TEACHERS’ VARIABLES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ETINAN EDUCATION ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

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TEACHERS’ VARIABLES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ETINAN EDUCATION ZONE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page

Title page

Declaration        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Approval Page    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Dedication –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Acknowledgement      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

Abstract     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       v

Table of contents        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study –       –       –       –       –       –       1
  • Statement of the Problem –       –       –       –       –       3
  • Purpose of the Problem –       –       –       –       –       –       3
  • Significance of the Study –       –       –       –       –       –       4
  • Research Questions –       –       –       –       –       –       5
  • Research Hypothesis –       –       –       –       –       –       5
  • Basic Assumptions of the Study –       –       –       –       6
  • Delimitation of the Study – –       –       –       –       –       6
  • Limitation of the Study –       –       –       –       –       –       7
  • Definition of Terms –       –       –       –       –       –       7

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       9

2.1 Theoretical Framework of the Research    –       –       –       9

2.2 Empirical Study     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       10

2.3 Teachers’ education and students’ academic performance in government    –   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       14

2.4 Teachers’ income level and students’ academic performance in government –  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       19

2.5 Teachers’ experience and students’ academic performance in government  –   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       20

2.6 Teachers’ age and students’ academic performance in government    –       –  –       –       –       –       –       –       22

2.7 Summary of Literature Review –       –       –       –       –       30

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.0 Introduction  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

3.1 Design of the Study       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

3.2 Area of the Study  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       33

3.3 Population of the Study  –       –       –       –       –       –       34

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques   –       –       –       –       34

3.5 Instrumentation    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       35

3.6 Validation of Research Instruments –       –       –       –       35

3.7 Reliability of Research Instruments  –       –       –       –       36

3.8 Administration of Research Instruments   –       –       –       36

3.9 Method of Data Analysis –       –       –       –       –       –       37

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.0     Introduction      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       38

4.1.1 Research Question 1   –       –       –       –       –       –       38

4.1.2 Research Question 2   –       –       –       –       –       –       39

4.1.3 Research Question 3   –       –       –       –       –       –       40

4.1.4 Research Question 4   –       –       –       –       –       –       41

4.2 Hypothesis Testing                –       –       –       –       –       –       42

4.2.1 Hypothesis 1      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       42

4.2.2 Hypothesis 2      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       43

4.2.3 Hypothesis 3      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       44

4.2.4 Hypothesis 4      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       45

4.3 Discussion of Findings   –       –       –       –       –       –       47

4.3.1 Teachers’ educational qualification and students’ academic performance in government.       –       –       –       –       –       47

4.3.2 Teachers’ income level and students’ academic performance in government. –       –       –       –       –       –       –       47

4.3.3 Teachers’ years of experience and students’ academic performance in government.       –       –       –       –       –       47

4.3.4 Teachers’ age and students’ academic performance in government. –       – –       –       –       –       –       48

CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of the Study   –       –       –       –       –       –       50

5.2 Conclusions  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       52

5.3 Recommendations –       –       –       –       –       –       –       52

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research   –       –       –       –       53

References

Appendices

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

No education system can rise above the quality of its teacher. This is the position of national policy on education (FRG 1981). In teaching/learning environment, the teacher is the third party. The teacher mediates between the learners’ characteristics and the force of the environment. The thrust of the mediation is to ensure that permanent change in behaviour takes place. As an authority figure in academic arena, he does not only teach, he guides, transmits, interprets. Councils and is the last chain in the implementation of educational policy.

The roles of teachers to the overall realization of the objective of education cannot be over emphasized. Their influence is fundamental to their students’ progress or lack thereof. To achieve the expected outcome in teaching government, teachers should be aware of and adhere to certain essentials. They also need to take into account crucial factors such as classroom atmosphere, classroom management, tolerance, patience and passionate. These attributes are not inclusive of all major characters that good government studies should have. Teachers must themselves be of a good reputation standard, before they can lead students towards a fuller understanding of their capacities or assist the see more clearly what they may become as persons.

Teachers have different variables, which directly or indirectly influence their performances. For instance, Santrock (1995) sees a teacher’s age, gender and years of teaching experiences as those personal characteristics that can affect the academic performance in government. In addition to these variables, Efanga 2008 captures the essence of teacher’s characteristics by including income levels and marital status of teachers as key elements.

Several factors have generally been identified as predictor of poor academic achievement of students in government in senior secondary schools in Nigeria and Etinan Educational zone of Akwa Ibom State in particular (Akpan, 1994, Nwankwo, 1997 and Trekeme, 2009).

Udoh (2008) reports that a teacher who does not have both the academic and professional qualification would undoubtedly have a negative influence on the teaching and learning of his subjects. It is against this background that this study specifically examines teacher variables that are predictors of government achievement in senior secondary schools in Etinan Educational zone.

 

  • Statement of the Problem

The secondary school teacher is a man of many parts. He is the curriculum implementer, the student advisor, the administrator and the representation of the parents. It has been observed that students still fail in government in senior secondary school certificate examination despite government (as an institution of the state) huge investment in the area of instructional mater rivals (non-human resources). Some studies have indicated variations based on age and gender of teachers as the basic challenges on the teaching learning of government (as academic subject of studies) in the area of the study. The present study therefore sought to identify those crucial teacher variables (educational qualifications, age, teaching experience, and income levels) as they influenced students’ achievement in government (subject) in each education zone.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between teachers variable and academic performance of students in government in senior secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area. The purpose of the study are:

  1. Determine the difference between teachers’ educational qualification and student’s academic performance in government in senior secondary certificate examination.
  2. Determine the difference between teachers’ income level and students’ performance in government in SSCE.
  3. Determine the difference between teachers teaching experience and student academic performance in government in SSCE.
  4. Examine the difference between teachers age and student academic performance in government in SSCE.
    • Significance of Study

These findings of the study will provide adequate information of the relevance of the teachers’ attitude to work, teachers teaching method, teachers’ experience and teachers’ communication skills. This study will be for the benefit of different classes of people including researchers, teachers and head of schools, ministry of education, government, students, educator and the general public.

The educational policy makers, curriculum planners and developers will find the findings of the study useful since it would make them become aware of the effect of teachers’ variables in schools. The ministry of education and Secondary School Education Board (SSEB) would become aware of the fact that qualified government teachers are important in handling the subject for productivity and efficiency. The findings would benefit government teachers in their training programme; they would know where to place more emphasis during their training programme for intending teachers. The findings of the study will help future researchers to solve problems on related issues and to carry out, the same or related studies in other states, so as to establish a universal conclusion.

Finally, the findings of the study would enable teachers to identify the qualities in them that influence students’ academic performance. This would assist in encouraging teachers to have a good attitude to work.

  • Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • To what extent does teachers’ educational qualification influence the performance of students in government?
  • To what extent does teachers’ income level influence the performance of student in government?
  • What is the influence of teachers’ years of experience on student performance in government?
  • How does teachers’ age influence the performance of students in government?
    • Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

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