In 2002, an international observation proclaimed the Niger Delta as one of the most volatile regions of the world. This observation came on the heels of incessant crisis which the region have been witnessing for decades but which took alarming dimension in loosing years of the 1990’s and the opening years of the new millennium. The region from one decade to another has witnessed unprecedented crisis which revolve round political and most importantly economic factors. Also from one decade to another the nature and dynamics of crisis in the region have changed, the transformations which the crisis took from the one period to another have paved way for its institutionalization in the history of the region and Nigeria in general.1 If the institutionalization in the history of the Niger Delta crisis in the politics and economy of the country is something to discuss, the threat which it has been posing and still posing to domestic and international security of the Nigerian nation state is an aspect which requires critical academic enquiry.
A systematic analysis of the crisis is informed by my intention to identify the changing dynamics of what constitutes national security over the years and how the nation state of Nigeria have been contending with the threat which the Niger Delta crisis is posing to the so called national security. National security questions is a complex of political, legal, social, economic, ideological and military problems that arises in the course of a people struggling for political and economic independence and for the establishment of equal and friendly relations with other people in the bilateral and international affairs.
It is imperative to see how regional based crisis affect the survival of the entire country and how the political entity called Nigeria have been dealing with the changing dynamics of the crisis, the current study therefore understands that the concept of national security is fluid and dynamic. All nations of the world contend and will continue to contend with the challenges arising from the national security. To Nigeria, the complicated nature of the Niger Delta crisis poses serious and enduring threat to the fragile nature of Nigerian democracy and the ever volatile national security.
What this work explores is the complexity involved in the maintenance of national security which arose as a result of the crisis in the Niger Delta. For the purpose of this research, the concept of National Security questions and the contributions of Niger Delta crisis are both international and domestic in nature.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In this work, I attempt to answer the entire questions of the place of crude oil in the escalation and the reduction of the Niger Delta crisis. The significance of the other exigencies or factors in the crisis? The contributions of the Multinational Corporation and different political ferments in the region? The Niger Delta crisis cannot be understood without a critical understanding of the relationship between individual communities on the one hand and with the federal government on the other hand which revolve round the control of resources and retarded infrastructural, economic and social development in the region.
To what extents have the crisis constitutes threats to national security? Put differently, what is the threat which the crisis is posing to the Nigeria’s nascent democracy? How crisis have metamorphosed in the all-embracing concept of national security is also analyzed and the entire attempts made by the federal government to preserve legitimacy in the name of the fundamental national security are not left undiscussed.
Niger Delta crisis at every point in time have threatened the primacy responsibility of the government in terms of security of lives and properties and the preservation of oneness of Nigeria as a single political entity.2 National security transcends the primary role of the government in the protection of lives and properties. It also involves the international security and sovereignty. The gagging question is: is the Niger Delta crisis posing any threat to the international security and sovereignty of the Nigerian nation?
1.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
National security questions and the role played by the Niger Delta crisis is theme which requires adequate scholarly attention.
The objectives of this study therefore are
1. To look at how the Niger Delta crisis affects Nigerian national security.
2. To locate the impact of the Niger Delta crisis within the framework of its implication of national security.
3. To see how regional based crisis affect the survival of the entire country.
4. To identify the changing dynamics and what constitutes nationals security over the years and how the nation state of Nigeria has been contending with the crisis.
5. The place of crude oil in the escalation and in the reduction of the Niger Delta crisis.
6. The significance of the other exigencies or factors in the crisis.
7. The contribution of the Multination Corporation and different political ferments in the regions.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Howdoes the Niger Delta crisis affects Nigerian national security?
2. What is the impact of the Niger Delta crisis within the framework of its implication of national security?
3. How does regional based crisis affect the survival of the entire country?
4. What are the changing dynamics and what constitutes nationals security over the years and how the nation state of Nigeria has been contending with the crisis?
5. What is the place of crude oil in the escalation and in the reduction of the Niger Delta crisis?
6. What is the significance of the other exigencies or factors in the crisis?
1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The justification for this work can best be appreciated from two major perspectives namely, the need to carry out a critical academic analysis of the origin of the Nigeria Delta Crisis and an appraisal of the impact of the Niger Delta Crisis on national security, hence the changing dynamics of the crisis and the high degree of internationalization which its taken in recent years. The internationalization of the Niger Delta Crisis is as old as the history of the crisis itself; however, in recent years the concern of the international community is getting higher and higher.
1.6. SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to the unending Niger delta crises and its impact of Nigerian national security with Eket in AkwaIbom state serving as the case study
Limitation of the study
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS
CRISES: A dangerous situation in someone’s personal or professional life when something could fail
NIGER DELTA:The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Bight of Biafra side of the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria.
It is a very densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a major producer of palm oil. The area was the British Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 until 1893, when it was expanded and became the Niger Coast Protectorate. The delta is a petroleum-rich region, and has been the centre of international controversy over pollution, corruption and human rights violations
CRUDE OIL:Crude oil is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Crude oil can be refined to produce usable products such as gasoline, diesel and various forms of petrochemicals. It is a nonrenewable resource, also known as a fossil fuel, which means that it can’t be replaced naturally at the rate we consume it and is therefore a limited resource.
Akpan, Felix (2004). “Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) and the Politics of infrastructural and Human Resource Development; A programme Evaluation of NDDC as an Intervention Regime”.Ph.D Thesis at the University of Calabar.
Akpan, F. & S. O. Ering (2010) “The Politics of Amnesty and Oil Related Conflict in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria”. European journal of Social Sciences, 17 (2) 146 – 153.
Alechanu John & Fidelis Soriwei (2013).“US Right about Nigeria’s worsening Corruption” – The Punch, 17, (20, 383), 2.
Amange, N. B. (2008). Road to peace in the Niger Delta.
Mojek Press: Port Harcourt Banigo, A. O. (2005). Issues, Affecting the People of Niger Delta; Ekeremo Press: Port-Harcourt
Charles, J. O. (2010). Sociological theory: A historical and analytical approach on man and society, Serenity publishers: Lagos.
Dan-jumbo, K. P. (2006) Oil and Oil Spillage in the Niger Delta. Unpublished M.Sc Dissertation, Port Harcourt, Rivers State University of Science and Technology.
The motivation to undertake this study on “the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure under Ilorin emirate system in the 20th century” is born out of increasing question on the identity and tenacity of the culture of Igbomina people and more especially their political system.
For over a century, the Igbomina people were under different powerful political authorities. While places like Oke – Ode and Babanloma were under the Nupe authority, places like Oro, Igbaja, Omu- Aran, among others, were under Ilorin. The influence and impact of these authorities over the Igbomina speaking people are indeed, lasting. While the dressing of some of the traditional title holder has been seriously influenced, religion and custom has not been battered.
The totality of this situation has naturally been generating questions that this research study tend to provide answers to.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to critically examine how Igbomina indigenous political system survived till date despite that the polity undergone series of incursions at different times in history.
Equally important is the era of Ilorin emirate hegemony over the Igbomina people. The influence of Ilorin emirate has also been given serious treatment in this essay. It should be noted however, that within the establishment of imperial presence through the planting of fiefs and appointment of agents called “AJELE” to oversee various Igbomina community by Ilorin emirate, the impact of it was felt in the whole of Igbominaland. In particular, the Igbomina groups that are in Kwara state. The role of British colonialists in sustaining the authority of Ilorin emirate over Igbomina is also worthy of appraisal.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is to discuss the integration of Ilorin culture into Igbominaland. Especially the stock in Kwara state. The specific focus would be on how the Igbomina indigenous culture have survived under different subjugating authorities.
The study covers from between 1900 -1999. This would be largely because the Ilorin emirate imperialism on Igbomina reached it apogee and decline in the 20th century. This study will also touch on various aspects of history on the incursion in Igbomina land. The relationship between Igbomina people and Ilorin before the emergency of emirate system in the mid 19th century. The situation would be treated along the administrative structure of Igbomina indigenous political institutions and the structural changes recorded after the era of established authorities over the Igbomina peoples.
1.4 METHODOLOGY AND PROBLEM
Different methods were adopted in collecting data for this essay. Basically, an historian must start by critically evaluating the existing or related literatures on the area. This effect did not only enhance the understanding of the researcher but it also open up his mind on the topic of study. The library study is followed by visit to the Archives and be concluded with the collection of oral data. This, complement confirm or correct the data obtained from the other sources of history. By this, both primary and secondary sources were employed to address the research.
Naturally, no research effort is undertaken without its own problems. To obtain relevant or literatures that were directly related with the chosen topic, actually demanded a lot of time to be at the library. Since the work falls into the category of historical efforts that can be said to be new, obtaining materials were generally difficult.
The problem encountered during the visit to the Archives at Kaduna is another worthy aspect of my problems. Even though the journey from Ilorin to Kaduna gave no problem, accommodation and operation at the National Archives Kaduna is another aspect where I had to endure.
Despite some of these problems, collection of data for the research study was indeed, stimulating and challenging.
1.5. LITERATURE REVIEW
It should be noted that, much has been done on the historical reconstruction of Igbominaland in general, but attempt have not been made on the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure under Ilorin emirate in the 20th century. Therefore, relevant materials have to be scouted for. Some of the literatures examined are as follow.
Samuel Johnson, in his book, The History of Yoruba, gives a general historical account of Yorubas. The book traces the origin of the Yorubas and how Alaafin Ojigi took interest on Igbomina people to have extended Oyo empire authority to the area. The extension of Oyo Empire’s authority, where Laderin, the progenitor of Aare Afonja served as the first Ajele of Old Oyo Empire in Ilorin.
Akintoye, in his book, Revolution and Power politics in Yorubaland, 1840 -1993, did a thorough job on the origin of Igbomina as a group that settled in Kwara state. He also goes on to discuss at length the impact of Ibadan warriors on Igbomina.
Suffice to say, while Akintoye claimed that Oke – Ode and Ora were founded by the Oyo immigrants, available sources have shown that the settlements were by Ife immigrants.
Fatai Afolabi’s Igbomina Land in the Context of Yoruba History, is a literature that gives details account on migrational history of Igbomina origin, people and also how Igbomina people are found in Kwara and Osun states of present day political structure in Nigeria. The literature also analysis how the Igbomina people agitated for regrouping during the colonial era.
Even though the literature dealt more on Igbomina history, never the less the vacuum of the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure was not filled.
Sources of Yoruba History by S.O. Biobaku, analysis different Yoruba indigenous political entity as well as structures without ruling out the social cultural settings of the Yoruba kingdoms and chiefdoms. It also contributed in no small measures to the explanation of the relationship between different Yoruba kingdoms, especially during the Yoruba civil war.
It is worthy of note that, the literature dealt mostly on Yoruba civil war of 16years. The literature did not extend to discuss the history of Igbomina people.
R.S. Smith in his book, Kingdoms of the Yoruba, a good account of Igbomina and other Yoruba kingdoms although in a comparative form. It did not cover the aspect on the survival of the Igbomina people.
Lagos is a very popular city that almost everybody hears about. The former capital city of Nigeria, and presently the commercial capital of Nigeria, is popularly called the “Centre of Excellence.” The city, called Lagos is in Lagos State, South West Nigeria. Ikeja is the state capital. Lagos city is divided or separated by a Lagoon. Thus, it is in to two parts: the Lagos Island and the Lagos Mainland. The indigenes of Lagos are mostly domiciled in Lagos Island, known also as, Isale Eko. It is these indigenes, who celebrate the Eyo festival, a cultural and traditional masquerade display, which emerges from the Iga (palace) of the Oba or any of his cabinet members.
The Eyo festival is organized under the auspices of the Yoruba tradition, as well as social organizations or clubs. It is an outlet used to showcase the culture of the Isale Eko people, since it can be organized for special occasions apart from the death of prominent chiefs, elders, or installation of a new Oba. It can be used to entertain at special state functions or occasions.
Each Eyo comes out of an Iga (palace) of a ruling family in the morning and heads for the shrine (Agodo). It is robed from head to toe in white flowing cloth. The white flowing costume consists of an ‘agbada’ (the top robe), and the ‘aropale’ (the bottom wrap around). No part of the person carrying the Eyo is expected to be seen. The Eyo also wears an ‘Akete’ a hat that bears the colours and shield of the Iga from which he comes. An Eyo may tie ribbons in his Iga’s colours to the Opambata (palm branch) that he carries. An Iga’s Eyo may have up to 50 to 100 or more members. Each person carrying a robe as Eyo must pay a fee for the privilege. This fee is paid to the Iga – ruling house, whose colours and Akete the Eyo wears.
The aim of this study is to access ceramic objects with a view of ameliorating the shortcomings experienced during their production thus improving productivity. The objectives are:
• to analyze the mode of production of these ceramic objects.
• to identify the concept used and;to identify the shortcomings for future consideration.
The media of mass communication have a responsibility in any society where they operate. Neher and Sandain (2007: p.211) assert that people turn to the news media for the accurate reporting of facts so that they can decide what is right and what ought to be done. However, the social responsibility function of the mass media is conflicting with the desire to make money (Udomisor & Akutus, 2013, p.29).
The social responsibility theory holds that for the press to function as a free enterprise; it must be responsible to a society in which it operates and the media are able to raise issues of public importance and interest (Asemah 2011, p.146). The Nigerian media today often times do not perform this social duties and important topic of discourse that the media would have brought as agenda are being compromised for money. O’Neill (1999 in Azeez, 2009) paints a vivid picture of the rising cases of commercialization thus;
In today’s growing capitalist world, economic imperative and profit making underline every activity and all services; even religious undertaking is not left out in the commoditization of every single bit of our modern life. Invariably, the noble profession which ought to serve the primary interest of the public as a watchdog of the government is not spared from the frenzy world of business world and demands of our time. This has brought about terrible implications on the quality of information and public enlightenment we are served by the news organizations…
The assertion above provides an insight on the commonness of commercialization in contemporary society and how it has spilled over to the media, thus leading to what is called news commercialization. Asemah (2011, p.33) in his opinion said that “there is an increasing
commercialization of the media in Nigeria, the situation that has brought the integrity of the mass media enterprise to question.” The rate of commercialization in the media is now high at the expense of the objectivity and other ethical values of the media. Johnson (2001, p.2) asserts that balancing the cost of high quality journalism against corporate profit is one of the significant changes in journalism practice today.
In the bid to raise money for their daily operation, the media brought about commercial break. Mick (2004, p.15) opines that commercial break is a built-in form of interruption within or between different programmes on the commercial television channels. Most people turn on the television in order to watch the programmes, and not the advertising. When watching alone, (i.e., viewing) the commercial break or a particular advertisement can be seen as a motivated act; people chose for a reason to watch or not to watch (Scott 1994, p.15).
According to this proposition, the viewer is not an unwitting recipient of television advertising, instead, the potential audiences for advertising are governed by different motivations which can lead to different outcomes in the media use. This explanation fits into the tenets of uses and gratification hypothesis. According to the uses and gratifications approach, individuals select media to accomplish some end (Andersen &Meyer 1988, p.15). What this means, is that any interruption known as television commercial may lead to a reaction from the audience. Pechu, (2014, p.6) provides more insight into issue of commercial interruption thus:
While viewers are watching programmes, it is a common practice that television houses often slot in commercials which break the continuity of these programmes to the irritation of viewers. The advertisers often want their commercials to be aired at prime time, while these viewers want their favourite programmes to be uninterrupted by commercials. This creates conflicts between the interest of advertisers and interest of viewers. Television houses do not seem to see anything unusual or abnormal per se about this situation. The submission above provides an understanding of the dilemma media practitioners’ face. Television is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for television programming. The term television is often defined in terms of a fixed time period-from 7pm to 10pm or 8pm to 11pm. Television is the day part (a block of a day’s programming schedule) with the most viewers and is generally where television networks and local stations reap much of their advertising revenues (Akpan 2006, p. 46). During television , ratings for television programme are high and there is also an attraction of the time slot for advertisers.
Mass media audience is often described as the final destination of the mass media messages (the receiver) in a sender –message – receiver system (Nightingale, 1984). The media audience according to Asemah (2011, p.8) is a large, diversified, highly dispersed, anonymous, heterogeneous and faceless group which can either be classified with their demographic or psychographic variables. The audience is very central in the communication process.
The Conference Board of Canada (2000,p.25) observes that understanding what your audience needs and expects, and adapting your messages accordingly, greatly enhances your chances of communicating successfully and that the communication process is the most complex of human activities, and the audience is central to that process. The relevance of the assertion of the Conference Board of Canada to this study is that, it has provided a reason on why the issue of audience attitude to television commercial should be of interest to researchers.
Attitude is a psychological disposition towards an issue which either favours or disfavours the issue. Pechu (2014, p.16) holds that attitude is a formidable factor in any human communication that define a psychological predisposition that allows a person to behave in a certain way towards objects, people or actions. Audience attitude therefore is the disposition of mass media audience. This study thus investigates audience attitude towards television commercial in south east Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems facing broadcasting today is how to balance social responsibility with income generation. Relevant and extant documents such as the National Broadcasting Code
(2010) and the Nigerian Union of Journalists Code of Ethics (2013) have specified that broadcasting should be more of a public service enterprise than a profit making venture. The perceived lack of balance between the two parallel lines(social responsibility and profit making) has attracted criticisms against the media as many scholars(Asemah 2011,p,34,Okunna 2005, p.88,Sewant 2000, p.12,) have referred to them( the media) as profit oriented. Thus, broadcast stations in a bid to generate finance for their daily operations source and air different commercials, some of which are aired during television s. Television programme such as during local news, network news, network programmes and other popular local programmes are viable avenues through which broadcast stations target and reach a large set of audience. It is during such hours that even the broadcast media record high profit margins which aid in the day to day running of the stations, but beyond the profit derived from these commercials is the perceived uncertainty about the audience attitude towards such commercials. Hence, this study which seeks to assess the attitude of the audience towards television programme.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to assess the older people attitude towards television programme in South East Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. To find out the level of exposure of the older people to television programme.
2. To examine viewers extent of recall of commercials in television programme.
3. To examine older people perception of commercial messages during television programmes.
4. To find out viewers disposition to commercial messages during television programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks answers to the following questions
1. What is the level of exposure of the older people to television programme?
2. What is the extent of viewers’ recall of commercials in television programmes?
3. What is the older people perception of commercial messages during television programmes?
4. What is viewers’ disposition to commercial messages during television programmes?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is significant because of its importance to the field of media and advertising. First, the findings of this study will be beneficial to media houses as it will help them know how the older people members perceive television programme.
The National Broadcasting Commission will find the result of this study useful as it will give them an insight on how to properly implement the provisions of the NBC code on commercial placement.
Also, other researchers can also find the result of this study relevant both as a reference material and as a motivation for subsequent studies.
In the area of theoretical relevance, the result of this study will contribute to theories of advertising consumption.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The geographical scope of this study is Abraka in Delta State, Nigeria. However, the study will be limited to three selected areas in the south east which are, Urhuagbesa, Oria, and Umeghe. In the area of content, the study will be limited to the level of exposure of the older people to television programme, viewers’ extent of recall of commercials in television programme, older people perception of commercial messages during television programmes, and the viewers’ disposition to commercial messages during television programmes.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Assessment: The act of appraising the older people reactions to television programme.
Attitude: Refers to television viewer’s reactions, feelings, thinking and behaviors when they see commercials or advertisements interrupting any television programme they are watching.
Older people: This includes elder or aged men and women.
Commercial: It refers to advertisements inserted in television programmes.
Television or Prime Time: This is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening (usually a fixed time period) for television programming.
Among the core fundamental human rights allotted to every Nigerian citizen is the fundamental right of freedom of religion. Also, Nigerians, like many of their counterparts across the world, have the rights to peaceful religious assembly and association , without being disgraced, discriminated against or trampled upon provided it is done without any sole purpose of breakdown of law and order . Religion constitutes the core of every human being, it is “a personal conviction/awareness of the existence of a supreme being or of supernatural powers or influences controlling one’s own, humanity’s, or all nature’s destiny.” While Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th century conceived religion as the “feeling of absolute dependence on a supernatural being” indirectly reiterating the truth of man’s nature, Jonathan Haidt, a known self-proclaimed atheist in an interaction with CNN, had the following to say about religion, hence its importance: Whether or not you believe in God, religions accomplish something miraculous. They turn large number of people who are not kin into a group that is able to work together, trust each other, and help each other. They are living embodiments of e pluribus Unum (from many, one). No other species on the planet has ever accomplished that. Bees and ants are great at it, but they can only achieve that because they are all sisters. On his part, the Greek philosopher, Aristotle, on the nature of man and the need to interact with other members of natural species described man as a social animal. Centuries later, the German philosopher, Carl Marx, submitted in 1844 that “religion is the opium of the people.” The reality of today’s life is that there is no escape from religion and there is no doubt about its indispensability. It is inevitable that One must pass through it at one stage or another in life: at birth, at marriage and at death. Thus, in a country like Nigeria whose Muslim population is estimated to be about 50.1% of her total population, it is only natural to find unprecedented number of Islamic organizations in the country. The relevance of history lies in its cognitive value which made Fafunwa to posit that memory is to an individual what history is to nations. Islamic organizations have become firmly rooted in The Nigerian society especially in the northern and western part of the country so much that the history of Islam in Nigeria cannot be told without them. Reasons would vary about why individuals “belong” to particular religious groups rather than others, the core issue is that all Islamic organisations were formed, helping the deprived, gaining religious knowledge and insight and thus making believers become better Muslims with a view to propagating Islam in other to impact on the life of the people. From the simple individual Da’wah efforts and mosque affiliations of the pre-amalgamation years to the modern and organised “Alasalatu groups ” and charismatic Muslim organisations especially in the Southwest zone of Nigeria, Islamic organisations have fully evolved overtime. Many of them are thriving though almost all of them may be facing the same direction of practice.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The misconception of Islam by people of other religion and more especially Muslims of different sects has become a cause for concern as there are a lot of misconceptions as regards the impact of Islam on Muslims generally. Islam has grossly been misinterpreted to mean a religion of violence and has had little or no influence on Muslims.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the impact of Islam on the people of offa in Kwara state. Other specific objectives of the study are to ;
1. To examine the history of Islam in Nigeria.
2. To determine the typology of Islamic organizations in offa
3. To examine the management of Islamic affairs in Nigeria.
4. To examine the contributions of Islamic organizations to national development.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the impact of Islam on the people of offa in Kwara state?
2. What are the typologies of Islamic organizations in Nigeria?
3. How are Islamic affairs managed in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no impact of Islam on the people of offa
H1: There is an impact of Islam on the people of offa
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense importance to the Muslim community in Nigeria as it would reveal the impact of Islam on the people. The study would also benefit students, scholars and researchers who are developing a further study on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION ON THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the impact of Islam on the people of offa people in Kwara state.
The UN Security Council authorizes peace operations by an affirmative vote of nine of the fifteen members without a veto from the five permanent members: the United States, China, France, Russia, the UK. The Security Council has authorized more than fifty peace operations in the years since the Cold War.
The UN deploys peacekeeping forces to prevent or contain fighting; stabilize post-conflict zones; help implement peace accords; and assist democratic transitions. To achieve those goals, the UN outlines the following peace-building activities:
Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of ex-combatants;
Landmine removal and associated activities;
Rule-of-law related activities;
Human rights protection and promotion;
Support for the restoration of state authority; and
Promotion of social and economic recovery and development.
The UN generally follows three principles for deploying peacekeepers:
Main parties to the conflict must consent;
Peacekeepers should remain impartial but not neutral; and
Peacekeepers cannot use force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate.
However, UN peacekeepers are increasingly deployed to war zones when not all the main parties have consented, such as in Mali and eastern DRC. There is also mounting international pressure for peacekeepers to play a more robust role in protecting civilians. Despite the principle of impartiality, UN peacekeepers have been tasked with offensive operations against designated enemy combatants, as in Mali and the DRC. “Contemporary mandates have often blurred the lines separating peacekeeping, stabilization, counterinsurgency, counter terrorism, atrocity prevention, and state-building,” George Washington University’s Paul D. Williams writes in a new CFR report.
Determining the effectiveness of UN mission demands investigating the structure and how are peace operations are staffed and funded?Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan send the most troops to UN peacekeeping missions, while the United States, Japan, and France are the top funders. The top troop contributors to AMISOM are Uganda, Burundi, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and funding comes largely from the UN and the European Union. They disconnect between those nations that send troops and those that fund missions is often a source of conflict. Wealthy nations spend the most on peacekeeping, yet they send relatively few troops; meanwhile, countries that either sends troops or whose citizens are directly affected by peacekeeping missions often have less say in how they are designed and mandated.A 2014 internal review of peacekeeping practices related to civilian protection exposed some of these tensions. Researchers found that peacekeepers failed to protect civilians on several occasions. Countries that fund the annual UN peacekeeping budget of nearly $8 billion were angered by the findings, while troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) demanded raises to the reimbursement rates their soldiers receive for serving in UN missions, rates which had not increased in more than a decade. (The UN reimburses countries that contribute troops a little more than $1,000 per soldier per month, and AMISOM troops now earnroughly the same allowances as UN peacekeepers.)Both India and Brazil have cited their countries’ personnel contributions to UN peacekeeping in their bids to become permanent members of the Security Council, and several African governments have complained about having little say in the design and mandating of UN operations on the continent. “They would like to escape the tutelage of the UN in future crises,” says says Richard Gowan, an expert on multilateral security institutions at the European Council on Foreign Relations. Leaders in Africa and within the UN have called for African forces to play a larger role in securing peace and stability on the continent, but budget constraints persist. While the UN has a regular peacekeeping budget, the AU must continually seek out donors, such as the UN, the EU, and the United States, to fund its missions. Only 2.3 percent of the AU’s budget comes from AU member states.“Countries with more developed military capabilities countries from the OECD need to come back into peacekeeping in a way they haven’t been in recent years” Bruce Jones, Brookings Institution “When the AU deploys a mission, it always needs to find external assistance,” says GWU’s Williams. As a result, the AU cannot quickly deploy or sustain troops in the field. “The lack of indigenous sources of finance also undermines the AU’s credibility as a leading player in peace and security issues on the continent and reduces its ability to exercise ownership of particular initiatives,” he says. Peace operations in Africa are increasingly collaborations between the UN and AU. For example, in Somalia, AMISOM member states provide troops while the UN provides funding, training, logistics, and planning support. UNAMID, a UN-AU hybrid mission in Darfur, absorbed and expanded a mission initially led solely by the AU. The research intends to investigate UN Peacekeeping in Africa; its effectiveness and problems
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem confronting this research is to appraise Un Peacekeeping in Africa; its effectiveness and problem. The research intends to investigate the nature, operations of UN Peacekeeping in Africa
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
1 What is the nature of UN PEACEKEEPING IN AFRICA?
2 What is the problem encountered?
3 What is the effectiveness of the mission?
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1 To appraise UN Peacekeeping in Africa
2 To determine the effectiveness of the mission
3 To determine the problem encountered
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. The study shall evaluate the nature and progress of UN Peacekeeping in Africa
2. It shall elucidate the challenges and determine its objectives
3. The study shall be a veritable source of information on UN Peacekeeping in Africa
1.6 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
1 H0 UN Peacekeeping in Africa not significant
H1 UN Peacekeeping in Africa is significant
2 H0 The problems encountered in UN Peacekeeping in Africa is low
H1 The problems encountered in UN Peacekeeping in Africa is high
3 H0 The effectiveness of UN Peacekeeping in Africa is not effective
H1 The effectiveness of UN Peacekeeping in Africa is effective.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study shall focus on the appraisal of UN Peacekeeping in Africa. It shall determine the problems and effectiveness of the mission.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The UN Security Council authorizes peace operations by an affirmative vote of nine of the fifteen members without a veto from the five permanent members: the United States, China, France, Russia, the UK. The Security Council has authorized more than fifty peace operations in the years since the Cold War.
Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of ex-combatants;
Landmine removal and associated activities;
Rule-of-law related activities;
Human rights protection and promotion;
Support for the restoration of state authority; and
Promotion of social and economic recovery and development.
Main parties to the conflict must consent;
Peacekeepers should remain impartial but not neutral; and
Peacekeepers cannot use force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate.
This work is a critique of the idea of historicism in Karl Popper. Historicism is the belief that historical processes are governed by laws immune to human choices. Historicists accept that the growth and development of every human society follow certain laws similar to the laws of nature and the understanding of these laws makes future predictions possible. The problem of Historicism lies in the fact that no historical law can successful predict future outcome of events. Criticizing historicism, Popper held that history is a single event, thus, knowledge of the past does not necessarily help one to know the future because there can be no theoretical history of human development in view of the fact that the course of human history is influence by human knowledge. In the light of the above, this work examines Popper criticism of historicism and argues that historicism is a poor method and as such that cannot yield any fruitful result.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem – – – – 4
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – 5
1.5 Justification of the Study – – – – – 5
1.6 Method of the Study – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.8 Organization of the Study – – – – – 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE – 7
CHAPTER THREE: POPPER’S CRITIQUE OF HISTORICISM
3.1 Biographical Sketch of Karl Popper – – – 18 3.2 Historicism – – – – – – – 19
3.3 Karl Popper’s idea of Historicism – – – – 21
3.4 The Anti-Naturalist Doctrine – – – – – 24
3.5 The Pro-Naturalist Doctrines – – – – – 27
3.6 Popper’s Critique of Historicism- – – – 29
CHAPTER FOUR: EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Evaluation – – – – – – – 34
4.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 40
Works Cited – – – – – – – 42
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the past few years, the word ‘historicism’ appears to have definitely been established in the vocabulary of history and philosophy. Since its meaning has varied greatly and has been obscured, an attempt at some clarification seems in order. Admittedly, the task to define it is a difficult one because the word itself has had no univocal definition. According to the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, historicism is “the belief that history develops inexorably and necessarily according to certain principle or rules towards a determinate end. Thus, every person desires to know and understand his past. The ability to be able to understand the past in the present may give one the chance to predict the future. This is the claim of the historicist. According to Arnaldo Momigliano, what we call historicism is a “situation arising from the process of selection, explanation and evaluation. It is the recognition that each of us sees past events from a point of view determined at least conditioned by our own individual changing situation in history” (64) Historicism stresses the importance of developing specific method and theories appropriate to each unique historical context. This view has been widely used in diverse discipline to designate and approach from historical perspective. This belief recognizes the historical character of all human existence but views history not as an integrated system but as a scene in a diversity of human will expressed in themselves and also that all historical knowledge is relative to the stand point of a historian. For Lawhead “historicism claims that every human is affected by the process of history such that any truth claim only has validity in terms of its place and role in historical development.” (354). Historicism as a method has existed right from the ancient period to modern times. It is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to historical periods. Historicist idea can be found in the works of philosophers such as Plato, Hegel, Karl Marx, Auguste Comte e.t.c Dwight E. Lee and Robert N. Beck also sees historicism in the sense that “the history of anything is a sufficient explanation of it. The value of anything is entirely comprehended in the discovery of its origin” (568). The Austrian-English philosopher Karl came to condemned these historicist view along with determinism and holism.
Prior to Popper, there was a great outburst in the investigation of physical nature that took place in the seventeenth century, at the beginning came great scientists such as Copernicus who wrote on astronomy, Vesalius who wrote on anatomy, Newton who wrote his famous book titled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica e.t.c This period was known as the period of scientific revolution and it took place across Europe. As a result of the successes recorded by science. Philosophers started thinking about applying the method of science to human situations. One of the most famous philosopher, Auguste Comte in his work, Positivist Philosophy, he explained that society has its own sets of laws under which it operats similar to that of the physical world. Thus, just as some basic experiment in the natural science can have the same result if such experiment is being carried out under the same circumstance as the original experiment, so Comte argues that a study of past event in the society will guarantee the same result in the future. Historicism claims that history plays an important an important role in the study of the society. It must be carefully studied with respect to historical laws and scientific method. Historicism stresses the importance of developing specific method and theories appropriate to each unique historical context. This view has been widely used in diverse discipline to designate and approach from historical perspective. This belief recognizes the historical character of all human existence but views history not as an integrated system but as a scene in a diversity of human will expressed in themselves and also that all historical knowledge is relative to the stand point of a historian. In his study of the society, G.W.F Hegel saw all human societies and all human activities such as science, arts or philosophy as being defined by their history and that essence can be sought only through understanding them with the seemingly reliance on historical event or historicism.
As a result of the seeming reliance on scientific method as the major tool to be able understand the law of history which the historicist believed to exist alongside the physical laws which would accurately make man able to understand as well as accurately predict future happening, Popper wrote his major work The Poverty of Historicism to debunk all the ideas of historical prophecy. Therefore, the main focuses of this work is on Popper’s criticism of historicism
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The central problem of this research is that Karl Popper in his critique of historicism never saw the positive aspect of historicism. His argument was basically biased; he tried to dodge most of the merit of historicism there by proposing an incomplete critique of historicism. The question that will arise will be if historicism has no usefulness why then does people still make mention of it? This work will examine Popper critique of historicism to see if historicism has had any positivity in its research.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine Poppers critique of historicism. Other objective include
i. To show what lead to Popper critique of historicism
ii. To espouse the historicist doctrine
iii. To show the loopholes in Poppers critique
1.4 Significance of the Study
Many scholars have criticized different aspect of philosophy but only a few has venture into making a detail criticism of historicism. Popper is among the earliest philosopher to engage in such criticism; his work seems to be the foundation on which other philosophers lay their claim against historicism. This work therefore becomes significant because it espouses the claims laid by Popper against historicism; it also goes further to show the flaws in Poppers critique.
1.5 Justification of the Study
Historicism is arguable one aspect of philosophical discussions that has not really being giving the much needed attention. This work is however justified on the ground that it espouses the idea of historicism as well as highlighting Popper critique of it.
1.6 Method of the Study
The method of this research work is that of textual analysis as it consulted and made use of some relevant materials and literatures in the area of philosophy and other relevant fields. Other materials include journal, article, and encyclopedia as well as internet sources. This work also carried out some philosophical method of critical analysis, conceptual clarifications as well as speculations. In this regards, it help the researcher to critically examine Poppers critique of historicism.
1.7 Scope of the study
The scope of this work is limited to Karl Poppers critique of historicism and as such it focuses on Poppers contribution to knowledge.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research is organized into four chapters. Chapter one is an outline of the background of the study, statement of the research problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, clarification of key terms, scope of the study and the organization of study. Chapter two is a review of some works that are related to this study. Then chapter three is an outline of Poppers critique of historicism. Chapter four shall contain the evaluation and conclusion.
This research however was proved to not only discuss the agricultural patterns of the area but to also focus on the elution of ginger as well as the various patterns that have been employed its cultivation. Existing studies have tended either to ignore or treat this aspect mildly, while a great deal is known about the socio – political and religious history of this area, scholarly work on the production aspect especially on ginger as a crash crop if done is relatively scanty and uncoordinated. This singular aspect is a very important field in human endeavour. It is my honest belief that the peasant producers have contributed immensely towards the upliftments of the economy of the zone before and during the colonial era.
This research has also tried to visualize the hardships, the peasantry of this area faced in different times of the period studies. This clearly shows rural inequality among the producers and oral information gathered has been use greatly to reconstruct these findings.
This research work is divided into five chapters. It highlighted on beach tourism in Nigeria, a case study of Elegushi Beach Resort, Ikate Kingdom in Lagos State as well as other parts of the world. Chapter one discusses about beach/coastal tourism generally all over the world with particular reference to Nigeria. The challenges being faced for sustainable tourism, how beach tourism has a low recognition in Nigeria, the objectives of this research, the methods of data collection and analysis, the scope of study as well as its significance and relevance to Lagos State in particular, the nation as a whole and also to all lovers of tourism and beaches. The limitation of study was experienced and discussed in the course of study and the explanations of terms relating to beach tourism. Chapter two laid emphasis on theories used for this research work and its relevance to the work. Chapter three centers on the background information of Lagos State, Ikate town In Eti-Osa Local Government, its climate and vegetation, the socio-cultural, political and economic activities of people of Lagos State and the genealogy of Elegushi royal family. Chapter four went further to highlight the activities and operations of Elegushi Beach, the problems being faced in that beach resort, the strategies for developing and managing it as well as the implications of beach tourism on the host community. Chapter five summarized the whole thesis, recommended/suggested on what to do for sustainable beach tourism in Nigeria, and the conclusion followed suit. It is hoped that this research work will serve as a guide to lovers of tourism and beaches.
Tourism is an indispensable tool for development in the country if not the whole world. Despite some of its negative effects on the environment, it is still the devil people cannot do without. A man should ever be ready booted to take his journey whenever tourism is mentioned. Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industry employing hundreds of millions of people worldwide which explains the reasons why study of tourism and tourism research have become so important in not only the academic field but also for the economy on the whole.
Beach tourism also known as coastal tourism and recreation are important parts of the largest and most rapidly growing activity in the world (Houston, 1995). This topic embraces the full range of tourism, leisure and recreational oriented activities that take place in the coastal zone and the off shore coastal waters across the world/globe. They include coastal tourism development, for instance, the hotels, resorts, restaurants, food industry, vacation homes, second homes and so on, the infrastructural facilities supporting coastal development like retail businesses, marinas, dive shops, fishing tackle stores, recreational boating harbors, beaches, fishing facilities, boating, cruises, swimming, snorkeling and diving as well as public and private programmes affecting the aforementioned activities (Houston, 1995).
However, the relationship between coastal areas and tourism is as old as tourism itself. Early tourists favoured seaside locations and made journeys to fashionable resorts to bathe in sea water to take advantage of its alleged curative powers. This was a major departure in the eighteenth century from a time when the sea and coast were revered as places and even feared (Lenček and Bosker, 1999). For them, “the beach historically speaking is a recent phenomenon. In fact, it took hundreds of years for the seashore to be colonized as the preeminent site for human recreation and the coast continues to be one of the most important environments for tourism in contemporary times building on its established heritage”. Hall and Page, (2005) observed that;
“The coastal environment is a magnet for tourist although its role in leisure activities has changed in time and space, as coastal destinations have developed, waned, been reimaged and redeveloped in the twentieth century. The coastal environment is a complex system which is utilized by the recreationist for day trips, while juxtaposed to these visits are those made by the domestic and international tourists”.
Beach tourism is becoming a highly competitive business as nations actively seek to draw increased numbers of visitors and increased foreign earnings to the shores. However, given today’s rapid pace of communication, the existence of poor water quality or degraded or eroding beaches is quickly communicated among networks of travel agents and others in the tourism marketing business. Despite increased awareness of the economic and environmental significance, it is only in recent years that a substantial body of research has emerged.
Furthermore, beach tourism is considered to be one of the fastest growing areas of present day tourism which is epitomized by the ‘3Ss’-sun, sand and sea. In order to create safe, stable and attractive coastal environment with clean waters and healthy coastal habitats, it is necessary to develop well managed and sustainable beach tourism.
Wong (1993), argued that “it has been established that tourism is environmentally dependent and the unique character of coastal environment gives to various types of tourism development. While there is increasing recognition of the coastal environment as a tourism resource, there is also the need to consider the sustainability of the environment as it continues to open up to the full gamut of tourism activities”. He pointed out that although there are many studies on coastal tourism, they tend to emphasize the tourism system rather than the interaction of tourism and environmental systems.
Tourism and recreation-related development is one of the major factors shaping development patterns in coastal zones of the nation and the world. Indeed, virtually all coastal and ocean issue areas affect coastal tourism and recreation directly or indirectly. Clean water, healthy coastal habitats, and a safe, secure and enjoyable environment are clearly fundamental to successful coastal tourism. Similarly, bountiful living marine resources (fish, shellfish, wetlands, coral reefs and so on) are of critical importance to most recreational experiences. Security from risks associated with natural coastal hazards such as storms surge, hurricanes, tsunamis and the like is a requisite for coastal tourism to be sustainable over the long term.
Nigeria is a country situated in the western coastal region of the African continent. The country is rich in natural beauty like long blue beaches, rivers and lakes, forest, breathtaking views of the waterfalls and soothing environments. She also offers a wide variety of tourist attractions such as extended and roomy river and ocean beaches ideal for swimming, water sports activities as well as other cultural and man-made attractions particularly conducive for holidaying. Unfortunately, these natural resources have hardly been developed for tourism. Because it is a coastal country, the main attractions for the tourists are the long beaches and marine activities but the direct contribution to coastal economies made by cleaning up coastal water is often not fully recognized. But it is hardly surprising that sustainable development remains such a challenge to beach tourism destination in Nigeria. Of all the activities that take place in coastal zones, none is increasing in both volume and diversity more than beach tourism. Both the dynamic nature of this sector and its magnitude demand that it be actively taken into account in government plans, polices and programs related to the coasts and ocean. Beach tourism constitutes a strong force (both positive and negative) in shaping coastal areas and national economies, yet it is not seen as a reputable sector requiring policy, planning and management attention and resources because of lack of data collected and aggregated under this heading. Beach tourism in Nigeria is still growing because most of these beaches, sea, lakes, rivers, streams and so on have turned to be hideouts for kidnappers, militants, terrorists and criminals. Additionally, in these riverine areas, the beaches, lakes, ocean and creeks are used as places for refuse dumps, defecation, and centres to commit all sorts of crimes. Also, spoilt ships and boats are usually abandoned in the ocean thus causing problems in the ocean and health hazards for the nation. Nigeria is considered to be abundantly blessed with water resources. Human welfare and economic development generally depend on the use of water. Millions of Nigerians rely on surface water sources to meet their domestic needs. Yet, pollution discharge into the surface water by individuals and industries go on unmitigated, unregulated, and unpunished due to weakness in the existing laws. The three levels of government, the Federal, State and Local Government should share responsibilities for water resources management. Also, the importance of leisure and recreationally motivated development in the coastal zones in Nigeria tend to be neglected, under managed, underrated and understudied.
In Lagos State for example, the people of Ikate are yet to know the importance of the natural and cultural attractions that they are blessed with. They do not really know much about beach tourism and values of the attractions there such as the Elegushi Beach and efforts are hardly made to maintain it. So, this research is simply pointing out how efforts should be made towards promoting beach tourism in Nigeria. This research work provides a review of some of the coastal and marine tourism literature emphasizing on the impacts. It notes the manner within which tourism is a component of integrated approaches towards coastal management and some of the strategies that are utilized to manage tourism in a sustainable fashion. These and more will be discussed about beach tourism in Nigeria, a case study of Elegushi Beach, Lagos State in the chapters of this research work.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Coastal tourism is very important in Nigeria and the whole world because of its rapid growth in economy. Despite that, there is lack of attention by public agencies to tourism and this is usually problematic in the case of coastal tourism. In Nigeria, there is usually no coordination between programmes that promote and market tourism and those that manage coastal and marine areas. Integrated coastal management often tends to be done only among environmental planning agencies. On the other hand, agencies dealing with the promotion of tourism are not involved with evaluation of its effects or with advance planning and management of the adverse impacts of tourism through avoidance, mitigation and compensation strategies (Cicin-Sain, 1993). One of the greatest challenges facing coastal managers in the developing countries is how to integrate tourism development within the ambit of integrated coastal management and increase the likelihood of long term sustainability (Cicin-Sain and Knetch, 1998). This situation is observable in Nigeria too. Because of negligence, most of the rivers, lakes, ocean and beaches and other water resources have turned out to be hideouts for kidnappers, terrorists and most times serve as refuge or escape route for unscrupulous characters while some people use the waters and places as their public toilets, places for sewage disposal and abandonment of rickety ships and boats. All these scare people away from visiting all these attractions like beaches, lakes and rivers.
Other challenges facing beaches in Nigeria include the dirty and unhygienic environments as lots of them lack adequate toilets and refuse disposal facilities, lack of adequate safety and security measures. The lack of required modern infrastructural facilities in some parts of the country, acute conditions of underdevelopment and poverty can be seen which many potential tourists may not like to be confronted with. Although coastal tourism constitutes a strong force in shaping coastal communities and local, regional and national economies, it is generally not seen as a reputable sector requiring policy, planning and management attention and resources in Nigeria. This is due to the fact that information and data tend not to be gathered and aggregated under this heading. Hence, the magnitude and importance of leisure and recreationally motivated development in the coastal zones of Nigeria tend to be underrated, understudied and under managed.
This has led to its underdevelopment as a tourist attraction and most of its tourism resources are still in their natural state. These and other related issues constitute what this research work sets out to address. It is hoped that at the end of the research exercise, the misconceptions about beaches and other water resources being used as hideouts for terrorists and kidnappers and water pollution and so on would have been erased and people will not be scared of these places. . Having mentioned all these problems, the following question readily comes to mind. Of what importance are the beaches and other attractions to people of Ikate town and other Nigerians?
It is pertinent to note that tourism industry cannot grow in a particular area if all the mentioned problems and others are not tackled since, there will be no development.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What is the role of the government and the private sector in developing beach tourism in Nigeria?
2) Of what benefits are the natural and cultural attractions especially the beach to Ikate kingdom, Lagos State?
3) How can the beach and the environment be preserved, conserved and maintained?
4) How could developed beach tourism grow the economy of Lagos State?
5) What should be the level of community participation in developing Elegushi Beach?
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this research are as follows:
i) To identify the natural (beach) and cultural/man-made attractions in Ikate town, Lagos State, as well as to ascertain their origin.
ii) To study the tourism potentials of beaches in Lagos State for tourism development.
iii) To identify the strategies for developing the resources including the Elegushi Beach.
iv) To highlight the role of government and the private sector in the development of the beaches for tourism promotion.
v) To show the conservative mechanisms for preserving beach tourism resources as well as the ecosystem.
vi) To determine the level of community participation in developing the Elegushi Beach
vii) To identify the basic impacts of beach tourism to tourism development generally.
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is referred to as the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. In the course of this research, the researcher made use of qualitative approach to generate detailed information from the host community. The researcher established cordial relationship by coming in contact with the informants in Ikate kingdom especially the Elegushi family, workers from the Ministry of Tourism and Inter-Governmental Relations, Lagos State and the Sea School as at the time scheduled. Because of this, tour guides were introduced to take the researcher round for exploration. Qualitative approach used here is concerned with the assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviours. It is aimed to gather an in-depth understanding of the behavioural patterns of the host community and reasons for such behaviours.
1.4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The research study is designed to focus on beaches in Nigeria, all the coastal/riverine areas as well as other water related activities in the country with special interest to Elegushi Beach, Lagos State. This place is chosen because Lagos State is one of the coastal areas in Nigeria and known to have so many beaches because it is mostly surrounded by ocean, lagoon, rivers, creek etc and experience influx of fun seekers or tourists in that area.
The research study is structured to elicit information on the operations and activities of Elegushi Beach and the importance of Sea School to beaches and water related projects for effective management of not only beaches but lakes, rivers and so on. The research work is descriptive and semi-structure in nature since the researcher made use of interview guide to achieve this aim.
Brinin Tudu village is a rural settlement presently under Gummi local government area in Zamfara state. It is about Twenty One (21) kilometers away from Gummi town. Gummi town is located along latitude (Lat, 12o 06N). the village is surrounded by a number of settlement that included Daki-Takwas, kwamma, Nasarawa Kifi, Falale, Birnin Magaji, Iyaka, kaiwa and Zauma all in the Gummi local government, with the exception Zauma which is in Bukkyyum local government of Zamfara state. It is bordered in the east by Zauma, in the South by Daki-Takwas, in the North by Birnin Magaji, while it share border in the West with Iyaka. Birin Tudu is headed by a village head with the title of “Sarkin Zauma”.1
A visual observation of the settlement will reveal series of houses built with different type of materials. The predominant building type I the mud building along traditional line. Other forms of building include those of cement blocks, rooted with corrugated iron; also some houses are made up with either clay or sticks.
Birnin Tudu settelemt was said to have been founded by a group of Zamfara hunters (who came in 1524) from “TUNFAF” village in present day Talata Mafara local government area in Zamfara state. Some of the paramount leaders of the group include Dankofo, Dansumba and Bamurna. The Name of the settlement was derived from the location of the area, because it’s situated in the higher land, which in Hausa language is regard to As “Tudu.”2
Birnin Tudu settlement envelops both Agriculturalist and pastoralist, other economic activities that are practiced in the area also included Black Smiting,, Bricklaying, Barbing and
leather work. The predominant economic activity of the women members of the society included weaving (Saka) and spinning (Zare).3
1.2Statement Of Problem
In spite of the longs existing History of Birnin-Tudu, dating back to 16th C. a historical accounts of the area is yet to be written. This could be attributed to the absence of written document, which some writers consider as the only reliable materials for sourcing History.
However, there are several Historical researches on the villages/settlements surrounding the areas of study, such as Daki-takwas, Zauma, Gummi, Nasarawar kifi, Zugu among others. It is in an effort to fill in this Lacuna in the socio-economic and political History of the area that this research set out to document the History of Birinin Tudu.
1.3Aim And Objectives
The Major aim of this research is to study the Historical origin and development of Birnin Tudu specifically it intend to
1. Trace the Historical origin of the village.
2. Examine the socio-economic and political development of the village. In essence therefore, this study will provide the researcher and general public alike a modest Historical public alike a modest Historical of Birnin tudu village.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
This research is on the origin and development of Birnin tudu village in Gummi local government area of Zamfara state. Hence the work will focus on the period from the earliest time
of its establishment or foundation to the year 2014. This will give room for the writing of a comprehension Historical study of the area.
To conduct any historical research two important sources are paramount for the collection of data. These are primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will be obtained through conducting oral interview with various strata of the society, including educated elite, artisans and member of the vocal family. The response will be analyzed and synthesized to produce a meaningful and revealing account on the history of the area.
Moreover, the secondary sources of information will supplement the primary sources that range from published and unpublished materials that included textbooks, project dissertation, news papers, Gazettes, document among others. That is lodge in the UDUS Library, History department UDUS library e.t.c
1.6 Literature Review
The fact that I stated the absence of written materials on my research topic meant that my focus on literature review will be available literature on Neighboring settlements or similar types of settlement with similar economic, political and Geographical foundation. Some very valuable literature for this review are Sani Ibrahim B.A project titled “survey of the political history of Gummi” there was also a research work done by Sani Musa Title “the socio-economic significance of Daki-Takwas district in gummi local government” (2008). The writes traced the socio-economic activities of the two area, the economy, culture and religious activities Daki-Takwas is historically related to Birnin tudu. In addition the works are situated within the same geographical area, with a common economy and culture.
Other relevant document for this research Include Zamfara State year book (1997) published by the ministry of information Gusau and Zamfara Tourism guide (1999) published by directorate for culture and Tourism, other government document include adult education file No. 1 Gummi local government Department of social management, all these provide valid information as they give some aspect of light on the social and culture life of the villages in Zamfara state including Birnin tudu in Gummi local government area of Zamfara state.6
Moreover, Dare’s BOOK titled ‘the knight of our time’ is considered relevant for this work. The Author examined the Historical origin of Gummi. In the work, he established a common tradition of origin between Gummi and a numbers of other settlements including Birnin tudu and Matsafa. Matsafa presently is in Bukkyyum local governments area of Zamfara state.7
In addition DARE’s project report on the stewardship achievement of Sani Takori as the chairman of Gummi local Government 1993-1994 is relevant for this research. He highlighted a brief History of some villages in the local government including Birn Tudu, he also went at length to examine the society and the economy of the area. Our area is rather sketching. The Nature of the project did not allow the writer to do an in depth research on any singles areas in Gummi local government.
Another relevant material for this research is the B.A project written by Faruk Aliyu Gummi tittle “A History of pastoralist farmers relation in Gummi local government areas of Zamfara state in the Twentieth century” (2008) UDUS. This study trace the History of postoralism and farming in Gummi, in Gummi District with special consideration on social interaction between pastoralist, farmers and hunters group, causes, conflict, management of the conflict in the area. The writer also discussed on the British imperial policy on land. Faruku’s
analysis dwell much on social conflict between the farmers and postoralist burdering on land ownership and land use. Birnin tudu has similar social composition and the issue of economic interaction between the various groups will be discuss.9
The work of Sanusi M. Gummi tittle “History of Daki Takwas village” (2008) UDUS,provides some relevant information for this research the writer trace the origin of Dakitakwas settlement to Birnin tudu. The writer also emphasize the fact that Daki takwas ruling class (Sarakuna). Came from Birnin tudu. And up till today the traditional rulers of Daki Takwas are sent from Birnin tudu. However the writer obsession with his area did with his did not allow him to pay much attention to the Historical development of Birin tudu.10
Several researches such as B.A research project of musa .A “the historical origin and development of Gummi town I the 19th and 20th century”. Sagir A. Musa “on history of Nasarawa war kifi” shade some light on the aspect history of Gummi; Nasarawa kifi however, none of them have attempted to detailed and comprehensive study on the origin and development of Birnin tudu.
The evolution of “District Head System” in Northern Nigeria has attracted the attention of many historians and has generated a lot of controversies. In order word, the “District Head System” of local government administration is an issue of intellectual debate. Historian like Smith sees the “District Head System” as traditional in origin derived from pre-colonial system of administration, while Abba opines that “District head system” which has been regarded as a traditional political system in Northern Nigeria was both in structure and form a British creation.The period of the evolution of “District Head System” in emirate of Northern Nigeria varied from one emirate to the other depending on how effective each emirate system was at the time of the British conquest and the complexities of the pre-colonial each of the emirates.
It could be recalled that the 19th century Hausa land was a scene of revolutionary movement, “the Sokoto Jihad”. The jihad culminated in the establishment of a powerful state covering a vast area of about 250,000 square miles. This state created the emirate system of government in Hausa land and beyond. Zaria emirate happened to be the largest and important emirate in the Sokoto Caliphate. After the British conquest of Northern Nigeria, the British realized that the pre-existing pattern of local authority could not meet their economic need, they tried to create a link between the colonial government and the local authority. It is clear that what is actually needed was the re-organisation and re-structuring of the pre-existing political structures to be in line with the actualization of colonial economic exploitation. The basis for local government re-organisation was mainly to reduce the cost of administration, maximise revenue as well as effective supervision of conquered territories. It was this that resulted to the creation of “District head system” in Northern Nigeria in general.
By 1907, Zaria emirate was divided into thirty-two district, each of these districts was administered or placed under the control of the district head whom the emir appointed and British confirmed. After independence, more and more district was created including Kurmin Gwaza district in 2001. District heads and district administration had undergone different positions in the country after independence from 1960 to the Second Republic 1979-1983 as a result of perpetual local government reforms experienced in the country during this period.
Kumin Gwaza district is located in the Western part of Kachia Local Government Area and the district lies between Latitude 9o 54’ 04”N and longitude 70 55’ 37”E. The history of evolution and development of Kurmin Gwaza district which this research concerns itself with is aim at exposing and acquainting the readers and the general populace with the knowledge of historical evolution and development of Kurmin Gwaza district from 2001 to 2017. Over the years, people have wondered whether there were significant events or development in the district that deserve any historical studies. People still ask questions such as when and how was the district created? who were the figures that spearheaded the affairs of the district since its inception? And what contribution the district had on the communities that made up the district? It appears from available evidences that little or no researches have been conducted with respect to addressing these interesting questions. These also explain the scanty documentations and literature concerning the subject matter.
This dissertation is therefore, an attempt at a description and analysis of the historical evolution and developments that enveloped the district during the period under study. The work looks at the factors that necessitate the establishment of the district, socio-economic and political development, the communities that made up the district and inter-group relations in the district among others.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Various aspects of the history of Kachia Local Government Area have been studied, in which the Kurmin Gwaza district is part of, and little or nothing have been done to reconstruct the history of Kurmin Gwaza district. This study therefore intends to study the evolution, development, administrative function, socio-political, economic conditions, communities as well as structure of Kurmin Gwaza district in Kachia Local Government Area.
Prior to the creation of Kurmin Gwaza district, it was under Kwaturu district in Kachia Local Government Area, however in year 2001 Kurmin Gwaza district became an autonomous district, independent of Kwaturu district. This study therefore seeks to give an insight as to why the Kurmin Gwaza district was separated from Kwaturu after many years of their co-existence. However, the research also intends to study the evolution migration, politics and policy surrounding it existence. It is also important to note that there are several literature on Kachia local government and some on Kwaturu district, but we have very few on Kurmin Gwaza district, therefore most of the work will concentrate on primary sources and the few secondary literatures available for the research, which will trace the issue as to when and how the district was created and various development that took place which shape the history of the district.
More so, the research will give an insight to how Kurmin Gwaza district was administered in various aspects which include, but not limited to land, people, and tradition of origin among others. The study will therefore expand our knowledge as to how policies, migration and structure affected the district.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
This is where the basic reasons for embarking on the study should be appreciated. For any scholarly and academic work; it is aim at achieving a purpose. This purpose is what we consider as aim and objectives. In like-manner, this dissertation intends to achieve a number of reasonable aim and objectives which include:
1. The aim of this study is to historicize the evolution of Kurmin Gwaza District from 2001 – 2017.
2. To examine factors that necessitates the establishment of the District.
3. To examine the evolution, migration and the development of Kurmin Gwaza district up to 2017.
4. To highlight on the socio – economic and political development of the district from 2001 – 2017.
5. To examine inter–group relations in Kurmin Gwaza as no community ever lived alone. It is also aimed at helping the readers and of course the general populace with the understanding of the nature and impact of the relationship between the district and her neighbors.
6. The dissertation will served as an additional material to the existing available documents which will help future researchers in their bid to further research on the subject matter.
1.4 Significance and Justification of the Study
“District Head System” and its application in native authority is a theme studied by scholars. It still attracted the attention of researchers and students who may want to study. A study of this nature therefore tends to give more in – depth and critical account about what transpired between the democratic dispensation, native administration and the people at large. Therefore, focusing on Kurmin Gwaza District as a case study, it is going to be of significance interest to examine how the evolution of the District took place and shape the area. In addition, the District of Kurmin Gwaza made up of sub – settlement that exist in a neighborhood pattern such as Kongo, Ungwan Shaho, Ungwan Maisaje, Ungwan Wuje, Ungwan Tama, Ungwan Gizago, Bonjok and Ramin Kura.
The research work will increase our depth of understanding about the administration that existed in Kurmin Gwaza district as well as it surrounding communities; the dissertation will also add and give more meaning to the few and scanty documents and materials existing on the subject matter as well as fill the gap not found in other literature about Kurmin Gwaza history in relations to the affairs carried out in the area and thus culminate and combine to serve as sources of historical reconstruction or writing. Again if the work completed, it will serve as a veritable source materials for Students, researchers and the general public interested in the history of the district. Finally, it will contribute to our knowledge of how the change in districts affected the Kachia Local government in general and Kurmin Gwaza in particular.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
Kurmin Gwaza district is located between Latitude 90 54’ 04 “N and Longitude70 55’37”E in the Western parts of Kachia local government area of Kaduna State. The area is bordered by Ankwa district to the West, on the South by Kwaturu district, on the East by Mazuga district and Gumel district on the North. Kurmin Gwaza district is under Ham chiefdom and the chiefdom is made up of several district such as Nok district, Kwaturu, Kurmin Gwaza, Sabon Sarki, Kurmin Musa, Gidan Tagwai, Gidan Jibir, Jaban Kogo (Dung), Gidan Gyara, Gidan Mana, Ankunng, Bitaro, Chori, Daddu, Dura, Fada, Fai, Foghei, Kurmin Jatau, Ngumkparo, Sabon Garin Kwoi, Samban, Sabzuro and Ungwan Rana district but this research limits itself to Kurmin Gwaza District. The choice of 2001-2017 has a political significance since it falls within fifth decade of Nigeria’s independence as well as 4th Republic. The year 2001 was a milestone to the existence of settlement as well as a turning point in the history of communities that made of the area namely Ungwan Wuje, Kurmin Gwaza, Ramin Kura (Jir-Muri), Ungwan Tama (Har-Gyak), Ungwan Shaho (Har-Mopyo), Kongo (Fu-Ridun), UngwanGizago and Bonjok because it was during the year these settlement were brought together as a District.
The year 2017 is a terminal date for the research because it was that period (year) that the Kaduna State Government suspend all the district that were created in 2001 and Kurmin Gwaza district was not inception. The major problem and limitation facing this research is insufficient written sources, this is because Kurmin Gwaza is a newly created district and therefore, there is inadequate written record. Hence, the work would largely rely on oral sources. Some of the in formats to provide relevant information on the subject matter were either dead or had left the district to another location, therefore reaching them was seemingly impossible as well as scanty sources have all hindered the ability of the researcher in the course of making the research. Nevertheless, the work will utilize the little available information to be obtained from the members of Kurmin Gwaza district involving the traditional title holders, district head, village heads, parents as well as custodians of the norms.
1.6 Research Methodology
The research adopts inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary approaches to historical analysis. This is because, as Mallam noted, “there is a recurring agreement that the history of most African societies can best be reconstructed through the combined use of insights from archaeology, linguistics, anthropology and other disciplines”. Thus in addition to the insights from the above discipline, this dissertation draws insights from economic, agricultural sciences, geography, sociology and political science. This enable us grasp and understand the prime issues in evolution and development for a holistic analysis. However the challenges encountered with inter and multidisciplinary method is the difficult of collecting, interpreting, evaluating and analyzing the facts for historical reconstruction. These challenges were surmounted through direct consultation and reliance on advice and interpretation of the facts by experts in those other fields and disciplines effective historical reconstruction.
Because of how central objectivity is to historical analysis, the researcher will try to be analytical and critical in the collection of data, its interpretation and analysis for reconstructing the history of evolution and development of Kurmin Gwaza district, 2001-2017. As a methodology, the researcher tries to be objective in the collection, interpretation and analysis of his data, for the purpose of reconstructing the evolution and development of Kurmin Gwaza district during the period under examination. To this end, conscious and conscientious efforts are made in gathering the evidence or sources as much as practicable and available. The researcher makes conscious and realistic efforts to avoid the negative influence of the society on the dissertation as he avoid also any distortion, misinterpretation and misrepresentation of the evidence before him.
In explaining the subject matter, the researcher employs the narrative, descriptive methods in presenting the information gathered. Both Oral and Written records will be applied in this study. Interview will be conducted with about 29 number of people his Royal Highness the district head of Kurmin Gwaza District HRH Dangana Sarki, Gregory Shaho, Mango Mallam, Shehu Handan and Mallam Takobi among others and written sources gathered from relevant studies earlier conducted on the Kachia area which will help navigate the work properly.
1.4 Justification and Significance of the Study — – 8
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study – – – 9
1.6 Research Methodology – – – – – 12
1.7 Literature Review – – – – – – 12
1.8 Conclusion – – – – – – – 22
A HISTORY OF KADUNA
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 23
2.2 Geography and Location of Kaduna – – – – – – 23
2.3 Land and People of Kaduna – – – – – – – 27
2.4 Growth and Development of Kaduna – – – – – 32
2.5 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 37
A HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHEIKH GUMI MARKET IN KADUNA
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 38
3.2 Evolution of the Market- – – – – – 38
3.3 Growth and Development of the Market – – – – 42
3.4 Structure of the Market – – – – – – 44
3.5 Administrative Setup of the Market – – – 51
3.6 Commercial Specialization in the Market – – – 55
3.7 Factors Militating Commerce and Development in Kaduna State 61
3.7.1 In-efficient Railway system – – – 61
3.7.2 Collapse of Industries – – – – 66
3.7.3 Market fire – – – – – – 70
3.8 Conclusion – – – – – – 72
THE SHEIKH GUMI MARKET ANDTHE DEVELOPMENT OF KADUNA METROPOLIS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 73
4.2 The establishment of other markets within Kaduna Metropolis- 74
4.3 The Establishment and Development of the Towns within the Kaduna Metropolis -79
4.4 Other Superstructures around the Market – – 81
4.5 Conclusion – – – – – – 89
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 90
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – 90
5.3 Suggestions and Recommendations — – – – 94
5.4 Conclusion – – – – – – 97
Bibliography – – – – – – – – – 98
It should be noted that this paper is a conscious attempt to uncover and make understandable the many ways in which the Sheikh Mahmud Gumi Market (Central Market) had encouraged, triggered or stimulated the development of the Kaduna metropolis. As such, in order to shade light towards such conscious effort, it is imperative for one to have a clearer and deeper understanding of what a market is and it is also important to understand what development actually is and what it means.
A market is a group of people who wish to exchange goods and services with each other. This group of people is made up of all those who wish to make and sell a particular good or service, and all those willing to buy it. Any market therefore is made up of producers and consumers. A market need not be in just one particular place. For the economist, anyone who wishes to buy or sell a good of service, wherever they are in the world, is part of market. Markets can be spread over a small area or a very large area. If an economist talks of a perfect market, then is one where no one producer or consumer alone can influence the price charged for goods and services. On the other hand, an imperfect market is one where perhaps a powerful producer or powerful consumer can affect the price charged for goods and services to their own advantage.1
1. D. motion Moynihan and Brian Tetley, Economics A complete course, Third edition, oxford: (Oxford university press, 2000) P.16-17
By looking at market structures we can analyze how much competition there is among firms making a particular product in an industry, and try to judge whether there is enough competition to ensure that consumers are not over charged for the product and that they get what they want with the best possible use being made of resources.
Perfect competition suggests that the perfect use of resources is being made by firms in markets where they face many competing firms. The firms providing the best quality goods and services at the lowest price will be the most successful.
Competition among firm encourage them to make a good use of scarce resources, because in order to make profits these firms must produce products that give the best value for money for consumers. The greatest competition between firms in a market is found in a situation of perfect competition.
A perfect competitive market is characterized by the followings:
Homogenous Product: All firms produce the same product.
Price takers: There are a very large number of buyers and sellers of the product, none of whom can buy or sell enough to be able to influence the price of the product as such; they are known as price takers.
Perfect information: All buyers will know all about the prices and products on sale, and all sellers have all the information on the latest production techniques.
Freedom of entry and exit: Firms can freely enter or leave the industry if they wish. That is, there are no barriers to entry or exit.
However, it is more likely for a number of large firms to have some control over the price they charge for their product. The extreme opposite to perfect competition is situation of monopoly. A firm is a pure monopoly if it is the only supplier of a particular good or service. A monopoly market is characterized with the followings:
No competition: being the only supplier of a good or service a monopoly faces no competition from other firms.
Abnormal profits: because there is no competition, the monopolist is able to permanently earn high profits, often known as abnormal profits.
Price makers: a monopolist is not a price taker. Because the monopolist produces all of a particular good or service for a market it can raise the price of its product by supplying less of it.
Barriers of entry: in perfect competition if firms earned profits greater than normal profits other firms would want to earn these profits as well. They would enter the market and start up production. Prices and profits would fall back to normal as supply increased. Monopolists, however, can keep their large profits by preventing new firms from entering their market and taking some of their abnormal profits. Monopolists do this by creating barriers to entry.
Imperfect information: under monopoly there is not perfect information. For example, a firm may hide the price it charges to one group of consumers from another group which is charged a different price.
Non-homogenous products: monopolist firms often do not produce a homogenous product. Usually they will produce different varieties of their product in order to make it difficult for other firms to copy them.
The competitive environment in which college libraries operate and provide their services and resources is one of the biggest challenges to engage today’s students. There is a limited amount of high quality attention and time students have to be able to be engaged with what the library offers them. Planning and designing library awareness and information’s, literacy programs, particularly for new students has presented itself as an on-going challenge for librarians world wide in recent times. However, the goalpost keeps on moving and the players are becoming more restless, demanding and seeking instant gratification. The purpose of this research work is to present the findings of a study that examines attitudes of students towards the use of library facilities students take a compulsory introduction to subject during their first semester taught by both internal and external experts on a wide range of topics including journey of information presented by library staff. The library is also involved in the subsequent delivery of information literacy programs throughout students educational programs in an ongoing effort to engage them and to get them involved in university wide activities. The majority of new students spend up to a year undertaking intensive English preparatory classes. The curriculum for the English as a second language program includes a learning portfolio linking various levels of English competency with each other pre-intermediate, intermediate etc to ensure students complete the program not only with sufficient English language competency but also with information and life skills to help them throughout their studies and beyond. The research will examine what impact the library efforts to engage students in library and information use and their learning and research has had by understanding their pre-university experience, expectations and knowledge and skills about libraries and information use.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement of problem
Purpose of study
Significance of study
Definitions of terms
Review of related literature
Research design and methodology
Instruments used for data collection
Method of data collection
Administration of questionnaire
Method of data analysis
Data analysis and result
Discussion of findings
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The academic libraries have been described as the “heart” of the learning community providing a place for students and faculty to conduct their research and advance their knowledge. In the education system, an academic library is the centre of academic life. A university library or any library attached to an institution of higher education exists to support the goal of its parent organization, since university libraries are an integral part of the higher education system, they should provide support services for the formal educational programs as well as for facilities for research and for generation of new knowledge. It is important of any information professional working in an academic or any other library to know the real needs of the user community.
Understanding the needs of the target group will help to develop the diverse strategies that are appropriate to obtain effective results. Since the university library is committed to provide excellent resources and services, it has to develop an ongoing dialog with its user community. On the other hand academic libraries have to improve the quality of their service to survive in this volatile competitive environment. Therefore it is crucial to evaluate the library service from customer’s point of view at the same time order to set up user-centered service, the library needs to know the user and user needs. One of the main tools that can be used to evaluate and assess the library services is the user survey. It is impossible to assess the changing needs of the clientele unless user surveys are conducted to determine user needs and their reading interests.
A library, strives to play a leading role in the teaching, learning and research activities of its parents institution, it should be aggressively dynamics in the provision of its services and manned by personnel of the highest quality, who possess adequate background, appropriate professional training and experience and the proper orientation to meet the challenges of modern university academic, use expectation from any information system is to make available directly or remotely and in real time the needed information, formal notwithstanding, in the university environment the library a major information providing system support’s teaching learning and research with information materials of various types (Anunobi and Edoka 2010).
The advents of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have however drastically changed the nature of traditional library services. Perhaps in any discussion of application of modern technology in the library, as revealed by Ukoh (1984) the first thing that comes to mind is the computer, the computer has made such a tremendous impact on the organization management and dissemination of information that it readily commends itself to any library ready to accept it when computers first made their impact on libraries especially with the automation of house-keeping routines, recourse managers had expected financial savings as machine took over the work of human. However, in higher education, the real result has been that automation has enable institutions to cope with great increases in demand without increases in staffing and how they are able to provide a much wider ranges of services, to improve the quality of work performed by students, simultaneously saving them time when searching for information.
Computers in libraries have proved useful in assisting the information processing aspect of traditional library, operations like acquisitions, registration of readers, circulation functions and keeping track of reading and research interests of user. Thus repetitive and untie data processing tasks which characterized most library, are effectively and efficiently handle by computer. The computerization of students library services brings with it many benefits meant to improve the quality of services that the library renders to its users some of the benefit of library facilities includes, enhanced productivity, increased output, more productive tasks. In documentation and information processing, network enhancement and perfect control of records management and retrieval.
The facilities of library, therefore, therefore, lead to a change in the way the library offers services to its clientele. Change is a natural phenomenon in growth and envelopment. Humans being are known to respond differently to changing situations thus, reflecting in their attitudes towards the object of change fear of change is similarly a natural human reaction every human being develops control over familiar situations and in most cases, feels comfortable with the familiar than the unfamiliar.
A computerized library comprises not only facilities and formats’ but cuso the essential human elements users and staff, the success of any library system, after all, rests not on how well the design work on paper in abstract, but on how effectively they can use it. And it is the users of the library that embrace or reject the new technologies, fulfill or frustrate, the intentions of sys1tem designers and experience anxiety and disorientation, as a result of their use attitudes are ending patterns of belief, believed to be predictive of behaviour reflecting people’s biases inclination or tendencies that influence their response to situation, activities, people or programme goals. Students varied in their information needs and their seeking attitudes, they constitute a part of society who is fortunate to have access at little or no cost themselves a variety of computerized services in their institutions library. This is made possible because universities use considerable proportions of their budgets to provide these technologies for their students to assists in the teaching, learning and research processes. One of the major barriers is implementing new innovation in libraries is only technical but also attitudinal as positive attitude towards; technology contributes to the better performance in a technologically advanced environment. However, little is known about student’s attitude towards computerized services in their institution libraries and without a better understanding, it remains difficult for these libraries to effectively provide these service5s for their users.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The use of library facilities cut’s across all professions in any society. Awareness of the need for the use of libraries facilities has become very popular. In the library, a computerized cataloguing system enable the use of centrally produce bibliographic records other such services offered to users in library include e.mails, online database/electronic journal access co-nontechnology and OPAC .
The role of the information providers to understand, the need of the users their attitudes towards seeking their needs only then can users optimize the benefits that such services tend to offers.
However, not much is known about the attitudes of students of College of Education Ekiadolor towards the facilities in the institutions library, it therefore becomes imperative to take closer look at those attitudes, which have an effect on how students make use of the facilities and will in turn affect the overall success of the library’s facilities and programme.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is described by Cullen (2001) in the following terms.
Provide detailed information about user’s opinion of the library services.Help to certify the librarians concepts of the services as their assumption about the user needs.Indicate problemSuggest solution
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the user survey were
To learn what library services, resources and facilities undergraduates use of their learning and research.To know how satisfied students are with available resources and services in the library.Examine the student’s attitude toward computerized library services.Find out the term of provision of the services to the library users.Find all the hindrances to the use of the services in the library and how such could be curbed.To suggest remedies that may help the undergraduates to use the library more effectively.
Is there any difference between library facilities and the academic performance of students?Does students satisfaction in the available resou9rces and service produced in library?Does students develop positive attitude towards the use of library?Does a barrier discourage students from use of library?Does a library user require any particular skill to be use library facilities?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The limitation I have in carrying out this study are too numerous in the course of carrying out this project work. A lot of human defines came to play outstand in among this short comings were financial constrains which in all practical terms affects the investigations process so also was time constrain which was heightened by the fact that the researcher has to told fast to her academics while carrying out the study in the same vein, the researcher found it very difficult locating recent materials, which were mainly textbooks which would have the investigation more currents.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Library: A library is a building or room containing collection of books periodicals, and sometimes fits and recorded music for use or borrowing by the public or the members of an institution it can be maintain by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual, public and institution, collections and services may be untended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase on extensive collection themselves.
Information: Information can be define as data that is (1) accurate and timely (2) specific and organized a purpose, (3) presented with in a context that guides it meaning can relevance, and (4) can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. Information is valuable because it can affect behaviour decision, or an outcome.
Services: A valuable action deed or effort performed to satisfy a need or to fulfill a demand services can be renter in various from such as Banking lodging and Health care services for example, most sort whether it is a hmo or ppo these provide will typically see all patients, but people not participating in the network will be changed more than those that belong to the network, or A Banking arrangement under which a bank or supplier extents an advantageous service (such as an overdraft or deferred payment to a customer).
Facilities: General, permanent semi-permanent or temporary, commercial or industrial property such as a building plant, or structure built, established, or installed for the performance of one or more specific activities or functions.
What today developed by the working of the Holy Spirit to become the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka, was the most populous and promising zone out of the four zones that comprised the Catholic Diocese of Enugu from where Nsukka Diocese was excised.1 The area called Nsukka Diocese today derived its name from an ancestral and homogeneous town – Nsukka Asadu where the British pioneer colonial masters finally settled and adopted as their residential and administrative headquarters, after their several attempts to settle at Nkpologu, Okpoga and Obollo-Afor had failed.2 The Catholic encyclopedia has made us to understand that on October 19th, 1922, these areas were declared abandoned and all the infrastructures and offices were transferred from Obollo-Afor to Nsukka town, with Mr. Warrington as the Colonial District Officer in charge of Nsukka Division. From that year onward, Nsukka town took the rare privilege of being the capital of the church and the State administration. Hence, the derivation of that name, Nsukka Diocese.3
Thus, the background against which the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka came to be was rather a gentle and gradual processes. Away back in 1910, two energetic young and determined missionaries came to Nsukka. Rev.Fr. Vincent Davey, the parish priest of Eke, visited Eha-Alumona. The visit was successful for, in 1910, Father Davey erected a mud hut which served as church and classroom block and that made the emergence of school at Eha-Alumona possible. 4
In 1910 again, the Parish priest of Aguleri, Rev. Fr. Aloysius Muller came to Uvuru. A few weeks after his visit, the chief gave out a piece of land where he made a mud wall with a thatched roof and there, primary education of children began. The church spread with amazing rapidity to Nkpologu, Obimo, Ugbele-Ajima, Adani and other parts of Igbodo clan. While Fr. Davey and his group administered Eha-Alumona from Ekeh, Fr. Muller was administering Uvuru from Aguleri. They were said to have covered their journey on horseback, bicycles and by trekking.5
Nsukka Catholic Diocese comprises Igbo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze South, Igbo-Eze North, Uzo-Uwani, Udenu, Nsukka and Isi-uzo local government areas. All these local government areas made up the Old Nsukka Senatorial Zone. The Diocese stretched from Ukehe in the South to Ette in the North and from Eha-Alumona in the East to Ogrugu in the west. 6 However, the piece of land in which was erected the Catholic mission in Nsukka, which in later years became the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka, was as the result of effort made by Rev.Fr. James Millet in 1932. His effort yielded positive result because the people offered the piece of land which served the Catholic Church in Nsukka the desired purpose.7
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nsukka area never lived in isolation before it became a Diocese and after it did. But unfortunately, due to scanty literature, documented materials with which to reconstruct the history of the Diocese since its creation on Monday 26th November, 1990, became a problem.
An evaluation of the various changes in the Diocese was necessary in order to understand the giant strides the Diocese has made so far since its establishment in 1990. For instance, it is worthy to note that the impact of this missionary drive was not limited to the spiritual sphere alone; it has also made some incredible in-roads into the health apostolate. This has been so because the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka believed strongly in the restoration of the health not only of sick souls, but also of sick bodies. 8 It is equally worthy to note that there has not been adequate attention paid to the changes brought about by the creation of Nsukka Diocese in this regard. There is no doubt that this study would equip us with the much needed knowledge in the growth and development or lack of progress of this Diocese. Even as historians appeared to have begun to exhume from ‘decay’ the history of the so-called local Churches, the present area of research or study has not received similar attention.
Therefore, the work is hoped to provide the much needed information on the history of the Catholic diocese of Nsukka which is expected contribute to the understanding how much the presence of church has impacted on the overall growth and development of Church history. It will help to fill the lacuna existing in Church history.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The present study attempts to explore the history of the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka from the date of its establishment in 1990 to 2011. Reverend Fr. Ikenga Ozigboh has maintained that light has begun to emerge from the dark tunnel of church history. The focus of this work is on the factors, institutions and processes which have contributed and also impacted on the growth and development of the Diocese for more than two decades now. This research work is not interested in praise-singing , but in explaining, elucidating and assessing critically but objectively, issues of interest to the Igbo Catholics in particular, and to Nigerians, in general. In other words, the work seeks to supply ample information and history of a viable social institution (church) thereby adding to current knowledge of church history as paramount and veritable instrument of economic and socio-political development.9
The statement of focus of any research work is important in the choice of theory to be employed. Theory serves as a ‘Guardian Angel’ to the researcher so that he will not derail from the path of his mission or focus. The Bonsai theory of Church growth and development is a philosophical hypothesis postulating that “the presence of Church in an area engineers social, political and economic development”. This is so because, the advent of colonialism in Africa, and particularly, in Nigeria, with its attendant flurry of activities, constituted a veritable instrument of societal development. The Church brought a considerable measure of development and change in human activities. The Catholic Church’s presence in Nsukka area has buttressed this assertion by Bonsai theory of Church, growth and development. So, it is pertinent to analyze the Catholic Church’s presence in Nsukka Diocese using this theory in order to discover the impact of Catholicism in Nsukka Diocese. The current researcher is, therefore, guided by this theory.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work is quite significant because Nsukka Diocese has existed for more than two decades and as such, should require attention in order to understand the giant strides the Diocese has made since its establishment in 1990. This exercise will be necessary and useful because it will help to fill the lacuna existing in our store of church history.
This work would enrich the literature on the Catholic Church in Nsukka. This would, no doubt, be of significance and interest to historians, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists and, indeed, to other social scholars who may wish to undertake a similar study.
The current researcher wishes to examine Bishop Francis Okobo’s leadership since he assumed office in 1990. It could be understood clearly that autonomy could usher in new challenges. Therefore, it behooves this researcher to discuss some of these challenges which the Bishop has experienced in the course of administering the Diocese. Quite significant in this work is the issue of church and State relationship in the control of schools in the Diocese. This work, therefore, examines the reasons for the State take- over of the mission school in 1970. Also, the efforts made by the church in 1999 and in 2009 when State handed back the mission controlled schools to the church are examined in this work.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The time-frame of this research work is from 1990 to 2011. The dates were carefully chosen because of the social and political impact on the entire people of the area. The impact of the work on the Catholic church in Nsukka Diocese, where Catholics constituted 75% of the entire population does not end in the numbers alone, but more in the quality of their products in all spheres of human endeavour. 11 The Nsukka Catholic Diocese came into being in 1990 and seemed to have achieved a great height in the year 2011 when the diocese celebrated its centenary—hundred years of Catholicism in Nsukka.
The territorial limits of the study encompassed seven local government areas that make up the Old Nsukka Senatorial Zone viz Igbo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze North, Igbo-Eze South, Uzo-Uwani, Udenu, Nsukka and Isi-Uzo local governments. In all, Nsukka Diocese was administered in eight (8) deaneries and they are Nsukka, Adani, Enugu-Ezike, Ibagwa-Aka, Ibagwa-Ani, Obollo-Afor, Ikem and Aku deaneries.12
In reviewing the various related works that are relevant for this study, the current researcher discovered without much surprise that not much work has been done on the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka from the day of its inception in 1990 to 2011. As a result of paucity of literature and materials on this subject, the current researcher, therefore, made use of oral tradition extensively in order to complement the available literature on this topic. This was achieved with one-on-one interviews with the researcher’s respondents who included the priests, principals of schools, Catechists and lay faithful who possessed ample knowledge and experience on the topic. Various books that were related to this research work were examined and reviewed by examining their strengths and weaknesses in the area researched.
The book, The Episcopal Installation of Most Rev. Dr. Francis Emmanuel Ogbonna Okobo, the first Catholic Bishop of Nsukka Diocese, by Rev. Msgr. P. Idigo Meze, was a biography of the Bishop of Nsukka Diocese. The book offered historical insights into the coming of the Catholic Church to Nsukka area, but had not addressed other important matters and processes that contributed to the growth and development of the Diocese which this research work endeavored to achieve.13 However, some useful historic information on coming of Catholic Church to Nsukka was extracted from the piece. Another book, The Lineamenta’, for the first Nsukka Diocesan Synod, One Lord, One Faith and One Baptism in a Multi -Religious Society, published by the Nsukka Diocesan Communication Commission, was quite relevant to the research. Some factors, institutions and processes covered by the present research are in tandem with this book. It discussed and mentioned the issue of church and State in the control of schools in the Diocese. But its discussion on this was only in passing.14
The Advent and Growth of the Catholic Church in Enugu Diocese edited by M.O. Eneasato, was more of an anthology than a history. Actually, mention was made of Catholic church in Nsukka area in this book. But the book would not even qualify to be a chronicle.15 The two famous books by late Rev. Fr. Ikenga Ozigboh titled Roman Catholicism in South Eastern Nigeria 1885 – 1931 and Igbo Catholicism and the Onitsha Connection, 1954-1967 both commented on the Catholic church in Nsukka area. Roman Catholicism in South Eastern Nigeria 1885 – 1931, touched extensively on the issue of Church and State in the control of schools in Nigeria. Igbo Catholicism and the Onitsha Connection 1954 – 1967 failed to do so. The latter was interested in mentioning the penetration of the Catholic church and the missionary activities in Nsukka area.16 A well commended book that was highly relevant to this study was Elochukwu Amucheazi’s book, Church and Politics in Eastern Nigeria, 1945 to 1966; A Study in Pressure Group Politics. Not only that the book mentioned the entrance and penetration of Catholicism into Nsukka area, it also adequately discussed the conflict that ensued between the church and State in the control of education in the State which this is part of our focus. Though the book did not directly relate to the current researcher’s area of study, it still offered useful insights into the area and issues examined in the present study. But the book did not discuss other important aspects contained in this work.17 The book written by Obi C.A. titled, ‘A Hundred Years of Catholic Church in Eastern Nigeria 1885 – 1980’, only mentioned the Catholic church in Nsukka in passing. Apart from mentioning briefly Catholicism in Nsukka which the researcher appreciated, the book has a different focus from this work . 18 The ‘Mothers’ Voice’, Nsukka Diocese celebrates 100 years of Catholicism, by the Christian Women Organization (CWO), St. Peter’s Chaplaincy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, examined the impact of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, on the spread of Catholicism and religious faith in Nsukka Diocese. Certain vital aspects of this work were missed out in the paper. 19 Rev. Fr. Dr.Greg Nnamani’s work, ‘TheHistory of the Catholic Church in Eha-Alumona’, dwelt more on Eha-Alumona parish which is an integral part of the Diocese. The book was quite historical and made extensive use of oral tradition in order to reconstruct the history of Eha-Alumona in Catholic mission embrace. 20 Some Diploma, B.A. and M.A. works were consulted. The ‘Advent and Impact of Roman Catholic Church in Enugu-Ezike’ by Emeka Eya only mentioned Catholicism in Nsukka area briefly. Of course, the book presented a conflict in tone from what my work tried to achieve. 21The ‘History of St. Peter’s Chaplaincy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka’, by Onukwe N.C., only concentrated on the chaplaincy. Even though an insight into Catholicism in Nsukka area was offered by the piece, it failed in scope and dimension in discussing the crux of the Nsukka Diocese which is embedded in this research work.
The ‘Catholic Church in Onitsha People, Places and Events’ by Rev. Fr. V.A. Nwosu was quite minimal in its relevance or contribution to this research. The book simply made a sort of casual references here and there about the Catholic Church in Nsukka which was found under the Onitsha.22
The book, Faith, Culture, and Individual Freedom, by Professor Damian Oputa, is very rich in explication of the cultural practices in Nsukka Diocese. The book discuses inculturation debate, funeral ceremony, traditional marriage ceremony etc. which is in tandem with part of this research work. But the book fails to mention other aspects of my research work as it mainly borders on “Lejja town as a result of ill-advised and preposterous decision taken by a parish priest as regards funeral ceremony. 23
From the above review of the materials consulted, I can say that the present study by the researcher will achieve an integration of ideas and this will form the basis of my analysis and discourse to make a coherent whole of the present study.
The current researcher has made use of qualitative methodology. The research work did not look at the size and dimension of the area of study, but was poised to examine and understand how relevant and good the area of study was to the overall development of local history as an important aspect of Nigeria’s church history. Therefore, the research work was purely qualitative and analytical in its approach in discussing and treating the research topic.
Attempts at reconstructing the history of a Diocese of just two decades was not an easy one, not that it was not researchable, but because of the fact that there were few written and documented works on the topic. More than two decades now, the published literary scene on Nsukka Diocese was a little better than a desert. The literature on history of the Catholic Church in Nsukka has happily started growing because of the Roman Catholic Church celebration of centenary of Catholic faith, that is, hundred years of Catholicism, 1910 to 2011 in Nsukka.
The research work made use of both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were oral interviews conducted in the Diocese. Material from National Archives, Enugu, equally constituted the primary source. Materials from Bigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu, the Shepherd Newspaper, Nsukka, the StarliteNewspaper, Nsukka, magazines, government publications, journals and works of students of Department of Religion, and History and International Studies, all contributed immensely in enriching the sources of the researcher’s materials. Analysis, interpretations and re-interpretations of the information distilled from the above sources have been attempted in the study.
On the organization and chapterization, the work was organized into five chapters, with the first chapter serving as introduction. Chapter Two examines historical evolution and development of Catholicism in Nsukka Diocese. In Chapter Three, the Bishop’s leadership and governing of the Diocese was examined, while Chapter Four discussed the impact of the creation of Nsukka Diocese on the growth and development of Catholicism. Then, the final Chapter Five summarized and concluded the work.
Regional integration is not a new idea or initiative in Africa. Along with the creation of African common market it has been fueling division of African leaders for the past 45 decade. In fact, the creation of the 0rganisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1964 reflected the awareness, by the leaders of the day that Africans strength was rooted in Pan-Africa cooperation.1 The Southern Rhodesia Custom Union was established in 1949 and the East African community in 1967(Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). 2 So far, United Africa has a long history and is the unique product of social and cultural attitude of Africa, today, the African Union (AU) is an entity that continues to work for the integration in the continent to enable it plays its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multi-faceted socio-economic and political problem. The advent of the Organization now known (AU) is described as an advent of great magnitude in the institutional evolution of the continent.3
In a 1959, speech from Kwame Nkrumah, Ideological father of the African Union. He stated that in Ghana, we regard our independence as meaningless unless we are able to use the freedom that goes with it to help other African people to be free and independent, to liberate the entire continent of Africa from foreign dehumanization and ultimately to establish a union of African state. 4”Of all sins Africa can commit, the sins of despair will be most unforgivable……..unity will not make us rich, but it can make it difficult for –Africa and the African people to be disregarded and humiliated——My generation led Africa to political freedom. The current generation of leadership and people of Africa must pick up the flickering touch of African freedom to refuel it with their enthusiasm and determination, and carry it forward” 5 (President Nyerere, former President of Tanzania at the 40th anniversary of Ghana’s independent,1997)
The historical foundations of African Union originated in the union of African States. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established on May 25th 1963. 6 It remained the collective voice for the continent until 2002.The intended purpose of the OAU was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States in a time of independent movements. The OAU also aimed to ensure that all African States enjoy human right, raise the living standard of all Africans and settle arguments and dispute between member states. 7
In the charter of the Organization of African Unity adopted in 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, African States became committed to work together to coordinate and intensify their cooperation and effort to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. The OAU Struggle to enforce its decision and its lack of an army made it difficult to intervene in civil wars and countries struggling with colonialism. The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states also restricted the OAU in achieving its goals. Consensus was difficult to achieve within the organization. The French colonies, the Pro-capitalist and the Pro-socialist faction during the cold war, all had their agenda and made it very difficult to reach an agreement on what had to be done. Through the difficulties and struggles the OAU endured, it still provides a forum that enabled member states to adopt coordinated positions on the matter of common concern. For example, through the OAU coordinating committee for the liberation of Africa, the organization worked and succeeded in forging a consensus in support of liberation struggle and the fight against apartheid. 8
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The African Union was formed to cater for the needs and aspiration of member states amongst the various set objectives
*Achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the other people of Africa
*Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its member states
*Accelerate the political and socio- economic integration of the continent
*Promote and defend African common position on issues of interest to the continent and its people
*Encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the charter of the United Nation and the check of human rights.
*Work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent
*To promote democratic principle and institutional popular participation and good governance and also protect human and people’s right in accordance with African charter on human and people right and other relevant human rights instrument.
*Establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negotiations.
*Promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural level as well as the integration of African economies
*Promote cooperation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standard of African people
*Promote peace, security, and stability on the continent. 9
The wish of the founders of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was largely informed by the desire of Pan-Africanist who believed that it is the only full political unity that will end the Pan-African struggle. Apart from the of lack of a common culture and language that divides African states there is more fundamental problem of lack of effective leadership in the search for unity.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is very significant in the sense that it sought to look at the peaceful transformation of the African Union from the Organization of African Unity. The role of the Organization of African Unity in the socio-economic, political and cultural well being of the African cannot be over emphasizes, so therefore, any study that will encompass the organization of African Unity and her transformation to this modern union in a shrinking globalized world where all political and frontier barriers are being broken down is very significant, because it will shed more light on the polemics of this union
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work shall essentially be limited to the Organization of African Unity (OAU), her aim and objective and factors that precipitated to her transformation from Organization of African Unity (OAU) to African Union (AU) it shall therefore pre-suppose that this study shall cover the period of 2003 when the original idea of African Union was limited
1.5 PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY
The problem this researcher encountered were basically was that of the refusal of most competent scholars to discuss at length with the researcher. Alongside this was also time constraints because this research work is being embarked upon in conjunction with other academic work, and also the researcher was faced the problems of funds because among areas visited was the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, V.I. Lagos, the Ministry of Foreign affairs, Abuja, ECOWAS secretariat, Abuja and the A.U, Office also in Abuja. Be that it may be, the challenges were quite interesting and the researcher believes that they were worth the while.
This research shall adopt a two way analysis. It shall be using the primary and the secondary source of data collections and analysis. The primary source shall rely heavily on materials of people in the diplomatic spheres and scholars in foreign policy, while secondary source shall rely heavily on journals, books, magazines, published work and other media materials of day to day research.
1.7 LITERATURE REVIEW
Books are the major important tool in any research work; it is therefore interactive that literature pertaining the work shall be consulted. Conflict expert agree that to completely resolve a conflict, its root cause have to be removed first. It was in this regard that the African Union Partner with the United Nations (UN), having recognized the link between war and poverty. As Africa has started going into close cooperation with regional Organization of African Unity (OAU), now the African Union (AU).A Nigerian diplomat to the African Union, Shinkaiye in his book “Nigeria and the African Union, Role and Expectations in which the situations that transpire before it was changed from Organization of African Unity (OAU) to African Union (AU) discussed extensively the entire process of the transformation. 10
Akinsanya 11 this book laid more emphasis on the importance of transforming from Organization of African Unity to African Union In the year 2002.Another scholar Oyobaira in a book written by him “Political Stability and African Union ”. 12 In another book, Nigeria, the AU and the Challenge of Regional Integration by a renowned senior researcher, Oche in the division of International law also contributed to the study of the transformation of Organization of African Unity (OAU) to African Union (AU).13
The contribution of Olokun, an economist cannot be overlooked in the quest of the Journey so far of the Organization of African Unity to African Union, his contribution through a material.”The role of Nigeria in the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) the material gives us an opportunity to
(1)Revisit AU/NEPAD perspective for effective knowledge.
(2)Take another look at the status of the integration in Africa in terms of progress so far.
(3)Present some key challenges faced and explore possible solutions.
(4) Impact of relationship between the Europe and Africa Regional Organization on rural livelihood on the continent.
(5) A call to Europe to write towards effective partnership with African especially its regional bodies.14
Another review to be considered here is the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in its two reports on assessing Regional Integration in Africa (ARIA 1&2) issued in 2004 and 2006 15 respectively, provide a deep analysis as well as a detailed picture of what constitutes the current situation of regional integration in Africa.
Kusa is a political scientist who, in her book “Nigeria and the Challenges of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism(APRM) 16 also talks about the importance of (NEPAD) in the growing of the African Union(AU) and the mechanism for review which provide the means of monitoring progress toward good economic, cooperate and political government in Africa including challenges.
Notes and References
1. Maitre Abdoulaye wade, “Francophone and Anglophone Divide Approach to Sub-regional security and Development in the next decade”, being text of lecture delivered at the inauguration ceremony of the 13th Regular Course of the National War College of Nigeria, held at the College Auditorium. See details in New Soja (Abuja, Directorate of Army, Public), 6th issue, 2004, pp.94-96
5. Bola A. Akinterinwa ( ed.,) Nigeria’s national Interest in a Globalizing World: Further Reflections on Constructive and Beneficial Concentricism (Ibadan: Vantage Publishers, 2005), forthcoming
6. New Soja (Abuja), Sixth Issue, 2004, p.94
7. See AU Press Release, No. 062/2003, Addis Ababa, July 31, 2003
8. Akinjide Osuntokun “An Academic in Government: Reflection on my Service in the Ministry of External Affairs, 1988-1995”, in Bola A. Akinterinwa (ed.), Nigeria’s New Foreign Policy Thrust: Essays in Honour of ,Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji, CON (Ibadan: Vantage Publishers, 2004), p.42
9. Bola A. Akinterinwa, “Africa in Nigeria’s Foreign Policy, 1960-2005: Beyond Forty-Five Years of Unwavering Commitment” (Ibadan: Vantage Publishers, 2005)
For decades now, fast changes have been taking place in all facets of human life including the office environment. This is as a result of technological advancement. Every office in today’s business world, be it government, industry or other human endeavors, require facts and accurate information for quick decision-making. The office worker, including the secretary, expects certain support from the organization into which he/she is employed. This support can be technological (machines and equipment) and human. In offices of past, manager’s dictated memos and letters and secretaries typed them. Most recently, business have developed word processing centers and relied on personal computers and even electronic mail in an effort to lessen the need for secretarial support and make the employee-secretary very productive (Ezoem, 1995; Osuala, 2004).
As a result of changes in technology, the role of secretaries in business has changed tremendously from that of typewriting and shorthand dictation, answering of telephone calls and processing of mails. Today’s secretaries are exposed to office technology including the internet that make work much easier and knowledge more accessible (Edwin, 2008). It is now easier to send messages by telex, electronic mails (e-mails), fax and telephones. Other office gadgets available to the secretary are photo-copy machines, duplicating machines, dictating machines, printers, among others. This is the era of computers and information technology which has become an enabler of greater convenience. Three of the most popular types of computer software programs are word processing, which help the user to write and edit memos, letters and reports, data management programs or databases, which help the user/ secretary to use long lists of data and spreadsheet programs, which handle tables and numbers (Dulek and Fielden, 1999).
Secretaries now have many technologically advanced office gadgets to ease their jobs and enhance proficiency and productivity leading to improved access to goods and services globally (Wofersohn, 2001). There are wide range of office machines and equipment which now enable secretaries to improve their performances. Such new machines take the form of electronic typewriters that have replaced the manual ones. Word processors with milt-purpose facilities, computers and other sophisticated office machines and equipment are now provided by employers. Some of the physical equipment used by secretaries includes computer communication equipment and electronic pocket organizers (Lucas, 1997). New technological equipment that has altered the procedures and technique for office functions include the computers, electronic mail/ commerce, voice mail, and the Internet.
However, these new developments brought by technological challenges require even more knowledge and skills beyond being a professional secretary. For the secretary to be abreast with the changing times, face the challenges and overcome the old ways of doing things she or he needs training requirements in recent times to help meet organizational objectives. Information technology has affected many professions in recent times. The roles of secretarial professionals have been turned around by technology. It has provided the tools that shift the role of secretaries from that of information recorders to business strategists (Appah and Emeh, 2011). Several other authors are of the view that the secretary has to be well equipped to meet the present challenges of a modern office.
The ministry of Education is one of the key ministries for the Government of Ghana. The overall goal of the Ministry is to provide relevant and quality education for all Ghanaians especially the disadvantaged to enable them acquire skills which will make them functionally literate and productive to facilitate poverty alleviation and promote the rapid socio-economic growth of the country. In order to achieve its broad objectives the ministry has employed a significant number of secretaries to perform clerical works. This study seeks to examine the level of productivity of the secretaries in the context of modern office technologies.
1.2. Statement of The Research Problem
An automated office, undoubtedly, offers new roles and responsibilities for the secretary. Such new roles presuppose that additional training and qualifications are required from the secretaries. The relevance of automation in business was identified by Aromolaran (2003) as follows
i.) Creating a distinct career path for the secretary.
ii.) Automation creates a prominent place for the secretary on the organization chart.
iii.) It creates routine and assigned roles for the secretary.
iv.) With automation the secretary now spends less time in correcting, revising, proof-reading and reproducing documents.
Cameron (1982), a very long time ago, commented that it takes up to 10 to 15 years between the introduction of new equipment in the market and its installation in small organizations. This is particularly peculiar to private business organizations in developing countries. In modern times, it is not uncommon to find some organizations still subjecting secretaries to the use of manual typewriters. When secretaries are not provided with efficient and effective working tools, productivity is definitely bound to be low.
Duniya (2011) also observed that due to the introduction of sophisticated technological (electronic) office equipment into today’s office and the role secretaries need to play in ensuring accuracy and efficiency in their jobs, the secretaries need to meet the challenges by acquiring new skills and competencies for efficient operations in the electronic office. There is continuous advancement in technology which has affected the secretarial profession in terms of the quality, speed and accuracy of works performed.
This study is therefore undertaken in order to gain understanding about the perception of students on office technologies on secretaries’ productivity in Osun state polytechnic, Iree
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of modern office technologies on secretaries’ level of productivity at the Head office of the Ministry of Education. Specifically, the research aims at achieving the following objectives.
1. To ascertain the range of new office technologies existent in Osun state polytechnic
2. To investigate the level of usage of these new office technologies in Osun state polytechnic
3. To identify the level of productivity of the secretaries in Osun state polytechnic
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the objectives of this study a number of questions would be explored. Consistent with the topic and objectives the following questions will guide the study;
1. What are new office technologies in Osun state polytechnic?
2. What range of new office technologies exist in Osun state polytechnic?
3. What is productivity and how is it measured in Osun state polytechnic?
4. Does the introduction of office technologies impact on secretaries’ productivity?
1.5 Scope of the Study
Geographically, the study covers Osun state polytechnic, Iree, which is situated at the ministry enclave in the Accra metropolis as a case study. Contextually, the study focuses on students perceptions technologies and their impact on secretaries’ productivity.
1.6 Significance of the Study
To date, just a handful studies have been published that looks at modern office technologies and secretaries’ productivity in African nations and more particularly, in Nigeria. This study intends to contribute to a greater comprehension of the subject of matter. From a practitioner’s perspective, the results of the study will provide a benchmark that can be used in assessing the effectiveness of the implementation of new office technologies in an office environment as well as define key productivity factors.
Finally, this study will provide a foundation for future researches as this will serve as a motivation for many researchers to further examine other aspects of the subject matter.
1.7 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one of the thesis discusses the overview of the study, problem definition, research question, research objectives, significance of the study. Chapter two presents all the relevant literature review on waste management and its related concepts. Chapter three addresses the identification of the most suitable research methodology for this research and chapter four presents a data analysis of findings gathered from the field. Finally, chapter five presents the summary of findings, conclusion, and made relevant recommendations.
Uzuakoli is an ancient chiefdom in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State. It is made up of five villages: Amamba, Eluoma, Ngwu, Amankwo and Agbozu. It is believed that Ozu had five brave sons whose names were Oma, Ngwu, Mbah, Nkwo and Ozo. When these sons grew up, they built their homes a little further away from their father’s, which became the central meeting point.
It is from their five homes that the five villages which make up Uzuakoli developed. The five villages united to form Uzuakoli, a compound of the names of their father, Ozu, and their grandfather Akoli, the name was corrupted to Uzuakoli by the railway authorities and Uzuakoli is the version generally used today.
Uzuakoli has a total landscape of 28.8 square kilometers, bounded in the North by Lohum; East by Ozuitem; and South by Ubani and Lodu Imenyi, respectively. It falls between 7.32 and 8.36 East of the Equator. The climate of the area does not differ from the rest of the rain forest belt of Eastern Nigeria. Uzuakoli enjoys a warm tropical climate with well-defined wet and dry seasons.
Prior to the establishment of colonial rule in Igbo hinterland, Uzuakoli was a notable slave market with many middlemen from Awka, Aro, Bende and surrounding communities living and trading there. It assumed this role of an important slave market after the colonial military conquest of Bende in1896, which robbed the latter of her middlemen role as a slave market to the Aro and thus the Aro moved over to nearby Uzuakoli that was a more central location and had long lobbied for the market. Slaves were bought at Eke-oba and Eke-Ukwu (the two markets made up the Abangwu market in Uzuakoli), and taken through the slave route to Bende via Ozuitem, Arochukwu and then transported oversea through Cross River State. Apart from slave trade, Uzuakoli has remained an agrarian society noted mostly for yam and cocoyam cultivation/production with a population of 60, 000 according to the 2006 census result.
The origin of modern education in Nigeria dates back to September 24,1842 when Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman and Mr. and Mrs. William De Graft of the Wesleyan Methodist arrived Badagry to start both Christian and education work. Later, other missions such as the Church Missionary Society (CMS), the Roman Catholic Mission and the United Presbyterian Church arrived Nigeria for the same purpose. The origin of 19th century missions in Nigeria followed the evangelical revival movements in Europe during the late 18th century. The European evangelical movement was due largely to the work of John Wesley. Wesley’s challenge to the established Anglican Church, led to the anticlerical and evangelical movements and, consequently, to the “Protestant awakening” which swept across Europe and America in the 19th century. This awakening demanded renewed zeal and commitment on the part of individual Christians as well as deep concern for the personal act of conversion. It was Wesley’s message that strengthened the desire for missionary work. Other missionary groups represented in Nigeria were the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church, Adventist, Baptist of Scotland, and the Baptists from the (American) Southern Baptist Convention, Society of African Missions (the Catholic Mission) from France and the Primitive Methodist Mission.
Colonial rule, which was also a driving force in the missionary process, was not established in Igbo hinterland until after 1900. The Aro-Expedition of 1901-1902 opened the Igbo hinterland and touched off a scramble among missionary bodies of various hues. The work of the missionaries in Southern Nigeria was not easy sailing. For a while, a few Africans and their rulers patronized the missionary enterprise, others rejected its intrusion in any form. On the whole, support or lack of it for missionary work was greatly influenced by internal developments in Southern Nigeria. Further invitations arose out of schisms over joint ownership of church bells, personality clashes or inter-village rivalry. The differences in ideology and orientation of the foreign missionaries touched off rivalry by among then to outwit each other in the capture of adherents. As it became difficult to convert adults in the African society, education was seen as the easiest and most sustainable way of winning converts. As children educated in the school of a particular mission sect, grew up to automatically become adherents/propagators of that denomination of Christian faith.
The Primitive Methodist Mission first came into Africa in 1870 through Fernando Po (present day Equatorial Guinea).It was then a Spanish territory. They built a station and started evangelical work, but their progress was hampered by the activities of the Spanish Catholic Mission who later banned it. The mission started making plans in 1890 to move to a British controlled territory and Nigeria was chosen as the new location. Archibong Town became the first town in which the mission settled in Nigeria in 1893 and by 1895, a church, a school and a mission house were built there. Later they moved to Oron, Adadia, Ikot-Ekpene and the environs. Reverend William Christie, a Scot, was instrumental to the occupation of many of these towns. Having also realized the importance of education to evangelism, the Primitive Methodist Mission built in 1905 Training Institute at Oron, to train catechist and teachers to further their imperialistic cum missionary agenda. The British conquest of Arochukwu and subsequent destruction of its famed Ibinu-Ukpabi, encouraged the mission to begin to consider the idea of venturing into Igbo hinterland for evangelization.
Reverend William Christie first made a start at Arriam (Erriam) and later Ndioro in Ikwuano LGA Umuahia, but failed to get a footing there. Relief came his way when the Bende District Officer, Major W.A.E. Cockburn who placed a high premium on Christian missionary enterprise, invited him. He was convinced that Bende people would be friendly and quite disposed to the whiteman.Bende District was by that time having its first contact with European Missionaries in this period (1909-1910).Reverend Christie had a hostile reception at Uzuakoli, a slave market, which attracted a wide clientele. The colonial government officials and missionaries discovered to their chagrin, the role of the middlemen in the lucrative trade. Equally, endemic fighting was reported as exceedingly common.However, Christie was impressed with Uzuakoli and its avenues and the planned quarters of the various trading groups from Abiriba, Arochukwu, the Delta areas, Awka and Onitsha.Before he passed the gauntlet on to Reverend Dodds, he paid a few more visits to Uzuakoli and prepared the ground for its effective missionary occupation by stationing a teacher there in October 1910. The latter conducted regular Sunday services in his bid to build a church in the town. Reverend Dodds on assumption of office continued to press on and in 1912 established a small church in Uzuakoli and Mr. Dappa was sent to the town to nurse the new church to life.
To provide teachers for the churches and primary schools that were springing up in Igboland, Reverend Dodds had in 1913 sent some boys to the Training School at Oron. Due to the far location of Oron from Uzuakoli, Bende, Isuikwuato, and the inadequate means of transportation, the idea of building an institute in the Igbo hinterland similar to that at Oron started gaining momentum.
The introduction of Western education became possible when at its maiden Synod in Eastern Nigeria, the Council of Primitive Methodist ministers in Nigeria, made the following observation:
Our object is in general terms, the spread of specifically Christian education for the African as an African. Stated more generally, it is an attempt to provide education not merely as an independent good, or as a means to material ends, but also in definite relation to his spiritual foundations of life as exhibited in the teaching of Jesus Christ, and at the same time to relate the instruction to African life so that the product may be truly African as the native material provided.
Thus, right from the very beginning, the Primitive Methodist was committed to providing it’s converts with ‘Christian education’. For the missionaries, evangelism was to be promoted through formal education. Another reason education was seen as critical to evangelism was the need on the part of both the teachers and the newly converted to acquire the skills of reading the Bible and writing in the white man’s language. Consequently, missionaries turned their attention to youths and schools as sources of conversion because they soon realized, to their utter dismay, the futility of trying to convert influential men in the Igbo society.
A central site was sought for the establishment of the Primitive Methodist and an Institute in Igboland; Bende that provided a strong foothold for the mission, was considered too remote. The railway line that crossed Uzuakoli in 1915, gave it an added advantage over other villages since it made for easy communication.
The theory used for this study is the Social Systems Theory and Structural Functionalism: The social system theory is a collection of interrelated parts which form some whole, using an organismic metaphor to describe formal organizations (schools) with the same principles and concepts used to describe biological organisms. General systems theory is most closely associated with Ludwig Von Bertalanffy, whose work in the 1920s and 1930s captured the dynamic relationship between biological organisms and their environment. A Viennese biologist, Bertalanffy brought together the common principle of an evolving systems approach in such diverse disciplines as biology, the social sciences and economics under the rubric of general systems theory. He defined a system as “sets of elements standing in interrelation”
General system theory provides concepts that are useful for understanding and analyzing the functioning of schools and the broader context in which they function. Schools are social systems and like all social systems, there are inputs, processing and output system; a system of interdependent parts to achieve a goal. Schools are specific type of social system that sociologists label ‘formal organizations’ unlike informal organizations that are more typically less organized, schools like Methodist College, Uzuakoli have been painfully and carefully instituted to accomplish specific objectives and typically have more rigidly enforced rules and norms that govern social interaction and performance.
Edgar Schein described two major goals of social system, such as schools that interact in a highly interdependent state: (1) external adaptation, which addresses the mission and purpose of the system, and (2) internal integration, which addresses the internal functioning of the system. A school without internal bond of commitment, supportive cohesion, a sense of caring and support is unlikely to achieve its mission.In the context of managing the problems of external adaptation and internal integration, social systems develop group boundaries that define insider and outsiders and rules for behavior that regulate interactions and exchanges. Over time, they also develop cultures, which Schein defines as:
a pattern of basic assumptions-invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration-that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems to achieving system level goals and objectives.
To fully understand the social system theory as it relates to this study, one has to bear in mind, the reason for the establishment of Methodist College, Uzuakoli. The missionaries’ aim of coming to Africa, or the so-called ‘heathen lands’ as Africa was called then, was primarily for evangelization of the Christian faith as seen from their own societies ideology as distinct from that of the other Christian missionaries. The differences in ideology and orientation of the foreign missionaries touched off a rivalry between them to outwit each other in the capture of adherents. As it became difficult to convert adults in the African society, education was seen as the easiest and most sustainable way of winning converts. Again, education appealed to the Africans in different ways. It was a means of knowing the ways of the whiteman and integrating fully into his new system of economic and political ideals. So, education by the missionaries was not seen as an end in itself, but as a means to an end. Missionaries used Western education to train Africans as catechists, messengers, and other positions needed to assist them in realizing their desired objectives and those of their colonial cohorts. To achieve that aim, clergymen were appointed as principals, while most of the teachers were Methodists who were trained teachers in training institutes owned by the Methodist Mission. The curriculum apart from having subjects in the arts and sciences, also have a strong religious and moral instruction imbibed in them. A former old boy of Methodist College Uzuakoli noted, ‘your teacher was first of all your pastor before he becomes a teacher’. So according to Edgar Schein’s two goals of a social system (1) external adaptation, which addresses the mission and purpose of the system-which addressed the mission and purpose for the establishment of the college, was the mission’s need for converts in South-Eastern Nigeria, Schein’s number two goal of a social system-internal integration, which addresses the internal functioning of the system was achieved by appointment of clergy men as principals, trained teachers, and the introduction of curriculum which placed overwhelming emphasis on religious education. They practiced strict student admission process and creation of a strong moral/religious discipline. All these factors worked in synergy to achieve the purpose of the missionaries just like that of an organism.
Statement of the Problem
Methodist College, Uzuakoli, is one of the foremost elitist secondary schools in Eastern Nigeria contemporaneous with Methodist College, Ibadan; Dennis Memorial, Onitsha; Hope Waddell, Calabar; and the Government College, Umuahia. It has produced notable men in all areas of human endeavors in Igboland and Nigeria. It’s role in the development of manpower that have helped to shape the future of Igboland in particular and Nigeria in general is well known.From inception in 1923 to the present, this role has not received scholarly attention. This work is undertaken to bridge this important but neglected theme. However,the Civil War of 1967-1970 completely destroyed and ruined the College. At the end of the war, it came under Government control, which led to deterioration in morals, management and educational standard of the College. This period of the College’s history is yet to be researched and documented.
Purpose of Study
The aim of the study is to preserve for posterity, the history, role, and achievement of the Methodist College Uzuakoli in the annals of educational and manpower development of Nigeria. The little that has been written about the institution cannot be said to be comprehensive enough for a fuller understanding of the role and place of this famous Institution in the educational life of the Igbo people in particular and Nigeria in general. Its impact on the development of Uzuakoli is yet to be assessed. The history of the College during the inter-war year and afterwards has been ignored. These are the lacuna this work attempts to bridge.
Significance of Study
The Study will help to better appreciate the role Missionary schools like Methodist College Uzuakoli have played in Manpower development in pre and post independent Igboland and Nigeria.The work will also serve as a reference point to policy makers on education, to past and present students of the college and other general readers. It will help to guide those seeking reforms in our education sector to know the history of our educational development vis-à-vis Methodist College, Uzuakoli and draw one or two examples of what is needed to improve the standard of our education.
Scope of Study
The study start with the establishment of the Ibo Boys Institute,Uzuakoli that later became Methodist College, Uzuakoli in 1923. It ends in 2012 when the College was handed back to the Methodist church after the state government’s initial takeover in 1970.
As earlier stated, the history of western education in Nigeria is, to a great extent, the history of the activities of the missionary societies that came into Nigeria. The origin of modern education in Nigeria dates back to September 24, 1842 when the first Wesleyan Missionaries landed in Nigeria and began evangelization. Then education was seen as a major part of that goal. Since then, it has been a history of mixed fortunes for the Nigerian educational sector.
H.C. Ogbonnaya et al, Methodist College Uzuakoli: A Short History  is an attempt by the Old Boys Association of Uzuakoli to produce a written history of their alma mater. The work gives a brief history of the College from its establishment in 1923 to the aftermath of Nigerian civil war, with the bulk of the work focusing on the period between Nigeria’s independence in 1960 to the start of the civil war. The work on the whole is exploratory and presented on a pamphlet; it gives this research work a good background. However, the present work intends to give a more detailed and comprehensive history of the College beyond the start of the civil war and the period of government administration.
S.K. Okpo, A brief History of the Methodist Church in Eastern Nigeria offers a brief history of the Methodist Church from the time of the landing of the Primitive Missions in Fernando Po, to the indigenization in 1976. It examined the efforts of the Methodist Mission in spreading the gospel in various parts of Eastern Nigeria. The contribution of foreigners as well as Nigerians to the mission was greatly appraised by Okpo’s work.
The interest of the work to this research is the author’s concise narrative of the efforts of the mission towards the development of education starting from the Oron Institute; Ibo Boys Institute; and efforts at women education championed by Miss Amy Richardson and Mrs. Langley. On the whole, the work details the contributions of education as it concerns the training of ministers for evangelizations. The work is very useful to any enthusiast of the Methodist faith and history, as it details the efforts of the Methodist Missionary enterprise in Eastern Nigeria, but did not extend to 2012. Hence, the need for this research.
Francis Anyika’sMethodism in Igboland, Eastern Nigeria, 1910-1932 , offers a detailed analysis of the beginning of Primitive Methodism in Nigeria, to the time of its unification with the Wesleyan Methodist sect, which was predominant in Southwestern Nigeria. Anyika divides the thrust of the primitive mission in Igboland into three stages, namely: the first advance, which covered the period, 1911-1914; the second advance which covered 1915-1919; and the third advance covering 1920-1925. The work by Anyika also treated factors that threatened the evangelization drive; varying from the hostility of some Igbo communities, the paucity of personnel and outbreak of the First World War. This informed the need of the mission to educate the indigenous populace to compliment the work of the few Europeans in Igboland. Anyika’s book further looks at the establishment of the Methodist College and its development up to 1932. Beyond this date, further development of the College was left untreated.
F. K. Ekechi’s,Missionary Enterprise and Rivalry in Igboland, 1857-1914 concentrates on the Anglican Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) and the Roman Catholic Holy Ghost Fathers (C.S.Sp.). A major theme of the work is the rivalry of these two missionary bodies, and in examining this, he makes considerable use of the archives of both societies. With the penetration of the interior by the missionaries there also came rivalry, and with its policy of education, the Catholic missionaries gained the upper hand. The C.S.Sp. were quick to cooperate with government educational plans: they realized the status-conferring quality of education and the attraction that this might have for the Ibo. The C.M.S. lost many of their students to the ‘secular education’ of the Catholic mission. The story was similar in Calabar, as the Efik grew dissatisfied with the education offered by the Presbyterian mission: they thought it ‘too religious’. The Catholics seemed to have been able to foresee the attraction of education earlier than the C.M.S did. The work by Ekechi is basically on the rivalry between two mission societies in South-Eastern Nigeria and its implications for educational development in Eastern Nigeria. Though the study takes Onitsha, as it’s focal, the facts therein are a reflection of the general state of affairs of missionary education during the colonial era in other areas of Igboland.
This study is about the Digawa Muslims of Danzomo town in Sule Tankarkar Local Government of Jigawa State, Nigeria. The Digawa Muslims are also found in other areas of the State such as ‘Yandamo, Jikai, Umarni, Babbansara, Digawar-Tudu, Saidawa, Dorai, Galma, Buduma and Zai.
Data for this study were collected through primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected using random oral interviews both individual and groups. The Digawa are not ethnic group, but a religious group that follow Sufi teaching of shunning away from all that is evil and the glitters of the world.
The concept of Al-uzlah (isolation) enables them to keep away from all that is evil. This warrant their establishment of Zawaya (Digawa enclosures). So, their attitude of withdrawing from other peoples’ religious, social, and political activities made most people to be ignorant about them.
In essence, this study is an attempt to provide a concise history of these people.
All forms of armed groups which engages in criminal activities such as; ethnic armed groups, militia groups, terrorist, insurgent, vigilantes and gang groups, including cultists pose a great threat to the security of the Nigerian state. Most of these groups use coercive force to achieve political, economic and self relevance social goals in opposition to the state.1It must be noted that much as these armed groups engage in crimes and criminality some of them also act as security guards and vigilante. For instance, in Lagos state, the ethnic militia group known as OPC was given the contract to ensure security in all Mobil filling stations around Surulere and most parts of Lagos mainland. The point in emphasis is that, several ethnic armed or militia groups in different states have emerged over the years to defend or advance their self-enlightened interests.2
In Nigeria today, a number of armed groups have taken the centre stage. As for the Oodua People’s Congress, it started as a pan Yoruba socio-political organisation which was formed in Lagos in the year 1994. Its main objective was to promote and defend the interests of the Yoruba peoples on national issues. However, by 1995 it metamorphosed into a militia group which till date has two factions due to divergence in ideologies of the leadership.3 Thus, the ethnic militia groups in Nigeria today include Oodua People’s Congress (OPC), Egbesu Boys of Africa (EBA), Movement for the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), Niger Delta Peoples Volunteer Force (NDPVF), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) and so on.4
OPC was formed by a number of Yoruba elites who tried to use the organisation to challenge and register their displeasure against the Nigerian military government. Consequently, the organisation began to spread like wild fire across Western states. Its membership today is drawn from existing vigilantes, street/cult gangs, area boys (agbero), members of National Union of Road and Transport Workers (NURTW), miscreants and even bandits.5
The Oodua People’s Congress was named after Oduduwa the mythological ancestor of the Yoruba ethnic group. The Odua People Congress (OPC) is one of the largest ethnic militias in today’s Nigeria. The OPC is very influential in the states demographically dominated by the Yoruba in the Southwest. The OPC’s official objectives are set out in its constitution. The OPC’s objectives are;
to identify with our historical and cultural origin with a view to re- living the glory of our past for the purpose of posterity; to educate and mobilize the descendants of Oduduwa for the purpose of the above; to integrate the aspirations and values of all the descendants of Oduduwa into a collective platform of an Oodua entity; to monitor the various interests of descendants of Oduduwa … and struggle for the protection of these interests; … to further the progress of Oodua civilization by protection and promoting our value, mores and the inter-generational transmission of same6
One of OPC’s main claims is the organisation of a Sovereign National Conference designed to redraw the rules of the Federation. Today’s OPC claims to have several million members spread worldwide.7The main bulk of these members obviously concentrate in Yorubaland, mainly consisting of the six states of the former South-western region (Lagos, Edo, Ekiti, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Ondo) plus the States of Kwara and Kogi. Other supporters live in the Yoruba part of the Republic of Bénin or belong to the Diaspora in North America or Europe.8
Well if this is true, it must be note worthy that, the organisation is characterised by both active and inactive members. The inactive members are those who have a membership card and are gainfully employed. These inactive members cannot be seen around except on general mobilisation. While, the active ones are those who roam about aimlessly, waiting for mobilisation and are easily engaged informally for several purpose.
The OPC was created under very specific circumstances characterised by promises of democratic transition and fierce repression of political opposition, under a corrupt post-independence military rule. Interestingly, its founder Frederick Fasehun, a prosperous medical doctor, was known to be a human rights activist before becoming an ethnic leader. To him, this shift of ideological focus was self-imposed. It stemmed from his personal utter conviction that the ruling Northern military elite would not hand over power to civilians after it annulled the “June, 12” elections in 1993. These elections were supposed to put an end to the military era. Moshood Abiola, a rich Yoruba probably came first in the ballot but never enjoyed his victory as the military regime promptly annulled the vote, creating a tremendous trauma among Nigerians and, particularly the Yoruba. In the aftermath of the annulment, the fierce dictatorship of Sani Abacha, the military ruler who overthrew the Interim National Government installed by Babangida after the elections, led many human rights activists and democrats often Yoruba from the National Democratic Coalition (NADECO) to which Fasehun belonged to clandestine life. Many among them got killed. Fasehun’s rhetoric then clearly took a racialist turn. Defending the Yoruba “race” became a matter of survival against the hegemonic ambitions of the Northerners:
“The Yoruba are no longer considered disfavoured second-class citizens but have become enemies that must be hounded into exile, haunted into detention, humiliated, dehumanised, and marked to be wiped off the surface of Nigeria”.9
The OPC was created in August 1994, apparently godfathered by prominent Yoruba political and cultural figures.10In December 1996, Fasehun was incarcerated. This changed the nature of the movement, OPC became a violent organisation in 1996 after its founder was thrown into detention by the Abacha military junta. This incident made the OPC members feel that the Nigerian problems could not be solved peacefully. Three more years were needed to actually witness serious violence perpetrated by the OPC. For instance, in Lagos reports refer to arrests of many OPC members by the police after attacking, clashing with security forces or storming courts in order to free their colleagues. The organisation managed to recruit and mobilise followers with a remarkable rapidity. By itself, this sudden success tells a lot, it wouldn’t have been possible without the activation of already existing networks and social structures: that is, those organised around the initial prominent godfathers but also more official ones such as professional associations (e.g. transport workers unions) had been in existence prior to this time. The OPC did not emerge ex nihilo, but was built up on firm social grounds present in the Yoruba society.11
Most of the observers and actors of the OPC consider that the year 1999 was a turning point in the history of the movement: the OPC became involved in gruesome clashes against other ethnic groups, the police and alleged criminal gangs. For example, Idi Araba area of Mushin which is known as the Hausa community came under attack during this period. In the like manner Police Stations in Mushin area and neighbouring streets were burnt down by the OPC. The various confrontations are said to have claimed hundreds of lives.12This shift in OPC’s attitude coincides with the end of the military regime. The appointment of a Yoruba President in 1999 certainly weakens the legitimacy of OPC’s core argument of Yoruba marginalisation since the annulment of 1993 election.
An alleged upsurge in criminal activities and violence progressively transformed the OPC into a self-defence movement and, crucially, the rise of young and charismatic challenger to Fasehun’s hold on the OPC, in the person of Gani Adams. The OPC broke up into two factions in the beginning of 1999.13Gani Adams became the radical flag bearer of a generation which was largely of low quality of education.14Very importantly, while Fasehun seemingly considered that OPC youths “able to flex their muscles” should remain under the control of educated leaders, Gani Adams’ perspective on what a good OPC member is the “loose molecule” type presented above:
“We don’t like to bother ourselves with people from a capitalist background or rich people because they can only behave like sympathisers to the struggle and can be difficult to be devoted member. The real people are the frustrated people on the street who are deprived one way or the other. They have the will and courage to fight. For instance, take the student union movement, children of rich people do not bother to join such movement to fight for their rights, it is only student from deprived homes who are often at the forefront of the battle.”15
Gani Adams’ OPC has the same political goals as Fasehun’s. The shift is organisational rather than political or ideological.16Gani Adams’ new philosophy in recruitment is said to have provoked the partial progressive criminalisation of the OPC. As explained by an informant from the Gani Adams’ faction in Oyo State:
“When we started, we called ourselves youth activist but when the then military started dealing with us, that they killed about 300 at Mushin (a popular neighbourhood of Lagos), then we went back to recruit all sorts of people, area boys, quasi-criminal street boys and any kind of person that was interested. This, to me, led to the loss of focus of the organization leading to the derailing of its initial plans”17
The emphasis of this research is the rise of OPC in Mushin area of Lagos state. Prior to our period of study, Mushin was a suburb of Lagos state until it was later made a local government. It is bounded in the North by Oshodi-Isolo Local Government, in the East by Somolu and in the South by Mainland Local Government. The present day Mushin passed through some historical divisions; in the first place, it was part of the Ikeja Native Authority with its boundary extending to Somolu Local Government. Secondly, by 1976 with the Local Government Edict, Mushin was made independent and the council divided into two namely; Mushin West which covered Mushin, Bariga, Agege Motor Road, Isolo, Shogunle, Onigbongbo, Ejigbo, Odi-Olowo, Ilupeju and Cappa Estate while Mushin East covered Bariga, Somolu and Kosofe. Mushin East became Somolu Local Government.18
Mushin today is renowned for its commercial potentialities where there are well stocked shops and several industries particularly around Ilupeju area. When analysing Mushin, the picture that readily comes to mind is that of a ubiquitous market that sprawled in different directions. Virtually every house and bungalow in Mushin is well stocked with shops and despite the economic difficulties facing Nigeria, commerce in Mushin still blossoms.
Apart from being the center of all kinds of business activities, Mushin is one of the principal markets in Nigeria for office equipment and paper products especially around Papa-Ajao area. There are also different kinds of manufacturing industries in the area like industries producing safes and doors, paper products, shoe designing and printing which remains one of the biggest industries in Mushin. There are also several public corporations like banks owned by the Community Development Associations (CDA) in various parts of Mushin who render financial services and direct investment in the community thus aiding its development.19
However, the research will assess the OPC in Mushin from 1999-2007. This period in Mushin was characterised by series of violence which were organised by the group culminated with factional crisis. In the like manner, the research shall look at how OPC emerged in Mushin area, its ideology, recruitment patterns and how along the line, it became an organisation for the miscreants, delequents, bandits and so on.
This work shall also assess the activities of OPC in Mushin from 1999-2007, which till date have negative effect on the area due to violent clashes within the factions of OPC and more importantly, with other formal organisations like the police and the NURTW just to mention.20
Statement of the Research Problem
The Rise of OPC in Mushin area of Lagos state has drawn the attention of both civil and military governments of Nigeria to its various activities. A good number of literature exist on the Rise of OPC with reference to Mushin, pointing out possible solutions to curb the excesses of the group in the area. Much scholarly attention has not been paid on the OPC in Mushin from 1999- 2007 thereby leaving a gap in existing literature about OPC in Mushin area of Lagos. More so, the activities of OPC in Mushin within this period are yet to be studied. This research however, looks toward filling the enormous gap in the history of OPC in Mushin by appraising their activities within the period 1999-2007: that is, why did OPC which was set up to ensure internal security become a threat to security.
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this work is to conduct a thorough research on the OPC especially in Mushin which remains a core place that have witnessed the adverse effect of the activities of OPC during the period in view. In other words, the rise of OPC in Mushin, its leaderships, operations, recruitment, funding and the positive and negative effect on the political, social and economy of the environment. Hence, the study has the following objectives:
1. Examine critically the state of Mushin before the emergence of OPC. It is important to examine those cogent factors which attracted the organisation into Mushin and constituting till date a large base in the area.
2. Examine the positive and negative impact of OPC in Mushin, its inhabitants, and particularly the youths.
3. Examine the factions of OPC within the environment, challenges within factions, growth, funding and the nature of operation of the factions.
4. Assess the effect of OPC in the political, social and economy of the area during our period of study.
5. Finally, to highlight the various ways by which the government of Lagos state should follow to reduce the devastating impact of OPC on Mushin.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this work spans from 1999 till 2007. To start with, 1999 marked a watershed in the history of the group. It was during this period OPC became involved in multiple gruesome clashes against other ethnic groups, the police and alleged criminal gangs in which Mushin area of Lagos state was not exempted. There were dastardly attacks; people acrimoniously deserted their abodes and confrontations claiming lives.21 Also, Vigilante work, which began on a large scale in 1999, helped consolidating OPC control over disputed areas, but it was also a response to a popular demand in Mushin.
The terminal year of this study is 2007. This year marked the peak of the activities of ethnic militia in Lagos state. It was the year the then governor, Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu was planning to handover to his predecessor. The OPC which had always had the support of the governor was given freehand to operate even as political tugs under the disguise of working with the government and security agents so as to together contain crime in the state in which Mushin was also a major target.22Also, it was the year the new governor launched a military taskforce name OPMESA to curb not just crimes, but to check the excesses of vigilante, NURTW, gang and cult groups and so on in which OPC was not exempted. The geographical scope of this work is centered on Mushin area of Lagos which forms a large base of OPC.
However, there is the challenge of oral interview which may limit the researcher’s ability to have access to the limited resources available. The point in emphasis is that, some of these OPC leaders and other gang members who were contemporaneous of our period in view are either late, destabilize, jailed or may not want one to give their experience or activities a voice.
With this challenge, the researcher intend to meet with sources that are closer to these figures to gain access to them or draw vital informal from them. In furtherance, the researcher looks forward to apply the knowledge acquired in research methodology to tackle the challenges of oral sources.
Justification of Study
This study is embedded in adding to knowledge on the activities of OPC in Mushin. It will identify both the negative and positive activities of the groups so that the negative activities of OPC in the area can serve as deterrent to the innocent people in Mushin. The study will be useful to the State Government in the sense that it will enable her to review its policy on security or on the role of militia groups on security matters. The study will also be useful to Mushin Local Government in the sense that it can assess the activities of the OPC and see how it can make it useful on security matters within Mushin Local Government Area.
This work shall also be useful to agencies involved in internal security operations. Agencies like FRSC, NPF just to name a handful. It will enable the security agencies to re-strategize and transform the OPC as a useful partner on security matters in Lagos State. In the like manner, private security organisations which operate within Mushin will as well find this thesis very useful. Although, a good number of scholars had written on OPC in Nigeria but no study has been centered on the Mushin area.
Imperialism is the policy of state aiming at establishing control beyond its borders over people unwilling to accept such control. Because of this unwillingness imperialist policy always involves the use of power against its victims. Therefore the logic of imperialism is power. It does not stand to reason. Power has no limitation. It is a victorious psychology. It longs for conquest.
The term imperialism as defined here dates back to the last half of the 19th century, but the phenomenon it describes is as old as civilization. Ancient and modern imperialisms have in common not only the end but many means. The ancient Roman Empire developed from the imperial strength of Rome vis-à-vis its weak neighbours. The Communist Russia and USA are using their ideological and technological weapons to spread imperialism over the world today.
In the 15th century A.D Portugal and Spain were the two most powerful countries in Europe. It was in order to avoid conflict between them that the Pope by his Bull divided the world into two parts between Spain and Portugal. With the Papal Bull Spain was given a freehand over South America while Portugal was free to colonize Asia without any interruption. But when other powers in Europe lke France, Britain and Holland, felt themselves sufficiently powerful enough to challenge Spain and Portugal, they asked the Pope if God had given the inheritance of the earth to Spain and Portugal alone. This commercial challenge led to the decline of Spain and Portugal, and prepared the
way for the struggle for the mastery of the earth among France, Holland and Britain.
Holland went down. But the world did not change. The struggle continued between the two giants- France and Britain. This battle was fought in the high seas, in continental Europe, in America, in the Far East and lastly but not the least in Africa. Here other European powers emerged and joined in the struggle. This is imperialism or domination of the weaker outside world in its nakedness.
European imperialism in Africa had confirmed the assertion of Bertrand Russell, a world famous philosopher-critic and an opponent of modern war, in his book- The Principles of Social Reconstruction published in 1916 that is during World War I “Much of the vital energy of the world runs into channels which are oppressive. The Germans have shown themselves extra- ordinarily full of vital energy, but unfortunately in a form which seems incompatible with the vitality of its neighbours. Europe in general has more vital energy than Africa, but it has used its energy to drain Africa through industrialism, of even such life as Negroes possessed. The vitality of the Southeastern Europe is being drained to supply cheap labour for the enterprise of American millionaires. The vitality of men had been in the past a hindrance to the development of women, and it is possible that in the near future women may become a similar hindrance to men”. European imperialism was not restricted to Africa only. Towards the end of the 19th century Poland was portioned between Prussia, Austria and Russia. And in Africa British imperialism swallowed even white settlements like the Orange Free State and Transvaal in South Africa.
At this juncture it is pertinent to ask the following questions.
• What factors led to the imposition of European imperialism on Africa? Why was this successful?
• What was the African reaction to European conquest?
• What was the motivation behind the European political and economic policies in Africa?
• Were European imperialisms the cause of African underdevelopment? Or were they the reasons for the political instability in Africa today?
• Was European racist theory a mere justification of their imperialism? Or can it be supported by any existing historical and sociological explanations? These are the questions to focus attention on.
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF AFRICA
The factors that led to European colonization of Africa were political, economic, social and strategic. Before the 1800s the
relationship between African States and European powers was on an equal basis. But as from the beginning of the 19th century, this relationship underwent a dramatic change. The Europeans were no longer contented to trade with the coastal states of Africa. They wanted to occupy and dominate the continent in order to ensure the effective exploitation of Africa in an age of industrialism. European occupation of Africa was carried out with such a haste and speed that it was known as the scramble for and partition of Africa. Before the end of the 1890s the whole of Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia had been divided among the European powers- Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany and Belgium.
Liberia was saved from European expanasionism by American influence that protected the free slaves from America who were settled in Liberia.
The survival of Ethiopia from the onslaught of the Europian invasion was due to her own strength and diplomacy. Menelik II Emperor or the king of Ethiopia during the period had an agreement of protection with Italy which was written in both Italian and Amaric languages purported Italy’s right to protect Ethiopia. This treaty of protection was one of the tactics that the Europian powers used to claim territories in Africa but in the case of Ethiopia the strategy backfired. Instead Menelik II used the opportunity offered by the treaty to acquire sufficient arms and ammunition from Italy to equip and train a strong army.
Later when Italy attempted to execute the terms of the treaty by imposing her domination on Ethiopia, there was a misunderstanding in the interpretation of the treaty. In the one written in Italian there was protection while in the one written in Ethiopia or Amaric language there was no protection.
Consequently, when Italy wanted to carry out her own side of the agreement there was a stiff opposition from Ethiopia. With a well trained army, equipped with Europian weapon the Ethiopians defeated Italian forces. The defeat of a Europian power by an African kingdom reverberated throughout Europe. This made it easy for Ethiopia, an independent and powerful kingdom, to be reckoned with by other European powers.
Notwithstanding, Menelik II was not contented in preserving the independence of Ethiopia but he also took part in the
scramble and partition of other territories in Africa. He said that he could not sit idly by if distant European Powers came to scramble and apportion Africa, Ethiopia, an ancient kingdom should take part in the scramble. Therefore he was regarded as a scrambler for Africa who happened to be an African. His action contributed to the expansion of Ethiopia. He signed treaties with Britain, France and Italy which defined the boundaries of Ethiopia with British spheres of influence in the Sudan and Kenya and French influence in French Somaliland and Italian influence in Italian Somaliland.
The causes of the scramble or European imperialism need a close examination. One of the factors which led to the scramble was political change in Europe. The emergence of Germany had destroyed the balance of power in Europe. Because of Bismarck’s fire-eating diplomacy and Prussia’s military skill, France was defeated in 1870 and lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany Otto von Bismarch was the Prussian Prime Minister and architect of the brilliant scheme to unify Germany under the aegis of a dominant Prussia. It was largely Bismarch who engineered the circumnstances which led to the Franco – Prussian war, the total defeat of France, the emergence of a powerful German State and the forging of a German empire.
This defeat temporary dimmed the prestige of France in Europe and Asian states especially Japan. The rise of Germany was also a challenge to British sea power. Italy was compelled to take shelter under the new nation. Austria was afraid to move. France wanted an empire in Africa in order to make up for her loss in Europe. At first Bismarck encouraged France in this design so as
to distract her attention from Europe and to increase the chances of her collision with Britain in Africa.
Furthermore, the possession of an empire was regarded as prestigious, the sign of a first-class power. Even Italy, a small power wanted to play big, and, therefore, looked forward to empire -building in Africa. Imperialist historians were writing and praising the importance of empire-building. Therefore imperialism became once more fashionable.
But some writers maintained thatthe economic factor was at bottom the most important that led to the European occupation of Africa. The Industrial Revolution in Europe had led to mass production of goods; accumulation of surplus capital and need for raw materials to feed the industries. The European market was saturated. Therefore, the Europeans needed markets elsewhere for their manufactured goods and an access to raw materials; land for the investment of surplus capital which was accumulated by financiers and bankers. Even Bismarck, who disliked the possession of Empire, was forced by the German businessmen to take part in the scramble. Consequently in 1884 Germany sent out Nachtigal to occupy Togoland and Cameroon, while in1884/1885 when the Berlin West African Conference was underway, Carl Peters was busy occupying Tanganyika now Tanzania for Germany.
The discovery of gold in 1886 in South Africa in the Witwatersrand, the richest gold deposit in the world then hastened the scramble and partition. European prospectors
thought that more of such treasures might be hidden inside the bowels of the continent.
Moreover, Europe had feelings of guilt of the crime they committed against Africa through the Trans Atlantic Slave trade. Empire builders thought that they could compensate for this by bringing the benefits of European civilization to Africa. This feeling of humanitarianism was entertained by the missionaries and traders who were the fore-runners of European imperialism in Africa. This social factor was also aided and abetted by the theory of racism. Although this myth of European superiority had no historical or sociological basis but it made the Europeans feel that they had a mission of carrying world history on their shoulders.
The Industrial Revolution had caused mass unemployment in Europe. This problem in addition to criminals and prostitutes had constituted a social problem in Europe. One of the quickest solutions was to find colonies in Africa where the European undesirables could be dumped. In 1820 some Africans were removed from- their homes in South Africa to create room for the five thousand British Settlers. This was the root of apartheid in South Africa but nobody couid foresee it that time.
The last factor which led to the scramble for Africa was the need for the possession of strategic points in Africa. Places like Egypt, Morocco and South Africa had extra advantages for commercial and military reasons. In the event of war any foreign power that controls these strategic points would have an advantage over her enemies. The occupation of Egypt by Britain in
1882 was motivated by the strategic consideration of the Suez Canal which linked Britain with her possessions in the Far East.
The European occupation of Africa was an act of aggression and international brigandage. Consequently, the Africans did not sit idly by while the European powers seized their land. There was a violent reaction and resistance to European expansionism. This opposition led to many wars between the intruders and modern Africa’s ancestors.
The traditional opposition to the European colonization of Africa was the first expression of modern African nationalism. Therefore such men as Samori Toure of the Mandika in Guinea, Prempeh 1 of Asante in Ghana, Kosoko of Lagos, Jaja of Opobo, Nana of Itsekiri, Attahiru of the Sokoto Caliphate, all from Nigeria;Lobengula of Rhodesia, Abdel Qader of Algeria,Urabi Pasha of Egypt and Menelik 11 of Ethiopia were traditional nationalists.
Traditional African nationalists failed to prevent European occupation of Africa because of the technological gap in military and industrial efficiency. Moreover some Africans did not fully grasp the situation and its future implication. They were preoccupied with present time orientation. No wonder why some allied with the Europeans against their fellow Africans. And an agricultural community like Africa could not fight a continuous and prolonged war with an industrial society, where specialization and division of labour were highly developed. Nevertheless, the traditionalist African reaction was very important in many
respects. It was a source of inspiration and pride to the twentieth century African nationalists. The European won the war but they did not win the heart of the peoples whose nationalism was driven underground to erupt again in the twentieth century, which eventually led to the emergence of African independent states.
THE EUROPEAN ADMINISTRATION OF AFRICA
After the occupation of Africa, the European powers started to rule the areas which they colonized. There were two main systems of colonial government. They were called direct and indirect rule. The British used indirect rule in their colonies, while France, Germany, Portugal, Spain and Belgium used direct rule. In both systems the colonial powers appointed African agents to act as chiefs or intermediaries between the indigenes and the colonial officials. The main difference was that the British tried to find the traditional chiefs while the other powers were not so much after the appointment of traditional Chiefs but appointed anybody or even straw Chiefs that helped them to maintain their colonialism.
Nigerian Historians disagree strongly among themselves in the terminology or concept of Indirect Rule. Some maintain that Great Britain used Indirect Rule in the administration of her colonies in Africa. But others argue that there is nothing indirect in the Indiret Rule. In other words, all the systems of the colonial administration in Africa including French, Portuguese, Spanish, Belgian, Italian and German systems were direct rule.
With careful analysis there is more logic in the terminology of direct rule because the colonial administrators dealt directly
with Africans whether they were African traditional rulers or chiefs or subjects all of them are Africans. They were not foreigners like the Lebanese or Greeks or Syrians who were agents of the European companies in Africa.
Professor Obaro Ikime, a specialist historian of the British colonial administration in West Africa is throphet of indirect Rule. While Dr Uzoechi, a great historian of international standard is the Angel of direct rule. History is an argument without end. Whatever system directness or indirectness what is certain is that Africa was colonized, dominated and exploited by the imperialists for about one hundred years (1880-1960).
The important thing was that the Africans had lost their freedom. Most of the so- called traditional chiefs or colonial agents had lost their hold on their subjects because the basis of their legitimacy had been eroded. However, they continued to stay in power because they were propped up by the colonial officials, the police and . the army.
In the colonial system the educated elite had no place. In the British colonies the so- called indirect rule which operated in the villages was in the hands of the traditional rulers while the central government (the legislative Council and Executive Council) was monopolized by the British officials. The French wanted to make their subjects French citizens, which could be achieved through education. This citizenship could win the elite a place in the French National Assembly in Paris. Some elite in the French territories at first believed in this bogus theory of assimilation and aspired to achieve it. But later they found out that this was like a
pie in the sky. Assimilation was a failure. In all the colonies the educated elite were frustrated by the colonial system. No wonder that many of them turned to be professional agitators and radical nationalists from the early stage of colonialism.
THE IMPACT OF COLONIZATION
The political situation was aggravated by the economic policy of the colonial government. The colonial economy was geared towards the effective exploitation of Africa. Some of the features of the economic policy were that colonies must be self – supporting; the import and export trade of the colonies must be handled by the colonial powers and the colonizers had subsoil rights. The export and import trade were monopolized by European big businesses like the SCOA, CFAO and UAC, while the internal wholesale and retail trade was in the hands of the Lebanese and Syrians in British West Africa; and in British East Africa and South Africa, It was handled by the Indians and finally in the French West Africa, It was managed by Greeks and Italians. Consequently the indigenous business men were discriminated against in shipping, banking and internal transportation. The colonial situation was worsened by forced labour, heavy taxation, land alienation and conscription into the army during the First and Second World Wars in which Africa had no stake. The system of forced labour and heavy taxation was more drastic in the French, Belgian and settler colonies. Between the forced labour, conscription and heavy taxation there was nothing to choose. They were all cruel and bloody.
Agricultural development during the colonial rule was geared to the development of cash crops which were to feed European industries. Much emphasis was placed on this to the negligence of food crops. Some colonies depended on the growth of one kind of cash crop, mono culture, which had a serious implication for the colonized.
Even the colonial system of communication was aimed at the effective exploitation of the colonies.