The major objective of this study is to examine how internal audit can promote Accountability and transparency. The first chapter gave an in-depth of the background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research question, research study, limitation, definition of term in the course of the study, many literary works were on the literature review and conceptual framework in this chapter, the researcher was able to explain the concept of Internal Control based on the explanation given by different authors. The researcher was able to relate Internal audit as a check on Internal Control. Also, the researcher explained the concept of Accountability and Transparency, limitation of Internal System, and lastly review of previous Studies which the researcher gave a lot of Authors opinion. There is no research that can be done without presenting data. Chapter three, which is the research methodology on respondent who are well informed about auditing. The data collected were mostly analyzed by using chi-square method (x2) to arrived at final conclusion. Chapter Four focuses on the data presentation, analysis and interpretation. Based o the data collected and analyzed. It was discovered that the relationship between Internal audit department and other department strongly affect the Effectiveness of Accountability and Transparency in Okehi Local Government. The factors that hindering the effective performance of auditors includes auditor’s independence, qualification and working experience and laid down rules and regulations, while Chapter Five focus on Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents ix
List of Tables xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Study 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Research Question 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Limitation 9
1.9 Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Concept of Internal Control 13
2.3 Internal Audit as a Check on Internal Control 17
2.4 Internal Check 21
2.5 Concept of Accountability and Transparency 23
2.6 Limitation of Internal Control System 25
2.7 Review of Previous Studies 27
2.8 Summary 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 32
3.1 Research Design 33
3.2 Population of the Study 33
3.3 Sampling Method 34
3.4 Sampling Procedures 34
3.5 Research Instrument 35
3.6 Analysis of Data Collected 36
3.7 Statistical Tools and Analytical Procedures 36
3.8 Limitation of Methodology 37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Data Analysis 39
4.3 Analysis of Responds/Items on the Questionnaire 44
4.4 Testing of Research Hypothesis 51
4.5 Discussion of Findings 57
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction 60
5.2 Summary 60
5.3 Conclusion 62
5.4 Recommendation 63
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Age Distribution of Respondents 39
Table 2: Marital Status of Respondents 40
Table 3: Gender Distribution of Respondents 41
Table 4: Respondents Level of Education 42
Table 5: Working Experience of Respondents 43
Table 6: Percentage Score of the Responses 44
Table 7: Percentage Score of the Responses 45
Table 8: Percentage Score of the Responses 46
Table 9: Percentage Score of the Responses 46
Table 10: Percentage Score of the Responses 47
Table 11: Percentage Score of the Responses 48
Table 12: Percentage Score of the Responses 49
Table 13: Percentage Score of the Responses 50
Table 14: Percentage Score of the Responses 51
Table 15: summary of chi-square (x2) result of the impact of internal auditing in promoting transparency in the local government council 52
Table 16: Summary of Chi-square (X2) result of the impact of internal audit in promoting accountability in Okehi Local Government Area of Kogi State 54
Table 17: Summary of Chi-square (x2) result
of the impact of internal auditor’s independence, qualification and working
experience in promoting accountability and transparency in Okehi Local
Government Council of Kogi State 56
1.1 Background to the Study
The growth and increasing complexity of business environment has made it imperative for management to seek for more of control which has resulted to internal and it serves as control measure in both public and private sector. It is now very rare to find an enterprise of any size which does not have internal control system.
Internal control system said to be essentially and appraising activity with an organization that contributes to a good controlled environment through an effective internal audit function.
According to Dandago (2002), internal auditing is the independent review or appraisal within an organization of accounting, financial or other operations as basic for protection and constructive service to the management of such an organization.
Accountability is an obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents or funds.
It is quiet understand that internal audit is the major role play in the public sector and expected to enhance accountability. But there are some sector that is still lack accountability despite the internal audit is put in place by government.
I carry out the research and discover there are some challenges facing by internal auditors that is why internal audit in public sector lack accountability.
The reason of carrying out the research is to correct and maintain proper internal control and adequate internal audit to enhance accountability in public sector.
The challenge that affects internal audit in order not to enhance accountability is inadequate staffing, organizational policy and incompetent staff.
With the challenges listed above, if government can make adjustment and put in place adequate staffing manipulation of organizational policy and employ quality auditors.
If all these can be meaningful and financial statement of every parastata will be fair and free from miss- appropriation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem