THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL AND THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL PEACE AND SECURITY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

In the contemporary epoch, the subject global peace, security and development is an interesting one for social scientists and researchers in strategic studies.  This is because there is near consensus among social scientists and development experts that peace and security are critical ingredients for development.

Toure (2004) has described this new millennium as “a paradoxical epoch that is full of hope for peaceful coexistence between peoples” but is also dangerous with possibilities of explosive conflicts based on the mobilization of different identity and ideological divides. The mobilization of these ingredients of divides between people and amongst societies has led to the escalation of ethnic conflicts, civil wars, religious and other conflicts of various dimensions in political, economic and socio-cultural spheres that are now threatening humanity. Having experienced the agonies and destructions of the two world wars, and other regional and international wars, fifty world leaders gathered in San Francesco U.S.A on 26th June 1945 and approved the charter for the United Nations Organization (UNO). This Charter was later ratified on 24th October 1945, marking the formal take-off of the U.N., as an international organization whose main aim is the maintenance of international peace and security.

The significance of safety and security for UN peace operations is often underestimated or misunderstood.1 While always an issue of interest, it has been narrowly conceived, for example, as minimizing casualties and expanding legal protections. But safety and security has a strategic impact, including on the efficacy of mandate execution, force generation, the evolution of peace operations, and the role of the UN in the maintenance of international peace and security. While many of the relevant safety and security issues have been identified, they have not been understood in a holistic manner and addressed with sufficient priority.

Since its inception, UN peacekeeping has undergone significant evolution, moving from unarmed interpositional ceasefire monitoring forces to integrated multidimensional missions, which now carry out a spectrum of activities and are mandated to use force. Peacekeepers often operate in volatile environments and with a mandate to protect civilians.2 Likewise, alongside peacekeeping operations, special political missions have increasingly complex mandates and are being deployed into ever more dangerous situations.3 Fragile government structures and intractable political disputes have created instability and environments where threats proliferate. The nature of the threats continues to evolve, with targeted and asymmetric hostile acts against UN personnel becoming a more regular feature of many missions.
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THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL AND THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL PEACE AND SECURITY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

THE ROAD TO AFRICA UNION; RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of Study

Africa is a mosaic of peoples, cultures, ecological settings and history. The continent has an area of 11,677,240 square miles (30,244,050 square Kilometers), stretching from the Mediterranean in the north to the meeting point of the Atlantic and Indian oceans in the south (Chazan 1999: 5). It has the highest arable land per capita in the world; its landmass of 2.1 million hectars with 32% of forest and woodland and 6.2% arable land is twice its share of world population (Mosha 1981) Africa has a population of some 730 million (roughly 10 percent of the world’s population) who speak more than eight hundred languages. Seventy percent of the population lives in the rural areas who earn their living either through farming or animal rearing (Chazan 1999: 5). Africa is also rich in minerals and other resources. It has one quarter of the world’s hydroelectric power and only 3% is presently utilized. The continent contains the largest reserves of metallic ores (top producer of cobalt and nickel), non-ferrous base metals (top producer of copper, lead and zinc); precious metals (top producer of gold and diamond) and non-metallic deposits (a leading producer of phosphates) (Mosha 1998).  

 Africa’s international contact in the 16th century and afterwards, was to its disadvantage. European merchants shipped millions of Africans, to work on their plantations in the Americas. In the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade, more than 30 million Africans were transported to America from 1500 to 1890, leaving the continent without young cultivators.

 The trade distorted the already booming economic and cultural civilizations. While Europe and America were prospering through industrialization, Africa failed in an exploitative and unproductive system and relation of trade. The trade also created psychological inferiority on the part of Africans.
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THE ROAD TO AFRICA UNION; RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT

TERRORISM AS A CHALLENGE TO NIGERIA’S SECURITY AN ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM SINCE 2009

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

It is a historical fact that human society has always been shaped by violence in various forms. In traditional societies, violence included raids, tribal wars, slavery and rebellion. These were carried out as individuals and groups sought to improve their power, status and influence over others, or to register their grievances. The insurrection has existed throughout history, but it has decreased in strategic importance. Today, the world has entered another time when rebellion is common and has strategic importance.

The uprising is a strategy used by groups that cannot achieve their political goals with conventional power takeovers. The uprising is characterized by persistent violence, asymmetry, ambiguity, the use of complex terrain (jungles, mountains, urban areas), psychological warfare and political mobilization that protect the insurgents and ultimately affect the balance of power in your favor. Insurgents may try to gain power and replace the existing government (revolutionary uprising), or they may have more limited goals such as separation, independence, or change in a particular policy. They avoid battlefields where they are weakest and focus on the areas where they can operate on equal footing. They try to postpone resolute action, to avoid defeat, to assert themselves, to expand their support and hope that the balance of power will change in their favor over time (Metz, 2004: 2). In general, there are two types of uprisings. The first is what may be called a “national” uprising. The main opponents are the insurgents and a functioning government, which has a certain amount of legitimacy and support among the people. The differences between insurgents and government are based on economic class, ideology, identity (ethnicity, race, religion) or other political factor. The government may have external supporters, but the conflict is clearly between the insurgents and a national government. The national uprisings are triangular because they involve not only the two antagonists, the insurgents and the insurgents, but also a multitude of other actors who can change the relationship between one or the other supporting antagonist. The most important of these other actors is the population of the country, but it can also involve states, organizations and external groups.
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TERRORISM AS A CHALLENGE TO NIGERIA’S SECURITY AN ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM SINCE 2009

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

The quest to understand what religious conflict is starts from the breaking down of the two separately from the basis for a rational clarification. But we must understand that the basis for a religious conflict is one to different ideologies, beliefs, values etc. The social network coordinated by belief system is so strong that as it can make heal, so it can be used to champion a cause of war or struggle. This was what Dawkins tried to explain when he elucidated that. 

Imagine a world with no religion. Imagine no suicide bomber, no 9/11, no 7/7, no crusades, no witch-hunts, no gunpowder plot, no Indian partition, no Israeli/Palestinian wars, no serb/croat/muslim massacres, no persecution of Jews as Christ-killers

In defining religion, Dawkins noted that it is a false, a delusion similar to scotosis or insanity. He said, ‘when one person suffers from a delusion, it is called insanity, when many suffer from a delusion it is called religion’.3 But is religion truly a delusion? If it is, then what do we mean by delusion? ‘It is a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence, especially as a symptom of psychiatric disorder’.4 However, what is important to note here, is that it is the belief in religion that serves as the mechanism engineering the prominent attacks against the other religion. But is belief the only thing embedded in religion? According to Wood,

For a group or philosophy to be protected as a religion under current human right legislation in the United Kingdom, it must be able to demonstrate a combination of (a) belief and/or conviction, (b) practice and/or ethics, and (c) a sense of belonging or community. Belief and practice are separated in this definition, and the element of belonging in interesting because it recognizes the role of social relationship is religion.

But what we call sense of belonging must be as a result of the belief which has been binding on the individual which make him react to another since they both belong to a particular religion. So ‘Belief’ is fundamental and exerts great strength and psychological strength upon the individual in question. Religion as a word is used as something relating to religion. Religion therefore pertains to God and belief, it is derived from;  The term “religio” refers to four latin verbs, relegere, religare, reeligere, relinguere. … Religion could be defined as a reading over of things or phenomena, which pertain to the worship of God (relegere). It could be define as a bond, which binds the visible, and the invisible worlds (religare). It could be taken as a repeated choice of what has been neither lost nor neglected. Being created (first election), man is chosen again to enter into relationship with the creator (reeligere). Religion is also considered as an act of leaving certain things in order to be submitted to others, maybe to a supreme being (relinquere).

                        But all these etymological sayings are not enough to explain the divers religion of the present with the atheistic, Godless philosophical religions and the pantheistic religions, therefore, ‘all these ways are nominal and etymological definitions; they are important but not sufficient”. And even the etymological definitions were words of various individuals and therefore can be criticized as ‘subjective views’ which is in negative to the objective word called religion. In a nutshell, it should be noted that religion is multi-dimensional and therefore, cannot be pinned down into a definition.
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RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE AND ADMINISTRATION OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION” (A CASE OF BAKASSI PENINSULA DISPUTE BETWEEN NIGERIA AND CAMEROON)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

It is now widely recognized that peaceful settlement of dispute within the framework of the united nations charter requires an intergrated and coordinated approach, combining more than one category of strategies of dispute settlement. A welcome development, in this regard, is the increasing resources to the international court of justice parallel to the  methods of dispute resolution, there by emphasizing the role of the court in the UN system for matainance of international peace and security and peaceful settlement of dispute1?. The ICJ is no longer seen sold as the last resort in the resolution of the dispute and states may have resources to the court in appeal and that such resource may complement the work of the security council and the general assemble as well as bilateral negotiations. Indeed, one of the most common instrument used by the international law. Has always considered its fundamental purpose to be the maintenance peace2. Although ethical preoccupations stimulated its development and inform it’s growth, international law has historically been regarded by the international community primary as a means to ensure the establishment and preservation of world peace and security.

Basically, the techniques of conflict management fall into  two categories: Diplomatic procedures and adjudication3 the former involves an attempt to resolves an attempts to resolves differences either by the contending parties themselves or with the aid of other entities by the use of the discussion and the fact finding method. Adjudication procedure involve the determination by disinterested third party of the legal and factual issue involved either by arbitration or by the decision of judicial organs.
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INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE AND ADMINISTRATION OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION” (A CASE OF BAKASSI PENINSULA DISPUTE BETWEEN NIGERIA AND CAMEROON)

ARMED FORCES IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND

The challenges to establish and maintain law, order, peace and security have preoccupied humanity since political communities emerged on the surface of earth. (Stedman, 1991). These have been occasioned by the manifestation of conflict as part of the feature of human relations. (Stedman, 1991).

The need for peace and security has been addressed with the creation of the state as a political community. The state has carried out this task through government and its institutions to keep in check the prosperity of man to express whatever disagreement there is through violence. This is done for the most part, through the restraining power of the law and sometimes through the use of force (Stedman, 1991).

At the level of relations among state where the same need for peace and security which has challenged them internally is found, the approach has been different State have had to employ common mechanism to deal with the problem of conflict. A most enduring framework is that of collective security which is expressed through Peace Supports Operation (PSO), (United Nations, 50 years of United Nations: Notes for Speakers (New York United Nations, 1995).

Dramatic events of the 1990s and the subsequent collapse of the Warsaw Pact heralded profound changes in the international security arena. With the collapse of Soviet Union, many nations’ armed forces have had to shift their institutional emphasis from fighting to maintaining stability and to prevent fighting. With it also comes the need for leaders and soldiers to participate extensively in operation designed to deter wars, resolve conflicts, promote peace and support civil authorities in respond to crisis (Azazi, 2009).    Nigeria as a member of United Nations (UN) has been one of the leading countries that participated in PSOs in the world at large and Africa continent in particular. This is in attainment of one of her foreign policy objectives (United Nations, 1995).
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ARMED FORCES IN PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF TRADITIONAL BONE SETTING IN ENUGU STATE (1975-2015)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

          The use of herbs to cure illness is as old as  man. This is because the existence of man is not without one form of ill health or the other. The evolution of man through pre historic, Neolithic, medieval and colonial and postcolonial times has been attached to one form of medical facility or the other. 

          In Africa, plants and herbs play major roles in addressing health challenges before the advent of the Arabs, Europeans, Christian missionaries and the eventual colonialization of the continent. The case of malaria, which saw to the death of many European visitors to Africa, did little harm to the people of Africa. The coming of quinine as drug for malaria was in actual sense not the first break through in addressing malaria. For example, dogoyaro, paw-paw leaf, lemon grass are used in preparing drugs for malaria before the discovery of quinine.

          Unfortunately, the coming of colonialism altered people’s health practices. The colonialist in their racial superiority created the impression that presented orthodox medicine as superior to African medicinal sciences. During the colonial period, missionaries and colonial authorities worked hand-in-hands in the introduction of medical treatment e.g the construction of lyienu Hospital Ogidi, Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki and RCM Hospital in Afikpo. This development provided a platform for people to seek medical attention in western built hospitals.

          Inspite of the efforts to establish western medical care, no genuine effort was put in place to develop traditional medicine alongside the modern hospital. For example, Elizabeth Isichei captured the feelings of an Igbo native doctor turned Christian as follow:
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ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF TRADITIONAL BONE SETTING IN ENUGU STATE (1975-2015)