1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The civil services as we have in Nigeria today has its origin in the administrative machinery created by Britain to consolidate her colonial hold and prosecute her imperial policies in this part of Africa consequently in terms of structural functions and orientation of Nigeria civil service initially was geared into this purpose.
Since Nigeria joined independence early five decades ago, however, the civil services has metamorphosed or had been transformed into a large scale complex organization starting as an administrative machine, the primary concern of which was the maintenance of law and order as well as the extraction of various resources, the civil services became the control motive in the task of nation building, that is the promotion of national unity, and of the economics social and political development of the nation. As the functions and responsibilities of the civil services increases, corresponding changes its size, complexity and structure should be expected to take place in order to justify its existence for it to be able to maintain an acceptable minimum level of effectiveness and efficiency.
Productivity is a measure of production efficiency as a relationship between output and input. These definitions, however different people tend to view productivity. There is no yardstick to measure productivity in different situations. It is rather, general by used relating output to input. In discussing how different people look at productivity, it will be necessary to some example, of some people who would at one time or the other be involved in promoting productivity. For example, an economist may want to make comparison of productivity in standard internationally or between organizations. An account may view productivity in financial terms such as ratio between investments and returns. An engineer will tend to concentrate only in physical assets, while a personnel manager may be concerned with measurement technique to obtain result.
The need for concentrated effort in the promotion of productivity in Nigeria is well documented. In 1976, government formed the productivity, prices and income board in 1978, there was inaugurated a multi-parties national productivity scheme and state productivity committees were inaugurated in all the states in Nigeria. The following conditions necessary for promoting productivity in the civil services are:
The employment system of civil servants should be done in such a way that meritocracy replaces quota. This will create the opportunity of employing the best and this will lead to productivity increase in the civil service. The employed workers need training so as to be well equipped with knowledge required in carrying out their functions adequately and successfully too. Supervisors should carry out their tasks without fear or but should also be self disciplined to that the disciplinary action will be adequately applied and productivity will undoubtedly increase. The various units of the commission shold be encouraged on to be involved in health competition and attract some awards. In this way every unit will be involved in health competitions. For example workers trying as much as they can to avoid absenteeism in a month will be given some awards. In this way every unit will be trying to see that none of its member staff is absent throughout the month. This should be made a continuous exercise in their way thereby promoting productivity in the civil service will be in the increase.
Promotion, actual or notional, is a rise in the status of a civil servant to a position of higher grade which carries greater responsibilities and in most cases, change of duties and title. Higher salary also usually accompanies promotion but the change in the service status which the promotion entails is much more fundamental, in my view.
Of course, there are rules, procedures and principles of determining eligibility for promotion in the civil service. The right qualification, the period prescribed in the scheme of service for an employee to serve on a grade, satisfactory performance of duty as well as good conduct, passing of examinations and interview. The seniority and merit principles are taken into consideration quite significantly with even handed fairness to ensure that resourcefulness and competence are given weight in the promotion exercise. The Federal Civil Service Commission which is vested with the authority of promotion will carefully and critically consider all cognate factors before reaching a decision on individual cases of promotion.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF KADUNA STATE MINISTRY OF FINANCE
Ministry of finance is the custodian of public funds and stores and is therefore essentially a controlling ministry as opposed to other executing agencies of government. The ministry is headed by a Commissioner as the chief Executive officer and deputized by permanent Secretary who is a carrier civil servant and is the Chief Accounting Officer. The ministry has staff strength of 445 including Officers in monthly basis. The Ministry comprises of 3 major department and 7 outstations (sub -treasury). The departments are as follows:
1. Administration and Finance which further sub divided into stores and verification division.
2. Treasuring which further sub divided into Final Accounts/ Debt management and ministry of finance incorporated divisions and sub – treasury.
3. Internal Adult (State).
ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT
The department is headed by Director and is responsible for the general Administration of the Ministry which includes maintenance of staff records, processing of staff promotion, recruitment, training, discipline, welfare etc.
STORES AND VERIFICATION DIVISION
The division is headed by Chief stores officer who is charge with the responsibility of purchasing and distribution of office equipments, stationeries, vehicles, safes and receptables, uniform materials and protective clothing to all government ministries and department and boarding of unserviceable equipment/vehicles.
MINISTRY OF FINANCE INCORPORATED (MOFI) DIVISION
The division is headed by Deputy Director and is responsible for revenue collection management. appraisal of investment opportunity for government management of investment of government companies and ensuring the receipt of divided and other funds due to government.
The department is headed by Accountant General and is charge with responsibility of receipt of government funds, banking and maintenance of bank accounts disbursement of all approved fund release, bank reconciliation, control of treasury document and control of pooled accounting staff of the state.
FINAL ACCOUNT AND DEBT MANAGEMENT DIVISION
The division is headed by Deputy Director and is responsible for collection of accounting data from ministries departments, analysis of Accountant General Annual Reports, Maintenance of external /internal loan records and supervision of the state computer centre.
INTERNAL AUDIT DEPARTMENT (STATE)
The department is headed by Director and is charge with the responsibility of design of internal controls and checks ensure the adherence to the administrative and financial controls, investigation of fraud and other malpractices.
SUB – TREASURIES
There are 7 sub – treasuries located at Kaduna, Zaria, Ikara, Saminaka, Kafanchan and Birnin Gwari. They are charge with the responsibility of collection of revenue and payment of pension
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is no nation without civil service and there must be an efficient and effective commission which will tailor the affairs of its member’s i.e civil service commission. Therefore a nation’s development and productivity is dependent on the civil service commission.
Civil service is like the blood in the human body without blood the body cannot function, with too much blood, the body is anemic and such a person with too much blood is hypertensive. Thus it is necessary for a body to have a certain amount of blood, a nation with two much civil service strength, but with lower efficient ratio will suffer from growth, development and productivity.
Literature exists about how the civil service should be controlled and make efficient and effective adequately enough, yet this literatures has not come out with ways of promoting productivity in order to have an efficient and effective civil service.
The research problems are therefore the questions as to whether the impact of promotion has increased productivity in the civil service if not what are the appropriate measures taken in promoting the civil servants productivity? Is promotion a good measure for rewarding the efficient and hard working civil servants?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to explore relevant ways of adopting promotion in civil service with a view to finding out if appropriate ways and measures are being taken to exercise promotion in the civil service commission in Nigeria and if it has also been applied correctly.
i. To find out if the observed result of promotion in the civil service lead to productivity.
iii. Evaluate these indicators of promotion with a view to determining successes or failures.
iv. Finally the research will make suggestions on how promotion should be done in the civil service in order to increase productivity.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The impact of promotion in the civil service of a nation cannot be over emphasized. In as much as the civil service is the life wire of the economy. Most nation problems cannot be summarized as economic problems because it lacks efficient and effective civil service that will enhanced productivity.
The civil service commissions are weak because there is inadequate and improper mode of promoting civil servants. The primary aims of promotion in the civil service are to increase productivity. This research is therefore relevant so as to identify the policy of government on promotion in the civil service as well as the opinion of the public on the promotional interviews and examinations that has been adopted in the civil service commission. Thus, the study will serve as a reference point to promote further study. Also it is a pre-requisite for the attainment of Higher National Diploma in Public Administration.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are proposed for this research work:
Ho: Promotion has no significant effect on the civil service Productivity
Hi: Promotion has significant effect on the civil service Productivity.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Civil Service Commission of Nigeria is very wide. The researcher aim is to carry out studies on how promotion improves productivity in civil service with Ministry of Finance, Kaduna State as the case study
Due to the time constraints and other factors involved as well as the scope of the research topics, the researcher therefore limits his write up on the impact of promotion on productivity of the civil service.
Limitation of the Study
The reason why the study is being restricted to a particular scope and case study is because of the following:
i. Time constraint: Making an effective research truly requires enough time. As a student combining lectures and other assignment made it impossible to devote time for this research
ii. Source of Data: The source of accurate/reliable data to aid my success in writing of this project is another area of huge obstacle which has also affected the researcher negatively at the course of this research work because, most of the document in which the researcher suppose to get data from have long been neglected, obsolete and mal-handled by the staff and officers in charge of such documents. And even access to the office and document has also become difficult because of the present level of distrust due to the security challenges in Nigeria.
iii. Financial Constraint: This is another major area of difficulties which has really distorted and limited my research to a specific scope or case study. Because, lack of or inadequate finance have made this research to be limited in scope and sampling.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In the course of this study, the following key words were used:
Government: This is the process of administering the public with the societal context.