GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS’ CAREER AWARENESS CREATION ROLES AND ACCEPTABILITY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OKPOKWU EDUCATION ZONE OF BENUE STATE

GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS’ CAREER AWARENESS CREATION ROLES AND ACCEPTABILITY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OKPOKWU EDUCATION ZONE OF BENUE STATE.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
In recent times, the problem of global economic recession and its negative impacts on the well-being of citizens of nations, Nigeria inclusive has been drawing the attention of researchers  scholars and policy makers. In Nigeria, this situation has posed a lot of challenges such as increased youths unemployment, violence attacks, stealing and kidnapping activities by youths to list but some (Amazue & Okoli, 2004). According to Dike (2009) about 80% of Nigerian youths are unemployed while about 10% of the employed are underemployed. Amazue and Okoli (2004) remarked that youths’ unemployment tends to account for their involvement in social crimes and over dependence on government for employment. Implicitly, it could adduced that curbing these problems calls for proper guidance and counseling of school students and retooling of Nigeria educational policy  to incorporate entrepreneurship education. No doubt, Obunadike (2013) remarked that when youths are properly guided and counselled, as well as equipped with entrepreneurial skills their over dependency on government for employment will reduce and they would become more of employers of labour than seekers of jobs.
Guidance and counselling are two separate terms though the former precedes the later. Guidance is a range of organized activities designed in schools to students learn and make appropriate choices in schools (Ezeji, 2011). Similarly, Owuamanam (2003) defines guidance as involving activities which are designed to help students acquire information, plan and implement programmes and enhance their decision making process in educational or vocational and personal social  matters. Contextually, guidance is a helping service given to individuals to enable them achieve their potentials and be useful to themselves and the world in general. Guidance is preventive in nature in the sense that it aimed at preventing students from groping in darkness with regards to educational and occupational challenges. When an individual is properly guided and counselled,  the  individual would be able to evade or overcome  unnecessary problems when faced with such in life  (Igwe, 2013).
Counselling is an integral element of guidance. Nwoje (2001) views it as an integral part of guidance which provides the forum for interaction between a counsellor and counsellee. According to Uzoeshi (2004) counselling is a process of assisting a client to overcome problems and become happier and more effective individual in the environment. Operationally, counselling is defined as a helping relationship between counsellor and counsellees through which the counsellor helps counsellees (students) to maximize their potencials by providing career information, and awareness creation of job opportunities in the millennium world of work.
There are accompanying services which students gain from counselling sessions. These services include information, placement, guidance, referral, and follow-up (Akinade, 2002). In essence, counselling is a cognitive educational service which provides accurate, reliable and valid information about opportunities in the society. It is the duty of a trained guidance counsellor to perform these roles. Therefore, counselling encourages students to accept full responsibility and utilization of their potentials to maximize opportunities available in their environment.
A Guidance Counsellor which can also be referred to as School Counsellor according to Ifelunni (1997) is a trained expert who is exposed to enough psychology necessary to understand and predict human behaviours. This author further indicates that a school counsellor is a school personnel and a professional who is trained in test construction and administration, supervision of practicum exercise, as well as has good knowledge of  psychological and counselling theories needed for better understanding of clients’ problems so as to proffer assistance. Sowemino (2012) also defines Guidance Counsellor as one who utilizes both individual and group counselling to shape and remould students in Nigeria education, academic, vocational and social personal problems. Operationally, a  Guidance Counselor is a professional educator with specialized, graduate-level training in counselling and related guidance services aimed at helping individuals achieve better educational, vocational and personal social  developmental potentials  necessary for functioning more effectively in the environment.           Guidance Counsellors are primarily saddled with the responsibility of facilitating a total and holistic development of individuals who will be useful to themselves and the society. Specifically, their roles according to Denga (2001) involves  Counselling, planning and developing of Guidance programmes, appraising, interpreting and  making appropriate referrals to relevant specialists on problems and issues that fall outside their  competence orbit. Other roles of guidance counsellors include researching, evaluating and organizing programmes, attending conference and workshops, disseminating information including career awareness creation.
Career is an important area of concern for secondary school students. This is because every attempt at schooling aims at helping people in fulfilling their well-meaning ambitions in life. It is therefore expected that students should aspire to be in some given careers someday (Ifelunni, 2003). Career, according to Anyebola (2000) is a sequence of roles, work, occupation and position occupied during one’s working life time. It includes the series of both remunerated and non remunerated positions one assumes throughout life. Omeje (2002) also defined career as the totality of occupations which an individual have occupied throughout his life. Eze (2012) perceived career as the series of educational pursuits, work progression, achievements made in the course of work-life-time. It is a reflection of vocation as the individuals displays inherent interest in the occupation or any of the work related fields.   Operationally, career is a series of jobs an individual has over his or her life time. These jobs may reflect an upward trajectory meaning that one will have increasing responsibilities, compensation and more prestigious titles with each subsequent position. Career provides a reflection of the life long series of work roles of an individual. Consequently the secondary school students need career awareness to enable them make right choice of career in life.
Career awareness entails the creating and motivating of people to become informed about the available world of work in life. According to Cronin (2014) career awareness is the degree to which individuals in the target population are aware of the target field as a possibility for long term employment and growth, and knowledge of what they must do to enter and progress in the career field. In this text, Career awareness refers to an understanding of the world of work, knowledge and skills needed to become an entrepreneur. Consequently, school guidance counsellors need to create career awareness for students to enable them to acquire necessary occupational information and knowledge hoped to broaden their knowledge towards acceptability of entrepreneurship education.
In career awareness creation, Guidance counsellors provide career information to students via strategies such as Career day, Field trip, Film modeling, Posters, individual and group vocational counselling to list but some. Such career awareness strategies help to educate students on nature of various occupations, entry requirements, qualification, subjects’ combination, training institutions, salaries, job prospects and hazards (Heward, 2003). It also helps in motivating the students to becoming entrepreneurs.
In recent times, the concept of entrepreneurship seems to have been receiving global recognition as a measure to curbing youths’ unemployment. According to Ogundele (2007), entrepreneurship is a process involving the recognizing of opportunities in the environment, mobilizing resources to take advantage of such opportunities in order to provide goods and services for consumers. Zuamo and Aondoakaa (2007) define entrepreneurship as the process of identifying development and bringing a vision to life. Entrepreneurship is a means used in developing people and inculcating right attitude of self-reliance into people using learning process (Ogundele, 2007). It helps ameliorate youths’ economic dependence and gives them empowerment strategies and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world (Chigunta, 2001). Contextually, entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of vision, change and job creation to enable youth to be self reliant. It implies that entrepreneurship helps youth to understand and acquire skills, competencies and education which would make them become self- employed.
Education is usually seen as a vital transformation tool, the fulcrum around which the economic growth of individuals and that of nations revolves. Education has proved to be the surest and most credible way to self-reliance. In order words, education is generally seen as an agent for both individual and societal development (Ukeje, 1991). Nwabuisi (2000) defines education as a deliberate, systematic and sustained effort to transmit, evoke or acquire knowledge, values, attitude, skills and sensibilities. This means education is an intentional activity, which is directed towards helping an individual to make him or her worthwhile person.
Entrepreneurship education is an important tool for achieving the objective of preparing students for the 21st century market. It provides students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings (Nwekeaku, 2013). Igwe (2008) emphasizes that entrepreneurship education is the type of education that equips the citizen with the right training and motivation they need to be self-reliant and job creators thereby reducing the unemployment rate among secondary school students.
In this contemporary times, entrepreneurship education has gained a rich background and of course, increasing  general recognition as a source of job creation, empowerment for the unemployed and a means of economic dynamism in rapidly globalizing world(Chigunta,2001). According to Igwe (2008) entrepreneurship education is the type of education that equips the citizen with the right training and motivation they needed to be self- reliant and job creators thereby reducing the unemployment rate among secondary school students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in variety of setting (Onongha, 2015).
Operationally, entrepreneurship education is a process of acquiring entrepreneurial skills which will make an individual become self reliant in the society after school.  The essence of introducing entrepreneurship education to schools is to equip students with necessary skills and mindsets required for successful entrepreneurship from early years (Osorochi & Ovute, 2013).    Olufemi (2012) is of the view that the introduction of entrepreneurship education in our educational system helps to prepare the students to succeed in an entrepreneurial economy, create the spirit of creativity and initiative in the students and also for them to develop basic skills to be self employable in the country. It is a concern that despite the foregoing relevance of entrepreneurship education to national economy and wellbeing of Nigerian youths, it seems that many secondary school students are finding it difficult to embrace and assimilate entrepreneurship education and its values (Ugwoke, Ibe &  Muhammed, 2013). Their poor perception seems to be affected by the fact that entrepreneurship subjects are made as elective subjects in the national policy on education (FRN, 2004). Hence, in students’ perception, entrepreneurial subjects are just to increase their academic workloads rather than for developing their potentials (Ifedili & Ofoegbu, 2011; Ugwoke, Ibe &  Muhammed, 2013).
In Nigeria, secondary school students are schooling children between   ages 10 to 18 who are undergoing Basic or senior Basic education. These students are often adolescents who have completed their primary education. Generally, the secondary education entails six years of education comprising three year Upper Basic (junior secondary) and three years senior Basic (senior secondary)  respectively.  After the three years senior secondary education, the student can choose to enter into a tertiary institution for further studies. In Nigeria, secondary school could be public or private school. The public schools are schools established and managed by either federal or state governments. Often times this class of schools have large population of students and teachers who operate the educational curricular stipulated by   Federal government (Olatoye & Agbatogu, 2009).
On the other hand, private school exists in Nigeria. This class of schools are owned and managed by either individuals, associations or organizations and level of parental involvement varies from one private school to the other (Berkeley Parent Network, 2009). Parents pay higher school fees in private schools than in public schools, have lesser authority over the school management than is in the public schools. In addition, the private schools have smaller students population than the public schools    (Berkeley Parent Network, 2009). Lubienski, Lubienski and Crane (2009) note that private schools provide more school friendly environment and intense skills development than do public schools.
In a bid to actualize skill-based approach in Nigeria educational system the secondary education has been restructured to include Technical, Commercial and Vocational courses  This is hoped would help in making secondary school graduates self-reliant and economically independent (Ugwuoke, Ibe, & Muhammed, 2013).  According to World Report (2003), developing countries have ten times more inhabitants in the 0 – 14 years of age group than the developed countries. If their talents and energies of the young ones are developed through counselling, entrepreneurship education, sustainable leverage would be experienced in terms of national development. Implicitly, the need for career awareness for acceptability of entrepreneurship education by secondary school students in Nigeria needs not to be overemphasized.
The acceptability of entrepreneurship education depends on the schools involvement in the programme and also the individual students’ attitude towards the programme. Lim (2001) stated clearly that positive attitude towards a career is a very important mindset besides having specialized or technical skill. This, therefore demands that it falls on the anus of the guidance counselors in providing activities that would motivate and put the students in a sweet frame of mind to accept entrepreneurship education. From general observations of the researcher, it seems that secondary school students in Okpokwu Education zone of Benue State do not appreciate and accept the novel introduction of entrepreneurship programme initiatives and policies in the educational system by federal government. As a practicing counsellor in this study area, it is observed that the students appear to be reluctant to attend lesson on entrepreneurial subjects like animal husbandry, Agricultural science, food and nutrition, to mention but a few. Rather, they prefer to roam around the streets in search of white-colar jobs, that are not available stealing, prostituting, kidnapping among others. This attitude of theirs create concern for researchers, parents and general pubic to see how this trend can be controlled.
1.2 Statement of Problem 
The high rate of unemployment, poverty and crime among secondary school leavers tend to have been attributed to lack of possession of career skills required in the world of work.  Most of these students do not possess entrepreneurial skills that will enable them establish and manage small business enterprises so as to become self employed and self-reliant on graduation.  This observed deficiency in secondary school graduates have necessitated the positing of secondary schools Guidance Counsellors who are professionally trained to render guidance services  among which is career information and other activities which are aimed at enabling them broaden their career knowledge, skills and attitude towards entrepreneurship education.
It is worrisome to observe that despite Federal Government of Nigeria effort at improving career development of students through the posting of Guidance Counsellors to secondary schools as stipulated in the National Policy on Education, secondary school graduates are still found roaming the streets as jobless youths and engaging in inappropriate behaviours such as prostituting, stealing and kidnapping to list but some. Although, school Guidance counsellors are expected to be involved in career awareness creation roles in schools for students, the researcher is uncertain if the counsellors actually do so, the perception students have about entrepreneurship education and students acceptability level of entrepreneurship education.  It is against these concerns that this study was carried out.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine between Guidance Counsellors’ career awareness creation roles and acceptability of entrepreneurship education by secondary school students in Okpokwu Education Zone of Benue State, Nigeria.    Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Ascertain guidance counsellors’ career awareness creation roles among secondary school students within Okpokwu Education Zone.
2. Ascertain if difference exists between Guidance Counsellors’ career awareness creation roles in the public and private secondary schools.
3. Ascertain perception of entrepreneurship education by students in public and private secondary schools
4. Determine the acceptability level of entrepreneurship education by the secondary school students.
1.4 Research Questions 
The following research questions guided the study.
The following research questions guided the study.
1.     What are guidance counsellors’ career awareness creation roles in secondary schools within Okpokwu Education Zone?
2.     What difference exists between guidance counsellors’ career awareness creation roles in public and private secondary schools?
3.     What are students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship education by students in public and private secondary schools?
4. What is the acceptability level of entrepreneurship education of the secondary school student?
1.5 Research Hypotheses  
The following null hypotheses postulated to further investigate into the study were tested at 0.05 probability level.
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students   in public and private secondary schools on guidance counsellors’    career awareness creation roles.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students in public and private secondary schools on perception of entrepreneurship education.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study has theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance involves Decision making theory and Holland’s theory of vocational behavior. Holland theory of vocational behavior posits that vocational choice is an expression of the individual’s personality and that members of a vocation have similar personality and similar histories of personal development. However, this study would be anchored on Holland theory of vocational behavior which posits that if personality characteristics of an individual go with a vocation in an environment, such individual would exceedingly do well and be satisfied.  By this, it becomes necessary for students to understand their personality, to make right choice of career. 
Decision making theory on the other hand is the bed rock of choice making. It emphasizes decision making as central to career development.   The theory focuses on the way the individual should put to use whatever information or knowledge he or she has that could enhance the implementation of some career decision in matters regarding self, work and the opportunities that are open to the individual in general. By this, the information and knowledge students acquire from Guidance counsellors’ career awareness creation can enhance the acceptability of entrepreneurship education by secondary school students.
Practically, the result of the finding would be of benefit to the following persons, students, guidance counsellors, parents, society and researchers. The study would benefit the students mostly  through  career awareness creation; the students would be equipped with necessary skills, knowledge, ability, interest, and motivation to become self employed and impact positively in the sustainable development of themselves in particular and the country in general. It is hoped that this significance would be achieved through seminar, conference and career day.
Another beneficiary is the guidance counsellors, as they would be seriously involved in creating the needed career information that would enable secondary school graduates escape from the endemic of unemployment, poverty and social vices.  Through the assessment of entrepreneurship education by guidance counsellors, they also evaluate themselves to know the area of deficiency and work on it. The researcher hopes to achieve these through academic publications and conferences.
The study would be of benefit to parents of the students in that it would give direction where their wards is best suited or fitted in job placement after graduation from secondary school, since the student would be equipped with a particular skill or skills after graduation, What would be required by parents is a follow up or consolidation on already acquired skills. It would minimize parental control on career choice for their wards and reduce complete monitoring against social vices since graduands would be engaged in one activity or the other that would take their idle time. These would be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars to the parents. It would also be realized through mass media and publications.
Researchers are also beneficiaries of this study as it would give them the opportunity for further research.  Reports of previous studies contain a section on suggestions for further research. Such sections usually contain a list of other studies which can be carried out based on the findings of the study being reported. Secondly, replication of a previous research is another way in which an identified problem could be further investigated. It is hoped that those researchers would achieved these through mass media.
Finally the society would benefit from this research in that it would reduce crimes like burglary, kidnapping, stealing, and roaming the street. Joblessness would be drastically reduced thereby alleviating poverty from the society. These would be achieved through conferences, workshops, seminars and mass media.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The geographical scope of this study was limited to both students in public and private secondary schools in Okpokwu Education Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. The content of the scope of the study focused on Guidance Counsellors’ career awareness creation roles, students’ perception of entrepreneurship education and acceptability of entrepreneurship education by secondary school students in Okpokwu Education Zone.

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GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS’ CAREER AWARENESS CREATION ROLES AND ACCEPTABILITY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OKPOKWU EDUCATION ZONE OF BENUE STATE.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF CHALLENGES FACING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES, NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA .

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF CHALLENGES FACING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES, NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The standard of education and its functionality has been a major concern for educational administrators in Nigeria, especially in this 21st century. This is probably due to global interest in education which has been identified as a means of development by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targeted towards eradication of poverty across the globe. In a bid to improve educational standards in Nigeria, different governments had come up with different policies in education, all aiming at solving inherent social and economic problems like arm-robbery, kidnapping, hostage taking, and graduate unemployment amongst others. Literature is replete with the fact that many Nigerian graduates leave the university without jobs and with little or no hope of securing any for many years. For instance, Dabalen, Oni and Adekola (2000) observed that, unemployment among graduates in Nigeria is high, and their prospects for job have been worsened over time and without hope. They recycle themselves as postgraduates. Others without such opportunity and no hope of self-sustenance engage in various antisocial and nefarious activities such as cultism, armed robbery and insurgency (Soludo, 2006). These challenges, according to Mando and Akaan (2013) are common among university graduates in the North central states like Kogi, Benue, Taraba, Plateau and Kwara. As a result, several graduates of Benue State University and University of Agriculture, both in Makurdi, have indulged in acts of cultism, armed-robbery and other vices not worthy of university graduates. This problem is indeed, a fallout of the inability of the government, especially in Benue State (since the inception of democracy in 1999), to provide job opportunities for the steaming graduates in the State.
As a result of the above problem, entrepreneurship education was introduced by the government in institutions of learning. The idea was to enable the students to appreciate the nature and dynamics of entrepreneurship, and subsequently, the acquisition of skills that would make it possible for them to develop functional skills which would enable them to depend less on government jobs, but rely on their own abilities to provide for themselves the means of livelihood. In this regard, Mando and Akaan (2013) contended that, entrepreneurship education (EEd) is central to national development as it prepares students for jobs and careers based on manual or practical activities, and help them develop skills in a particular trade that promotes considerable self-employment for socio-economic, cultural and even political advancement of a nation.
Entrepreneurship education has academic aspect (Curriculum and Pedagogy) and administrative aspect which determine the entrepreneurship institutional quality. Both aspects heavily contribute to the quality and success of the overall EEd (Lee and Wong, 2005). The ultimate goal of entrepreneurship education is to facilitate the creation of an entrepreneurial culture (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2010), which in turn would help potential students to identify and pursue opportunities. Aina (2007) also stressed that, EEd inculcates in trainees the ability to assess their strength; seek information and advice; make  decisions; plan their time; carry an agreed responsibility; communicate and negotiate; deal with people in power and authority; solve problems; resolve conflict; evaluate performance; cope with stress and tension; and achieve self-confidence.

These abilities are what could be termed employable skills.
Students could therefore, be trained to succeed in entrepreneurship irrespective of their gender and educational background so as to enhance the development  of core entrepreneurship traits and skills such as: diligence and capacity for hard work (task orientation); confidence; risk taking; decision making skills; interpersonal skills; leadership skills; and goal setting to improve individuals (Chiaha and Agu, 2008). The  benefits  of EEd to students are numerous and include such positive outcomes as increased sense of locus of control; greater awareness of personal talents and skills; improved school attendance; higher academic achievement; enhanced creativity skills in business situations; enhanced business opportunity recognition skills; ability to handle business situations ethically; problem-solving skills; understanding of steps essential in business start up; enhanced awareness of career and entrepreneurial option; use of strategies for idea generation and assessment of feasibility of ideas; understanding of basic free market economy; enhanced basic financial concepts; increased awareness of social responsibility and entrepreneur’s contribution to society; and greater likelihood of graduating to next education level (Broecke and Diallo, 2012).
Entrepreneurship education therefore, appears to be a formal structured instruction which conveys entrepreneurial knowledge and develops in students, focused awareness relating to opportunity, recognition and the creation of new ventures. Nwosu and Ohia (2009) defined entrepreneurship education as the process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the knowledge, skills and attitudes to act on them.  Acknowledging the view above, Brown (2003) contends that, entrepreneurship education and training programmes are aimed directly at stimulating entrepreneurship which may be defined as independent small business ownership or the development of opportunity-seeking managers within companies. Brown added that, these innovative, creative, independent and self-reliant qualities are lacking in most university graduates, who have become mere white collar job-seekers rather than job-makers. However, entrepreneurship seem to be the hub of both small and medium enterprises in America, Europe, Asian Tigers, among other advanced countries where private sector compliments the efforts of government in provision of employment opportunities, social security and welfare services to the citizenry.
The realization of the importance of entrepreneurship education and its implementation in universities is basically the concern of two main groups of staff in universities: the epistemologists and the deontologists. The epistemologists are the academic staff. They are more or less the technical crew in the university. They are equipped with adequate theoretical and practical knowledge for research, teaching and inculcating necessary entrepreneurial skills in students, thus preparing them for life, world of work and for contribution to national development (Chiaha and Agu, 2008). Chiaha and Agu explained further that, deontologists are inevitable assistants to the epistemologists in that they provide necessary administrative and technical supports to the university and the epistemologists in particular. The deontologists are normally responsible for all non-academic programmes including administration, planning, resource management, supervision, personnel matters, welfare of staff and students, financial administration, record-keeping, admissions, certifications, health, and university plant (environment physical facilities and equipment).
However, the senior epistemologists such as Deans of faculties, Provosts of schools, Directors of institutes, Departmental and Unit heads, Professors and Senior Lecturers, also partake in university administration. They are equally involved in the strategic management of EEd challenges. This is because many important functions involving implementation of government’s policies, monitoring, supervision and accreditation in universities are performed by these groups of staff (Mgbekem, 2004). But despite the structural organization of entrepreneurship education, Banabo and Ndiomu (2011) identified the challenges affecting entrepreneurship education in federal and state universities in the North Central states to include lack of sufficient and skilled manpower, inadequate funding, poor state of infrastructure, and lack of relevant reading materials. For Okebuola (2011), these challenges include cultism, lack of vibrant staff development programme, frequent labour disputes and the closure of universities, inadequate information technology facilities, poor leadership and poor policy implementation.
It is important to note that, three types of universities exist in Nigeria. They are: federal, state and private universities. The major difference between them lies in the funding. While the federal government funds federal universities, state universities are funded by their various state governments, whereas private universities are funded by private individuals that own them. Nevertheless, they are all under the supervision of the Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC) that ensures quality and minimum standards in the universities while the various funding bodies make administrative policies. However, some universities like University of Jos; Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi; Kogi State University, Ayingba; Kwara State University, Ilorin; Nassarawa State University, Keffi; Taraba State University, Jalingo; and Benue State University, amongst others, in the North Central States of Nigeria appears to  be bedevilled by the challenges of effective entrepreneurship education management.

Based on the above, this study proposes a strategic management of the challenges facing EEd in universities, in North Central States of Nigeria, through the application of SWOT, which denotes Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats. Johnson and Scholes in Hinde ( 2000, p. 14) stated that the aim of SWOT analysis is to identify the extent to which the current strategy of an organization and its more specified strength and weakness are relevant to, and capable of dealing with the change taking place in the management of university education. This means that, every university in the North Central Nigeria needs to increasingly become aware of their Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats in managing the challenges of entrepreneurship education. To succeed in any field, weakness must be overcome through strength and threats must be transferred into opportunities.
On the other hand, strategic management of EEd challenges primarily entails responses to external issues such as in understanding the actual needs of students, and responding to them as appropriate. This is because strategic management provides overall direction to an organization. It entails specifying the organization’s objectives, developing policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the plans. It also includes a feedback mechanism which monitors execution and informs the next round of action.

Deriving from the above, the expectation is that, strategic management of EEd challenges would enable universities in the North Central States of Nigeria to function effectively towards achieving the objectives of entrepreneurship education. Besides, Ibukun (1997) pointed out that, the relevance of university education in Nigeria generally, is the provision of much needed manpower to accelerate the socio-economic development of the nation. Higher education as an instrument of social change and economic development was considered relevant by the National University Commission as a means through which EEd should be inculcated to Nigerian university graduates.
However, many educationists and administrators have questioned the achievement of the objectives of higher education by these universities. The objectives of university education as enshrined in the Nigeria’s National Policy on Education include contributing to national development through high level manpower training; providing accessible and affordable quality learning opportunities in formal and informal education in response to the needs and interests of all Nigerians; providing high quality career counseling and lifelong learning programmes that prepare students with the knowledge and skills for self-reliance and the world of work; reducing skill shortages through the production of skilled manpower relevant to the needs of the labour  market; promoting and encouraging scholarship, entrepreneurship and community service; forging and cementing national unity; and promoting national and international understanding and interaction (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014).

Despite the above laudable objectives, the concern of many educationists and administrators is due to the fact that most of the graduates remain unemployed for as long as ten years after graduation (OECD, 2012). Okoro (as cited in Mando and Akaan, 2013) noted that, about seventy-five (75) percent of secondary school-leavers in Nigeria do not go further in higher academic pursuit and that it is disturbing to have a situation where many youths who are physically able to render services towards national development, are highly unemployed. Thus, Nigeria has continued to struggle with major economic challenges including youth unemployment and this seems to be a threat to national development and according to Adebisi and Oni (2012), the unemployment of qualified and able-bodied youths has been of much concern to stakeholders in education, policy makers and the youth themselves. According to the Trading Economics (2015), unemployment rate in Nigeria increased to 7.50 percent in the first quarter of 2015 from 6.40 percent in the fourth quarter of 2014. In addition, unemployment rate in Nigeria averaged 11.93 percent from 2006 until 2015, reaching an all-time high of 23.90 percent in the fourth quarter of 2011 and a record low of 5.30 percent in the fourth quarter of 2006. Thus, there is increasing level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria, a country that is blessed with abundant natural resources such as ore, coal, chromium, cobalt, hydroelectric power, manganese and millions of hectares of uncultivated farmland and abundance of oil and gas. Conversely, most of the able-bodied graduate youth appears to have become beggars on the streets.

Furthermore, youth unemployment rate measures the number of young people vigorously looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force in Nigeria. Youth unemployment is  worsened by trends of globalization which have led many companies to focus on their core competencies, which often creates a scenario where only temporary jobs are available for youths thereby making them underemployed or worse still, unemployed (Chiaha and Agu, 2008). While others tend to lay the blame on the type of graduates produced in Nigerian universities, who are also regarded as unemployable, some believe that they lack employable skills and experience (Obanya, 2010).
Consequently, the International Labour Organization (ILO) had predicted that by 2009, world youth unemployment rate would stand at 15%, while that of sub-Saharan Africa would be 60%. Backing this worsening figure, the report shows that there might be persistent unemployment, proliferation of temporary jobs, growing youth discouragement in advanced economies; and poor quality, informal, subsistence jobs in developing countries (ILO, 2013). The recent global financial crises, in addition to the prevalent economic woes of Nigeria, compelled the federal government to formally adopt Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) as the engine of the country’s economic recovery and re-engineering. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous army of unemployed university graduates, regrettably, does not have the requisite skills and experiences for entrepreneurship in the country. This unsavoury and startling revelation forced the Yar’Adua administration to include entrepreneurship as the number three item of its seven-point agenda, to embrace entrepreneurship as a panacea for graduate and youth unemployment.
Given that youth unemployment rate is a threat to national development, entrepreneurship education was introduced and made a compulsory course in Nigerian universities. The idea was to enable graduates to acquire skills for the development of functional skills which would enable them to depend less on government jobs, but rely on their own abilities to provide for themselves the means of livelihood. This, apart from addressing the problem of graduate unemployment, was also aimed at strategically positioning the Nigerian economy for leadership in Africa. Thus, the researcher classifies unemployment rate in the country as a threat to national development in the one hand, and an opportunity for entrepreneurship education on the other hand.

Consequently, the NUC directed all universities in the country to commence entrepreneurship education as a compulsory course for all undergraduates irrespective of their disciplines, with effect from 2007/2008 academic session, and NUC had to coordinate and ensure compliance (Okojie, 2007). In an address at a conference on effective implementation of the Yar’Adua Administration Seven-Point Agenda, Prof Julius A. Okojie, the Executive Secretary of the NUC stated that, the universities were encouraged to commence entrepreneurial education (EEd) in order to equip their students with the skills that would make them useful to themselves and the country generally. It was expected that the EEd would encourage the universities to establish entrepreneurship studies, career advisory services and reduce crimes like examination malpractices, decadence in moral values, cultism and other social vices within the campus.
Based on the above, the fundamental questions to be asked are that: Have all the universities in the North Central zone complied with the directive on entrepreneurship education? Has the entrepreneurship education been properly integrated into the universities curriculum in the universities in the North Central States of Nigeria? Do the universities have adequate personnel in terms of quality and quantity for the entrepreneurial education? Do they have adequate facilities for entrepreneurial education? Are they producing entrepreneurs in the various disciplines? Have the university graduates stopped seeking for paid employment? Are majority of them selfemployed? These posers have suggested that, there may be challenges facing universities in the implementation of the EEd policy, especially in North Central states of Nigeria, which this study is set to investigate and find out how they can be strategically managed in the interest of achieving the objectives of entrepreneurship education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One observes with dismay, the deepening level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria, and this is in a country that is blessed with abundant natural resources such as ore, coal, chromium, cobalt, hydroelectric power, manganese and millions of hectares of uncultivated farmland and abundance of oil and gas. Regrettably, able-bodied men and women have become beggars on the streets of their fatherland. Realizing the above danger, entrepreneurship education was introduced and made a compulsory course in Nigerian universities. The idea was to enable graduates to acquire skills for the development of functional skills which would enable them to depend less on government jobs, but rely on their own abilities to provide for themselves the means of livelihood. This, apart from addressing the problem of graduate unemployment, would also strategically position the Nigerian economy for leadership in Africa.
Ever since entrepreneurship education was introduced in Nigerian universities, many graduates still remain unemployed for a long time after graduation. It appears that, the entrepreneurship education delivered to undergraduates does not meet the aims and the objectives of the course. Consequently, the challenge of graduate unemployment, with its attendant effects has continued to undermine chances of survival in Nigeria, thus making mockery of the content and philosophy of entrepreneurship education in the federal and state universities in the North Central States. Such universities are faced with the challenge of effective entrepreneurship education management. This research is therefore, an attempt towards understanding the above malaise in terms of the content of EEd; how the programme is managed; what impact it has on the socio-economic progress of university graduates in the North Central States of Nigeria, and how this problem could be addressed in the interest of achieving sound entrepreneurship education in North Central States universities, and Nigerian universities at large.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the strategic management of challenges facing entrepreneurship education in universities in North Central State of Nigeria. Specifically the study sought to:
1.                 Find out the threats to Entrepreneurship Education in universities in North Central State of Nigeria.
2.                 Ascertain  the weaknesses of  Entrepreneurship Education in universities in North Central State of Nigeria
3.                 Determine the opportunities of Entrepreneurship Education in universities in North Central State of Nigeria.
4.                 Investigate the strengths of Entrepreneurship Education in universities in North Central State of Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1.                   What are the threats to entrepreneurship education in universities in North Central States of Nigeria? 
2.                   What are the weaknesses of entrepreneurship education in universities in North Central States of Nigeria?
3.                   What are the opportunities of entrepreneurship education in universities in North Central States of Nigeria?
4.                   What are the strengths of entrepreneurship education in universities in North Central States of Nigeria?      
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on threats to entrepreneurship education in the Universities.
HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the weaknesses of EEd in the Universities.
HO3: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the opportunities of entrepreneurship education in the Universities.
HO4 There is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the strengths of entrepreneurship education in the Universities.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is based on both theoretical and practical significance. The theoretically, the study is anchored on Risk Taking Theory (RTT) by Richard Cantillon and John Stuart Mill. The theory perceives entrepreneurship as a mental education that stimulates individuals to take calculated risk for which future stream of benefits are guaranteed, and people taking big risk have to contend with a great responsibility. The main thrust of the theory is that, entrepreneurship education improves the ability, capability and potentials of individuals to undertake risks for which economic benefits are assured. This implies that managers of universities in North-central states have to become more aware of the importance of entrepreneurship education so as to ensure that it is strategically managed to achieve their goals and objectives.
Practically, the findings will be beneficial to many, including students, lecturers, employers, government and policy makers, as well as the general public. The study would enable the students to remain committed in their acquisition of practical skills that would enable them to be self-reliant, thus depending less on the government for white collar jobs, which are often scarcely available. This would no doubt enable them to add value to themselves by acquiring a means of livelihood.  The lecturers teaching EEd in universities too would find this study useful, as they would avail themselves of the usefulness of the findings, to adjust to a better management and delivery of the course content in the interest of the students, which would help improve the students’ interest.
This would also bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education through conferences.
This would also bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education through conferences. Consequent upon the benefits of this study to students, employers would also benefit in terms of the availability of workers who are business- conscious, and who would help to increase the productivity of various companies through practical experience.  The study is important to the government and policy-makers in terms of the fact that, it would create awareness on the effort being made by various Nigerian universities on the implementation and achievement of government policy on entrepreneurship education. It would also stir up policy-makers towards enacting laws that would strengthen entrepreneurship education in Nigeria.
The study would also be beneficial to members of the public because, as more graduates would be absorbed by different companies and organizations, there would be a reduction in crime rate, even improvement in the living conditions of the people.
Above all, this study will contribute to the existing literature on EEd and its impact on socio-economic progress of the people, even as it would serve as a source material for further research in this area.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covered all the seven federal and six state universities in the North Central States of Nigeria. It also covered all the 13 coordinators and 136 lecturers of entrepreneurship programmes in the 13 universities. The content scope covers strategic management approach in solving the challenges facing entrepreneurship education in areas of strength, weakness, opportunities and threats.

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF CHALLENGES FACING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES, NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

STRATEGIES FOR CURBING MALADJUSTMENT BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN OGOJA EDUCATION AUTHORITY OF CROSS RIVER STATE .

STRATEGIES FOR CURBING MALADJUSTMENT BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN OGOJA EDUCATION AUTHORITY OF CROSS RIVER STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study
Primary schools are established with the aim of producing
pupils who are worthy in character and learning. Pupils are
expected to acquire knowledge, skills, experience and discipline
that will help them sharpen their destiny and rebuild them from
what they used to be to what they intend to become. Pupils at
this level of education fall between the ages of 6 to 11 plus (NPE,
2004). This period is described as the childhood age period which
has been christened by some psychologists as a period below the
legal age of responsibility or accountability (Okobia & Ohen,
2006). Children like human beings are social in nature. They
hardly live in isolation but prefer to live and interact with one
another (Idowu & Yahaya, 2013).
The urge for a child to interact in school usually creates
some challenges which need to be addressed especially in
primary schools. A child is a person who is below the age of
adulthood (Oke, 2009). In the context of this study therefore, a
child is a person who is below the age of adulthood and is in the
primary school.

Primary school is education given to children from aged 6-
12 years in schools. It is a transition into secondary schools.
Primary school is education given in an educational institution
for children aged 6 to 11 years plus (NPE, 2004). The author also
noted that primary education is the pivot upon which the whole
system of education revolves. The Federal Republic of Nigeria
(2004:14) highlighted the objectives of primary education as
follows: Inculcating permanent literacy and numeracy, and ability
to communicate effectively, laying of a sound basis for scientific
and reflective thinking; giving citizenship education as a basis for
effective participation in and contribution to the life of the
society; moulding the character and developing sound attitude
and morals in the child; developing in the child the ability to
adapt to his changing environment among others.
These objectives if vigorously pursued is expected to
transform the child at the end of primary education to
demonstrate decent and decorous conduct, respect for authority,
high sense of responsibility, love for orderliness, eagerness to
discharge duties among others (Peter & Felicia, 2013). However,
when a child fails to discharge these characteristics,
maladjustment behaviour.

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STRATEGIES FOR CURBING MALADJUSTMENT BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN OGOJA EDUCATION AUTHORITY OF CROSS RIVER STATE.

APPRAISAL OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA .

APPRAISAL OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT
The study appraised the management of physical facilities in public and private
colleges of education in South East Nigeira. Seven research questions and six null
hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted
for the study. The sample for the study is 543, comprising 433 academic staff and 110
administrative staff selected from the 4 public and 2 private colleges of education used
for the study. A fifty-item questionnaire titled Appraisal of the management of physical
facilities in public and private Colleges of Education in South East Nigeria was used
for the study. The questionnaire was face-validated by four experts. The internal
consistency of the questionnaire items was determined using Cronbach alpha
procedure. The data collected were analyzed using real limit of numbers, while mean
and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, and independent ttest
to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that there is no significant difference
between the opinions of staff of public and private colleges of education on the extent
they adhere to the NCCE manual on planning, procurement and management of
physical facilities in their institutions. The study revealed that to a great extent,
management adhere to the NCCE manual on the planning, maintenance, safety and
supervision of physical facilities. Observation rating scale was another instrument used
to collect data for the study. It was used personally by the researcher to ascertain the
level of adequacy of physical facilities in the Colleges of Education. The result
revealed that the Public Colleges of Education studied generally have more adequate
facilities than the Private ones. The researcher also used Focus Group Discussions in
the colleges under study. Data were generated to probe how management staff ensures
the safety of physical facilities and equipment in their colleges. Findings show that
facilities generally are entrusted to the care of security staff. Discussants also reported
that physical facilities and equipment departments are usually in the custody of
technologists. Based on these findings, it was therefore recommended among others
that staff of both Public and Private Colleges of Education should adhere strictly to the
manual from National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) in the
management of physical facilities and equipment in their colleges. Implications of the
study, suggestions and limitations were stated appropriately based on the findings.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The continual increase in school enrolment in Nigeria in recent years has led
to corresponding needs of more qualified teachers, non teaching staff, material
resources and physical facilities. This trend has in turn led to demand and
employment of personnel and provision of requisite facilities, thus, increasing the
cost of financing education. However, the rate of school enrolment still far
outweighs the rate of provision of teaching staff and facilities because of
insufficient financial backing. Akilaiya (2001) observed this trend, pointing out
that the non-corresponding expansion in facilities, has resulted in gradual but
general collapse of the system. The continual increase in school enrolment and the
need for more qualified teaching staff led to the establishment of colleges of
education.
Colleges of education are tertiary institutions of learning formally
established to produce highly dedicated and efficient teachers for the basic
education system. Colleges of education, whether public or private award the
Nigeria Certificate of Education (NCE). As teacher education institutions, the
goals of Colleges of Education according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria
(2004) include: encouragement of the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;
helping teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large
and to enhance their commitment to national objectives; providing teachers with
the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment; and to
make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country,
but in their wider world; enhancing teachers’ commitment to the teaching
profession.
For colleges of education to achieve the above objectives, the physical
facilities made available to them must be efficiently and effectively managed.
Colleges of education are administered by Provosts and a host of other officers.

FAMILY STRUCTURE AND CLIMATE AS PREDICTORS OF SCHOOL ADJUSTMENTS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU STATE .

FAMILY STRUCTURE AND CLIMATE AS PREDICTORS OF SCHOOL ADJUSTMENTS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU STATE.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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FAMILY STRUCTURE AND CLIMATE AS PREDICTORS OF SCHOOL ADJUSTMENTS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU STATE.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF PRINCIPALS AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF PRINCIPALS AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY.

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate transformational leadership style of principals in human resource management in public secondary schools in South East Nigeria. The study was guided by four research questions with four corresponding null hypotheses formulated. Literature relevant to the study was reviewed. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of 25, 220 principals and teachers in 1,244 public secondary schools in the five South East states of Nigeria, out of which 1, 250 comprising 1000 teachers and 250 principals, were sampled using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire titled Transformational Leadership Style of Principals and Human Resource Management Questionnaire. (TLSPHRMQ) with reliability of 0.95 was used for data collection. 1,250 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and 1,233 were returned.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions, while t-test statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at .05 level of significance.

The results indicated that principals of public secondary schools in South East Nigeria fairly
(great extent) adopt transformational leadership style, sometimes (little extent) adopt
transactional leadership style and once in a while (very little extent) adopt laizzez faire
leadership style. It was also found that the principals adopt transformational leadership style and staff development, staff motivation and staff discipline to a great extent. The null hypotheses tested showed that there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on leadership styles of principals, there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the extent principals adopt transformational leadership in staff discipline. Other findings include; there is significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the extent principals adopt transformational leaderships style in staff development and that there is significant difference between the mean rating of principals and teachers on the extent principals adopt transformational leadership style in staff motivation. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended among others that school board of different states in South East Nigeria who are responsible for appointing new principals should make it a point of duty to train them in transformational leadership style, and that educational policy makers on their part should make a policy for in-service training of principals in transformational leadership practices, so that those principals who are already making use of transformational leadership style in their different schools will be encouraged.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Nigeria as a nation is faced with the challenges of a developing nation which are;
domestic and external constraints to growth among which include; lack of employment
generation, policy implementation and lack of follow-up of the policy among others. To confront these challenges of the 21st century, the Nigerian government under former president Goodluck Jonathan came up with the Transformational Agenda, which is geared towards bringing Nigeria to the league of world’s 20 leading economies by the year 2020. One of the focuses of the Transformational Agenda is investing in human resources to transform the Nigerian people into active agents for growth and national development. Human resources are one of the resources utilized in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. Human resources are the workers, in an organization. Hence as educational organizations are critical to the success of any national agenda, (Balarabe 2012), their human resources really need to be influenced and directed towards its strategic objectives. This could be attained through an effective leadership that is proactive, encourages followers to do what is required to help them attain unexpected goals.

This influence could be achieved through transformational leadership style.
Leadership is the central process of an organization. Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011)
defined leadership as a process of influencing, directing, acquiring normative personal
characteristics and power, and coordinating group activities to make individuals in an
organization strive willingly towards the attainment of organizational goals. Ade (2003) defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinate in an effort to reach organizational objectives. Hoy and Miskel (2013) noted that leadership is a social process in which an individual or a group influences behaviour towards, a shared goal. Ibukun (2008) remarked that without leadership, an organization can best be described as a scene of confusion and chaos. This means that a good organizational structure alone may not solve the problem of school organization or any educational enterprise as whole. This is why Nwankwo (2007), argues that good organizational structure requires effective leadership to achieve set objectives. Leadership influences, coordinates, energizes and directs the subordinates to achieve set objectives among others. It is a social process, which seeks ways to use the subordinates to achieve the organizational objectives. When leadership is in action, the leader succeeds in using the subordinates under him/her to achieve the organizational objectives For the purpose of this study, leadership can therefore be defined as a social process, used to influence the behaviour of subordinates in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. Leadership visualizes what needs to be achieved, and goes all the way choosing appropriate activities, skills as the case may be to achieve them. By implication, the leader persuades, influences and co-ordinates the members in the group, so that they can willingly strive with maximum energy to discharge their allocated duties and responsibilities for high level of productivity in the organization.

Leadership theories can be featured generally as being concerned with who leads (i.e.
characteristics of leaders) how they lead (i.e., leader behaviours) under what circumstances they lead (i.e., situational theories, contingency theories), or who follows the leader (i.e. relational theories) Cleveland, Stockdale and Murphy,2000). Examples of all four approaches to leadership are trait approaches which is a conventional vision that great leaders possess special, traits that distinguish them from other people, behavioural approaches; which focuses on what leaders do rather than what traits they possess, contingency theories.

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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF PRINCIPALS AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY.

PROBLEM SOLVING AND GOAL ABILITIES AS PREDICTORS OF STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL .

PROBLEM SOLVING AND GOAL ABILITIES AS PREDICTORS OF STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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PROBLEM SOLVING AND GOAL ABILITIES AS PREDICTORS OF STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL .

WILLIAM JAMES PRAGMATIC PHILOSOPHY: IT’S APPLICATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI EDUCATION ZONE OF IMO STATE. .

WILLIAM JAMES PRAGMATIC PHILOSOPHY: IT’S APPLICATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI EDUCATION ZONE OF IMO STATE.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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WILLIAM JAMES PRAGMATIC PHILOSOPHY: IT’S APPLICATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI EDUCATION ZONE OF IMO STATE.

PERCEIVED IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

PERCEIVED IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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PERCEIVED IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING ON ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT OF IN- SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ENUGU EDUCATION ZONE OF ENUGU STATE .

INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING ON ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT OF IN- SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ENUGU EDUCATION ZONE OF ENUGU STATE .

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background of the Study 
Electronic communication has become an integral part of our global society.  Presently, information is at the doormat of everybody because the world is in the era of information technology. This cannot be compared to few decades back when it takes weeks for one to communicate through letter writing to a beloved one within in or outside the country. In this technological era, information is no longer left for only a few privileged people who can afford the use of land line telephone in offices and homes. Even the people in the remotest village in Nigeria and elsewhere can access information through the cell phone, available internet and social networking sites.
Social networking is a means of communication through which tools like wall posts, status updates, activity feeds, thumbs ups and profiles are used and perhaps characterized online communications namely face book, Myspace Metlog, flicker and twitter (Akaneme,  Ibenegbu & Nwosu, 2013). Also, Mashable (2015) opined that social networking service is an online platform or site that focuses on facilitating the social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds or real life.
In the opinion of Ferguson (2007), social networking is online destination which focuses on connecting people they already know and those they do not know. Similarly, Abd-Rahman (2013) described social networking as the use of online sites (social networking sites) for people to get to know new people, share their profiles, trace their old friends, share pictures, videos, publish upcoming events of their societies, and counties.
In operational terms, social networking is a platform through which individuals’ interest, profiles, pictures, activities, events or news and academic issues are shared and communicated so as to maintain and adopt substantial balance between their academic requirement and individual interest. Social networking as advent of era of information is the use of dedicated websites which enable social interaction and applications to interact with other users or find people with similar interest to their own.
Presently, social networking as a new development has been described as a stage for facilitation and development of adolescents’ social adaptation (Subrahmanyam & Green-Field, 2008; Zhao, Grasmuck & Martin, 2008). Also, people use social networking to share their feeling and disposition to individuals of their networking (Young, 2011). It is a platform through which people communicate and disclose their personal thoughts, feelings and life events (Zhao, Grasmuck & Martin, 2008). Operationally, social networking, therefore, imply platform or online media where individual privately unleash their identities, problems and views to life for others in the same network to comment. Social network platform includes 2go, facebook, whatsapp, twitter, instagram, google, to mention a few.
The outbreak of social networking has both negative and positive implications. In recent times, students are becoming addictive in their social networking communicative skills (Abd-Rahman, 2013).  No wonder, Ojo and Omoyemiju (2008) found out that students spend larger percentage of their time on social networking sites like e-mail, facebook and 2go while they spend less time on the internet for academic proposes. Boyd (2009) maintained that social networking has impacted negatively on the adolescents and this has caused anxiety on families and friends. The involvement of students in social networking has deprived them the opportunity to read their books and other necessary things (Kuss & Griffiths, 2011). Invariably, Idakwo (2011) lamented that school work and social interaction have been affected at the advent of these social media. In essence, students have lost control due to their unrestricted commitment and engagement in social networking, making them vulnerable to academic problems such as poor result, poor study habits, truancy, examination malpractice, disrespecting school rules and regulation and other inappropriate behaviours.
Furthermore, excessive mental preoccupation with social networking, repetitive thoughts about limiting or controlling the use, failure to prevent the desire for access, craving for using the internet when access is not available are the remarkable problems with social networking addiction (Adedeji, 2011). In the same vein, Itodo (2011) decried that there seem to be an alarming role of social networking obsession among adolescents today; a trend that could affect their academic, social and spiritual lives negatively if not properly controlled. The pathetic position social networking is taking towards falling standard of Nigerian educational system has become dangerous because it is left unchecked (Bello, 2012).
It is through social networking that students chat and share issues pertaining sex, communicate embarrassingly or hostile information about others, engage in interaction that would arouse their desire to indulge in smoking, witchhunting each others and exposing them to raping strategies (Collins, Martino & Shaw, 2011; Ogbevoen, 2012; Yharra, Espelage, & Mitchell, 2007).  Due to addiction to social networking, the individuals suffer complications and disturbances which affect them negatively in their academics. It therefore implies that adolescents have made social networking part and parcel of their lives and as such, cannot imagine life without that. This has made many students feel passive during family gatherings and school activities. In the class where students’ attention is highly needed in order to adjust and make maximum use of the time, some students appear not to be paying attention to anything and to anybody even in the thick traffic roads, simply because of earphones.
Notwithstanding, researches have shown that social networking has positive implications. For instance, Mason (2006) claimed that social networking sites have enough capacity for a good official education matching the social context of learning and promoting critical thinking in learners. It also has the capacity to change educational system radically, motivating students for better learning rather than being passive attendees of a classroom (Ziegler, 2007). Social networking is very interesting because of its innovation and solutions to long lasting human problems. Ekponimo (2013) opined that social networking can help to solve the problem of hunger and reduction of waste in the country. This is because social networking adds value to the economy of the nation. Supporting the contribution of social media and internet to national economy, Juwah (2014) stated that the telecoms sector contributed over 8.53 percent increase to Nigeria Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the year 2013.  The importance of social networking sites cannot be glossed over especially Nigerians because it explores their communicative skills and exposes them with current trends in society. Social networking can speed up communication and make conversation more interesting and acceptable to people. Digitalization and globalization have offered students the opportunity of communicating with their peers at the other side of the globe and to model whoever that captivates interest whether the model is good or bad. Consequently, students seem to be   finding it difficult to adjust and face their academic demands and the desire to access social networking sites.
Adjustment is the attitudinal process through which man and animal maintain equilibrium over their desires between their needs and the challenges of life (Romald, 2000). Adjustment is also regarded as peaceful co-existence between a living organism and its environment (Jose, 2010). In the same vein, adjustment is a process that refers to the patterns and means through which living organisms set balance between itself and the surroundings without reference to the consequential effects in terms of success or failure (Paramanik, Saha & Mondal, 2014). In this study, adjustment means an individual modification of behaviour in order to interact well with the environment. Invariably, the students’ ability to harmonize school variables (school attendance, class work, school rules and regulations) with the student’s psychological and physiological demands shows that the person has adjusted academically. Academic adjustment spans through school adjustment.     Academic adjustment is interpreted to be students’ educational outcome (Birch & Ladd, 1996). Newman (2000) opined that academic adjustment is the process of adapting to the role of being a student and to various aspects of the school environment. Contextually, academic adjustment is the process of setting a balance between students’ psychological and physiological demands and academic requirements. Academic adjustment is the modification of both internal and external demands which gives adolescents facilitation to participate actively in the  classes activities in the school.
Academic adjustment is a veritable predictor of psychosocial adaptation because new experiences are learned in school (Phinney, Horenczyk, Leabkind & Vedder, 2001). Also, Gurubasappa (2009) posited that a significant positive high correlation exists between academic achievement and adjustment.
Adolescence is referred to as important stage of intellectual, psychological and instructive feelings (Kelly, 2004). Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood. The age of the adolescence ranges from 11-19 years for girls and from 13-21 years for boys (Eze, 2005). In the opinion of Osa-Edoh and Iyamu (2012), adolescence is that period in every person’s life that lies between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood. Operationally, adolescence is a human transitional period which begins from 11years and ends when the individual’s physiological, psychological, intellectual and emotions must have developed to perform adult roles say 18 years.  Adolescence is a period of personality formation and shaping of behaviors. The adolescents try to build up their identity and make use of information to build their ego structure. The identity formation leads the adolescents to rely on the information available to them to make up and so they rely on social networks to provide solutions to problems they are encountering.
Adolescents are individuals who are within the transitional period childhood to adulthood (Eze, 2005). Eggen and Kanuchak (2013) opined that adolescents are young individuals who are physically, but not mentally ready for parenthood. Contextually, adolescents are teenagers who are passing through the stage of growth spur within age range of 11 to 21.
In-school adolescents are sensitive to self identity in-school necessary for academic adjustment when their peers provide expected support, intimacy, belongingness and advice they need (Brody, 2004). Emphasizing on how in-school adolescent become social and recognized among peers, Ito (2011) asserted that social networking sites have facilitated adolescents to develop important and amazing connections. In-school adolescents are adolescents who are in secondary schools (Idankwo, 2011). Contextually, in-school adolescents are young boys and girls ages (11-18) who are pursuing intellectual education in secondary schools.
Social networking becomes useful to introverted in-school adolescents to socialize behind the safety to various screens ranging from a 2 inch smart phone to a 17 inch Laptop (Rosen, 2011). For instance, social networking kills ineptitudes, inferiority. In-school adolescents use of social networking has shown to be very large for instance, a national survey in 2009 found that 73 percent of adolescents use social media indicating an increase from 55% three years earlier (Lemhart, Purcell, Smiths & Zickuhr, 2010). Meanwhile, students nowadays spend so much time chatting online rather than their academic pursuit Decrying on this ugly situation, Aren (2010) found that the more time University students browse on net the more their grade decreased in examinations. Aren further posited that in-school adolescents who use facebook usually have low academic achievement. In essence, social media is a challenge to academic performance of in-school adolescents because it is energy sapping and time consuming.
In-school adolescents tend to channel energy, time and whole being in social networking because of the unlimited satisfaction and pleasure which it offers to these young people. In-school adolescents are the most users of social networks.  Mueller (2005) posited that million of adolescents are online whether in the school, at home, in a friend’s house with their cell phone and almost everywhere. Ogbe (2014) has this to say: The social networking and Nigerian youth, no doubt, the phenomenon of the social media has no small measure impacted positively on the Nigerian youths and indeed, Nigerians at large, for one it has made the youths to become better informed and educated by being abreast of global news and information (p.24).
Though, the social networking offers all possible information to the inschool adolescents. However, this information is not censored. In-school adolescents try to explore all environment, they tend to neglect the positive and important aspect of the social networking which is helping to access information for academic adjustment. In-school adolescence may pursue pleasure and enjoyment at the detriment of academic pursuit. Akaneme, Ibenegbu and Nwosu (2013) reported that 31 percent of a in-school adolescents who are social network users interviewed agreed to have flirted with someone online that would not have been done in person.
However, Ito (2009) highlighted on those in-school adolescents for whom social networking has facilitated important (connections) and amazing connections. So, looking at social-networking as a coin of two sides, one can use it positively when this is channeled towards success and it can also lead one to doom when it is not utilized properly. One can rightly conclude that the problem is not on social networking par-say but what one makes out of it. Social networking can make or destroy depending on the usage irrespective of gender and location.
Gender is the socio-cultural dimension of being male or female (Santrock, 2007). In operational terms, gender is a socio-cultural construct used to describe behaviours of boys (males) and girls (females). Emphasizing on whether difference exist between male and female adolescents with regards to academic adjustment, Maureen, John and Anyere (2011) argued that  difference does not  exit between girls and boys in school adjustment. Also, Kaur (2012) observed that girls have more adjustment power than boys. On contrary, Basu (2012), observed that difference exist a between the adjustment of secondary school students when compared on the basis of gender and location.
Location is a specific place where something exists (Chigbu, 2011). That is to say that location can be an urban or rural area.  United Nation International Education Fund UNICEF (2012) defined an urban area as an area within the jurist diction of a municipality or town committee, with a minimum population size of 2,000 people population density, an economic function of surplus employment, presence of urban characteristics such as paved street, electric lighting and sewerage. Contextually an urban area is regarded as an area that is characterized by high population density, a number of houses and presence of government establishment(s). On the other hand, Ede (2014) opined that rural area is an area outside cities which is characterized by few people and typically agricultural, woodland and mountainous settings. In this study, rural area is a geographical location that has less population density, farmland and lack accessible road. In operational terms rural area is a place with few people in natural environment of mainly forest grasses bush and domestic animals.
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Evidences abound that in-school adolescents spend so much time in social networks such as facebook, 2go, whatsapp, twitter, instagram, google and others. Some of these in-school adolescents experience academic maladjustment in school.
There has been a decline in the performance of students in both internal and external examination Senior Secondary Certificate SSCE, Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) and National Examination Council (NECO) point to this observation. It appears that the addiction of in-school adolescents to social networking makes them to lack concentration while studying and consequently lead to poor academic performance. It seems also that the inschool adolescents who are always on the net lack necessary skills that are required for academic adjustment in schools. For example, some of the adolescents do not use study time table to study and some lack study habit skills.
Consequently, some of the in-school adolescents who are always on social networking sites are more likely to have reduced academic performance. Some of these adolescents fail in both internal examinations repeat the examination and skill fail again. The in-school adolescents’ academic maladjustment leads to other antisocial behaviours such as examination malpractice, truancy and dropping out of school. It is against this background that the researcher has investigated the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu  State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study  
The objective of the study is to determine the influence of social networking on the academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1.      identity the various categories of social networking that adolescents are exposed to in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State
2.      find out the dangers associated with the use of social networking
3.      ascertain the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of  male and female in-school adolescents
4. ascertain the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of in– school adolescents from urban and rural areas.
1.4 Research Questions 
The following Research Questions guided this study:
1.      What are the various categories of social networking in-school adolescents are exposed to in Enugu Education Zone?
2.      What are the dangers associated with social networking?
3.      What is the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of male and female in-school adolescents?
4.      What is the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of urban and rural in-school adolescents?
1.5 Research Hypotheses  
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 probability level.
H01:  There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of male  and female in-school adolescents on the various categories social networking adolescents are exposed to.
H02:  There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of male and female in-school adolescents on the dangers associated with social networking.
H03:  There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of in-school adolescents from urban and rural areas on the influence  of social networking on academic adjustment.
H04: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of male  and female in-school adolescents on the influence of social networking on       academic adjustment. 
1.6 Significance of the Study  

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the findings of this study would support and sustain social learning theory of Albert Bandura who maintains that children learn through observation of models and imitation. Hence the adolescents learn by observing and imitating other people.
Practically, the findings of this study would be of immense benefit to the teachers, school psychologists and counsellors, parents, students and curriculum planners.
Teachers: it would help the teachers to identify the various categories of social networking that adolescents are exposed to and their influence on students’ academic adjustment.   Teachers would understand the important role they should play in adjustment patterns of adolescents with regards to their academic achievement. These would be achieved by depositing one of the copies of the study in the school library.
Psychologist/counselor would also benefit from the findings of this study. It would help them to find out the dangers associated with the negative use of social networking. It would also help them to ascertain the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of male and female adolescents. The knowledge of the influence of social networks on adolescents’ academic adjustment would help them to know how to modify and counsel adolescents with regards to social network related issues. This could during conferences and seminars.
The results of the study would help the parents to ascertain the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of male and female adolescents. The awareness could be done during Parent Teacher Association (PTA) meeting or seminar.
Furthermore, the students would benefit from the findings of this study. It would help them to find out the dangers associated with social networking. The student can access this information in the internet.
This study aid curriculum planners greatly. The, curriculum planners would be aware of various social networking that adolescents are exposed to. They would also identify the extent social networking would affect academic adjustments of the adolescent. Curriculum planners also would understand gender difference on the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of adolescents. This could be during seminars, workshops and conferences.
1.7 Scope of the Study      
This study has both content and geographical scope. The content scope of the study covered social networking, academic adjustment and adolescence. These include: the various categories of social networking that adolescents are exposed to; the dangers associated with social networking the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of male and female adolescents and the influence of social networking on academic adjustment of adolescents from urban and rural areas.  Geographically, this study was limited to all the public Senior Secondary Schools II Students (SS2) in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria.

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INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING ON ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT OF IN- SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ENUGU EDUCATION ZONE OF ENUGU STATE .

EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS ON PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S ACQUISITION OF PRE-READING SKILLS .

EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS ON PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S ACQUISITION OF PRE-READING SKILLS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS ON PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S ACQUISITION OF PRE-READING SKILLS.

CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA

CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA

INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF IN – SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ANAMBRA STATE .

INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF IN – SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ANAMBRA STATE .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF IN – SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ANAMBRA STATE .

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AS PREDICTORS OF EFFECTIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORY PRACTICES IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA .

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AS PREDICTORS OF EFFECTIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORY PRACTICES IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

Abstract
The study investigated the demographic variables as predictors of effective secondary school supervisory practices in the North-Central states of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which gender, experience, professional qualification and age can predict effective secondary school supervisory practices. The design of the study was correlational survey. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided this study. The target population consisted of 2,051 external supervisors from Ministries of Education, Teaching Service Boards, and Area Education Offices as well as internal Supervisors from Government Secondary Schools in the North-Central States of Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of 528 respondents. Multi-stage sampling technique was used where random sampling technique was used to select three states out of the six states in the North-Central States of Nigeria while proportionate certified random sampling technique was used to select secondary schools in each of the sampled states. The instrument for data collection was researcher’s developed questionnaire titled Demographic Variables Supervisory Practices Questionnaire (DVSPQ). The instrument was face validated by two experts in educational administration and one in measurement and evaluation from Faculty of Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The overall reliability yielded 0.93 using Cronbach alpha coefficient Method. Data was analyzed using Pearson r and R2for answering research questions. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using linear regression analysis. The major findings of the study were that gender, experience, professional qualification and age to a little extent predict supervisors’ effective secondary school supervisory practices. The educational implications are that, the study has provided empirical evidence that gender is not a hindrance to supervisors’ effective secondary school supervisory practices; the finding of the study also shows that experience has little impact on supervisors’ effective performance among others. The following recommendations were made based on the findings, that the government can employ supervisors on equal basis not minding whether they are males or females; both experienced and inexperienced supervisors can be employed by the government since on-the-job experience is most important; the government can encourage supervisors to attain higher professional qualifications; both young and old supervisors can be employed and on-the-job training given to them during their service years.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
School systems worldwide are faced with the challenge of how to improve teaching
and learning outcomes which can be possible through effective supervision of schools.
Supervision is the process of guiding, directing and helping the teachers in the improvement of the instructional process (Afianmagbon, 2004). Supervision is viewed as a process of directing, overseeing, guiding or making sure that expected standards are met (Igwe, 2001). Supervision can also be defined as that which helps to improve the teaching and learning processes in schools. It involves supervising teaching and classroom activities of the teachers (Igbo, 2003). Supervision can thus be regarded as an educational process that focuses on the improvement of teaching and learning processes in schools.

The purpose of supervision in secondary schools among others include to provide
assistance to teachers towards the improvement of teaching and learning process; to provide a conducive teaching and learning environment in order to promote effective teacher performance and learning in schools; to help teachers in identifying their strengths and weaknesses with a view to providing relevant in-service training; to induct beginning teachers into the main stream of the school system (Oluwole, 2007). Supervision is important in schools because according to Akpa and Abama (2000), it improves the teaching competence of teachers which invariably, positively enhances students learning. In the view of Oyedeji (2011) it will be very difficult to attain the standards that are set if supervision is not adequate or not undertaken at all. Therefore, supervision helps to enhance the quality of education.

According to Onasanya (2006), teachers need supervision to work harder no matter their level of experience and devotion. Without supervision both teachers and school administrators backslide rapidly in their performance.
Supervision can be grouped into two categories: instructional and personnel
supervision. Instructional supervision is a service that exist to help teachers to do their job
better (Anuna, 2004). Personnel supervision on the other hand, deals with the set of activities which are carried out by the supervisor with the aim of sensitizing, mobilizing and
monitoring staff in the school towards performing their duties ultimately in terms of
achievement of the stated aims and objectives of the educational system (Nwankwo, 2008).

The study has concentrated mainly on the instructional supervision. The reason being that
instructional supervision is an essential activity for the effective operation of a good school
(Ajani, 2001). To crown it all, the Federal republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) stated that the
success of any system of education is dependent on adequate supervision of instructions.
Schools are mainly established for instructions and supervision is designed to improve
instruction. Supervisors are then put in charge of schools to supervise them to make sure that everything is done correctly. A supervisor is a person or someone who possesses the right and appropriate professional and academic qualifications that will enable him/her to carry out supervisory practices in schools effectively (Afianmagbon, 2004). In the same vein, Hazi (2004) has defined a supervisor as any certificated individual assigned with the responsibility for the direction and guidance of the work of teaching staff members. The above implies that a supervisor should be an individual with appropriate professional qualification to enable him/her carry out supervisory practices in schools effectively.
There are two categories of supervisors namely the internal and external supervisors.
The internal supervisors are the principals of secondary schools or staff delegated by the
principals.

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DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AS PREDICTORS OF EFFECTIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORY PRACTICES IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA.

APPRAISAL OF RESOURCES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SENIOR BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME.

APPRAISAL OF RESOURCES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SENIOR BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Acquisition, provision and adequacy of resources for basic education programme of any nation are instruments par excellence for smooth, efficient and effective instructional delivery. Teaching and learning cannot properly take place without educational resources. Okeke (2005) described educational resources as varieties of materials, infrastructure, funds, space, land and people available for teaching and learning purposes; a collection of all that can be used effectively for enhancing teaching and learning. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria in her National policy on Education (NPE, 2004), educational resources has been described as resources that improve teaching and learning, as they make teachers and learners to interact together. Educational resources can then be seen as all that can enhance teaching and learning for purposes of efficiency and effectiveness. This implies that the planned national curriculum about basic education cannot work out to effect national growth and development without resources for education. Any nation that genuinely wishes to attain greater height in national development will not compromise acquisition, provision and adequacy of resources for basic education programme implementation for her citizenry.
Akinpelu (2002) observed that education is an instrument par excellence for addressing issues like poverty, underdevelopment, population, governance and other social concern. In 1948 the United Nations (UN) made declarations on human rights that included the right to education (Ugwuoke, 2011). The United Nations (UN) charter on Human rights was emphatic about basic education and as such, many other global declarations about basic education which are in line have been made such as: The 1990 Jomtien world conference declaration of
Most of the declarations affirmed basic education as a human right and therefore should be free and compulsory for all (UNESCO, 2005). With the above human rights declarations in mind about basic education, many countries of the world have pursued aggressive mass basic education programme for her citizenries. Propelled by the benefits of basic education for all, the Federal Government of Nigeria declared universal basic education for all Nigerians:  The Federal Government of Nigeria, under Olusegun Obasanjo regime, launched the Universal Basic Education Programme on 30th September, 1999 at Sokoto State, Nigeria. The UBE programme comprises Senior Basic Education programme as an integral part. The Senior Basic Education programme has the following objectives.
•      Ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative skills as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for life-long learning.
•      Catering for the learning needs of the young persons who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling after primary schools through appropriate forms of complementary approaches.
•      Reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out rate from the formal school system through improved relevance, quality and efficiency.
•      Provision of free compulsory Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school going age.
•      Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and strong commitment to national consciousness (Education for All Assessment (EFA): Country Reports, Nigeria, 2000:1).
The Universal Basic Education programme is a conscientiously designed programme to cater for primary and senior basic education for anyone who is willing to go to school. The programme was made free and compulsory.   Basic Education according to Federal Ministry of Education (F.M.E) (1999) is the type of education given at the foundation level of education. Mgbodile (2000) described basic education as the type of education for sustainable life-long learning which provides basic skills for reading, writing and numeracy. Keefe (2000) opined that basic education comprises a wide range of formal and non-formal educational activities and programmes designed to enable a learner acquire functional literacy. As it is in Nigeria, basic education programme in practice is categorized into junior and senior basic education. The junior basic education is the six (6) years of primary school education while the senior basic education is the first three years of secondary school education formerly referred to as junior secondary school (Enemoo, 2014). The Senior Basic Education programme was planned to give further access to basic education at secondary school level which will equip the beneficiaries with knowledge of pre-vocational and academic experience (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).  At inception of UBE in 1999 in Nigeria, there was an unprecedented upsurge in school enrolments across the country. The implication of this unprecedented upsurge in Nigerian secondary schools is that enough resources should be on ground to enable smooth implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme. However, the Enugu State Post- primary School Management Board (2014) and Science, Technical and Vocational Schools Management Board Enugu State (2014) statistical records have shown fluctuations in the enrollment of pupils into the senior basic education schools down past five years in Enugu State. The implication of this development is that there is the need to always keep in check the number of pupils (students) being enrolled into the senior basic education schools in Enugu State in order to ensure that they are always of a reasonable number for successful implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme.
The Senior Basic Education programme of the current UBE took effect in Enugu State with enabling laws which made the programme compulsory for all school age citizens of the state. Consequently, the Enugu State Universal Basic Education Board law was enacted by the State House of Assembly and assented to by the Governor in December 2003. This bill was accompanied by a minimum guideline on resources which must be on ground for effective take off and operation of Senior Basic Education programme in every secondary school in the state to include: sizeable school land of 4-8 hectares  with certificate of occupancy, adequate number of classrooms, dimension of classroom to be 9m x 12m, administrative block of at least 3 rooms with store, a library block, laboratories for all science subjects, basic health scheme-sick bay, toilet facilities, games field, guidance and counseling rooms, head teachers (principals) having qualification of Bachelor of Education degree (B.ED) or first university degree/PGDE, qualified teachers with a Bachelor of Education degree (B.Ed.), minimum number of teachers at inception of  a  senior basic education  school to be 12 teachers, school bank account to stand at N5 million, workshops, farmland/ fish farm  (Enugu State Ministry of Education, 2014). All these constitute resources in addition to instructional materials which must be available to enable a smooth implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme in the state. Nevertheless, according to Edeze (2008) resources needed for teaching and learning have been grossly inadequate in institutions across the state.
Okeze (2003) observed that over the years, principals of secondary schools have been accused of lapses and offences bordering on school resources provision needed to generate active teaching and learning processes in the schools, and these lapses have been attributed to the poor administration of physical and human resources of schools. It should be noted that it is the government, host communities, international education agencies and some philanthropists that provide resources for education while principals utilize them for effective teaching and learning. But, the question is whether the resources needed are actually being provided enough by the government and other stakeholders for implementation of Senior Basic Education programme.
In addition to using every other educational resources, the principals are expected to motivate their teachers by ensuring proper utilization of the school financial resource.  School financial resource is one of the resources that helps principals to discharge their duties satisfactorily for effective implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme. Ogbonnaya (2009) shows that school financial resource includes school fees, donations from individuals and educational agencies, government grants, money generated from sale of school farm products, money realized from schools annual inter-house competitions. School financial resource enables quality instructional delivery for successful implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme. But, the question remains whether the financial resource obtainable in secondary schools in Enugu State is enough to run the Senior Basic Education programme.
Quality instructional delivery is very much important in the implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme in Enugu State.  According to Lassa (2005) there is a current level of dissatisfaction over the quality of instructional delivery by teachers in secondary schools in Enugu State. This implies that unqualified teachers may have been recruited to teach in a bid to meet the minimum need of the Senior Basic Education (SBE) programme in the state. As a consequence, there is dissatisfaction with the product of secondary school system. Egwu (2004) observed that the product of the system in Enugu State lack technological, attitudinal and psychological abilities needed to cope and thrive in an emerging new world of global competitiveness.  Egwu (2004)  also observed that the products together with their teachers lack the needed skills, roles and responsibilities to sustain interests and ideas, and that  academic and classical learning environment are now completely absent in the current system of education in the state . Hence, proper appraisal of resources for the implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme in Enugu State is apt so as to ascertain the effectiveness or otherwise of the programme in order to strengthen the identified areas of weakness. This will make the programme positively goal oriented.
Ogbonnaya (2003) observed that appraisal is the process of carrying out objective or plan-assessment to ascertain the level of compliance or performance of a system. Egonmwan (2001) described appraisal as the stage where preparation made earlier-the plans, designs and analyses proposed are tested to see how realistic they are. It is therefore obligatory on the agencies which provide educational resources not only to ensure provision but to appraise resources needed from time to time to ensure compliance with the set objectives of senior basic education. Educational resources such as books, computers, teachers, laboratories, workshops, classroom buildings are resources which must be reviewed from time to time to ensure that they are in line with the dynamism of educational polices and programmes. This is because laudable educational programmes in the past in Nigeria failed due to inability to provide and utilize educational resources required in line with changing realities in education (Ojogwu, 2001). Against this background, there is need therefore, to appraise resources for implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme in Enugu State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
The major aim of educational policies and programmes is to achieve desired results in the learners. Many educational programmes have been designed and implemented in the past   in Nigeria without achieving significant success. A lot of concerns have been raised by stakeholders on the issue of deteriorating school infrastructure in Enugu State. Many schools have been observed to be grappling with obsolete and inadequate instructional materials, dilapidating classrooms, teachers without pedagogical skills to impart knowledge to the students, fluctuating students population and problem of school fund. The situation in schools is compounded by poor maintenance of facilities available, making it difficult for students and teachers to enjoy conducive teaching and learning atmosphere.
Consequently, there is a current dissatisfaction with the product of the secondary school system in Enugu State due to unsatisfactory quality of instructional delivery by teachers. It is now almost evident that objectives of Senior Basic Education programme in Nigeria, though laudable in ideology, is becoming unattainable due to problems in implementation. Therefore, the problem of this study is to appraise extent of availability and adequacy of resources for implementation of the Senior Basic Education programme in Enugu State, using the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The general purpose of this study is to appraise resources for implementation of Senior Basic Education (SBE) programme in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State using the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State. Specifically the study sought to;
1.  find out the extent of availability of qualified teachers in urban and rural public secondary schools for the implementation of SBE Programme based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
2.  find out the extent of adequacy of qualified teachers in urban and rural public secondary schools for the implementation of SBE Programme based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
3.  determine the extent of availability of infrastructural facilities in urban and rural public secondary schools for the implementation of SBE progrmame based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
4.  determine the extent of adequacy of infrastructural facilities in urban and rural public secondary schools for the implementation of SBE programme based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State
5.  ascertain the extent of availability of fund in urban and rural public secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
6.  ascertain the extent of adequacy of fund in urban and rural public secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State.
1.4 Research Questions 
The following research questions were posed to guide the study.
1.       To what extent are qualified teachers available for the implementation of SBE programme in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State?
2.        To what extent are qualified teachers adequate for the implementation of SBE programme in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State?
3.      To what extent are infrastructural facilities available for the implementation of SBE programme in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State?
4.     To what extent are infrastructural facilities adequate for the implementation of SBE programme in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State?
5.      To what extent is fund available for SBE programme implementation in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State?
6.    To what extent is fund adequate  for SBE programme implementation in urban and rural public secondary schools in Enugu State based on the minimum guideline for establishment of senior basic education schools in Enugu State
1.5 Research Hypotheses 
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance (P = 0.05).
H01: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary schools teachers with regards to the extent of availability of qualified teachers in the secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
H02: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary school teachers with regards to the extent of adequacy of qualified teachers in the secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
H03: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary school teachers with regards to the extent of availability of infrastructural facilities in the secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
H04: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary school teachers with regards to the extent of adequacy of infrastructural facilities in the secondary schools for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
H05: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary school teachers with regards to the extent of availability of fund for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
H06: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of urban public secondary school teachers and rural public secondary school teachers with regards to the extent of adequacy of fund for implementation of SBE programme in Enugu State.
1.6 Significance of the Study  
The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on the McGregor’s Theory x and y. Theory x assumes that the average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do as little as possible, while theory y assumes that average workers are not lazy, would like to do a good job but the job itself will determine if the worker will do a good work. This implies that the theory y is likely to influence a good implementation of Senior Basic Education programme if schools are provided with adequate teaching resources to enable teachers do a good job. The present study will help to consolidate on McGregor’s theory x and theory y assumptions in management of educational institutions.
Practically, the findings of this study will be of benefits to governments, principals, private teachers’ employers, the community, students and other researchers. The government will be sensitized to the need for recruiting only the professionally trained teachers to teach in all its institutions of learning as this will make for use of pedagogical skills in imparting knowledge to students. The government will equally be sensitized to think of inherent damaging effect of recruiting unqualified teachers on proper teaching and learning in schools and hence, introduce control measures.
The study will stimulate principals’ interest towards upholding maintenance culture in schools. This will facilitate effective utilization of existing resources by teachers to improve performance and productivity. The teachers will be saved the hardship of managing a classroom which had hitherto no instructional materials, equipment and infrastructure when the government or proprietor is sensitized about the need for resources and have them provided, which will motivate teachers to discharge their duties creditably. Furthermore, the findings will assist principals in determining extent to which they will admit students in each class, knowing that the stipulated students-teacher ratio in the national policy on education should be adhered to.
Private teachers’ employers will enjoy greater performance of teachers who are adequately trained for the jobs they are set to do. This will help to reduce the burden of on the job training of the teachers since tremendous amount of training had been done in schools.
Communities will benefit from proper training of the youth in secondary schools which will enhance social responsibility awareness of young citizens of communities to embrace civic values, exhibit moral judgment with patriotic zeal and determination because a well educated youth is the future hope of the community for a transformed society.
Students will benefit from adequate supply of educational resources as this will improve school setting. They will readily use equipment in school for conducting experiments in laboratories. In this situation their learning exercise will be enhanced.
Other researchers will find the information in this study a relevant material for further investigation on how to improve upon teaching and learning. Through the data to be collected and analyzed and subsequent recommendations, other researchers will find a gap which they will want to cover in their subsequent studies in order to contribute to knowledge.
1.7 Scope of the Study 
The study was carried out in all the urban and rural public secondary schools in Agbani Education Zone, Enugu Education Zone and Udi Education Zone in Enugu State. The content scope focused on six aspects of resources for effective implementation of SBE programme namely: extent of availability of qualified teachers, extent of adequacy of qualified teachers, extent of availability of infrastructural facilities, extent of adequacy of infrastructural facilities, extent of availability of fund, and extent of adequacy of fund.
“Education For All (EFA) by the year 2000, made in Jomtien, Thailand; the New Delhi 1991 declaration of nine countries of the world with the largest concentration of illiterates of which Nigeria is one of them (E-9 countries); the Arman Jordan Re-affirmation 1995 call for the forceful pursuit of Jomtien recommendation of basic education for all… (Okah, 2012: 103).

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APPRAISAL OF RESOURCES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SENIOR BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME.

EFFECT OF STRENGTH BASED TRAINING ON BULLYING AMONG PUPILS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN ENUGU STATE.

EFFECT OF STRENGTH BASED TRAINING ON BULLYING AMONG PUPILS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN ENUGU STATE.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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EFFECT OF STRENGTH BASED TRAINING ON BULLYING AMONG PUPILS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN ENUGU STATE.

SUPERVISORY COMPETENCIES REQUIRED AND POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES.

SUPERVISORY COMPETENCIES REQUIRED AND POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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SUPERVISORY COMPETENCIES REQUIRED AND POSSESSED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN NORTH CENTRAL STATES.

ASSESSMENT OF EXTENT OF ADHERENCE TO QUALITY ASSURANCE PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-CENTRAL STATES, NIGERIA .

ASSESSMENT OF EXTENT OF ADHERENCE TO QUALITY ASSURANCE PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-CENTRAL STATES, NIGERIA  .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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ASSESSMENT OF EXTENT OF ADHERENCE TO QUALITY ASSURANCE PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-CENTRAL STATES, NIGERIA  .

EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON LOWER BASIC TWO PUPILS’ ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATIC.

EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON LOWER BASIC TWO PUPILS’ ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Objective of the Study
  4. Research Questions
  5. Significance of the Study
  6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
  7. Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     An Overview                                                                           22

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sources of Data

3.2     Population of the Study

3.3     Instrument Used For Study

3.4     Validity of the Instrument Used

3.5     Reliability of the Study

 

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

4.1     Findings

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Suggestions

Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

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EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON LOWER BASIC TWO PUPILS’ ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS .

APPRAISAL OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARDS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARD.

APPRAISAL OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARDS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARD.

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted to appraise the personnel management practices of the Abia State Secondary Education Management Board. The study was guided by five research questions with five corresponding null hypotheses formulated. Literatures relevant to the study were reviewed. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of 692 staff of the Secondary Education Management Board. The population was all the 264 senior Secondary Principals, all the 241 Junior Secondary Principals and all the 187 Senior administrative staff of the Board No sampling was made as the entire population of 692 was used for the study because it was manageable. A structured questionnaire was used for the study. The instrument was face validated by three experts from the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and trial tested at Okigwe Education Zone of Imo State. The internal consistency of the instrument was established using Kuder-Richardson and Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient methods. The overall coefficient value of 0.93 was obtained. 692 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and returned with the assistance of three research assistants. Data collected were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviations for the research questions while t-test statistics was used for the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

The results indicated that the Abia State Secondary Education Management Board comply to a very great extent with Personnel Management Manual on recruitment and posting of staff, staff development and training to a very great extent, staff welfare services to a great extent, staff discipline to great extent and staff appraisal to a great extent. Other results included that there is significant difference between the mean scores of secondary school principals and senior administrative staff of the Board on staff recruitment and posting, there is also a significant difference on staff development and training, there is significant difference on welfare services provided for personnel, there is significant difference on staff discipline and there is also significant difference on appraisal of staff by the Board. The five null hypotheses were therefore rejected. Based on the findings it was concluded that both the principals of secondary schools and the senior administrative officer of the SEMB of Abia State are at variance in compliance with approved guideline on personnel management practices. The educational implications of the finding were also outlined. The researcher recommended, among others, that the secondary education management board should ensure that issues relating to staff recruitment, development and training, welfare services, discipline, appraisal and promotion are taken seriously in conjunction with the principals, the Board should regularly organize seminars and workshops to improve staff skills and competence, the Board should also establish standardized procedures for the recruitment of staff, teachers should be encouraged to go for further training for effective and efficient delivery and achievement of educational goals and objectives.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Personnel management is one of the most important and challenging functions of
any organization because it constitutes the ultimate basis for the creation and utilization
of the wealth of a nation. Okafor and Udu (2008) perceive management as a set of
activities (planning, decision making, organizing, leading and controlling) directed at an
organization’s resources (human, financial and physical) with the aim of achieving
organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. Personnel management is the
acquisition of personnel or human resources and co-ordination of their performance
within the organization. Riches and Morgan in Uche (2009) explain that human resource
management in any organization (education or otherwise) is part of the process of
management in general that focuses on the people aspect of management, ensuring that
the objective of the organization is met. In order words, personnel management is the
effective utilization of people at work to achieve the aims and objectives of the
organization.

It is in line with the above assertion that Peretomode (2004) asserted that,
personnel management acts as the wheel of progress in the realization of educational
goals and objectives. It means that without an effective personnel management, an
organization may find it difficult to achieve its set goals and objectives. Nwachukwu
(2000), argues that for an organization to attain its desired objectives, it must seek to
obtain the co-operation of the personnel working under it. It is clear that personnel
management is challenging in every organization but far more challenging in educational
institutions. This is because most of the activities in education deal with human beings.
The management of educational institutions is faced with not only the complexities of
characters and behaviour of the staff, but also with those of the students and parents
(Okoro, 2006). This means that the way and manner these chains of human elements are
managed could affect the success of educational institutions.

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APPRAISAL OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARDS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE SECONDARY EDUCATION MANAGEMENT BOARD.