ETHIOPIAN ANTI-TERRORISM LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS NEXUS: AN APPRAISAL

ETHIOPIAN ANTI-TERRORISM LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS NEXUS: AN APPRAISAL

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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ETHIOPIAN ANTI-TERRORISM LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS NEXUS: AN APPRAISAL

LIMITATIONS OF THE CURRENT LAND LAWS IN ADDRESSING THE SQUARTTER LAND PROBLEM IN NIGERIA

LIMITATIONS OF THE CURRENT LAND LAWS IN ADDRESSING THE SQUARTTER LAND PROBLEM IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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LIMITATIONS OF THE CURRENT LAND LAWS IN ADDRESSING THE SQUARTTER LAND PROBLEM IN NIGERIA

FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOPR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOPR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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FIGHTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 9 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE CASE FOPR NIGERIA IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT REGULATION

ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC COOPPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUDELINES

ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC COOPPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUDELINES

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC COOPPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER PRICING GUDELINES

Convergence Between Mobile Telecommunications And Financial Services Implications For Regulations Of Mobile Telecommunications In Kenya

Convergence Between Mobile Telecommunications And Financial Services Implications For Regulations Of Mobile Telecommunications In Kenya

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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Convergence Between Mobile Telecommunications And Financial Services Implications For Regulations Of Mobile Telecommunications In Kenya

ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA AND KHAYA SENEGALENSIS AND THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTED WISTAR RATS

ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA AND KHAYA SENEGALENSIS AND THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTED WISTAR RATS

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA AND KHAYA SENEGALENSIS AND THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTED WISTAR RATS

NOTE ON THE LAW OF CONTRACT

NOTE ON THE LAW OF CONTRACT

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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NOTE ON THE LAW OF CONTRACT

DOCTRINE OF “RES GESTAE”

DOCTRINE OF “RES GESTAE”

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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DOCTRINE OF “RES GESTAE”

APPLICANT BRIEF RESPONDENT’S BRIEF OF ARGUMENT

APPLICANT BRIEF RESPONDENT’S BRIEF OF ARGUMENT

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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APPLICANT BRIEF RESPONDENT’S BRIEF OF ARGUMENT

LAW MAKING PROCESS IN NIGERIA: MAXIMAL CRITIQUE

LAW MAKING PROCESS IN NIGERIA: MAXIMAL CRITIQUE

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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LAW MAKING PROCESS IN NIGERIA: MAXIMAL CRITIQUE

THE PURPOSE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY FIRM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA SOUTH (L.G.A) IN ANAMBRA STATE)

THE PURPOSE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY FIRM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA SOUTH (L.G.A) IN ANAMBRA STATE)

ABSTRACT

This research focuses attention on The Purpose And Use Of Management Consultancy Firmwith special attention on Onitsha South Local Government Area

This work is carried out in partial fulfillment of the course requirement for the award of higher national diploma of the institute of management and technology.

Critical assessment was made on how industrialists in Onitsha South have been using the services of the management consultancy forms and how aware they of their service.

Through this research one could see the ignorance of some of the industrialist towards the consultancy forms.  Their reasons for not consulting them   were also explained.  Observations were made on what is restraining the consultancy forms from rendering their services.

Finally, suggestions were given in the conclusion and if well applied could be beneficial to all

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

1.2              Statement of the problem

1.3              Scope and limitation of the study

1.4              Significance of the study

1.5              Research questions

1.6              Definition important of terms

1.7              Reference

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              The origin of the subject matter

2.2              School of though within the subject matter

2.3              School of thought relevant to the problem of the study

2.4              Effect on industrialist

2.5              Reasons for establishing it in the zone

2.6              Summary

Reference

CHAPTER THREE

Research design and methodology

3.1               Sources of data

3.2              Different methods of studying the problems

3.3              Treatment of data

3.4              Sample size

3.5              Research procedure

3.6              Validity of the instrument

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 presentations of data analysis and interpretation of data

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Summary of findings

5.2              Recommendation

5.3              Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria has a complex society with different types of organization.  Every organization encounters one or more problems that hamper the organization in achieving its set objective and goals. These problems ranges from financial availability human resources shortages monitoring competitor’s strategies raw materials shortages lack knowledge of how to manage the organization efficiently and effectively    in this social economic political and technological changes.

In Onitsha South this dynamism in the environment has continued to pose certain threats and opportunities to many organization e.g raw material sourcing market diversification research and development intensified competition market store managerial innovation improved organization climate and in fact an orientation towards an improved social quality of life. When this rapid change the management of any innovation and goal committed industrial establishment  will  periodically require a through skillful appraisal to the extent of which the current organization product and performance will  meet the requirement of the situation and that of the organization goals and objective if the performance is shown to be inadequate management  needs to be advised on how rectify this situation.  To do this we require an individual with an experience of that is happening within the industrial establishment that is an employee (if one can be seen) possibly may not due to this assignment within the establishment. When an individual within the organization is not available it then requires the service of a management consultant to come in the must be committed to this work for it to function properly he should not be a member of the organization.

Management consultancy service is a constructive helpful deliberate and professional service provided to business organization to help the management in analyzing and solving practical organization problem by experts.

It focuses on the use of the expertise and research capabilities of their experts and facilities outside an organization to help solve internal organization problem. This aim is achieved by the management consultants through investigation and business recommendation of appropriate managerial actions and provision of implementation guidelines and facilities as a way of findings feasible and commensurate solutions to the problem at hand.

Management consultants have passed through many organizational problems and have leant how to use experiences from previous assignment to handle new once.

Management consultants keep abreast with development in management methods and technique and at the same time acting as a link between management theories and practices

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The massive failure of industrial establishment for the past few year were due a inadequate planning unforeseen frequent government policy changes shortage of raw materials inadequate financing of the organization.

Another problem that hamper the growth of industrial establishment or business in Onitsha South Local Government Area is that industrial establishment have not been making adequate use of services if the management consultancy firms

Thirdly though some firms may make use of the management consultancy firms they are still not making proper use of them for instance some firms do not state all that their problems are so that they could be taken care of properly.

Finally most industrialist or businessmen in Onitsha South L.G.A do not know the purpose of management consultancy firms.

This is because of lack of proper education on the part of the industrialist most of them are illiterates.

There is a problem of awareness creation the consultants fail make or create an industrialist are illiterate.  They should be able to market themselves.

1.4       THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THIS RESEARCH  IS TO

1.         To examine how well the management consultants have been servicing the industrial establishment professionally that is from the industrial establishment points of view

2.         Determine to what extent industrial establishment in Ohitsha South of Anambra State are aware and well informed about the service rendered by the management consultants and the benefit of such service to the industries

3.         To verify problems hindering the industries from using the services rendered by the management consultants and also suggest alternative solution to problems.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTION

This research work will try to find answers to the following questions.

1.                  Do firms come to you for consultancy services?

2.                  How do you attend to this firm?

3.                  What kind of advice do you offer to them?

4.                  Do you ever inform them of government policies as regards the type of business they what to engage?

5.                  Do you ever direct them on the importance of feasibility studies before carrying out any business?

6.                  What emphasis do you lay on the basis amenities needed in sitting a business location

7.                  Are there gains derived by first of all consulting firms for counseling before sitting a business environment

8.                  What eventually are the objectives of the management consultancy firm with special reference on the Onitsha South Local Government Area?

1.6              DEFINITION OF  IMPORTANT TERMS

From the purpose of this work the following under listed terms are defined they are

1.         Industrial Establishment:        This is a business organization that engages in any of the following activities namely extracting manufacturing, processing and providing services that are essential to uplifting of human living standard.

2.         Consultant Report:      This is the report of the consultant’s assignment in a written from.  It contains the consultant’s findings and recommendations.

3.         Client the person (s) or organization that engage the consultants it also means the customers of the management consultant.

4.         Foreign body: Is an outsider when is neither a part of the worker in the company nor a customer.

5.         Repeat Behaivour:      This is the marketing term used to connote a repeat purchase of a commodity or service.

6.         Missions:         The objective or goals an organization or an individual wants to activities

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THE PURPOSE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY FIRM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA SOUTH (L.G.A) IN ANAMBRA STATE)

BUILDING COLLAPSE SYNDROME AND THE LAGOS STATE URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT LAW

BUILDING COLLAPSE SYNDROME AND THE LAGOS STATE URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT LAW

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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BUILDING COLLAPSE SYNDROME AND THE LAGOS STATE URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT LAW

DISCUSS THE VARIOUS PROVISION AND SECTION OF THE LAND USE ACT OF 1998

DISCUSS THE VARIOUS PROVISION AND SECTION OF THE LAND USE ACT OF 1998

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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DISCUSS THE VARIOUS PROVISION AND SECTION OF THE LAND USE ACT OF 1998

RIGHT OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

RIGHT OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

ABSTRACT

The entrenchment of Right of Expression as a fundamental human right in Nigeria could be traced to the 1960 Independence Constitution and those that followed it. The Independence Constitution of 1960 and the Republican Constitution of 1963 have provisions for the protection of fundamental human rights. The 1979 and the 1999 constitutions went further by providing a bill of right. This entrenchment of human right provisions in our constitutions was aimed at creating a society which protects political freedom as well as the social and economic well-being of Nigerians. However, despite the guarantee of fundamental rights and liberties in the Nigerian constitutions since 1960, the country has had the misfortune of military interruption in its polity. This had profound and far reaching effects on the promotion and protection of democratic values such as freedom of expression among Nigerians. This study examines the legal framework within which freedom of expression is practiced in Nigeria due to that fact that concepts such as freedom of expression are subject to various philosophical interpretations. It gives insight into the genesis of right of expression in the modern jurisprudence and provides a proper conceptual framework of human right from which freedom of expression is derivable. The study also examines the judicial attitudes in Nigeria in interpreting the subject matter. Furthermore, some limitations to right to expression which are premised in substantive and procedural laws are also considered. The practical relevance of social justice in the enforcement of this right in Nigerian also forms part of the study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CASES

TABLE OF STATUTES

TABLE OF TREATIES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0.0: INTRODUCTION

1.1.0: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.2.0: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.3.0: FOCUS OF THE STUDY

1.4.0: SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.5.0: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.6.0: LITERATURE REVIEW

1.7.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER TWO:

THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEFINITION OF RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION

2.0.0: INTRODUCTION

2.1.0: DEFINITION OF RIGHT OF EXPRESSION

2.2.0: THE EVOLUTION OF RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

2.3.0: THE SOURCES OF RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

2.4.0: CLASSIFICATION OF RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

2.5.0: RIGHT OF EXPRESSION AND NIGERIA MILITARY JUNTA

2.6.0: RIGHT OF EXPRESSION THROUGH NIGERIAN CONSTITUTIONS

2.7.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER THREE:

RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION

3.0.0: INTRODUCTION

3.1.0: RIGHT OF EXPRESSION VIS-À-VIS THE 1999 CONSTITUTION

3.2.0: RIGHT OF EXPRESSION VIS-À-VIS NIGERIAN TELEVISION AUTHORITY ACT

3.3.0: RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION VIS-À-VIS NEWS AGENCY OF NIGERIA ACT

3.4.0: RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION VIS-À-VIS NEWSPAPER ACT

3.5.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER FOUR:

ENFORCEMENT AND LIMITATIONS TO RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION

4.0.0: INTRODUCTION

4.1.0: ENFORCEMENT OF RIGHT OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

4.2.0: DEFAMATION AS LIMITATION TO RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION

4.3.0: TYPES OF DEFAMATION

4.4.0: DISTINCTION BETWEEN LIBEL AND SLANDER

4.5.0: DEFENSES TO A CHARGE OF DEFAMATION

4.6.0: MEANING OF SEDITION

4.7.0: SEDITION AS LIMITATION TO RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

4.8.0: SEDITION: A LIVING OR DEAD LAW?

4.9.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER FIVE:

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0.0: CONCLUSION

5.1.0: RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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RIGHT OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX AND PAY-AS-YOU-EARN SCHEME ON NIGERIAN WORKERS

THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX AND PAY-AS-YOU-EARN SCHEME ON NIGERIAN WORKERS

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research work is to describe the practical approach to an appraisal of pay-as-you-earn system of taxation with referee to Nssuka local government area. To guide this study, two hypotheses were formulated. A review of literature was down to ensure solid conclusion for the study. A structural questionnaire was developed and administered by the analysis adopted in this research work was chi-square, this method by researcher to ensure that result obtained were real and not by chance.

Based on the above statement some of the major findings include presentation of data and their analysis. The chapter five is discussing a bout the findings made by the researcher and recommendation as well as conclusion.

Conclusively, the researcher will add to the existing literature on an appraisal of pay-as-you0-earn system of taxation. Scope of study and limitation talk about the areas the researcher is going to touch when discussing on the appraisal of pay-as-you-earn system of taxation system are place or area that have been unable to by researched upon to time.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
The global economic recession, which started in 1980’s as a result of decline in the economic growth of industries nation, high rate of inflation, dramatics rise in price of crude oil, increase cost of important a massive building-up of liquidity in the international capital market and unusual fluctuation in commodity prices was not fully felt in Nigeria until 1982, when the developed countries applied a series of restructure monetary and fiscal policies to curtail the a fore-stated problems.

Seventeen years ago, precisely in 1983, the worldbank report that the continuing recession in the industrial world several constrained developed countries growth in 1982. Weakness in the price of oil created difficulties for oil exporting developing countries’’.

Reporting specifically on Nigeria, the bank stated that“ foreign exchange resource declined in 1982 from a level equivalent to three month worth. Investment, equal to about a third of gross domestics product (GDP) in 1980 –1981, has been radically reduced as both foreign exchange and government resource contract (85% of government revenue, both federal and states are direct generated from oil export).

An attempt to wriggle the country out of its financial predicament led to the initially of series of belt-tighten measure since 1982 to date.

These measure include:

Ban on import of a large number of goods, specially taxes on luxury goods, enforcement of trick exchanges control reputation liberalized during the earlier boom, wages and ban on employment in the public sector, increased external borrowing in anticipation of oil income and of late the introduction of value added tax (v.a.t). The impact of the dwindling revenues to the federal government and this ever decreasing portion of statutory allocation to states, has aroused tremendous interest in other source of revenue. Therefore, the hitherto relaxed tax laws are vigorously being enforced while levies of various descriptions are also being in various state of the federation.

Nsukka local government area of Enugu state is not exempted from this nation economic recession. One of the major sources of revenue to the local government, second to statutory allocation from the state and federal government, is the personal income tax (PIT) impose on all taxable persons in the local government. The personal income tax is allocated either through the Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) system in which employers of labour deduct tax due from the income of their employees and remit it to the division

In this study, my interest lies in appraising the effective and efficiency of Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) as a system of tax collection. The examination of the weakness interest in the system will be carried out and based on empincal observation, make suitable recommendation as to how loopholes in the system could be plugged especially at this time of wide spread awareness of the great potentials of internally generally revenues.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The expectation of the public from governments (local, state and federal) in the developing countries are such that the later are saddle with responsibilities for the provision of various services. The 1979 nigeria constitution sec.16 (a) state. Quite clearly that “the state shall control the national economy in such manner as to secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every citizen as the basic of social justice and equality of status and opportunities’’.

It is in an attempt to fulfill these expectation and sometimes constitutionals requirement that government rely on, among either source, the imposition of various taxes, weather direct or indirect on the defined taxable persons in their territory. Such tax and poll tax

These taxes are collected at source at source include taxes on dividend interest and rates. Also induction is tax on personal income tax through the Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) system has been effective in achieving its objectives of minimizing collection costs and reduction tax evasion while increasing revenue to the local government. We will all look into the problem of the pay-As-You-Earn system and suggest measures to solve such problems that might be identified.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study can be broken down vas follows:

to ascertain the impact of Pay-As-You-Earn system effectiveness on personal income tax revenue over a period of ten years.
To educate the truthfulness of the data provided by tax – payers in their tax return and ascertain the percentage of those who do not provide the information there in.
To find out weather there is any relationship between the truthfulness of information provided by tax payers in their tax returns and their age.
To identify the problem (if any) encountered by the internal revenue division and the employers of labour in the application of the PAYE system.
To find out how the employers perceive the PAYE system and the likely improvement that they would recommend.
On the basis of my findings, suggestion and recommendation will be made which I hope would be benefit to the local government it is also hope that future researcher in the area of the public finance would find the work a valuable source of literature.

SIGNIFICANT
The significance of adequate revenue for a developing economy such as that of Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. This study is being conducted with a view to exposing the inherent weakness on the Pay-As-You-Earn system of taxation.

The suggestion and recommendation made on how loopholes in the system could be plugged. Especially at this time of widespread weakness of the great potential of internally generated revenue would be very beneficial to the governments.

The local government will find it very useful in drawing up revenue and other methods of taxation which will in turn check the ever dividing revenue to the government.

STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHENSIS
A hypothesis is a rational assumption, which subject to fast could be true or false

The following hypothesis were made as a guide for this research ho (i) The effectiveness of the Pay-As-You-Earn system has not affected personal income tax revenue.

Hi (ii) the effectiveness of the Pay-As-You-Earn system has affected personal income tax revenue

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study shall be confined to an examination of the Pay-As-You-Earn system as in weather it is an efficient and effective method of personal income tax (PIT) collection in NSUKKA local government. It thus excludes any other system of tax revenue through Pay-As-You-Earn system with other tax revenue shall be evaluated only for the purpose of comparison.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was limited by the following constraints:

there was shortage of relevant texts journal and documentaries on the subject of Pay-As-You-Earn system.
Some of the answer givens an opinions expressed in response to question were subjectively based due to different personal experience.
A study of this nature require longer period of time than was actually available to me.
There is this general problem that many Nigeria do not like to disclose their earnings.
Finance available for this study was inadequate considering its scope and my financial standing as a student.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
BASIS PERIOD: the period in which the income of a taxpayer is assessed for the purposes.
ASSESSABLE INCOME: income of a taxpayer from all sources in a given basis period less all allowable deductions and nontaxable income.
PRECEEDING YEAR BASIS: A basis period by which income of a tax payer in the year proceeding the year of assessment is assessed.
ACTUAL YEAR BASIS: a basis period by which income of a tax payer in the proceeding the year of assessment is assead in that year.
YEAR OF ASSESSMENT: the government financial year in which the income of a taxpayer is assessed for tax purpose.
CHARGEABLE INCOME: assessable income less all reliefs.
RELIEFS: deductible allowance granted to a taxpayer by the law in a relevant year of assessment.
TAX EVASION: an illegal act of paying less tax than ought to pay.
TAX AVOIDANCE: a legal act by a tax payers to pay less than he ought to pay.
TAAX SRETURNS: relevant data supplies by a tax payer for the purpose of assessing income.
TAX DEDUCTION CARD : a document used in the Pay-As-You-Earn scheme in which total allowed relief’s are stated.
TAX EMERGENCY CARD: the card temporarily used before the tax deduction card are made available to the employer by internal revenue division.

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THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX AND PAY-AS-YOU-EARN SCHEME ON NIGERIAN WORKERS

ROLES OF LEGISLATURE IN IMPEACHMENT PROCEDINGS UNDER 1999 CONSTITUTION

ROLES OF LEGISLATURE IN IMPEACHMENT PROCEDINGS UNDER 1999 CONSTITUTION

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

ROLES OF LEGISLATURE IN IMPEACHMENT PROCEDINGS UNDER 1999 CONSTITUTION

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF THE COMMON LAW AND ISLAMIC LAW CONCEPT OF SHURAH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF THE COMMON LAW AND ISLAMIC LAW CONCEPT OF SHURAH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF THE COMMON LAW AND ISLAMIC LAW CONCEPT OF SHURAH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

THE DOCTRINE OF THE RULE OF LAW UNDER ISLAMIC LAW AND ITS JURISTIC APPROACH IN THE MUSLIM STATE

THE DOCTRINE OF THE RULE OF LAW UNDER ISLAMIC LAW AND ITS JURISTIC APPROACH IN THE MUSLIM STATE

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE DOCTRINE OF THE RULE OF LAW UNDER ISLAMIC LAW AND ITS JURISTIC APPROACH IN THE MUSLIM STATE

THE EXECUTIVE UNDER ISLAMIC CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM AND NIGERIA 1999 CONSTITUTION: A COMPARISON.

THE EXECUTIVE UNDER ISLAMIC CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM AND NIGERIA 1999 CONSTITUTION: A COMPARISON.

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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THE EXECUTIVE UNDER ISLAMIC CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM AND NIGERIA 1999 CONSTITUTION: A COMPARISON.

PROVOCATION AS A DEFENCE TO THE CRIME OF MURDER UNDER COMMON AND ISLAMIC LAW

PROVOCATION AS A DEFENCE TO THE CRIME OF MURDER UNDER COMMON AND ISLAMIC LAW

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

PROVOCATION AS A DEFENCE TO THE CRIME OF MURDER UNDER COMMON AND ISLAMIC LAW