflicts run for years people have given up on, resolving and addressing conflict problem in an organization.

–        When there is a tendency to look to the manager or formal leader as being responsible for the mess. In fact, that is how most employees would look at the situation, it is true that managers and supervisors play critical roles in determining how conflicts is handled in the organization, but it is also true that the avoidance of ugliness must be a shared responsibilities. Management and employees must work together in a cooperative way to reduce the ugliness, and increase the likelihood that conflict can be channeled into an effective force for change.

In industrial relations, there is no permanently an adversary, either at individual or at group level. There may be times, when a conflict has to be managed bluntly on managerial issues and with intention to achieve long-term managerial objectives. One hopes that manager in public and private enterprises will provide increasing evidence of ability and willingness with such clarity of managerial.  However, conflict seems to be inevitably re-accruing in our organizations and institutions.




This study focused on the problems of financing of a small scale business with a case study of a garri processing industry in Enugu. Small and Medium Scale enterprises are important in the economic development of many countries (Braun, 2003a, Eunni, Brush & Kasuganti, 2007; Golding, Donaldson, Tennant & Black, 2008; Berisha-Namani, 2009). As such proper financing is paramount. This study focused problems SMEs face in accessing finance considering it’s the main factor to consider while setting up a business. The purpose of this study include: Examine the sources of finance the garri processing industry, Determine the extent of financing from the government and banks, Determine the effect of use of existing financial strategy on the growth of SMEs.

A survey research method was adopted with a systematic sampling technique was used and ANOVA was used for the analysis. After result from the study was discussed some recommendations were provided.




It is necessary to stress the point that to succeed in business require some measure of discipline.  Most industrialist expect to make a reasonable profit from the investment of time and resources, that they have to make in other to bring a project to fruition.

        While this may sound simple enough, the bother line is the fact in an economy wide context, the rate or level of reward that can accrue to various level of effort, discipline and productivity should never be allowed to get out of proportion in relation to effort put in.

        Experience has shown that industrial pursuits have been found to yield for the patient and disciplined industrialist rather than stand for business concern with all kinds of effort mostly unproductive and require no legitimate effort to reap profits in multiple fields.

        After considering the above mentioned statement of facts about industry.  The question is how far are we from being industrialized bearing in mind that it yields for disciplined and patient industrialist, all things being equal.

        Taking cognizance of the fact that a step forward is the beginning of a mile.  Some, therefore Nigeria’s business industrial evolution will only start when positive steps are taken towards adequate financing of small scale business.  The experience of newly industrialized countries has been an eye opener.

Finance is the greatest problem we are likely to face whenever we talk of establishing a small scale industry.  This is the most crucial aspect of business enterprise and a lot of controversy surrounding the problem of inadequate finance. A close look on the small scale industries/business, all over the country would help to throw further light on the effect of lack of fund on growing business.  The drastic effect is mostly felt when one tries to study the rate at which our young industries are gradually collapsing.  Even surviving ones are terribly looking for assistance that they are not sure of.

        Funds are scare, hence the growing industries as regarded in this part of the world as never-do-wells especially Nigeria.  When an economy is shaky, growing industries in that economy tend to suffer most and usually stand the taste of time.  Hence, an increase in the number of causalities in this regard.

        The researcher aimed at exploiting the possibilities, problems of financing small scale business/industries.  The project centers on management and financial problems

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Finance has been identified as the major underlying requirement and an important input factor in the development and industrialization effort.  Plant, machinery and equipment must be paid for as well as the development of managerial and technical expertise. The need for finance is seen as essential in the creation of a general economic environment conducive to sustained economic development. The task of development therefore, must involve the conversion of finance into the requisite factor inputs and the efficient deployment of such inputs.





This research topic can not be understood without a concise and explicit definition of Behavioural modifications in organizational settings like Dangote Cement Company, Gboko Benue State as case study.


                   Behaviour modification entails increasing prospect of positive behaviour and reducing likelihood of inappropriate behaviour. Modification is a programme of planned change and improved performance. Since individual employee has highly developed faculty, their capacity to learn is unlimited. However, the extent to which management can get desired behaviour from their employees depends on how well they can modify or shape their behaviour. This is closely followed by what is referred to as “reinforcement principles”.

                   Reinforcement principle is an external explanation of behaviour. It is anything that increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of behaviour that preceded the reinforcement. Thus, reinforcement is environmental influence that follows a response and has the capacity to shape behaviour. We shape behaviour by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves individual to the desired state.

          Lewin has it that, it is a programme of planned change and improve performance developed, which involves the management of three-phase processes, which include;

                    Unfreezing-reducing those forces which maintain behaviour in its present form, recognition of the need for change and improvement to occur.

                   Movement: Development of new attitudes or behaviour and the implementation of the change.

                   Refreezing: Stabilizing change at new level and reinforcement through supporting mechanisms, for example policies, structure or norms.

                   French etal list eight specific components of a planned change effort related to the above process which has: initial problem identification, obtaining data, problem diagnosis, action planning, implication, followed-up and stabilization, assessment of consequences and learning from the process.

                   The identification could be explained to mean that, an employees or individuals attitude is based on the belief that behaviour is generally predictable.


          The statement of the problem serves to elaborate deeply upon the information implied in the title of the study. It is an interrogative statement which asks about the assured or proposed relationship between two or more variables. It is a statement that help clarifies, outlines, limits and bring into being a distinct image of the problem to be investigated. Statement therefore shows emphasis placed to arriving at relevant results in this fact finding mission.

                   This topic is chosen with the intension of finding out what reinforcement technique should be adopted or administered to staff in an organization that will enhance increase in performances with particular reference to Dangote Cement Plc Gboko Benue State. The research work will furthermore examine or study workers attitude to work in the process of discharging their duties or carrying out their responsibilities.

                   In every organization, managers or administrators get desired behaviour from employees by modifying or shaping their attitudes towards appraising the overall performance of the business or the entire organizational goals.   

                   Therefore, during the course of this research work, the researcher envisaged a lot of problems to mention but a few. Some of the problems are as follows:

a.     Lack of availability of materials or data (i.e information) for the researcher to carryout the necessary research work.

b.     Poor attitude of respondents towards ensuring the answering of questions.

c.      Financial constraint was another problem in the course of the research work.

d.     There was no time for the research, as combined examination with the research work.

e.      Transportation (i.e mobility), it was very expensive for the researcher to go round the respondents for submission and collection of information to ease the research work.



Table of contents                                                                        page(s)



  1. Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Objectives of the study

1.4    Research questions

1.5    Significance of the study

1.6    Scope and limitation of the study

1.7    Organization of the study


2.1    Concept of town planning development

2.2    Urban land, planning and governance regimes

2.2.1 The pre-colonial era

2.2.2 The colonial era 

2.2.3 Post-colonial era 

2.3    The current urban planning practice

2.4    Federal Government – National Level Policy

2.5    State-led Town Planning

2.6    Challenges for the urban land administration, planning and governance system

2.7    Urban development systems

2.8    Critique of formal and informal urban development processes   

2.9    Recent initiatives to improve town development processes and their outcomes  

2.10  Town Urban planning and development

2.11  Challenges and problems of urban development

2.12 Initial Growth of Enugu Urban

2.13  Physical Planning Efforts in Enugu Urban 


3.1    Research design

3.2    The study area

3.3    Location

3.4    Sources of data 

3.5    Research instruments

3.5.1 Interview

3.6          Validity and reliability of the instrument 

3.7    Data analysis


4.1 Assessment of Growth Indicators in Abakpa Nike Enugu Urban.

4.2    Discussion of findings


5.1    Conclusion

5.2    Recommendations



The study was carried out on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Nike, Enugu state, Nigeria. Town planning development is the process of developing urban, suburban and rural areas orderly. This study employed a Survey research design. Distribution of growth indicators in the study zone was effected for the same purpose.The data collected for this study were from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were drawn from interviews and report and field observations. The principal source of secondary data was drawn from textbooks, Journals, reports, Internet websites and other related unpublished literatures written by different authors. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) on a computer set was used for the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at 5% (0.05) level of significance.The researcher came up with two summarized results. The first is that there is tremendous population increase of the Enugu urban. The second revelation was that there is a weak relationship existing between the level of town planning development in Abakpa Nike, Enugu State and associated growth indicators.The study further recommended that the concerned governments of the state (state and local) should make a vigorous attempt at emplacing adequate physical, economic and social infrastructure to match the teeming population in the Enugu urban.  This can be achieved through the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process. 



  1. Background of the study

Town planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. It can be referred to as urban and regional, regional, town, city, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. Town planning takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design (Robert, 2010).

Town planning development is the process of developing urban, suburban and rural areas orderly. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, town planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. The major reason for town planning is urbanization.

Urbanization is not a recent phenomenon in Nigeria. Indeed many ancient cities such as Enugu, Ile Ife, Kano, Ibadan, Benin and Sokoto have had a rich history of urbanization. Urbanization however increased significantly during the colonial administrations. It is apparent that the rate of urbanization in recent period has been vigorous, alarming and unsustainable. The most serious problems confronting cities, towns and their inhabitants as identified in Agenda (2010) include the following: Inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between the rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure. Other problems include lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All these have seriously challenged the town planning development in place like Abakpa Nike. The capacity of government at all levels to realize socio- economic development and environmental protection, which is all components of sustainable development, is challenged.

Nigeria as a nation has been experiencing an accelerated shift of her populations from rural to urban areas. This rapid rate of urbanization has engendered several challenges and problems in town planning development similar to situations in other parts of the world. The problems identified in Agenda (2010) are prevalent in Enugu state. Today’s Enugu city, according to Mabogunje (2012) is typified by substandard and inadequate housing, slums, and lack of infrastructure, transportation problems, low productivity, poverty, crime and juvenile delinquency. Urbanization, according to him is the root cause of the high rates of environmental degradation, pollution and social delinquency.

In order to address the problem of town planning development and promote sustainable development, the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000, committing countries both rich and poor to do all they can to eradicate poverty, promote human dignity and equality and achieve peace, democracy and environmental stability. The goals include those dedicated to eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has a responsibility to implement the goals.

Various scholars have studied the challenges of town planning development in Nigeria. Some of them include Falade (1999) whose study focused on the challenges of a sustainable Nigeria, Abumere (2002) whose research centered on urban governance and the challenges of urban poverty, Odeyemi (2002) who did a study on gender and urbanization and Olanrewaju (2003) who focused on sustainability and urban poverty.

However, since urban development occurs in a continuum, this paper focuses on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Nike Enugu Nigeria.







All over the world, employee’s right has always been protected through effective labour relations and the activities of the trade unions which have in turns proven to the effective in shaping employee work attitude (Trevor, 2006). However, labour relations involve the practice of managing unionized employment situations (Heery, 2011). Proper management of such relations should contribute positively to the morale of the employee.
Trade union is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, achieving higher pay and benefits such as health care and retirement, increasing the number of employees an employer assigns to complete the work, and better working conditions. This can be seen from the outcomes of strikes by trade unions in Nigeria that always leads to salary and wages increment for the workers. These wages has in turn been the major factor that has continue to motivate the workers to better performance.
The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers (Trevor, 2006). The most common purpose of these associations or unions is “maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment”. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning (Gall, 2003). Labour relations is the norm in situation where trade union does not exists. It is important that professional rendering the same services should come together and make collective demand from the employee when the need arises. Labour relations should invariably lead to adequate and timely wages if properly managed.
A trade unions leadership bargains with the employer on behalf of its members on terms and conditions of employment. This may include negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the entire membership and the employer and, in some cases, on other non-member workers (Thomas and Daryl, 2012).
An ingenious alternative approach compares productivity according to the governance of the firm (Hsu, M.K 2003). The researcher is also of the opinion that the importance of good wages on workers attitude should be a good one.
Salary and wages are the money paid to an employee by the employer with respect to the services rendered by the employee for a period of time that was agreed upon by both parties. Wage, when it is paid daily and salary, when it is paid weekly, fortnightly or monthly.
Esien (2002) went further in drawing distinction between wage and salary. He opined that “in the past, important distinctions existed between wages and salary, but today, the words are used interchangeably, reflecting the convergence of method of paying skilled and unskilled employees that has happened over 40 years. A salary was defined as a fixed annual amount, paid monthly. Wages in contrast were variable weekly payments (usually made in cash) that fluctuated in value through overtime, bonuses, and piecework rates. Salaries were determined individually; wages through management/union collective bargaining” (LRD, 2009). Today, however, many salaried workers are unionized and paid according to union negotiated salary scales, with annual increment; while large numbers of wage earners now receive relatively stable time based earnings. Based on all these, the research is examining the effect of labour relations, trade unionism and wages on employee work attitude.




The study was motivated by the need to investigate the impact of retention of employee on organisational success in Lagos state Ministry of education. Forty staff were randomly selected for the study. Data on the impact of retention of employee on organisational success were collected from the sampled staff with questionnaire instrument designed to elicit relevant responses. The analysis of data was based on frequency count with simple percentages and Chi-square (X2) statistical method. Descriptive survey design was employed for the study.   The findings of the study revealed retention of employee has a great influence on the organizational success. It was also found that condusive working environment has a strong on the performance of an organization. Organisations with highly motivated employee, better human related, moderate hours of work, access to loanable funds, cordial relationship between the superior officers and subordinates tends to perform better in productivity than in organizations where these are lacking. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that policy makers provide a process of encouraging, planning, and investing in employees’ professional development. Organisational investment in employees was associated with higher level of employee affective commitment to the organisation. This process will indicate that management is committed to establishing a long term relationship with employees. These educational investments could make employees more committed to their profession and put in their best in achieving organisational growth and development.



1.1   Background of the Study

Retaining employees whose knowledge has high competitive value is becoming a critical and well-recognized challenge (Taylor, 2004 and Williamson, 2008). Such employees are known as knowledged workers in that they “have high degrees of expertise, education, or experience, and the primary purpose of their jobs involves the creation, distribution or application of knowledge” (Davenport, 2005).

The retention of employees has been shown to be significant to the development and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Retention of employees can be a vital source of competitive advantage for any organization.

Today, changes in technology, global economics, trade agreements, and the likes are directly affecting employee/employer relationships. “Until recently, loyalty was the cornerstone of that relationship. The loss of talented employees may be very detrimental to the company’s future success. Outstanding employees may leave an organization because they become dissatisfied, under paid or unmotivated (Adeniran 2005). While trying to retain employees within the organization, the organisation may face other challenges such as demand for higher wages by skilled employees, not complying with organization practices, and inadequate good interaction with their co-workers.

Besides these problems, lack of information about the employees’ performance may complicate an organization’s endeavour to retain productive employees. Without adequate information an organization may not be able to distinguish productive workers from non-productive ones. Employees often may take credit for the successes and deflect failures to other employees. Insufficient information about employees’ performance may result in adverse selection by them (Grossman and Hart 1999). The better employees may move to other organizations for better opportunities. The co-workers who cannot improve their positions are more likely to stay. This is especially possible when due to inadequate information outstanding performance is not rewarded i.e, lack of motivation for outstanding performance. Non productive and productive workers end up receiving the same or nearly the same compensation and package of perks because of management’s in ability to distinguish talented employees from the rest of the labour force in the organization.

The problem of attempting to keep talented members of the work force may be further complicated because of superiority complex of these talented employees to organisational success (Simon, 1996). It is another result of asymmetric information where both the manager does not know the information for which to ask from the employee and the employee does not know what to provide. Therefore, productive workers cannot distinguish themselves from non-productive co-workers. Even if an organization is fortunate enough to retain talented employees, the company may still have to cope with agency costs resulting from them and their colleagues.




This research work focused on web based system for student information management using Federal Polytechnic, Ukana as a case study. The study was necessary because of the existing problems which include: absence of a web based student information system that facilitates the capturing, storage and retrieval of relevant information pertaining to its students, the traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back.  The objectives of the study include: to implement a system that aid easy uploading of student information, to develop a system that will aid easy verification of student information and  to design a system that facilitates easy updating of student information. The significance of the study is that it will provide the management of the institution with a web-based system that can complement the manual system of managing student information, and it will provide an effective means to capture, store update and retrieve student information online. The software development methodology used is Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) and the programming language used is PHP (pHp Hypertext Pre-processor). It was concluded that a web based student information management system is a very important system that will enable management of the institution to organize student information for easy retrieval in no time. It is expected that every institution should develop and make use of the system to facilitate the student information operations of the institution, the system can be used to verify the identity of every student and as such stands as a tool to decipher impersonation. It is recommended that institutions should implement a web based student information management system and dependency on manual methods of recording should be abandoned or only used for back up purpose.


Title Page             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i 

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract               –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –    vii-ix

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

List of Figures      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi


1.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1-2

1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        2-3

1.2     Statement of Problem              –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study                –        –        –        3-4

1.4     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.6     Organization of the Research  –        —       –        –        –        4-5


2.0 Introduction   –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        6

2.1  Theoretical Background   –        –        –        –        –        –        6-9

2.2  The Concept of Information Systems  –        –        –        –        9-10

2.2.1 Types of Information System  –        –        –        –        –        11

2.3     Advantages of Information System  –        –        –        –        12

2.4     Web-based Students Information Management System          12-14


  • Introduction    –        –        –        –        –        –        –                  15     

3.1 Research Methodology      –        –        –        –        –                  15

3.2 Analysis of the Existing System –        –        –        –                  15

3.2.1 Disadvantages of the Existing System        –        –        –                  16

3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System         –        –        –        –                  16 Advantages of the Proposed system        –        –        –                  17

3.4 System Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        –                   17   

3.4.1 Input layout          –        –        –        –        –        –        –                   18

3.4.2 Output Layout                                                 –   –                  19     

3.4.3 Algorithm                                                         –   –                  20

3.4.4 Program Flowchart                                          –   –                  21-24

3.4.5 Database Design   –        –                  –        –        –                  25-26

3.4.6 System Architecture       –        –        –        –        –                  26

3.4.7 Use Case Diagram          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26-27


4.0     Introduction                  –        –        –        –        –        –                  28

4.1     System Design Diagram –        –        –        –        –                  28

4.2     Analysis of Modules               –        –        –        –                  28-29

4.2     Choice of Programming Language              –        –                  29

4.4     Programming Environment     –        –        –        –                  29

4.4.1 Hardware Requirements –        –        –        –        –                  29-30

4.4.2 Software Requirements  –        –        –        –        –                  30

4.5     Implementation    –        –        –        –        –        –                  30-31


5.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32     

5.1     Constraints of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

5.2     Summary                       –        –        –        –        –                  32

5.3     Conclusion                     –        –        –        –        –        –        33

5.4     Recommendations                   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

 References                      –        –        –        –        –        –        34

Appendix A (Source Code)-    –        –        –        –        –                  35-47

 Appendix B (Output)                                  –      –        –                48-50          


                                                                                       Page Number

Table 3.1: Output Layout        –        –        –        –        –        –        19

Table 3.2:  Database design     –        –        –        –        –        25


Page Number

Figure 2.1: Login page   –        –        –        –        –        –        9

Figure 3.1: Input Layout         –        –        –        –        –        –        18

Figure 3.2: Login flowchart     –        –        –        –        –        21

Figure 3.3:  Main Menu Flowchart   –        –        –        –        22

Figure 3.4: Registration Flowchart             –        –        –        23

Figure 3.5:Update flowchart   –        –        –        –        –        24

Figure 3.6: Database Records flowchart     –        –        –        25

Figure 3.7: Architecture of the System       –        –        –        –        26

Figure 3.8: Use case diagram   –        –        –        –        –        27

Figure 4.1: System Design Diagram  –        –        –        –        2



1.0 Introduction

This chapter is focused on the introduction to the web based system for students information management. It presents the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

Over the past few decades, institutions all over the world have been experiencing new paradigms in the way they handle and manage students’ information due to the proliferation of ICTs and its applications such as web-based student information systems. With the adoption of such systems as the web based student information system in academic institutions, the experience is that it has now become easy to harness and fast track all students’ records in one centralized database via the internet technology. While the benefits of the system seem to be celebrated, it has been a hustle for most universities in Africa to completely go digital in their operations due poor ICT infrastructures that seem to be prevalent in the region.

In the pre-digital age, managing student’s information was done manually, using paper-based systems. However, with increasing number of students in educational institutes, the system could no longer handle student’s records effectively. Suffice to say, the dawn of ICT applications and databases presented unparalleled opportunities in managing students’ records in academic institutions which gradually lead to the disappearance of paper-based systems. The major concern with manual systems has been the speed with which business operations and decision making processes are carried out in education institutions. Consequently, to cope up with the rise in student’s enrolment whilst at the same time ensuring efficiency in their operations, universities had to experience a paradigm shift from using manual student’s management systems to online student management systems. Students Management Systems (SMS) whether manual or web-based are there to maintain and provide easy access to student information. As an information system, it is very useful.

An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people’s activities that support operations, management and decision making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. There are two views on (IS) and IS-centered view that includes software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. A second managerial view includes people, business processes and Information Systems. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes [1].

In an institution for instance, there is need to record information pertaining to members of the institution especially the students so that it will be easy to retrieve needed information instantly without stress. A web based student information management system is a software system that enables the data of students to be captured, such that it will be easy to obtain needed information pertaining to any particular student or group of students. The system can also be viewed as a database system that enables capturing of large amounts of students record to facilitate manipulation by the administrators in charge. For example, every student has a unique registration number which stands as the primary key. In an information system it will be very easy to obtain the record of any student just by querying the database based on the primary key or registration ID of the student.

1.2 Statement of Problem

  1. The traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back.
  2. Also, it is difficult for management to get needed information instantly thereby delaying the decision making process that is based on the information needed.

It is in view of these challenges that this research work is carried out to design and implement a web based system for student information management.




This study was set to determine broadcast contents and listeners’ choice of programmes on select private radio stations in Uyo metropolis. It however used Planet and Comfort Fm as a case study. To achieve this, five objectives and research questions was drawn to guide the study. The survey method was used for the study. The population of this study were listeners in Uyo metropolis which according to the world Population statistic (2018) was projected to be 436,606. The sample size was 400 drawn from the Taro Yamane’s formula. The research instrument used was the questionnaire while the Multistage sampling procedure and cluster sampling technique were used to access the respondents. A total of 400 copies of the questionnaire were administered out of this 381 copies formed the basis for analysis using simple percentage. The major findings of the study are that broadcast programmes aired on both stations influence listeners’ choice of programmes to a great extent, as this influence could be seen in both positive and negative aspect. The study discovered that Uyo residents listen to Planet Fm mostly. Also the programme listened to most on Planet Fm was Football Planet, while Sport Marathon had the highest listenership on Comfort Fm. These programmes were said to appealing as it gratifies the listeners needs. Most respondents however, picked these programmes because of its contents and sound quality. It was recommended that programmmes that positively influenced listeners should be aired, while those with negative influence be reviewed. It also suggested that both stations should improve its delivery pattern, programme length, programme timing language usage and fluency of the presenter. They should also work on programmes with low listeners so as to appeal listeners interest.




         This report gives a good account of training and experience which I was exposed during the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) at Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Ilorin, Kwara state. This report comprises of seven chapters. Chapter one is about student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and about place of attachment. The chapter two is about studio, television studio, items in the studio and studio terminologies.

            Chapter three is about light use in production, types of light use in production. Chapter four is about the microphone and types of microphone. Chapter five is about the console the video camera. Chapter six is about copy editing and types of copy editing. Chapter seven is all about summary, recommendation, conclusion, problem encountered and possible solution.      


1.0              INTRODUCTION TO SIWE

       The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) can be defined as a technical skill and acquisition of knowledge from the organization, industrial sector. It also serves as a motive that compliments the learning which student have acquired in the classroom or theoretically.

      The student industrial work experience scheme is in practical fulfillment of TCS 210 of becoming a competent student in the field. It is a major work which is to expose student to the practical aspect of what they are been thought in class. During the course of study, I was posted to the programs department of the establishment.

1.1               BACKGROUND OF SIWES

The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skill preparatory for employment in various industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.

      The purpose of the scheme is to expose student to different kinds of industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of labor. It afford the student of tertiary institution the opportunity of being engaged, familiarized and expose to the needed experience in handling various kinds of equipment and machine which are usually not available in the educational environment or institution.

       However, participation in siwes has becomes a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in most institution of higher learning in the country, in accordance with the education policy of the government.      

1.2               OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The objectives of the student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) as a follow:

  •    It improves student’s knowledge about the industrial sector or organization.
  •    It enable the student to practicalised different test form what they have learnt theoretical in the classroom.
  •    It relates the student to the labor market and how it’s being operated.
  •     It also enlighten student to various division of industries or organization of work in which their course of study can be practicalised.
  •     It enable student to know more the technological innovation in course of study, and some equipment which are or involved.
  •     It enable student to know the practical aspect of chosen field of study.

 1.3     Description of the establishment of attachment.

The Nigeria Television Authority, Ilorin was established in 1977. Its maiden transmission of programmed was from Lagos via satellite.

 Between 1977 and date, the station has undergone tremendous changes which today have made it the toast of viewers and clients within and outside the state.

At present, the station has staff strength of ninety-one, headed by the General Manager T.R Gyang and it transmits 24 hours on weekdays.

Apart from contributing its quota in area of informing, educating and entreating it viewers, the station has produced several award winning programs in areas of drama transmission of programs from Lagos via satellite. The station had four transmitter stations and four link or relay station through which it was able to transmit to Kwara state, parts of Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Kogi state. NTA Ilorin hooks up with the NTA Network service to bring live news from all part of Nigeria and the world at large. The station has eihgt substantive General Mangers since its in caption in 1977.  Engr. D.J Awoniyi was the first General Manager and his tenure was between 1977 and 1981;Mrs Chief Peter O. Olowo was General Manager between 6th may 1982 and October 1990; Mr J.D Angulu was General between 1990 and 1994; Mrs Vicky was General Meneger between November between 1st July 1994 and October 1994; Mrs. Araba A. Vincent was General Manager between November 2000 and February2004; Prince Adebimpe Idowu was General Manager between 2004 and 2005; Mr Dayo Salaeu was Genral Manager between December 2005 and septermber 2008 whilst Chief Thomas R. Gyang is the present Incumbent. Under the NTA Ilorin, we have two local government stations that are NTA Ogbomoso and NTA Patigi. NTA Obgomoso is fully operational and NTA Patigi is yet to take off operationally.

The present management team of NTA Ilorin includes:

  • Chief T.R. Gyang _________________ General Manager.
  • T.A Olasehinsde __________________ General Manager.
  • Hajia Moriliat T.O Adamu____ Manager. Administration.
  • Yinka Ajayi _______ Manager News and Current. Affairs.
  • Taiye Ogunderin ____________ Manager programmes.
  • Yakubu G. Oladele ___________ Marketing Manager.
  • Samuel Osawu ____________ Chief Technical officer.
  • Engr. J.O Babajide ____Manager-In-Charge, NTA Patigi.
  • Mrs Remi Awolola ____ Manager-In-Charge, Ogbomoso.


    Although the idea of establishing a television station in kwara state was conceived as far back as 1971, some early teething problem did not make for its takeoff. Following a meeting in 1971 by a number of  journalists who are indigenes of the state with military Governor Lieutenant-colonel Lasisi Bamigboye, the idea of establishing a newspaper and television station was conceived both of which was considered necessary for the state.

      The then government gave its blessing to the immediate establishment of a newspaper, while accepting the idea of a television station in principle. The newspaper, known as “Nigeria Herald” started two years (1975) while feasibility studies for the television also started the same year. The change of Government in 1975 threatened the establishment of the station in Ilorin, but in view of the large sum of money already into the project, there could be no going back.

              The final indication that the project will eventually take-off early in February 1977 when adverts for workers in the proposed station were placed in the newspapers. In may 19 77,  Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin was finally given birth to, under the management of  kwara state Ministry of information, however automatically became one of the stations took over by the Nigeria Television Authority following the Federal Government’s order under General Olosegun Obasanjo military administration announcement in 1975 of it’s intention to take over all television in Nigeria. The Nigeria Television Authority was finally inaugurated in May 1977 but took effect from April 1978. By that degree the Nigeria Television Authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in the country.




Style is one‟s way of doing a thing. It can be of dressing, speaking, acting, teaching and writing which is influenced by a lot of factors or ideologies such as history, religion and culture. However, the style of a writer albeit creative may pose a challenge to readers. This study attempts a linguistic stylistic analysis of Chimamanda Adichie‟s Purple Hibiscus and Things around the neck with the aim of identifying some of the linguistic features the writer used and to understand the cultural and historical ideology behind the texts, appreciating her style.Halliday‟s functional linguistics approach is adopted as a theoretical framework where particular note is taken of the stylistic functional effects and thematic significance of the linguistic features in literary texts. Leech and Short‟s (2007) analytical checklist is used to breakdown randomly selected stylistic features into three categories, lexical, grammatical and context. Basil Bernstein‟s (1971) perspective on code switching and mixing is used to analyse how the writer‟s culture informs her choice as a form of stylistic expression. The study has been able to highlight the stylistic features in the texts, analyse how these styles were used to reveal Adichie‟s ideas, and highlight the extent to which Adichie‟s cultural and linguistic background affect her style of writing. Halliday‟s systemic functional approach is of the opinion that style is functionally motivated by a writer‟s choice of language in use. Therefore this study outlined the various features (linguistic stylistic) which Adichie has used to creatively present her novels. This research therefore recommends that young writers can use Adichie‟s style of writing since the aim of studying style is to improve the vigour of the writer‟s ability to communicateeffectively



  • Background to theStudy

A lot of similarities exist in the definitions of language. From another angle, there are highly technical usages of the word “language” reflecting the way the term has been applied figuratively to all forms of human behaviour such as language of writing, media, politics, music, law and advertisement. Halliday (1971:332) also succinctly puts the function of language thus:

Language serves for the expression of content. The speaker or writer embodies language, his experiences of the internal world of his Consciousness, his reaction, cognition, and perception and also his Linguistic acts of speaking and understanding.

The major challenge about defining language is that of trying to summarise its contents in single sentences. According to Sapir (1921:8), language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, thoughts and emotions by means of voluntarily produced symbols. This definition presents language as a primarily human characteristic for the purpose of communication. To Chomsky (1957:13), language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length as set of physical patterns that are arbitrarily combined to make the communication process effective. From Chomsky‟s definition, it‟s obvious that language consists of several elements each with a different way of operation but combined together to produce unlimited constructions. Therefore to Chomsky, language is a functional element used by humans for the purpose of communication. From the perspective of the above definition of language by Sapir (1921:8) language communicates ideas, emotions, thoughts, and desires which, when put down in a literary text, is referred to asliterature.

Stylistic analysis which this research focuses on is the end product of two modes of analysis. That is, the literary and linguistic approaches to the analysis of literary texts. While the

role of the literary analyst is to bring out the style that is the literary elements used by the writer to interpret themes, the linguist on his part takes the codes as his domain, and the meaning of the work becomes relevant as far as it illustrates the use of language. Widdowson (1975) explains the function of literary stylistics as the interpretation and evaluation of literary text as works of art, and that the primary concern of the analysis is to explicate the individual message of the writer. Widdowson also clarifies the function of the linguistic stylistic analyst as the decoder of messages and exemplifiers of how the codes are constructed. This study is also aware of the difficulties and limitations of the linguistic stylistic analysis of a literary text such as properly describing the themes and methods developed in linguistics. Therefore, Halliday (1971:25) cautions for examplethat:

Linguistics is not and will never be the whole of literary analysis, and only the literary analysis not the linguistic analysis can  determine the place of linguistics in literary studies. But if a text is to be described at all, then it should be described properly and this means by the themes and methods developed in linguistics. The subject, which precisely shows how languageworks.

Considering the interrelationship between linguistics and language, and specifically the fact that linguistics is an illustration of the use of language and how language works, one can conclude by agreeing with Leech and Short (1981:74) that:

Every analysis of style is an attempt to find the artistic principles underlying a writer‟s choice of language. All writers and for that matter, all texts, have their individual qualities. Therefore the features which recommend themselves to the attention in one text will not be important in another text by the same or different authors.

This makes it possible for us to study the stylistic choices made by Chimamanda Adichie in her texts Purple Hibiscus (2005) and thing around your neck (2009), where she used the novel to explore the aspects of the challenging realities in the Nigerian society and reflections of important events in Nigeria‟s history and culture, especially that of the„ Biafra literature‟.In these texts, Nigeria‟s culture and history are presented with details which illustrate local variations and socio-cultural factors that inspire creativity. According to Nnolim (2001:290), the Nigerian novel is perceived as “the sum total of literary conventions and narrative habits that have been put together to assume what may now be referred to as indigenous ingredients that wear a peculiar Nigerian face in the corpus of the African Novel.”