What is classroom management? During the last decades, many definitions have been given to this term, starting from 1961, where it was mentioned that classroom management is strongly connected to the teacher’s role in the class and the way he/she handles all the daily issues that may come up in the classroom Brown & Phelpsas cited by Athanasakis (2013). According to more recent theories, this term does not only include the repressive actions a teacher can make, but it also includes all the preventive actions the teacher should make in order to ensure a thriving environment for all the pupils (Henley, 2006; Pianta, 2006; Helmke, 2011 as cited in Makarova & Herzog, 2013). Furthermore, classroom management is also related not only to students’ academic success as it was considered, but also to their full development – sentimental, cognitive and social (Evertson& Weinstein, 2011 as cited in Trikkaliotis, 2014). It is also important to be mentioned that effective classroom management is directly connected to the development of children’s inner discipline. Thus, children do not follow an imposed discipline because they are obliged to do so, but they co-decide on the rules of the class and the consequences that should be applied in case they do not follow these rules (Barns, 2010).
In the past, memories about school were associated with obedience and listening to the authority of the primary-school teacher, which was enforced by means of caning and punishments. Discipline in class meant obeying authority without discussion. However, momentous changes have taken place since, resulting in different experiences from the ones our grandparents went through; nowadays, corporal punishment is considered unacceptable, and if cases of violence in education do occur, they are publicly condemned. Pedagogical assumptions, theories, and conventional concepts have changed over time, and consequently so did the framework of reference for what discipline is. Despite the achieved progress, the topic of discipline is still of paramount importance for both beginner teachers and experienced ones, without a great deal of difference.
As shown above, teachers are presented to be more flexible (Saban, 2009), creating positive interpersonal relationships with their pupils, coming up to their needs (Ho and Lin, 2016) and cooperating with them in the classroom rules setting (Karantzis, 2011). Children and teacher can cooperate all together in order to create positive relationships and a supportive classroom climate (Jakobsen et al., 2002), elements that gradually lead to the development of self-esteem and children’s self-control (Jones & Jones, 2004).
For the purpose of this research, three schools will form the crux of this study being Evao School, Bethel School and Multi Treasure School.
1.2 Statement of research Problem
The importance of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. Teaching and learning is very embracing involving a wide range of activities such as writing on chalkboard, discussing with students, demonstrating a procedure, supervising student’s class work, reading and marking assignments. Good classroom environment with good desks and seats wellspaced out, well ventilated, good lighting, good ceiling and roof and smooth floor enhances effective teaching and learning. When the classroom environment provides students what they need, equilibrium occurs but when the classroom environment does not, there is disequilibrium.
The researcher has observed that most public primary schools in Lagos State have an issue of overpopulation. In most of these schools, a teacher student’s ratio of 1:80 is evidenced. The national policy on education revised (2004) recommended a teacher-student’s ratio of 1:40 for normal or regular school. Besides, research has revealed an increasing rate of behaviour problems among secondary school students during lessons (Yaduma and Abdulhamid,2007).The main thrust of this study is to identify the effective classroom management techniques for private primary schools in Evao School, Bethel School and Multi Treasure School, in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Nigeria in view of the implication of the overwhelming teacher-student’s ratio.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify classroom management approaches of primary school teachers.This will not only add to existing knowledge on the area of how teachers can effect classroom practices for productivity among primary school students, it will serve a purpose of assisting future researchers who will be willing to venture into effective classroom practices among teachers in primary schools.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study encompasses and will be limited to three primary schools in Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos State.
The limitations to this study include;
- This study relied on onlyteachers’ self-reported data.
- A second limitation is related to the population of the this study is limited to the primary school teachers working in the three selected schools so the results of the study cannot be generalized directly to all primary school teachers all over Lagos State.
- Another limitation is the cost of transporting to the schools as they are not in the same locality.
1.5 Research Questions
The study provides answers to two research questions:
1. What is the classroom management techniques considered effective during lesson?
2. What are the effects of teacher’s classroom management effectiveness on students learning?