THE INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       The teaching and learning of social studies in schools has been faced with a lot of problems. Aguokogbuo (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge, skills, so on to an immature or less experienced person. On the other hand Omebe (2009) defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is a function of previous behaviour usually referred to as practice. Aguokogbuo (2008) stated that teaching involves some complex activities on the part of both the teacher and learner in the classroom. These activities, according to him, must be designed and guided so as to promote learning. According to Okoro (2009) one of the problems militating against the teaching and learning of social studies is non-availability and use of instructional materials. The general purpose of classroom instruction is to help teachers achieve set instructional objectives. According to Mezieobi (2007), effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.

       Sarah (2008) instructional material is defined as audio-visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning and others as curriculum materials It involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of things/objects to ensure effective communication between an educational agent (the instructor) and the learner.

       Onwuka (2007) and Mkpa (2008) see instructional material as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructor’s time and efforts a way of capturing learner’s interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students busy and active and a way of stimulating imagination.

National Teachers Institute defined instructional materials as those materials (audio, visual, and audio visual) which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher communicate more effectively. Instructional materials therefore are teaching aids which aid teaching and make the concept taught more real to the learner which also facilitate teaching and learning. These instructional materials according to Fadeiye (2005), bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Fadeiye added that instructional materials are not an end in themselves but they are means to an end.
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THE INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE.