TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT
The travellers’ segment is an emerging market for today’s travel and hospitality industry. Yet, there is negligence in this lucrative market segment. It is common that most countries including Nigerians fail to collect statistics regarding travellers’ holiday patterns. The study of past literature on tourists’ holiday decision paves the way to explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions. Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market, the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total tourism experience for the potential travellers.
Nigeria, one of the leading oil producers in Africa, recorded stable economic growth during the review period, driven by growth in both the oil and agricultural and service sectors. Its gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 6.4% in 2013, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates. In April 2014, the Nigerian government overhauled the GDP-calculation process by updating the base year from 1990 to 2010. Rebasing made Nigeria the largest economy in Africa, surpassing South Africa
Tourism in Nigeria is mainly built around its natural attractions and the numerous festivals celebrated in the country throughout the year. The Durbar festival is celebrated annually in many cities in Nigeria and is a major attraction for domestic tourists. Other festivals include the Argungu Fishing Festival, the Festival of Light, the Calabar Carnival, the Eyo Festival, the Osun Festival and the Yam Festival. The country’s natural attractions and geographical sites also attract a large number of domestic and international tourists.
In the World Economic Forum’s (WEF’s) Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013, Nigeria ranked 136 out of 140 countries in terms of safety and security in 2013. Poverty and unemployment are major factors contributing to the country’s high crime rates. In addition to local, regional and national terrorism, armed robberies and attacks – particularly on tourists as they are perceived to be rich, kidnappings, carjacking, extortion and assaults are widespread.
Safety and security concerns in the country are a deterrent for international tourists, with international tourist arrivals to Nigeria declining at a review-period CAGR of -10.47%. The number of visitors on leisure trips declined at a CAGR of -14.87%, while a slower decline was recorded in the number of business travelers, at a CAGR of -3.28%. However, the share of business travelers in terms of total international arrivals increased from 33.7% in 2009 to 45.9% in 2013. Warnings issued by several countries in the Americas and Europe advising people to avoid travel to Nigeria also contributed to the low volume and slow growth of international visitors.