1.1 Background of the Study
The success and achievement of the objective of an organization depends on the performance and caliber of human resources that make up such organization. This fact influenced the recruitment, and selection practices with special emphasis on Dozzy group of companies.
Since the industrial revolution economies started growing speedily in the developed countries and later on this process of growing industries and markets expanded to the whole world which turned into large completion among big companies operating in both public and private sectors. The world turned into global village which encouraged movement of Knowledge, Skills and Abilities across the cultures in the different countries in the world that caused the researchers focus towards the human resource management field to address different aspects related to the employees behavior particularly recruitment and selection. Most organizations focus more on human assets rather than physical assets. An organization can be readily purchase equipment, manufacturing facilities, and most technologies, but the human talent are much hard to come by. Candidates who are able add value to their clients’ businesses shows the ability of a good recruitment company in searching talents. Human Resource may set strategies and develop policies, standards, systems, and processes that implement these strategies in a whole range of areas such as recruitment and selection.
There are two phases to make new selection of employees needed by the organizations, the first one is to generate a large pool of applicants and then make the best selection out of them. Recruitment is equally important to study because effectiveness of the selection directly depends on the how large and qualitative is the pool of applications. Djabatey (2012) opined that this scenario lends credence to the increasing attention being paid to the people aspect of organizational assets because the development of people, their competencies and the process of the total organization are the pivot of human resource management. Similar to this development is the contention in National University of Ireland (2006) that the continued growth and development of an enterprise depends on its ability to recruit and select high quality personnel at all levels in respective of the cost of such action. The position to be filled must be defined in terms of job description and job specification. Thus, according to Ekwoaba, et al (2015), recruitments and selections have become essential in organizations because individuals need to be attracted on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications. The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees. In addition, the effectiveness of an organization’s selection system can influence bottom-line business outcomes, such as productivity and financial performance. The need for recruitment and selection in any organization depends on the existing vacancies to be filled or new post to be created, human resource department makes some decisions before considering if the company should recruit, decisions like the number of vacancy to be created, the profit the company makes which determines if the company would be able to pay the workers to be recruited, the number of workers needed. According to Gary (2009), the recruitment and selection process starts with employment or personnel planning. It is the process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill and how to fill them. It is therefore very glaring that managements must be trained, and advised in recruitment and selection matters especially interviewing. It is often claimed that selection of workers occurs not just to replace departing employees or add to a workforce but rather aims to put in place workers who can perform at a high level and demonstrate commitment (Ballantyne, 2009).
Bratton and Gold (2012), differentiate the two terms while establishing a clear link between them by stating that recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements. Recruitment and selection forms a core part of the central activities underlying human resource management: namely, the acquisition, development and reward of workers. It frequently forms an important part of the work of human resource managers – or designated specialists within work organization. Using the right selection methods one can ensure that the candidate does not only has the right skills for the job, but also possesses the right personality to fit into the existing organizational culture. Once that “right” person has been employed, the company has to ensure that the right incentives are put in place. However, recruitment and selection is characterized by potential difficulties. Generally speaking, the conducts of recruitment, selection processes are cost involved and such could be advertising cost, testing cost, interviewing, and training cost, placement cost. In view of these, there is much need for any ideal organization to exhibit the concept of seriousness, commitment, merit selection and organizational diplomacy in the conduct of recruitment and selection exercises.
Recruitment according to Stoner et al (2009), is a systematic and organized procedure where potential employees are obtained for selection and placement in the organization through a variety of sources. Sources of candidates like educational establishment or Institutions e.g. universities, polytechnics, colleges of education and Recruitment agencies, such as Author Andrew, Omoloye and Associate and online recruiting, advertising, outsourcing providers. After recruitment, selection process is the next step. The main purpose of selection is to choose individuals who are fit or qualified for the job from those that are available or responded to the advertisement or limitation to apply for the job vacancies, selection procedure involves the screening of candidates according to the progressive series of steps designed to eliminate those who in some ways are unsuitable. It involves submitting information or data on the applicant, aptitude test, interview and reference checks on the applicant and conducting physical or medical examination. Once an individual has been deemed fit to be employed, the person is offered an appointment letter and given the conditions of his/her appointment and responsibilities. The individual’s acceptance of the appointment is a contract to seal and accept the obligation of his/her appointment and perform his/her duties that assigned to him/her for certain remuneration. Orientation is the next process after selection. The candidates chosen are oriented on how things are done in the organization, the culture, philosophy, policy, mission , objectives of the organization , working hours, place of work, performance standards, benefits and facilities, and names of the immediate and other officers. Recruitment can be said to be effective if the strategy or method used by the organization works out for them perfectly well. The effect of recruitment can be measured by how many applicants generated from each of the recruitment sources. If more applicants are generated than there are positions to fill, the firm can be more selective. The problem is that more is not always better; the employer needs qualified, talented and hirable applicant.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Recruitment and selection is a difficult task for organizations, it is difficult for them to search, recruit, and select talented people in today’s tight labor market because of the problem faced such as human errors, favoritisms and bias in their decision and which is also seen among the top management which has become a major problem to the management and also fewer qualified talents available. This shortage leads to absolutely essential for organizations to conduct effective recruitment, selection, and retain quality talents.