THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION AND WORK ENVIRONMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN LAGOS STATE. (A STUDY OF SHERATON HOTEL LAGOS AND FOUR POINTS BY SHERATON HOTEL IN LAGOS STATE)
The study examined the influence of motivation and work environment on job Performance in the hospitality industry in Lagos State, a study of Sheraton Hotel Lagos and Four Points by Sheraton Hotel in Lagos State.
It geared towards exploring some predicting variables of motivation and work environment on employee job performance among employee of Sheraton Hotel Lagos and Four Points by Sheraton Hotel in Lagos State. 122 Sheraton Hotel Lagos and Four Points by Sheraton Hotel in Lagos State employees, which comprises of 42 males and 80 females from different department completed the questionnaire.
100% respondents duly participated in the survey. A well- developed questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the respondents.
The data collected were analyzed using the descriptive statistics technique and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test the stated hypotheses at 0.05% significance level.
Result from the study indicated that motivation, incentives, training and development, gender, work environment are key variables of motivation and work environment that significantly influence the employee job performance.
Also, hospitality industries with sound motivation and work environment activities naturally tend to perform better than their peers from small and large hotels.
Findings were discussed and relevant recommendations were made for further studies.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The word “motivation” stems from the Latin word “movere” which means “to move”. Motivation refers to “the reasons underlying behavior” that is characterized by willingness and volition (Guay et al., 2010). Motivation is of psychological background but has its numerous roots in many other social sciences. Motivation involves a constellation of closely related beliefs, perceptions, values, interests, and actions. Motivation within individuals tends to vary across subject areas and this domain specification increases with age. Motivation gives the reasons for people’s actions, desires and needs. Your motivation level is what moves you to participate in an activity and it affects one’s desire to continue the activity.
Motivation can be referred to as the internal and external factors that stimulate the desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role and subject or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation, like intelligence, cannot be directly observed. Instead, it can be inferred by noting a person’s behaviour. The process of motivation consists of three (3) stages; a felt need or drive, a stimulus in which needs have to be aroused and when needs are satisfied (the satisfaction or accomplishment of goals).
A work environment is man’s immediate work surrounding which he manipulates for his work existence. Wrongful manipulation introduces hazards that make the environment unsafe and impede the productivity rate of the worker. Therefore, the work place entails an environment where the worker performs his work while an effective workplace is an environment where results can be achieved as expected by management (Mike, 2010) and since workers today are living in an economy that grows daily, the businesses grow to need its employees than the employers need the business (Smith, 2011). An environment provides conditions for development and growth as well as danger and damage.
For the purpose of this study, the work environment will be examined. The work environment includes everything that constitutes and forms part of employees’ involvement with the work itself such as the relationship with co-workers and supervisors, organizational culture, room for development, etc. Kohun (1992), defines work environment as an entirety which comprises the totality of forces, actions and other influential factors that are currently and, or potentially contending with the employee’s activities and performance. A work environment represents the location where a task is completed. Therefore, a work environment pertains to a person’s place of employment and it involves the physical, geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace. It also includes the human relations which is evident in any work environment and in the workplace in general.
According to Akinyele (2010), about 80% of productivity problems reside in the work environment of organizations. One of the many challenges for a business is to satisfy its employees in order to cope with the ever changing and evolving environment and to achieve success and remain in competition. In order to increase efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job commitment of employees, the business must be ready to satisfy the needs of its employees by providing good work conditions. Conducive work environment ensures the well being of employees which invariably will enable them exert themselves to their roles with all vigour that may translate to higher productivity (Akinyele, 2007). Good work environment is likely to contribute higher employee performance because it is only healthy employees that can achieve desired outcomes, thus enhancing the overall performance (Nora, Greg R. & Michael G., 2002).
As important as the other factors that make up employee job satisfaction are, the work environment is one of the basic elements in keeping an employee fulfilled in the business world. The work environment can involve the social interactions at the workplace including interactions with peers, subordinates, and managers. McGuire and Mclaren (2007) found out that the work environment has a strong impact on employees’ wellbeing and develops interaction, collaboration and innovation which increase job satisfaction. A toxic work environment can turn a responsible and sensible employee to an irrational and irresponsible employee as a strategy for survival (Kyko, 2005).
Employees are entitled to a work environment that is not hostile as a hostile work environment exists when negative factors interfere with an employee’s job performance or creates an intimidating or offensive work environment. Basically, a positive and healthy work environment will be free from any issue that poses a threat to organizational progress. A work environment plays a large role in the ability to provide satisfaction at the workplace. Taylerson (2012) also confirms that effective workplace conditions helps the organization meet the basic needs of employees and by meeting the needs of employees, their morale is boosted, they are psychologically and emotionally stable to perform effectively and efficiently at the workplace thereby increasing the productivity of the organisation.
The word ‘hospitality’ was adopted from French word “hospice” which means “providing for the weary and taking care of those travelling”. The history of the hospitality industry dates back to the colonial period in the late 1700s although early hospitality started in the Greek/Roman culture noted as early as 40BC for social and religious purposes. The Romans were the first pleasure travellers and their businessmen travelled a lot but after the fall of the Roman empire, public hospitality fell to religious orders. In the medieval and renaissance periods, English travellers were on the increase, private homes were turned into inns as there was a very high demand for inns, taverns and coffee houses. The first hotel was “Hotel de Henry IV, 1788”. It was built at a total cost of $17,500 and had 60 beds.
The French Revolution also changed the course of culinary history with improvements in culinary skills and opening up of modern restaurants. The industry has changed a great deal as it has experienced significant development over the years. It has faced World Wars and various social changes. Major growth has also been witnessed in casual dinings, increase in the number of hotel chains and mass tourism. The hospitality industry is one of the modern and lucrative industries making the news in the economies of most nations of the world. It is a rapidly evolving industry in the service sector that covers relevant areas like hotels, tourism and travel agencies, airlines and restaurants which in turn contribute significantly to national income, job creation and national development.
People love to travel around the world because our world has scenic places in abundance but it would be difficult to travel if there were no places to stay or nothing to eat. Indeed, the hospitality industry has been one of the unifying forces making our world a global village. The industry inspires us to travel more and unite with different cultures. The hospitality industry has a broad range of fields within the service sector that revolves around lodging, theme parks, transportation, cruise lines, event planning and a host of other services geared towards comfort and serving others (guests). It is a multitrillion-dollar industry majorly depending on disposable income and the availability of leisure time.
A hotel is a commercial establishment providing accommodation or lodging, meals and other guest services for travellers and tourists and also for relaxation or leisure purposes. People (travellers) always seek hospitable places to kick back and relax. Although most modern hotels feature clients experience and conveniences such as mini-bars, televisions, en-suite showers, they fulfil the same purpose of ancient inns but with improved services. Today’s hoteliers analyse new trends to define better criteria and provide modern standards to improve the quality of life in hotels. With brands like Hyatt, Marriott, Hilton, Starwood, etc, the hospitality industry seems to be doing quite well and has a new era of better growth and innovation. With the future growth in vicinity and greater interest of people in travelling and relaxation, the future of the hospitality industry looks bright. Hospitality in its core is about taking care of and helping others. The true meaning is still retained by a lot of organizations under the industry who carry the inherent message of love and care through the word ‘hospitality’.
One of the beauties of the hospitality industry is that they can employ anyone as it accepts and invites people from all industries, countries, races and genders so long as the individual in question has the varied qualification, expertise or experience needed for the job. The hospitality industry is all about their employees as they are the internal customers. While the world is shifting to machines, the hospitality industry ensures that we keep appreciating nature and humans as well. The workforce is the enabler that provides the real business to the industry and service to remember. There are increased goals and objectives that are met by the industry to become dynamic in today’s cut throat competition. This industry is open to changes as it seeks to serve and deliver according to the changing tastes of individuals in nations and the global travel community despite the challenges. On the surface, the core purpose of the hospitality industry seems straightforward; to provide a place as well as means for easy travel for individuals and tourists but this category of persons are looking for far more, and the industry has had to rise to the occasion.
On another note, the current situation in the hospitality industry is characterized by increased competition and consequently demands effective operational decision-making processes based on sufficient information on performance. As a consequence, the different services that usually play a crucial role in the hotel ought to be well analysed and similarly their performance ought to be measured too. This is so true especially for the front-office services as well as the back-offices which take place without direct interaction with the guests but are of the same importance (Gomez, Yasin and Lisboa, 2008). In any instance, there is an increased need for management tools and performance measurement that aid the assessment of the success of organizational objectives and development of organizational strategies (Cruz, 2007).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Previous studies have done quite a bit to address factors that influence employee performance on basis of Motivation, Work Environment and Training and Development. It can be said that human capital (i.e. employees) determine the success of the hospitality industry. This is because the hospitality industry is considered as a labour-intensive sector that relies heavily on human interaction or activities. Besides, high demand of qualified employees is essential in order to provide higher quality services towards their guests or customers (C. Wah et al., 2013).
The higher the intention of the employees to leave, the poorer the quality of services provided. Hence, the hospitality industry is encouraged to retain as many valuable employees as possible. The hotels especially have to realize that excessive turnover rate is detrimental to them since it is costly for them to recruit, select, hire and supervise new employees than training existing ones (C. Wah et al., 2013). As a consequence, the failure to retain employees has led to low productivity thus minimizing the profit of the organization (Mohamad & Nurzeti, 2010).
It is also recognized that, given the opportunity, many individuals will find reasons to complain in relation to their workplace (Poulston, 2009). There is therefore a strong connection between the perception of employees and recognizable factors of the work environment. Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company and work better.
According to Kiruja and Mukuru (2013), the overall success of an organization in achieving its strategic objectives rely on the performance level of employees and employee performance is a function of ability and motivation. Flippo (2001) adds that, employee performance in organizations results in a more motivated work force that has the drive for higher productivity, quality and quantity of service and commitment. Furthermore, Manzoor (2012) affirms that, in order to achieve affluence, organizations need to devise disparate strategies so that they are able to contend with its competitors and more so to increase the overall organization performance.
There are many other factors that can either enhance or decrease employee job performance in a workplace. These factors can be seen to be responsible for the positive or negative behaviours and attitudes put up by the employees in a workplace. Poisat’s (2006) deduction that, satisfied employees are not necessarily productive employees is in line with Robbins’ (2003) emphasis on the importance of employee job satisfaction as a factor influencing, amongst others, employee work performance. He however suggests that the opposite might be more accurate that productivity will probably lead to satisfaction.
This study therefore intends to examine and look into the relationship between motivation and work environment on the job performance of employees in the Lagos State hospitality industry.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main objective of the study is to determine the influence of motivation and work environment on job performance in the hospitality industry in Lagos State. The other objectives of the study include;
1. To identify the influence of motivation on employee job performance.
2. To ascertain the preferred incentives for motivating employees in the hospitality industry.
3. To examine the influence of training and development on job performance.
4. To examine the influence of the work environment on job performance in the hospitality industry.
5. To examine the influence of the work environment on job performance in the hospitality industry.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study seeks to answer the following research questions;
What is the influence of motivation on employee job performance?
2. What are the preferred incentives for motivating employees in the hospitality industry?
To what extent does training and development influence job performance?
Is there a gender influence on job performance in the hospitality industry in Lagos State?
5. What is the influence of the work environment on job performance in the hospitality industry?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hₒ: There will be no significant on influence of motivation on job performance of employees in the hospitality industry.
Hᵢ: There will be a significant on influence motivation on job performance of employees in the hospitality industry.
Hₒ: Incentives will have no significant on employee job performance.
Hᵢ: Incentives will have significant on employee job performance.
Hₒ: Training and development will have no significant influence on employee job performance.
Hᵢ: Training and development will have significant influence on employee job performance.
Hₒ: Gender will have no significant influence on job performance in the hospitality industry in Lagos State.
Hᵢ: Gender will have significant influence on job performance in the hospitality industry in Lagos State.
Hₒ: Work environment has no significant influence on job performance in the hospitality industry.
Hᵢ: Work environment has significant influence on job performance in the hospitality industry.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is undertaken to examine the relationship between motivation, work environment and employee job performance as well as proffer suggestions aimed at improving job performance or solutions to the existing problems/issues in the hospitality industry. The findings of the study would be useful to human resource managers/personnel in the hospitality industry. This study stands to uncover the relevance of employee performance to the organization’s productivity.
This study will be of utmost importance to the management of Sheraton Lagos Hotel and Four Points by Sheraton Lagos Hotel as it will assist in policy making decisions and implementation in the industry. This study will also serve as a valuable contribution to academia and to the present body of knowledge in the role of organizational commitment and will serve to other researchers as a source of research material for further research purposes.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the motivational and work environment satisfaction among the employees of Sheraton Lagos Hotel and Four Points by Sheraton Hotel both in Lagos State. The study population consists of 300 employees. ie. 150 employees each from the two hotels who work in the various departments and outlets of both hotels. The questionnaires will be self-administered and will be conducted at both hotels.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is limited in time as the length of time involved is short compared to the bulky nature of the research work. Financial constraints will be evident as well. Also, in the administration of questionnaires there may be a bit of non-cooperation from some of the employees in the hotels. Many of the associates (as the employees in these hotels are referred to as) are not just keen on responding to questionnaires. This will pose a great difficulty as essential information needed may not be gotten in totality for the predefined purpose.
1.9 PLAN OF THE STUDY
The research work is carried out to understand better the influence of motivation and work environment on job performance in the hospitality industry using two hotels in Lagos State as the case study. The research project will be broken down into five chapters, each handling a different part of the research work. They breakdown includes;
Chapter One: This is the introductory chapter and will therefore cover information on the background and basics of the study, statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the research questions, the research hypothesis, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, the limitations of the study and the operational definition of few key terms used in the research project.
Chapter Two: This chapter consists mainly of a comprehensive literature review of the research project. There will also be a detailed presentation of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks adopted for the research project.
Chapter Three: This chapter will concentrate on the research methodology which includes the research design, the study population, the sample design, technique and procedure used, the method of data collection as well as the sources of data and the method of data analysis.
Chapter Four: The focus of this chapter is on general description of research data, presentation of data analysis, hypothesis testing and interpretation of results obtained from the analysed data.
Chapter Five: This is the last chapter of the research project and it contains the summary of the findings of the research work, the recommendations and conclusions derived from the research work.
1.10 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Motivation: This refers to the reason that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition.
Work Environment: This is the sum of the interrelationship that exists within the employees and the environment in which the employees work.
Training and Development: An educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees.
Hospitality: The act or service of welcoming, receiving, hosting and entertaining guests.
Employee: An individual who provides labour to a company or another individual. Employees constitute the workforce of any organization.
Job: A task, an economic role or an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment.
Performance: The act of carrying out or executing the undertaking of a duty. It is the degree to which an employee or group of employees have gone in accomplishing set objectives and targets.
Supervision: This is referred to as the guidance that is offered by a person who holds a higher position. It is the support from managers, department heads, directors and supervisors.
Job Satisfaction: It is an employees’ positive emotional responses to a particular job that results from the individual’s positive comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired, deserved or anticipated. It is the employees’ value and senses of work-related achievement.
Productivity: This refers to the ratio of effectiveness (output) to the cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input).