THE ROLE OF CHURCHES IN COMBATING CORRUPTION AMONG POLITICAL OFFICE HOLDERS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1           Background to the Study

Church is the translation of the Greek term ekklesia, and is used in the New Testament to identify the community of believers in Jesus Christ. It literally means assembly, congregation, or meeting. A similar term was used in the Old Testament referring to experiences such as “the day of the assembly,” “the Lord’s congregation,” or “meeting before the Lord.” The early Christian church had no buildings, at least not in the sense of what we would consider church buildings today. First century Christians were often persecuted and, as a result, often met in secret usually in homes.

As the influence of Christianity spread, eventually buildings dedicated to worship were established and became what we know today as churches. Worship is God-centered and Christ-centered. It is not about entertaining Christians with flashy displays or presentations, but about expressing our love by worshiping our Creator. Edification is also a role of the church. It involves edifying believers, but also nurturing, building up or helping believers to mature in Christ. To this end, churches are tasked with a variety of ministries such as Bible study, continuing education in related areas, praying for one another, acts of genuine hospitality and more. Evangelism is also a key role of the church. This means reaching out to a lost world with the Good News about Jesus. Beyond evangelism in the sense of reaching out with the gospel, the church also express compassion and mercy tangibly by helping others. In following Christ’s example to love others, the church, too, must seek to make a real difference in the world while not neglecting to share the message of Christ.

In Nigeria, bribery and corruption are hydra-headed twins that have eaten deep into the fabrics of the society. Starting from the colonial era of Nigeria, bribery and corruption have made steady and seemingly unstoppable progress up to the present. Whether during the colonial era, or when Nigeria gained her independence in 1960 or for the long years of military rule, bribery and corruption have become a recurring decimal (Achunike, 2006). Chuta (2004) traced the problem of corruption from the pre-colonial to the colonial and self-government era. He further traced corruption to the First Republic (1960-1966) down to the different stages of military era, even to the second and third republics. In all these cases, Chuta stood on the assertion that majority of Nigerian’s have been corrupt. Ugwu (2002) traced corruption to colonial period when he posited that:

It has been argued that the major roots of corruption were sown during the colonial period when a lot of structures were created for the purpose of administration. The pro-colonial society knew little or nothing about corruption but soon after Nigeria’s independence in 1960 and shortly afterwards in 1963 after Nigeria had become a republic, there grew in galloping proportions corruption in every sphere of human life.   

Kalu (2007) posited that the under privileged are the victims of corruption while the ruling class hypocritically engaged in the condemnation of acts that benefit its fold. Over the years, the vast majority of Nigerians have learned and experimented on bribery and corruption. Corruption therefore, seemed to have become part of the daily life of Nigerians. Not many Nigerians think that hard work pays. Equally not many think that honesty is worth trying. Achunike (2006). Madu (2003) opined that hardwork has been scarified at the altar of easy ways of making money like 419, ritual murders and corruption in its different ramifications. That materialism has gone deep into the psyche of people that spiritual values are de-emphasized, as even, one can discern from the prosperity sermons of many of the anointed men of God and their materialistic life-styles. Meanwhile, twenty-two years ago Achebe (1983) observed that:

The trouble with Nigeria is simply and squarely, a failure of leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian land and climate or water or air or anything else. The Nigerian problems are the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise up to the responsibility, or the challenge of personal example, which are hallmarks of true leadership.

From the observation of Achebe, it is understood that the common man looks up to the ruling elite to learn and be directed to avoid corruption. But such expectation from the leadership in Nigeria has failed. Democracy which supposed to be the government of the people, has failed in Nigeria. When the first generation rulers in Nigeria became corrupt, Major ChukwumaNzogwu and his military colleagues struck. Nzogwu in his broadcast pointed out that they have come to save Nigerians from the hands of inept and corrupt leadership. Nzeogwu cited by Uju in (Ugwu, 2002) opined that “Our enemies are the political profiteers, the swindlers, the men in high and low places that seek bribes and demand 10 percent, those that have corrupted our society and put the country back by their words and deeds”.

The above statement was contained in the national broadcast of ChukwumaNzogwu on 15th January 1960.The aim therefore was to give good governance to the vast majority of Nigerians. However, the military consistently failed to salvage the masses in their political governance. Corruption and abuse of power has long been features in Nigeria. Joseph, R. S and Taylor, A. A. (1996) has described Nigeria as an “unfinished state and as a truculent African state tragedy”. Ayittey (2006) posited that in the midst of abundant human and material resources, efforts at building a democratic polity further entrapped it at the “political cross- roads”. Yet, with enormous wealth from oil resources, economic endowment, social and political strength, Nigeria has not qualified to be called the giant of Africa. Kew (2006) has noted that:

The giant was brought to its Knees by 20 years brutal and corrupt military rule, which left a legacy of executive dominance and a political corruption in the hands of Nigeria’s so- called “godfathers” powerful political bosses sitting atop vast patronage networks who view the government primarily through the lens of the own personal enrichment.

As a result of the instability, the focus of the leadership became parochial with the overriding consideration for personal survival rather than national development. Attempts at promoting “democratic consolidation” were hampered by the personality cult of the emerging political gladiators who exploited the instrument of state power to promote their personal agenda. 

Obviously, the Church as a segment of the civil society should be concerned about arming their brains for good governance in the country. She has to speak out with any articulate voice on moral failures within the Church as to reflect positively on the country’s political process to appreciable extent (Ojo, 2004). As such, the Church has to carry out its missionary and prophetic mandate to the society. Against this background, this study examines the role of the Church in combating corruption among Political office holders in Abuja.      

1.2       Statement of problem

Corruption is an ubiquitous phenomenon, as old as human existence and has adversely affected the society since time immemorial. In the pursuit of the specific purpose of this research, the assumption that are verified in this scholarly exercise are formulated and stated that it is believed that there is no positive relationship between Church and political leaders in Abuja; and corruption has eaten deep and replicated itself  in Abuja since its creation. Corruption can take different forms. It can occur in the misappropriation of money or property or in an illicit influence on decisions by bribery, which always involves both active and passive participants. In the following paragraphs, some of the forms that have been observed will be described. 

Misappropriation may consist of private use of the project funds or resources, use for purposes other than designated, unjustified disbursement or stealing of these funds or resources. Funds are used for purposes other than agreed. For example buildings constructed with project funds are used for purposes not agreed in the project contract, or in extreme cases for private purposes, or luxury vehicles are bought. Funds are used for another project to make up for funds lacking there due to earlier mismanagement. Project goods are misappropriated for private use or for sale, and stock lists or recipient lists are forged, or project goods are exchanged for less valuable goods, or medicines are diluted.  Receipts are forged, which is especially easy under the conditions that apply in developing countries. Funds are used for pastoral purposes instead of the agreed development purposes.

Another form in which corruption among political leaders may occur is nepotism. In placing orders and recruiting personnel, persons are preferred who are close to the principal (by religious, ethnic, social or family relations) which leads to recruiting rules and quality standards being neglected. The beneficiaries of this treatment may even take up jobs which are not needed, or may be granted higher salaries or purchase prices. Jobs may also be obtained by bribery, ranging from teaching and nursing jobs in church institutions to bishop posts in Protestant churches. In many Protestant churches the bishop is elected by the synod, sometimes for a limited period, sometimes for life. In certain churches these elections have been distorted by the payment of bribes to the electors. The candidates know that the invested sums can be recovered later, but not through their regular salary.

An office-holder who needs to cover his abuse by forged receipts or other forms of corruption may bribe those who know of it to make them cooperate. In extreme cases, this method may even cripple the work of supervisory bodies which were created to prevent corruption. Threats against whistle blowers who uncover corruption are not supported, but threatened or punished by repressive treatment. Local and deployed staff may be drawn into conflict situations if south churches demand loyalty to the local employer, while north churches demand a correct use of funds, when both of these together are not possible. Office holders also pay bribes to speed up customs handling, the award of state permits, telephone connections or similar. In many cases this is done because the success of the project would otherwise be at risk.

The Church with its institutional strength and moral sanity should be able to pose frontal attack against corruption in Abuja. Its voice has to be strong enough to fight against the spate of corruption, which has been looming large in the society. The Church which is the moral light of the society should be able to light up the dark clouds of corruption that has closed Abuja. It is the expectation of the researcher that the work will help Abuja Government and the Church to reflect on the best strategy for fighting against corruption and redeeming the society from the apparent socio-economic and political decay.

ROLE OF CHURCHES IN COMBATING CORRUPTION AMONG POLITICAL OFFICE HOLDERS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA

CHALLENGES IN CHORAL CONDUCTING A CASE STUDY IN EXQUISITE CHOIR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT  

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Justification for the Study

1.4       Aims / Objectives

1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Methodology

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Structure of Choirs

2.2       Categories of choirs

2.3       The Origin and Role of Choir

2.4       Theoretical Framework

2.5       Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHOIRS IN AFRICA

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Background Account of its Origin

3.3       The Motivation and Benefit Factor

3.4       The Formation of the Choirs

3.5       Conflict of Power/Authority

3.6       Ownership Right

3.7       Some other Reasons for the Breakaway

CHAPTER FOUR: CONTRIBUTIONS AND PERFORMANCE PRACTICE/STYLES OF CHOIRS AFRICA

4.1       Introduction

4.2       SOME COMMON PRACTICES OF THE CHOIRS

4.3       Performance Practice

4.4       Technology (Other musical Equipment)

4.5       The Socio-Economic Impact of Choirs

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusions

5.3       Recommendations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABSTRACT

The primary focus of this study is to examine the challenges in choral conducting including their development and contributions in Africa. The research seeks to attempt an in-depth study at the concept of the choir as an institution which came to the limelight of choral music industry about three decades ago. The acceptance of this choir system due to its economic boom in recent times has gained a maximum popularity as well as provided an avenue for both professional and unprofessional musicians but has not received much scholarly attention.

The purpose of the study is to trace the historical events that necessitated the formation of choirs and delve into their development and contributions to the socio-economic impart with the specific attention on motivation of the formation, conflict management and the performance practices/styles. The research methodology is primary based on fieldwork which includes discussion, interviews, participant observation during rehearsals sessions and performances, library research, journals and recordings of some of the works performed by the choirs.

The study discovered that the community choirs and all others when properly run will create employment to its members and become an asset to the host community and the nation as a whole in several ways. Choir system also provides an avenue to unearth and develop the musical prowess of the youth. It is therefore recommended that every community, institution, government agency and organization should be encouraged to form a choir or sponsor the existing ones since they help to address and solve some of the unemployment issues in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music Fifth Edition (2007) by Kennedy and Kennedy defines a choir or chorus as a mixed voice choir (or chorus) which is one of both women and men. A male voice choir is (usually) of men only, but may be of boys and men. A double  choir is one arranged in two equal and complete bodies, with a view not merely to singing in eight parts but also to responsive effects. Chorus tends to be used for secular bodies; there may be many exceptions (Kennedy and Kennedy 2007: 145). According to Crowley, his article published in 2012 speculates that;

There is a risk that in using choirs for everything from helping fragmented communities to stress relief, we drag them down to the level of the mundane. Choirs have been with us a long time. They have their origins in Greek Tragedy and the Italian Renaissance. Fifty years ago they were commonplace in our schools, workplaces and social organizations, but until recently most of us had come to associate them with Christmas concerts and village halls.

In addition, he explains that, though they are making a spectacular comeback like the growth of book clubs, debating societies and various specialist interest groups, choirs have benefitted from a renewed interest in communal activities. New choirs are popping up around the country. Friends and workmates are getting together, forming their own groups or joining existing choirs in greater numbers. Organizations and institutions are helping ordinary members of the public find their voice for the first time.

Crowley (2015) in his article continues to argue that, choirs have moral dimension, which involves oneself and others in choral and music societies. This is generally seen as a form of self-improvement, and as a means of keeping the lower orders out of the pub and out of political intrigue. No matter how their social function has changed over the last few hundred years, there has always been a spiritual or metaphysical dimension to choirs. Whether it is reaching up to God, the act of making music for its own sake, or simply the immersive, almost magical experience of singing in harmony with others, choral music has the power to lift us up above our individual, everyday lives.

The concept of the choir system as an institution in Africa gained the publicity in the choral music industry about three decades ago and had since met the admiration and approval of the Africaian populace, particularly the youth. The upsurge of these choirs with its dynamics of processes and development in most instances emanate from power and conflicts, construction of individual and group identities, ownership rights, financial and others are some of the challenges that reared their heads in the existing group as a result of members’ interaction and interrelation. These conflicts and confusions which occur within the groups or choirs end up in the breakaway of some members to join or form new groups.

CHALLENGES IN CHORAL CONDUCTING A CASE STUDY IN EXQUISITE CHOIR

THE ROLE OF EVANGELISM IN CHURCH GROWTH IN ESAN EAST DISTRICT OF ASSEMBLIES OF GOD NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The greatest commandment of the Lord is preaching the gospel all over the world.

It is the duty of all Christians to preach the gospel to the world. If we are negligent about it, we may lose God’s blessings. When we study the way Jesus preached the gospel, we see that He personally met people individually and called them to become His disciples. Those who met Jesus personally became evangelists themselves, proclaimed God’s Word, and expanded the church. Jesus built the church so that it would do His work after He left this earth. Therefore, it is the mission of the church to go out and preach the gospel. To carry out this mission the author’s church held Evangelism Mobilization Day, through which every church member could participate in evangelism and realize the importance of training. With the example of Assemblies of God church members, this project shows the role of evangelism in church growth.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    

The primary task of Christians in the world is to go into the world in order to preach the Goodnews to all creatures, a command which was given by Jesus Christ. (Mark 16: 15-16). In relation to evangelism in Africa and the entire world, it seems likely that many Christians have neglected their roles in the society. It seems that the attention of many Christians is now directed towards fulfilling their own will to the detriment of the Gospel.

There is no denying the fact that by reading the “signs of the times” the Christian Church in Africa and the developing world develops its unique self-understanding in response to the challenges posed by Africa’s Socio-economic, political and cultural context. Whether we construe the character of this response as “message” or as “mission,” the crucial point lies in the fact that the Church’s relevance and credibility depend on how effectively it addresses the prevailing social context in Africa and the entire developing world. The Church in Africa has the option of either preaching a Gospel which responds to the structural challenges of a continent which to many is marginalized or the African Christians will find themselves sinking with the unfulfilled hopes of Africans. If the Church in Africa neglects this African context, certainly she stands the chance of risking the loss of the Church’s relevance and credibility. (Orobabor 2000: 160-168).

In the midst of the present level of development in Africa and the entire world, there is the urgent need for evangelism and re-evangelisation of people with a view to bringing forth a Church that is growing at a reasonable speed. Here, we assert that apart from the non-Christians being brought to the true knowledge of God through Jesus Christ, professed Christians need to be re-focussed to their calling as evangelizers.

In this work therefore, we have examined such issues as the definition of evangelism, Jesus the visible sign of the world, the works of the Apostles, the spread of the Goodnews, Evangelism and the Church, who sends?, the challenges facing evangelisation, and the implication of evangelism on Church growth. It is envisaged that this work will stimulate further research as far as the issue of evangelism and Church growth is concerned.

1.2    Statement of the Problem   

In these days of rapidly changing and highly advanced civilizations, people seem to enjoy affluence and happiness but inwardly they have lots of troubles and are struggling with distress. The explosive population surge has made the earth crowded. It is a tragedy that 75% of the world’s population is non-Christian and people wander around and feel left out even among a crowd. What is more deplorable is that it is not easy to maintain intimate and meaningful relationships with others. Therefore, a sudden encounter with a stranger makes one fear because he might be a threat to his own life and dignity.

This is a problem in personal evangelism. Shunning away from evangelistic conversation can be understood as another aspect of this social phenomenon. However, Jesus and His disciples effectively preached the gospel to the crowds and to individuals with all the problems of their day. Jesus and his disciples placed the same amount of importance both on preaching the gospel to the crowd and preaching the gospel to individuals. We should not neglect any of the methods Jesus and his disciples used in their day. The characteristics and advantages of preaching the gospel to individuals are that evangelists get to meet with the individuals face to face and thus develop a more intimate relationship with them. Preaching the gospel to individuals has been found to be more effective than preaching to the crowds in leading people to the Lord and contributes more to church growth in the long run.

The author has witnessed this phenomenon as a minister in his own church. All sorts of efforts, such as church retreats, door-to-door evangelism, evangelizing the poor by helping them out, and gospel preaching through letters, have been found to be far less efficient ways of church growth than personal evangelism. That is why the author has concluded that personal evangelism (preaching the gospel face to face) is a more effective method for church growth.

“God had only one son and He made that Son a missionary.” 2 Jesus thought highly of personal evangelism and understood it correctly. C. E. Autrey said, “personal evangelism is in the center of the gospel preaching of Christ. By successfully preaching the gospel to his first disciple, Andrew, Jesus showed him how to present the gospel to his brother Simon and bring him to Jesus.

What did Jesus preach to Andrew? He preached the gospel from heaven. What is the gospel from heaven? In Luke 19: 10, Jesus spoke of the purpose of his coming to the earth. “For the Son of Man came to seek and to save what was lost.” (The New International Version is used to quote the Bible passages in the study.) Mark 10:45 also says, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” He was clearly aware of the purpose God had in sending Him to the earth, believed it, and witnessed about it. Jesus clearly declared himself as Messiah to Andrew. Andrew firmly believed that and became the first individual evangelist.

According to the New Testament, Andrew is the first evangelist of those who met Jesus on the earth (John 1:41). Andrew, on the other hand, had heard what John the

Baptist had said before he followed Jesus. It can be found in John 1:29, “The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!'” After Jesus was baptized and went up out of the water, John the Baptist clearly listened to the voice from heaven that said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased” and John saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove on Jesus. After that, Andrew personally met Jesus and accepted him as his Messiah.

What was it that Andrew was eager to do right after he met Jesus? The first thing Andrew did was to find his brother Simon and tell him, “We have found the Messiah.”

He personally preached the gospel to another individual. 4 He brought his brother Peter to Jesus and Peter became one of Jesus’ disciples (John 1 :42). Peter was Jesus’ topnotch disciple, who disowned Jesus three times in the middle of the courtyard while Jesus was being accused before Pilate. Later, on the day of Pentecost, however, Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, addressed the crowd, and led about three thousand to accept his message and get baptized. The number grew to about five thousand and more people were added to their number daily and this greatly helped expand the church of Jerusalem. This is a good example of church growth made possible through personal evangelism. Jesus showed Andrew and then Andrew witnessed to Peter.

This gives us a lesson that personal evangelism may seem like a little yeast or a mustard seed but that it has the potential to greatly expand the Lord’s kingdom. A little yeast works through the whole batch of dough and a mustard seed, though it is the smallest of all the seeds, yet when it grows, is the largest of garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and perch in its branches. These examples might suggest the expansion of God’s kingdom and the church growth through personal evangelism. All these metaphors are used to reveal what Jesus did on the cross. When we believe that Jesus died on the cross to forgive our sin and was resurrected with the work of Holy Spirit, we are saved. This is the gospel. The evangelist should deliver this simple truth to individuals. Since only Christ is our gospel, we need to preach that Jesus Christ, who is the perfect God and perfect man, is the only Savior of mankind. Thus, Calvin said that every fallen human being should seek salvation in Christ the Lord. In Acts 4: 12, the apostle Peter said, “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.” Jesus Christ is our only salvation and gospel.

1.3    Objectives of the Study 

The objectives of this study include:

(i) To determine whether evangelism is needed in every church

(ii) To find out the constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism.
(iii) To highlight the impacts of evangelism in church growth.

1.4    Research Questions  

(i)      Is evangelism needed in every church?

(ii)     What are the constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism?

(iii)    What are the impacts of evangelism in the church?

1.5    Research Hypotheses        

As a guide to achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

1.       HO:    Evangelism is not needed in every church

          HA:    Evangelism is needed in every church

2.       HO:    There is no priority of evangelism, most church ministries are not intentionally evangelistic and laypersons believe that evangelism is what they pay the pastors to do are not constraints faced by churches in practicing evangelism.

THE ROLE OF EVANGELISM IN CHURCH GROWTH IN ESAN EAST DISTRICT OF ASSEMBLIES OF GOD NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter one

Introduction

Research questions

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Delimitation of the study

Definition of terms

Chapter two

Literature review

introduction

theoretical framework

conflicts in nigeria

examples of cases of conflicts in nigeria

the concept of peace building

peace building through reconciliation

church as an actor in reconciliation

the role of ngos in conflict and peace building in nigeria

Chapter three

Research methodology

Research design

The study population

Sampling procedure

The research instrument

The administration of questionnaire

Analysis of data

Chapter four

Analysis and interpretation of data

Discussion of findings

Chapter five

Summary, recommendation and conclusion

Summary

Recommendation

Conclusion

Suggestion for further studies

Bibliography

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The Christian tradition has made significant contributions to world peace at a number of different levels (Albert, 2011). Among these are public statements by Church leaders, programs of action at local and international levels, organizations dedicated to bringing about peace, courses of study, commemorative days etc.In recent decades, Church leaders have frequently made statements in support of peace. In some cases these statements have been specific appeals for peace in particular circumstances, however, on other occasions they have also published more comprehensive statements on the need for peace and the means of achieving it. The teachings of Christianity which is guided by the dictates of the bible (word of God) has constantly encourage the members to ensure peace and harmony in the society. Christian leaders have always publicly stood for societal peace and harmony and against violence. It is now widely accepted that violent conflict is the major hindrance to the development of the African continent and Nigeria in particular. It inflicts human sufferings through death, destruction of livelihoods, constant displacement and insecurity (Barash, 2000). Violent conflict disrupts the process of production, creates conditions for pillage of the country’s resources and diverts their application from development purposes to servicing war. Violent conflict is thus responsible for perpetuating misery and underdevelopment in the country-Nigeria and the continent at large (Adetula,2006).

Peace is a universal phenomenon that everyone desires and wishes to enjoy endlessly.Traditions, cultures, religions and societies do have different prescriptions to attaining and enjoying peace. Whenever and wherever there is peace there tends to be development and longevity is enjoyed (Salawu, 2010). To this end, Christianity which is one of the predominant religions in the world today teaches peace and encourages all adherents to the faiths to pursue peace and live peacefully with one another. The above statement now seems to be questionable with the rise of intra, inter and ethno-religious conflicts in the world. While most Arab and some European countries are faced with intra-religious conflicts, an African country like Nigeria is faced with both intra and inter-religious conflicts. Nigeria, which is popularly known as Africa’s most populous black nation with a population of now about 170 million people, with more than 250 ethnic groups hensuring as Christianity and Islam as its predominant religions, though there is still in existence the African Traditional Religion (ATR).

Christianity as a word means followers of Christ or Christ like. Christians therefore are those who follow and act the teaching of Christ in all ways of life. One of the climaxes of Christianity or Christian virtue is peace. Christians are enjoined in the Bible to embrace and live peacefully with their neighbors’. The following scriptures confirm this:Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it (Psalm 34 vs 14) . Blessed are the Peace makers for they shall be called the children of God Matthew 5 vs 9).Let him eschew evil and do good; let him seek peace and ensue it (1 Peter 3 vs 11).Follow peace with all men and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord (Hebrews 12 vs 14). If it be possible, as much as it lieth in you, live peaceably with all men (Rom 12 vs 18)

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THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

THE ROLE OF CHURCH LEADERS IN GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A CHURCH

THE ROLE OF CHURCH LEADERS IN GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A CHURCH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Leadership is indeed a dynamic reciprocal process of personal influence by which a manager or a leader shapes the attitudes and activities of others towards the achievement or attainment of organizational objectives (Abogunrin, 1986). Even before the modern concepts of leadership came into being, the apostle of Jesus Christ, Paul in the Pastorals lists the qualifications for church leaders to ensure sustainable growth and survival (Dairo, 2007). These have remained the model for ages. For any church leader to steer the ship of the church successfully, these qualities must be imbibed. But contemporary experience in Nigeria has shown a marked departure from this Pauline list of qualifications for church leaders which has really affected growth and survival of churches. The level of understanding expected from both the leaders and the followers is missing in most cases. This often results in crises within “the body of Christ”.

There are some common features in various definitions of leadership. It will be presumptuous for anyone to attempt a definition that will satisfy the populace especially regarding church leadership. Leadership is nothing if not linked to collective purpose; and the effectiveness of leaders must be judged not by press clippings but by actual social change, measured by intent and by satisfaction of human needs and expectations which on the long term will be visible on the church growth and development.

Oluwasegun (2005) defines leadership as the ability to gain consensus and commitment to common objectives beyond organizational requirements which are attained with experience or contribution and satisfaction on the part of the working group. Leadership could also be defined as the relationship in which one person or the leader influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that which the leader desires. It is a means of direction. Leadership is the ability of management to induce the subordinates to work towards a group’s goals with confidence and keenness. It implies that the leader accepts responsibility for the achievement of the group objectives and it is, therefore, essential for the trust and cooperation from both sides to be evidence all the time (Oluwasegun, 2005). Leadership is an art of getting things done. It can be learnt, improved, developed and perfected. It is the key process of influence and the process always includes a number of key components such as leader and followers, they interact in situations and means of influence which emerge from the leader and from the followers, based on their value system and goals which the leader and the followers seek to achieve (Dairo, 2004).

With respect to church leadership, it implies that the church leader gives direction, motivates, reprimands and develops a set objective along with his group and resolves individual or group needs within the church. This is perceived as the only way towards the church growth and survival.In the New Testament it was more often used as Christological title for the exalted Jesus. The results of semasiological and lexicographical investigation of secular Greek indicate an extremely polyvalent spectrum of meaning for the word “church leader”, the basis being he who is the first, who stands at the head of, who leads.

According to the New Testament, the terms “bishop,” “pastor,” and “elder” are synonymous. Bishop means”overseer,” and the elders had the responsibility of overseeing the work of the church (Acts 20:17,28; 1Pet5:1-3). “Elder” is the translation of the Greek word presbytes, which means “an old man.” Paul used the word presbytery in (1Tim 4:14), referring not to a denomination, but to the “eldership” of the assembly that ordained Timothy. Elders and bishops (two names for the same office, (cf Titus 1:5,7) were mature people with spiritual wisdom and experience to ensure the survival of the church of God. Also, “pastor” means “shepherd,” one who leads and cares for the flock of God (Vine, 1996:67).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to Dairo (2008), many Churches in Nigeria are characterized with false teaching, preconceived ideas and human-formed regulations which have too often undermined the Holy Spirit’s specification and has militated greatly against church growth and survival. According to Apostle Paul, church leader must be kind of man that can carry the followers along. All church leaders may not possess these qualities in the same measure but a leader must have these quality attributes to a degree that is noticeable in his life to ensure sustainable growth. If a man is known to be harsh instead of being gentle, intemperate instead of being temperate, disgraceful instead of being respectable, he has disqualified himself (Bible Org. 2004). The work of church leadership is a noble task. Suchan office needs the right kind of people to serve. Accumulation of material wealth, by capitalizing on the “gross ignorance” of the people about the teaching of the Bible on wealth by church leaders as also limited growth and survival of many churches because of the increased awareness of these dubious strategies. However, the researcher is examining the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church.
  2. To identify the functions and duties of church leaders in a church.
  3. To identify the other factors militating against church growth and survival.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  4. What is the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church?
  5. What are the functions and duties of church leaders in a church?
  6. What are the other factors militating against church growth and survival?

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THE ROLE OF CHURCH LEADERS IN GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A CHURCH

THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

 THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Christian tradition has made significant contributions to world peace at a number of different levels (Albert, 2011). Among these are public statements by Church leaders, programs of action at local and international levels, organizations dedicated to bringing about peace, courses of study, commemorative days etc. In recent decades, Church leaders have frequently made statements in support of peace. In some cases these statements have been specific appeals for peace in particular circumstances, however, on other occasions they have also published more comprehensive statements on the need for peace and the means of achieving it. The teachings of Christianity which is guided by the dictates of the bible (word of God) has constantly encourage the members to ensure peace and harmony in the society.
Christian leaders have always publicly stand for societal peace and harmony and against violence. It is now widely accepted that violent conflict is the major hindrance to the development of the African continent and Nigeria in particular. It inflicts human sufferings through death, destruction of livelihoods, constant displacement and insecurity (Barash, 2000). Violent conflict disrupts the process of production, creates conditions for pillage of the country’s resources and diverts their application from development purposes to servicing war. Violent conflict is thus responsible for perpetuating misery and under development in the country-Nigeria and the continent at large (Adetula, 2006).

Peace is a universal phenomenon that everyone desires and wishes to enjoy endlessly. Traditions, cultures, religions and societies do have different prescriptions to attaining and enjoying peace. Whenever and wherever there is peace there tends to be development and longevity is enjoyed (Salawu, 2010). To this end, Christianity which is one of the predominant religions in the world today teaches peace and encourages all adherents to the faiths to pursue peace and live peacefully with one another. The above statement now seems to be questionable with the rise of intra, inter and ethno-religious conflicts in the world. While most Arab and some European countries are faced with intra-religious conflicts, an African country like Nigeria is faced with both intra and inter-religious conflicts. Nigeria, which is popularly known as Africa’s most populous black nation with a population of now about 170 million people, with more than 250 ethnic groups has Christianity and Islam as its predominant religions, though there is still in existence the African Traditional Religion (ATR).
Christianity as a word means followers of Christ or Christ like. Christians therefore are those who follow and act the teaching of Christ in all ways of life. One of the climaxes of Christianity or Christian virtue is peace. Christians are enjoined in the Bible to embrace and live peacefully with their neighbors’. The following scriptures confirm this: Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it (Psalm 34 vs 14). Blessed are the Peace makers for they shall be called the children of God Matthew 5 vs 9). Let him eschew evil and do good; let him seek peace and ensue it (1 Peter 3 vs 11). Follow peace with all men and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord (Hebrews 12 vs 14). If it be possible, as much as it lieth in you, live peaceably with all men (Rom 12 vs 18)
The word Peace in Christianity is translated from the Hebrew word ‘Shalom’, which is a key word in the Bible and its at the center of how God wants us to live on earth. One of the key things Jesus came to give humanity is Peace and expects us to live in peace as cited in the scriptural verses above. Peace was not only what Jesus taught but He also lived it, this in most cases is what scholars call pacifism, as Jesus never taught violence, even at his arrest by the Pharisees and one of his disciples struck the ears of the priest, Jesus rebuked the disciple and said that “those who live by the sword shall die by the sword” (Mathew 26:52, NKJV). In another place Jesus taught the people not to retaliate any evil done to them as it used to be, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, if one should strike you on the right cheek, turn the left cheek (Mathew 5:38-39, NKJV) but now to always forgive those that offend them and he charged them to forgive their neighbors even seventy times seven (Matthew 18:22, KJV). With all these scriptural teachings of the church, Christians are suppose to live in peace and harmony in the society.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The church has always taught the members on the act of non retaliation as taught by Jesus which helps to absorb violence instead of escalating it, hence every cycle of violence provoking revenge, which in turn provokes more violence is broken by the simple act of tolerating the violence and avoiding retaliation. On the contrary, there has been increased cases of disruption to peace and harmony in the world today despite the church teachings of peace as stipulated by Jesus Christ. However, the researcher is examining the role of church in ensuring peace and harmony in the society.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific objectives of the study include:

1. To identify to what extent the Church can contribute to peace making.

2. To determine to what extent the Church has been vital and relevant in peace making of Nigeria.
3. To determine the problems of development still facing the Church and how it can still contribute in peace making in communities in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

– Has the Church played any role in peace making in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state?

– To what extent has the Church been relevant in peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state?

– How can the Church help provide sustainable development in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state in the 21st

century?

1.5 HYPOTHESES
Ho The Church has played a significant role in the peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state.
H1 The Church has not played a significant role in the peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state
.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant in various ways:

1. It will provide valuable insights into existing relationship between the government and the church in peace making in our rural communities.
2. It will bring to the fore the prominent roles the Church has been playing in peace making since she made her advent and the situation today.

3. It could also motivate the various stakeholders in peace making to partner well with the Church in bringing peace to the grassroots.
4. It will add to existing knowledge and equally serve as a benchmark for further studies.

5. It will serve as a model to other NGOs in their contributions to peace making.

6. It could also bring to the knowledge of other religions that religion is not just “otherworldly,” that they work for the material and psychological well being of men and women when they are being well practised.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

To determine and study the various roles the Church has been playing in the field of peace making in Nigeria. It is restricted to the socio-economic, cultural and political roles of the Church especially in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state.

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 THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Church Growth is a movement within evangelical Christianity which focuses on developing methods to grow churches based on business marketing strategies.It cannot be disputed that youths play a vital role in the life of a Church as they are the leaders of tomorrow and future of the church. The elderly stands out but youth’s contributions have been shinning and have always been flag bearers of every Church. For any tangible growth to take place in any Christian community, the youth must be significant in that process of growth. This is the more reason why wise nations, countries, groups and organization focus more on the development of youths so that the future of such investments would never be improvised or blind. It is therefore of vital importance in the Catholic Church to prepare assiduously youths for the tasks they would naturally face in the coming future. It is only when we have nourished our youths that they in-turn develop the Church. The questions are “what amount of attention do we give the youths and what level of devotion does the youths give to the church.

The youths of today have very high ideals, and to deny this would be grossly unfair. But we must admit that very often these ideals can sour, can be perverted and can be exploited. Often young people ultimately relinquish their ideals if they suspect that the situation is hopeless; if they conclude that nowhere can these ideals be fulfilled. Unfortunately, this is the usual progression of events today. Disappointments lead to abysmal falls, often to depths lower than those they condemned when their idealism was fresh. Where this does not happen, ideals are exploited by false prophets of good. The sectarians far from the fullness of truth are able to inspire youth to make such amazing sacrifices Yet at the same time, the Orthodox Church, possessing the fullness of Truth, has a real difficulty in keeping her youth(Abednego: 1989). It could be that in ignoring the high ideals and potential moral heroism of our youth we have failed to familiarize them with our examples of such heroism, displayed by our own young, even the very young, who loved Christ and His Church in past ages. The youths are important fabrics in the society. Can there be any society without youth?Obviously no, that is why we must see to it that our youths find their rightful places in the church.

Church growth begins with church health and not the other way around. We see in nature that healthy things grow. This is by no means a new concept, but it’s still true. From this research, we will discover what a healthy church is like and how youth life style can boost church growth.

  • Statement of the problem

One key problem is the inability to examine youth life style and church growth.Another problem is how best to measure numerical growth. A variety of indicators for attendance and occasional offices are available, but all are affected to some degree by measurement error and random fluctuations. Such variability poses particular problems with small churches, where the addition or subtraction of just a few people produces large proportional changes in the totals.

  • Objectives of the study
  1. To examine youth life style and church growth.
  2. To change the unhealthy culture of some church youth ministries.
  3. To cast a fresh vision for the church.

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YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The church and the modern technologies seem to be ever more connected as we move further into the twenty-first century” (Hoover 2006). This assertion clearly defines the link between religious belief and the new information and communication technologies which are the most defining media instruments of the twenty-first century. ICT driven technologies can be applied in virtually all areas of the church activities including the payment system (Ovia, 2005). However, different types of payment are done by members in the church. Examples of common payments done during church service includes tithe, general offering, special offering, thanksgiving, harvest, covenant offering, offering for the less privileged/needy, building construction donations etc.

The role and importance of efficient payment systems has been closely monitored and promoted by monetary authorities in all countries. However, the Nigerian payment system that is cash-driven cannot and has not guaranteed the much needed efficient and effective transactions required for a sustainable economic development. Among the problems often associated with cash transactions are armed robberies, use of counterfeit bank notes, frauds, inconveniences of carrying large quantities of currency notes, long period of waiting in bank halls, frequent trips to banks, frequent printing of bank notes (Nnanna and Ajayi, 2005). However, churches in Nigeria are beginning to key in into this cashless system of payment by incorporating modern and cashless method of payment especially the use of PoS.

Point-of-sale (PoS) systems have always been around in many forms for a number of years now. Many businesses use these systems not only to accept payment, but to provide other operational information such as accounting, sales tracking, and inventory management. Thus far, this system has gone a long way in improving customer’s experience through customer loyalty programs and suggestions in businesses (Ojo, 2004). Nowadays, the use of POS system is not only available in business set ups but also in churches which have gone a long way in impacting churches.Though for a number of reasons in Nigeria, there has been various arguments and criticismsamong Christians that the use of POSsystem in church is ungodly and this has been one of the major challenges faced by the use of this system in Nigerian churches.

Some church executives in Nigeria has come to say that the banks offered it to the church and since the world was going digital, the members should try and also fit in. They also say it would ease the stress of looking for change every Sunday and for those who forget to bring money to church.So all that is needed to be done is when you get to church is to use your ATM card at the designated points, and collect your receipts! It’s these receipts that you present at the altar as offering to promote efficient and accountability.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Reliance on cash based system of donation and offering in churches has however been found to be risky and cumbersome because money outside the banks cannot be subjected to regulatory and operational procedures, and the ability of monetary policy to achieve set objectives in the presence of sizeable currency out of Bank (COB) is therefore limited. Hence, many churches make use of POS for offering and donation collection from members to prevent the risks involved in carrying cash about. This cash carrying character of Nigerians is also responsible for large pool of money in the hands of the unbanked citizens. No research has been carried on the impact of POS on churches. However, the researcher is examining the impact of POS on churches.

  • OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the impact of POS on churches.
  2. To examine the existing payment method/system in churches.
  3. To examine the limitations of POS on church payment system
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. What is the impact of POS on churches?
  1. What are the existing payment methods/systems in churches?
  2. What are the limitations of POS on church payment system?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: the use of POS in churches does not promote efficiency and accountability

H1:the use of POS in churches promotes efficiency and accountability

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. Findings from this study will educate church authorities and executives and the general public in Nigeria on how they can key in to the CBN cashless policy to promote efficiency in the churches.
  2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

This study will cover the existing payment structures in churches with comparison to the modern payment system of POS considering the benefits of POS in the collection of offering and donations in churches.

Limitations of study

  1. Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  2. Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

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IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The high level of moral decadence and insurgencies in Nigerian nation is an indication that there is poor religious teaching in secondary school system. Christian religious studies (CRS) as one of the religious subjects taught in secondary school in Nigerian takes a central position in ensuring moral and spiritual well being of individuals in the society. The key roles of CRS in equipping the individuals and ensuring high level of morality is made clear in the objectives of CRS at the senior secondary level which include; to provide more opportunities for Nigerian youths to learn more about god and thereby develop their faith in god; to enable the youths to accept Christ as their savior; to help the youths develop Christian attitude and moral values (such as humility, respect, love, and justice, etc); to instill in the youth the spirit of tolerance , reconciliation ,peaceful co existence and non-violence as well as to develop and foster in the youth the spirit of respect for all people and human life (Universal Basic Education Curriculum (UBA), 2013).

Without effective religious studies Nigerian nation will likely to end up in conflict, religious crisis, insurgencies and social unrest among other things. This is because religious control human actions in both social, political, economical and otherwise (Eluu, 2009). The teaching of CRS dates back to the 19th century with the pioneers of Nigerian education (Banjo, 2003). During the missionary administration because of the moral values it teaches the people. Following the government takeover of schools, Nigerian, secondary school curriculum was reviewed and more emphasis was placed on the studies of science and technological subjects. This shift affected the study and interest of students in CRS in school system leading to poor enrollment in CRS. Gbenda (2004) stresses that student’s enrollment and interest in CRS could as well be as of result of inadequate provision of teaching aids, fewer professional teachers and lack of incentives among other things. Njoku (2009) equally adduced that poor enrollment of student in CRS could be attributed to teacher’s instructional delivery system and teachers’ personality. CRS is taught in all the senior secondary schools in Nigerian as an elective subject. The elective nature of the subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria equally reduced the number of students that register for the subject in West African examination council (WAEC) and national examination council (NECO) as well as other internal examination. CRS is a subject that bases its teaching on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ (Ugwu, 2001) as a teaching subject, it is not only geared towards converting people to Christianity, but is necessary for value formation, orientation and reorientation of value system as well as spiritual up liftment of the student. Ali and Akubue in Njoku (2009) observed that, CRS is a subject which aims at developing and fostering in the lives of the students Christian attitudes and values such as respect to life, obedience to constitutional authority, responsible self, selfless series to God and humanity. To them, CRS is seen as an academic discipline that is designed to provide the leaner with moral and spiritual transformation. This shows that CRS is the study of Christian lifestyles such as love, caring, patience, faith, forgiveness and hope in God as well as good relationship among men. Obanya in Njoku (2004) maintained that CRS like every other subjects has five features. These features are; a set of rational theoretical formulation, inherent capacity for growth, applicable solution to human problems, organized Body of the knowledge and a degree of uniformity with other area of academic activities. In the context of this study, CRS is defined as a social science subject that teaches students good moral behaviour, fearing of God, knowledge and skills that will make them to contribute their quota in socio-economic and moral development in senior secondary schools. The inclusion of sound religions and moral values in the life of students invariably could help in the development of spiritual and moral sound being of the students. These important values attached to the study of CRS in schools cannot be achieved if teachers do not utilized effective teaching method that appeals to all the senses of students in leaning situations.

Following the shift in the study of CRS, motivation started dwindling, and interest in the subject dropped Arinze (1982:28) observed that the teaching of the subject witnessed slackening of control by principals /head teachers, difficulty of training and assigning teachers, placing the subject in the school timetable, teachers’ lack of commitment and other defects such as students’ dishonesty, examination malpractices and disrespect to mention but a few. In support of the above assertion, Ndarwa (2007) maintained that pupils nowadays are groomed to be intellectual giants in science and technology with little or no interest in the moral growth, this he referred to as spiritually dwarfism. Ndarwa maintained that when the children /pupils grow older, they may create an avenue to close the spiritual vacuum. Some of the pupils may join secret cults to perpetuate evil in diverse forms.

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PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The issue of moral decadent in our society is a thing that is needed to be looked into. Many things have gone wrong, since no one sees the reason to be upright in action at all times, in all places and in all circumstances. The continuing degeneration of personal virtue among the world’s societies seems to be emerging as the single-most urgent issue of our time. Until recent years, churches had since deferred from their original roles in morality, though many outside the church continued political pressure to move churches either towards or away from a value oriented. This posse’s questions and ideas about the appropriate approach to learning of morality in the society today. (Oviawe, 2012). Oviawe, (2012) opined that moral and morale are polite, decent and appropriate way of portraying ourselves in our duties, home and society. It is a socially acceptable manner of life. It can also be referred to as the principle of right and wrong or decorum. Our parents and ancestors practices moral and morale to the core and had h9igh regards of them. They also handed them to us with diligence. At that time they paid particular attention to the manner of sitting, walking, talking, greeting, eating, principle of right and wrong, discipline and commitment in everything they did and the way they did it. They were conscientious about their duties, keeping to the rules and regulations related to them. They saw this as maintaining their own dignity and respect for themselves and others. They made sure that everybody was well brought up. BERKOWITZ, MARVIN W., and OSER, FRITZ, eds. (1985) opined that in the past our society had a high sense of respect, determination and diligence to work. Today the sense of awe, respect, determination, and diligence to work is gradually fading away. This they say is obvious in the way people do things carelessly. We are all aware of how much our society is bereaved of morality this day. There is no doubt that things are falling apart many people behave as if there is no need for decency and diligence for things that matter. Thee is an increase in moral, social and cultural decadence. Children seem to be losing their innocence. As a result so many young people and even children tend to become slaves to fashions and modern things that destroys them. They parade themselves with arrogance, cultism, vandalism, and great lack of morals. The youths and children are now like sheep without a shepherd. They can no longer concentrate or remain focused.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Everyone wants to be successful, everyone wants to be healthy, happy and rich, but most people are not willing to pay the price. Occasionally, they may be willing to pay part of the price, but they are not willing to pay the whole price. They always have some excuses or rationalizations to not discipline themselves to do everything that they need to do to achieve their goal.
The problem in our society today is the high moral decadence in the society, as the churches, parents and tutors etc have failed in their role of moral education. Hence this study intends to investigate the proliferation of churches in Nigeria and increase in moral decadence in the society.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which moral decadence have eaten deep into our Nigeria society today. And to proffer some solutions on how the problems of moral decadence can be reduced.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does lack of moral education a cause of moral decadence?
2. Does lack of parental care a cause of moral decadence?
3. Does discipline in churches a means of eradicating moral decadence?
4. Is high rate of divorce in Nigeria a cause of moral decadence?
5. Does truancy in school a cause of moral decadence?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Lack of parental care has no significant effect on the moral decadence in Nigeria
H1: Lack of parental care has significant effect on the moral decadence in Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research is important because it teaches us the relationship between church and morality. It will serve as a documents that can be referred to in order to clear some doubt about the issue of moral decadence.
It will serve as documents that will enlighten the Christian leaders on the need to embark on teaching of morality in churches.
Finally, the study will also enlighten the public on the causes of moral decadence and how to find a lasting solutions to such a problem.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is designed to investigate into the proliferation of church in Nigeria and increase in moral decadence in the society. The study is restricted to the Nigeria society

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Christianity: Religion: Church: Belief: Value

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PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

ABSTRACT

Nigeria is a multi – ethnic country which means that, there are diversified interests of individual due to differences in tribes, culture and religion. It is hard for each individual with a religious consciousness to respect the interest of the other since the other might force such interest on the former. However, religious conflict was never known in history, since each country is still battling with it. Hence, killings and destruction of lives and properties are still on- going. We therefore need to find a solution to it in all the ramifications, either politically, socially, religiously or economically in as much as the society is based on all these factors. This work will be carried out using analytic and descriptive method and recommends that human life and sanctity of life should be respected, each religion should value and respect human life because lives are precious and should not be taken by anyone.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL

INTRODUCTION

  • Introduction

1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Aims and objective

1.4 Scope and limitation

1.5 Research methodology

1.6 Definition of terms

1.7 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Literature review

2.2 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER THREE:

RELIGIOUS CONFLICT IN NIGERIA

3.0 Introduction

3.1 Religious conflicts in General

3.2 Religious conflict in Nigeria

3.3 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER FOUR:

TOWARDS A SOLUTION

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Religious conflict in Nigeria and its solution

4.2 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendation

5.3 Conclusion

Bibliography

 

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

 1.0     Introduction 

Many will attest to it that the Jos crisis vividly exemplifies or by locus classicus describes a rancorous experience against religious intolerance. In a nation bound with vast geographic and vast ethnic and religious differences, these religious differences aid conflict which is a basis for showing religious biases and prejudices with the adherents being too fundamentalistic and extremistic in nature.

Naturally, the psycho-social description of man shows him as genetically selfish, fighting for his own interest alone. However, this does not necessarily explain or construe the religious nature of man. With various descriptions of the religious nature of man especially Africans, Mbiti have described him as ‘notoriously religious’.1 Maybe this can adequately give a hypothesis for action that is behind religious conflict in Nigeria. But how rational or how plausible is it for two notable religions to fight against each other, killing and giving a psychological aftermath or psycho-negative effect since God can neither be described as a Christian nor a Muslim?

However, the underlying principle for religious conflict is not purely religious but also political as we have seen in the last six years with the encounter with the Islamic fundamentalist known as Boko Haram.  The episodes of mass killing structured or engineered by this extremism is enormous. However, all written above has not defined what religious conflict is but has only given us an introduction to what the researcher tends to discuss.

1.1       Background to the study

The quest to understand what religious conflict is starts from the breaking down of the two separately from the basis for a rational clarification. But we must understand that the basis for a religious conflict is one to different ideologies, beliefs, values etc. The social network coordinated by belief system is so strong that as it can make heal, so it can be used to champion a cause of war or struggle. This was what Dawkins tried to explain when he elucidated that,

Imagine … a world with no religion. Imagine no suicide bomber, no 9/11, no 7/7, no crusades, no witch-hunts, no gunpowder plot, no Indian partition, no Israeli/Palestinian wars, no serb/croat/muslim massacres, no persecution of Jews as Christ-killers’…2

In defining religion, Dawkins noted that it is a false, a delusion similar to scotosis or insanity. He said, ‘when one person suffers from a delusion, it is called insanity, when many suffer from a delusion it is called religion’.3 But is religion truly a delusion? If it is, then what do we mean by delusion? ‘It is a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence, especially as a symptom of psychiatric disorder’.4 However, what is important to note here, is that it is the belief in religion that serves as the mechanism engineering the prominent attacks against the other religion. But is belief the only thing embedded in religion? According to Wood,

For a group or philosophy to be protected as a religion under current human right legislation in the United Kingdom, it must be able to demonstrate a combination of (a) belief and/or conviction, (b) practice and/or ethics, and (c) a sense of belonging or community. Belief and practice are separated in this definition, and the element of belonging in interesting because it recognizes the role of social relationship is religion.5

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RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Teaching is an important part of the process of education. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skill (Aggarwal, 1995). Teaching and learning are opposite sides of the same coin; a lesson is not learned until it has been taught. Teaching,therefore, should be thought of as a process that facilitates learning. One of the main objectives

of the secondary school 8-4-4 system in Kenya is to prepare students for self-reliance, training and further education. The Christian Religious Education curriculum is broad-based and is built upon the concepts, principles and skills established through the integrated relationship with

other subjects and the learners’ environment (Kenya Institute of Education [KIE], now Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development [KICD], 2000).

Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God (KIE, 2000). One of the objectives of Christian Religious Education in Kenya is to help learners acquire social, spiritual and moral insights to help them make appropriate moral decisions in a rapidly changing society (KIE, 2000), yet observations of CRE students indicate that this objective is not being achieved. This could beat tributed to the way the subject is taught. Like any other subject, CRE needs to be taught by use of audiovisual resources and the right methods for students to understand and for the subject to be relevant to their lives.

The Wangai Committee (2001) tasked with investigating student discipline and unrest in secondary schools acknowledges that the decay in moral values and norms of the society to a great extent influence the behaviour and character of students. Despite acknowledging moral decay, the Wangai Committee (2001) never investigated whether or not CRE as a subject is achieving its intended purpose of inculcating moral values in learners. The Committee also never looked at an instructional approach that would help more effectively impart skills,knowledge and attitude to students which would help them during and after school life.Because of the development of modern technology, teachers no longer have to rely solely on mere lectures to deliver their teaching content. There is a great variety of materials that can be used to make meanings more vivid and more interesting. These materials are often referred toas instructional aids; devices used to supplement or complement the teachers’ task. Like any

other subject, CRE content can be made clearer, more interesting and relevant if audio visual media are used in teaching.Aggarwal (1995), citing a research done by Cobun (1968), indicates that more is learnt and retained when audiovisual media are used during teaching. If CRE was taught by use of audiovisual media, the students would understand and retain more of what they would have learnt and this is likely to have a positive moral impact in their lives. Based on research done in 1969 by Chiba Prefectural Education Centre in Japan, Bishop (1986) observes that there are considerable educational advantages with the application of educational technology in primary and lower secondary schools. If CRE was taught by use of modern technology students would gain more than if it was taught by verbal communication only.

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THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

ABSTRACT

The main aim of the research is to determine if the difference in belief is the major cause of church division, the study made use of primary data from the information obtained from the distribution of research questionnaire. The study made use of a total population of 100. The sample of 40 was considered for the study, the data hypothesis was analyzed using the chi-square method. The study concluded that the difference in belief is the major cause of church division. Proper recommendations were made to assist the Pentecostal churches, the catholic churches and its member on the factors responsible for the divisions in the churches.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

        1.1   Background of study

1.2   Statement of problems

1.3   Objectives of Research

1.4   Scope and limitations

1.5   Research questions

1.6   Significance of study

  • Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Introduction

2.1.1 Establishment, Growth and Development of Churches

2.1.2 Theological teachings of Churches on Church unity

2.1.3 Factors that Cause Divisions in Churches

2.1.4 Effects of divisions on Churches

2.2 Conceptual framework

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Introduction

3.1   research design

3.2   population of study

3.3   sample size/sample technique

3.4   research instrument:

3.5   validity and reliability of instrument

3.6   sources of data collection

3.7   method/techniques of data analysis

3.8   limitations of the methodology

CHAPTER FOUR

        Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1   Introduction

4.2   Data Analysis

  • Test of Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

        5.1   Findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

5.5   References

  • Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the study

The will of God for us is that we are united, that is why Jesus prayed in John 17 that his disciples would have unity. He prayed in verses 20-23, “I do not ask on behalf of these alone, but for those alsowho believe in Me through their word; that they may all be one; even as You, Father,are in Me and I in You, that they also may be in Us, so that the world may believethat You sent Me. The glory which You have given Me I have given to them, thatthey may be one, just as We are one; I in them and You in Me, that they may beperfected in unity, so that the world may know that You sent Me, and loved them,even as You have loved Me”.

This prayer he madedid not just focus on the eleven remaining disciples but alsoto those who would reach discipleship through their ministry(Britney; 1994). The Bible lets us know that Christ Jesus is crediting his disciples with the numbers that will beproduced. Theprimary concern Jesus expresses at this time of his impending death is the issue ofunity among the disciples as their unity will most definitely be a vital prerequisite fortheir subsequent mission (Jessica; 2004:497).Disunity and division are threatsfound among the members of the Body especially as the Church increases and grows in numbers. As Christ is definitely supplicating theFather with references to God and himself, it is clear the unity herein described ismore transcendent than that of “simply human fellowship or the harmonious interaction of Christians” (Ebere; 1970). The external expression of this unity is to be the evangel of the Church to the world, which attests to the sending of Christ by the Father.

In 1 Corinthians 1:10 he exhorts, “Now I exhort you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the same mind and in the same judgment”, here Paul states this directive and takes a hard stand against division and factions in the Church Body, in light of both personal division and in light of doctrine. Unfortunately, Paul himself falls victim to one of these chasms of opinion in his relationship with Barnabas. Paul’s terminology to address doctrinal differences (1 Corinthians 11:19 and Galatians 5:20) is haireseis, denoting a difference of sound doctrine, even to the point of being an unjustified group (Accordance 2010). Just prior to the prayer in John 17 Jesus had established the institution of the Lord’s Supper in light of the Passover celebration, an institution given in great part to exhibit and foster unity with the Godhead, and unity as members of the Body of Christ. Paul affirms in 1 Corinthians 10:16, that the pinnacle of this desired oneness of communion, or church is displayed materially in the act of the Lord’s Supper, as it is a “sharing” in the blood and the Body of Christ. Mounce holds that the term church conveys the idea of fellowship, communion, participation and sharing (Mounce 2006:127, 247). Paul subsequently uses the term only in a religious sense rather than a secular one to denote something greater than a society, to denote a fellowship of a higher level; he as well uses this term to express a “religious fellowship (participation) of the believer in Christ and Christian blessings for the mutual fellowship of believers” (Hauck 1983:804). 1 John 1:3 and 2 Corinthians 13:14 affirm that church is also held with the Father, Son and Holy Spirit in addition to the communion of the saints, it is the Holy Spirit alone however, who brings believers into this fellowship (Prime 2008:105).

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THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN   RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

ABSTRACT

This study is an examination of the language of Christian religion with particular reference to the Roman Catholic Church and Pentecostal denominations. Chapter one embodies the introduction to the study, the objective of the work, its scope and delimitation, a brief origin of Christian religion, and that of the two denominations. Chapter two is a brief review of the related literature. Chapter three brings out the features of the language of Christian religion; the lexical, grammatical, metaphorical, typographical and graphological features. Chapter four is a further analysis of the sermons, rituals, liturgies and sacred text of the two denominations. The final chapter includes a comparative summary analysis of the two denominations, a brief conclusion of the work and recommendation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page——————————————————————————————- i
Approval Page ———————————————————————————— ii
Dedication —————————————————————————————– iii
Acknowledgment ——————————————————————————— v
Abstract ——————————————————————————————– vi
Table of Contents ——————————————————————————– vii
Definition of Terms——————————————————————————-viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction ———————————————————————————– 1
1.1 Background of the Study ——————————————————————– 3
1.2 Statement of Research Problem ———————————————————— 7
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study ————————————————————7
1.4 Significance of the Study———————————————————————7
1.5 Scope and Delimitation ———————————————————————–8
1.6 Research Methodology ———————————————————————–8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Review of Related Literature—————————————————————-10
2.1 Sources of Literature ————————————————————————–10
2.2 Review of the of Language of Christian Religion—————————————-14

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Features of Language of Christian Religion ———————————————–17
3.1 Grammar of the Langue of Christian Religion———————————————18
3.2 Lexis of the language of Christian Religion ———————————————–20
3.3 Metaphorical Language of Christian Religion———————————————22
3.4 Typographical Features of Language of Christian Religion—————————–23
3.5 Graphlogical Features of Language of Christian Religion——————————–24

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Liturgies of the language of Roman Catholic Church ———————————–25
4.2 Sermon of the Roman Catholic Church —————————————————-27
4.3 The Sacred Test of Roman Catholic Church ———————————————-31
4.4 The Sermon of Pentecostal Denominations ———————————————–35
4.5 Sacred Text of Pentecostal Denominations ————————————————37

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Comparative Summary————————————————————————40
5.2 Conclusion ————————————————————————————–41
5.3 Recommendation ——————————————————————————43
Works Cited ——————————————————————————–43
Appendices ———————————————————————————46

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SERMON: It is a moral statement whose aim is to dictate a certain kind of behaviors through series of examples.

LITURGIES: It can be invocations, petitions and they can be written to be read or sung.

THEOLOGICAL TEST: It is a discursive document with a moral purpose written by a biblical scholar, theologians or clergy

RITUALS: It is a specific ceremony to mark baptisms and funerals.

OMNIPOTENT: Having total power, able to do something.

SUPERNATURAL: Events forces or powers that cannot be explained by he laws of science and seem to involve gods or magic.

BENEDICTIONS: A blessing pronounced at the end of church service.

CARNALITY: A state of being unspiritual.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The major objective of language is communication but the manner in which language communicates appears to be interlinked with individual experiences in terms of linguistic attitude, cultural influences and personal perception. Register is a term that is used to describe variations in language according to use. For instance, Thorne says that lawyers use a legal register, doctors a medical register and the priests a religious register ( 95).
The language of Christian religion will be examined by analysing the spoken and written forms of the language of Roman Catholic Church and the selected Pentecostal denominations. Christian religion is the most widely distributed of the world religions. In the 1990s its total membership exceeded up to 1.9 billion people (Probert Microsoft Encarta).There are other systems of beliefs and values such as Platonism, Marxism, Freudianism or Democracy. Christianity is in many ways comprehensible only to those who share its benefits and strive to live by its values.
Wilken points out that Jerusalem is the center of Christian religion, at least until its destruction by the Roman armies in A.D 70. From it Christianity radiated to other cities and towns in Palestine and beyond. At first, its approval was large although it was not completely confined to the adherents of Judaism to which it was presented as new but not a brand new religion (820).

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THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN   RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There are many problems that weigh on the life of man and very often man goes in search of the truth that lies behind these problems. Traditionally, faith and reason have been considered to be sources of justification for religious belief. Because both purportedly serve this same epistemic function, it has been a matter of much interest to philosophers and theologians how the two are related and thus how the rational agent should treat claims derived from either source.

Some have held that there can be no conflict between the two- that reason properly employed and faith properly understood will never produce competing claims, where others have maintained that faith and reason can (or even must) be in genuine contention over certain propositions or methodologies. Those who have taken the latter view disagree as to whether faith or reason ought to prevail when the two are in conflict. Kierkegaard for instance, prioritizes faith even to the point that it becomes positively irrational, while Locke emphasizes the reasonableness of faith to such an extent that a religious doctrine’s irrationality- conflict with itself or with known facts- is a sign that it is unsound. Other thinkers have theorized that faith and reason can govern their own separate domains, such that cases of apparent conflict are resolved on the side of faith when the claim in question is, say, a religious or theological claim, but resolved on the side of reason when the disputed claim is, for example, empirical or logical. Some relatively recent philosophers, most notably the logical positivists, have denied that there is a domain of thought or human existence rightly governed by faith, asserting instead that all meaningful statements and ideas are accessible to thorough rational examination. This has presented a challenge to religious thinkers to explain how an admittedly non-rational or translational form of language can hold meaningful cognitive content. It is based on these that the philosophy of Saint Augustine of Hippo has become a veritable ground to attempt to quench this controversy and problem of faith and reason. Faith and reason are like two wings on which the spirit rises to the contemplation of truth. There is no incompatibility between the two, but rather an ultimate harmony. Faith is not opposed to reason; rather it requires the full development of reason. And reason itself requires faith in order to strengthen and guide it.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The key philosophical issue regarding the problem of faith and reason is to work out how the authority of faith and the authority of reason interrelate in the process by which a religious belief is justified or established as true. The questions raised are: How shall we Christians deal with apparent conflicts between faith and reason, between teaching of the bible and the teachings of science? As a special case, how shall we deal with apparent conflicts between what the Bible initially seems to tell us about the origin and development of life, and what contemporary science seems to tell us about it? We have two principles in operation, reason on the one side, and faith leaning on authority on the other; and if the one should be at discord with the other, how are the respective claims of each to be settled? Throughout this work the principle is affirmed and reaffirmed that faith and reason are really complementary, and neither should be sacrificed for the other.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this work is to expose the nature and roles of faith and reason in our lives, how they influence and have need of one another in the attainment of truth. Also it is aimed at bringing faith and reason within the grasp of many lay readers. And it is expected that at the end of this paper that Christians will take delight in understanding and contemplating that which they believe, and that they might be prepared to give satisfactory answers to those who ask them for the reason for that hope which lies within them.

 1.4 METHOD OF THE STUDY

The researcher adopted the phenomenological method: critical exposition and textual analysis of relevant materials. Both books written by Saint Augustine and works written by various scholars that have proven to be of great relevance to the given literature, and then commentaries, articles, encyclopedia and other richly endowed documentaries and publications, library were used.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research centers on the philosophy of Saint Augustine of Hippo, with special focus on the interdependence or philosophical relationship that lies between faith and reason in the attainment of truth and how the two are to be treated in our lives.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

What do I care about knowledge? What can a Christian and a non- Christian gain from this work? Is it of any usefulness to human life and salvation? Yes. This work is written for the general reader who wants to know more about these questions: Is Christian belief rational?  What is the best way of helping other people see the reasonableness of Christian faith? Can faith and reason still be thought as incompatible? Can a man of faith be a man of reason as well? Does reason confuse and lead the man of faith into unbelief? Can faith still be viewed as an arbitrary influence upon human intellect? This work can serve as a useful tool to them who lacking conscience attack God with pure reason, also to enquirers of rationalism and revelation. It will also strive to correct the notion of the layman, scientists, psychologists, religious fanatics and Christian believers. It intensifies the need for every faith to be based on reason and every reason to be likewise based on faith. This is because, as faith is the logical foundation for all reasoning, so also, reason is a necessary condition for a well meaning and grounded faith.

 END NOTES

  1. Platinga Alvin, When Faith and Reason Clash: Evolution and Bible (University of Notre Dame- Christian scholars’ Review XXI: 1, September 1991) 1.
  2. Donald A. Crosby, Faith and Reason: Their Roles in Religious and Secular Life (New York: State University of New York Press, 2011) X.
  3. Mircea Eliade (ed), the Encyclopedia of Religion (Macmilan and Free Press, 1987) Vol. 1 (520- 526).
  4. “Faith and reason,” Internet encyclopedia of philosophy (IEP).
  5. George Galloway, Faith and Reason in Religion (London: Nisbet & Co. Ltd., 1927) 9- 17.
  6. John E. Fagan, Fides et Ratio (Faith and Reason), from the Teachings of Pope John Paul II: Summaries of Papal Documents (New York: Scepter Publishers, 2005) 64- 71.
  7. John Paul II, “Chapter VI: Encyclical Letter, Fides et Ratio of the Supreme Pontiff to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Relationship Between Faith and Reason”.
  8. Dick Sztanyo, Faith and Reason (Apologetics Press Inc., 1996) 1.

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Faith, in probably the best known definition of it, is “the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.”1 It is belief in what has neither been seen nor experienced. On the other hand, reason is the human faculty (or practice of) seeing, forming, and investigating cognitive relations. The use of the term ranges from its application to more or less routine calculation to a supposed means for directly apprehending the ultimate nature of things.2 Much has been written on faith and reason, and their relation has been the subject of many controversies. While the position of this work stems from the philosophy of St. Augustine, on the unity and complementary relation of the twin concept of faithful reason and rational faith, for the ordinary rationalist reason is the sure light. In this spirit Clifford wrote: “it is always wrong to believe anything on insufficient evidence.”3 We must therefore back up our convictions and provide support, justification for our religious beliefs instead of merely asserting them.

In theology, as a rule, the disposition has been to shut any violent antithesis between faith and reason. By the acceptance of the reality and Divine Revelation the Christian theologian presupposes that the religious man has to recognize truths which he could not have reached by his own unaided powers. They must therefore be received in faith. On the other hand, he is not inclined to say that those truths, being divine, are irrational: he rather regards them as supra-rational, beyond what reason can explicate here and now. In other words, religion is justified by reason to a point, but it’s deeper and more mysterious truths are apprehended by faith alone.4 But should anything “be received as a divine doctrine and revelation without good evidence that it is so; that is, without a good argument sufficient to satisfy a prudent and considerable man?”5

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THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is basically targeted at producing sensible, reasonable, refined and responsible being or a group of people either for an individual or group development of either his/her self or the society. All over the world, education has been discovered and accepted as the bedrock of all-round developments of both human beings and their society. United Nations Organization emphasizes the need to train every child in the world. Africa, being one of the seventh continents in the world is trying her best despite the facts that she has a lot of challenges everywhere.While Nigeria with the population of about 170 million people knowing the importance of education, has been running free education in some parts of the country for a very long time (Ajodo, 2013). When the country, had regional governments, the western Region, then governed by the late sage Chief Obafemi Awolowo, as the premier, ran free education. Some states still run it till date. There have been clear dichotomy between missionary owned/ran/governed/managed schools and the non-missionary owned schools. A Church-sponsored school has been mainly identified as moral, religion, intelligent, discipline etc aspects (Jaiye & Alaga, 2005). However, this study is examining the impact of church administration on effective management of church-sponsored school with focus on the Convenant University, Ota.

In Nigeria, there are Federal, States and privately owned universities. For example, the first university in Nigeria, University of Ibadan was established in 1948 by the colonial master. She was recently ranked as the best university, in the country, followed by University of Lagos, University of Ilorin,Covenant university and others. The first three are Federal Government owned Universities, while the other and the fourth one, happens to be Covenant university, that is owned by a church/ religion leader.

It is believed by most people, that the involvement of church leaders in the establishment of universities is basically to assist in the upbringing of upright children who will be morally fit to live their lives and govern the society well; help to reduce the observed long queue of students seeking admission, enforcement of merit in the course of offering admission/employment of personnel, considerable/moderate/affordable school fees etc simply because the best hands in all the professional and non -professional careers that the country had had till date have been products of missionaries schools.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In Nigeria, Federal, States and Privately owned institutions have some basic common problems among them, namely: lack of fear/believe in God, Poor funding, inadequate staff and facilities (glorified secondary schools), discrimination in the offering of employment of staff and admission to students,living condition, labour organization, working condition, wage level, opportunity for further education, deviation from the norms of those days missionaries established and ownership of schools. Some church owned schools in Nigeria has out-performed some government owned schools in an excellent manner. This has increased the awareness and patronage for church-sponsored schools in Nigeria. In the light of this, the researcher will examine the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To determine the prevalence of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools.
  3. To examine the administrative performance of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the prevalence of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools?
  3. What is the administrative performance of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria?

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IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

Education is a conscious and purposeful effort directed towards the transmission of accumulated abilities, knowledge and attitudes from one generation to the other with ultimate intension of producing men and women who will be relevant and useful to themselves and the society. Education is a process by which individuals are assisted formally through proper direction and guidance to develop their capacities for their own benefits and that of the society (Okeke, 2003). Hence education positively changes the behaviour patterns of the citizens. Education is the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imparted, faculties trained and skills developed (Farrant 1980) especially formal education. Formal Education came into Nigeria with the arrival of missionaries. The missionaries trained personnel for evangelization and teaching catechism in addition to other religious doctrines in the church. According to Akuyimu (1991) this continued till the 19th century when formal institutions for the training of teachers were established in the country. Teacher education came into existence in 1959 by the Ashby commission. One major event in the development of teacher Education in Nigeria was the publication and subsequent implementation of the Ashby commission report. The commission observed that there was a gravely inadequate supply of trained and educated 2 teachers in Nigerian secondary grammar schools even when there was an increase in demand for more secondary grammar schools. The commission recommends the following; the opening of more universities; the institution of a Bachelor s Degree in Education B. A (Ed),  B.Sc (Ed) or B. Ed;  the training of more teachers for the nations secondary schools.

Following the recommendation, two schemes of Teacher Education were introduced. One of these schemes was teacher certification programme which was established with the assistance of UNESCO. In 1962 the federal and the then Regional governments established Advanced Teacher Training Colleges (ATT) which was later changed to Colleges of Education (COE). The objectives of colleges of Education were to train teachers in various teaching subjects and methods to enable them teach in both primary and junior secondary schools. Later the National policy on education was first published in 1977 as a result of the 1969 National curriculum conference. The conference was a culmination of expression of general dissatisfaction with the existing education system which had become irrelevant to national needs and aspirations and goals. The objectives of colleges of education include the followings to:

  • produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of educational system.
  • encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers
  • help teaches to fit into the social life of the community and society and enhance their commitment to national objectives provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world.
  • enhance teacher s commitment to the teaching profession (NCCE, 2012).

In line with these objectives students are trained to acquire the knowledge and skills needed because teacher education programme provides a framework in which students acquire potent knowledge about the subject matter.

Teacher education programme is the strategic optional system, for preparing and graduating teachers with the framework of an operative institutional or public policy on education, and in pursuit of the educational goals (Osah Ogulu 2000). According to Shuaibu (2006) the role teacher education programme plays in the educational system are as follows:

  • Preserves the system by selecting what to teach.
  • Evaluative of not only what is learnt but what has been considered worthwhile and how these have been taught.
  • Generative as the programme predicts the future and work out the skills and attitudes required to study.
  • Maintenance as the programme creates opportunity for retracing through in-service resulting to expansion of the education system.

Teacher education therefore is the training of individuals to equip them with necessary competencies and skills in a given subject area that will enable them teach same to students in schools

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Christian religious study is one of the subjects mounted in colleges of education to meet the need of the learner and society. Considering its role in social and ethical development of any individual and society it is one of popular religious subject to so many students. Even though various instructional techniques have been adopted by teachers to improve student’s achievement in Christian religious study, very little impact in terms of improvement has been achieved. There are still persistent reports of the rate of mass failure in Christian religious study at the junior secondary school level and in examination conducted by testing bodies in Nigeria such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). These persistent reports of failure in Christian religious study have raised serious issue on the manpower produced by colleges of education who in turn are expected to lay a solid foundation for the pupil/students at the primary/junior secondary school. It is therefore pertinent to evaluation Christian religious study Education programme. An evaluation of Christian religious study education programme need to be focused on student s performance, availability/ adequacy of facilities, staff, instructional material in addition to the teaching methods adopted, admission requirements and its compliance to NCCE minimum standard. Programme evaluation of this nature is useful for programme improvement, decision- making, personnel 9 accountability and availability of facilities. Therefore the problem of the study is to determine to what extent the objectives of Christian religious study education programme in college of education in south geopolitical zone of Nigeria have been achieved.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to evaluate Christian religious study Education programmes of colleges of Education in South East Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Determine the extent to which the objectives of CRS Education Programme of colleges of education are achieved by state and federal colleges.
  2. Determine the number admitted by state and federal colleges of education using admission requirement specified by the NCCE minimum standard.
  3. Determine the number and qualification of staff for the implementation of the CRS education programme objectives as stipulated in the minimum standard by state and federal colleges of education.
  4. Determine the availability and adequacy of instructional materials facilities and equipment for effective teaching of CRS in state and federal colleges of education.
  5. Determine the extent state and federal colleges of education adhere to the stipulated instructional methods for teaching CRS education at NCE level.
  6. Determine classes of certificate NCE graduates of CRS education obtain in state and federal colleges of education.

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EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

The Christian Religious Education has emerged as a subject of prime importance in Nigerian schools. Its value in the school curriculum is unique among other subjects. The teaching of Christian Religious Knowledge in Primary schools in Nigeria can be dated back to the first half of the nineteenth-century when the Christian missionaries established the first school in Badagry in 1842. This form of education spread to the North in the early 19th century and CRK was taught in the schools. At the early period, proprietors of schools were the Christian missionaries (Methodist, Church Missionary Society (CMS), and Roman Catholic who considered CRK as an important subject to be taught in schools. Since then, Christian Religious education has occupied a prominent position in Nigerian school curriculum till date. The view was asserted by Onovughe 2008. In recognition of the value attached to the subject the subject was not only offered in the primary school alone but also in all levels of institution in Nigeria. Religious training and moral instruction was considered as fundamental to the development of sound education. The essence of teaching Christian religious education includes academic, moral; civil and spiritual objectives. In Christian religious education it is obvious that pupils are taught the way of life. Thus the teaching of the subject instils discipline and obedience in the products. The study of CRK will enable pupils to learn the tenets of the faith and to live a life that is that is pleasing to God. CRK therefore is aimed at producing (training) persons who will be fit or equipped for religious and social responsibility. Thus the focus of CRK curriculum among other things is for pupil’s moral training and academic pursuance. From the above observations, it is understood that Christian Religious Education is not only a subject to learn, but also a way of life, but what is not clear, is whether the teaching of this subject has made any meaningful impact on the students who learn it and on the Nigerian society as a whole. Moreover it can be seen that there is little relationship between what is learned in C.R.K classes and the C.R.K. graduates’ lives at home, as now one hears of so much evil, indiscipline and moral decadence in Nigerian society. C. M. 2000 lament on the Moral decadence in our institution as a result of religious Education. A look at Christian religious examination as if the Objective in the subject are of shows that these objectives are not achieved. Parents are misguided with the belief that any teacher can teach CRK, the authority concerned does not bother to recruit qualified CRK teachers. The pupils too were misguided with the assumption that CRK is simple to pass since they are Christians and can read Bible. This has adverse effect on Religious in Nigeria. This is mostly the practice in Primary and Secondary. This is why pupils will be non chalet. The goal of teaching CRK as a subject in our schools is to develop the morals of the individuals and the society as a whole. In other words, the aim of teaching CRK in Nigerian schools is to develop the pupil’s character and moral training which will enable them to have sound attitude. In Nigerian society, many parents and educationists have aired their views on the respect for moral decadence of their Children. This has made some parents to doubt the credibility of CRK in the Primary school’s curriculum as an agent of moral-upbringing. It is in the light of this, that the author attempts to find what could have been the problems of implementing the curriculum.

 

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CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study examine Christian participation in politics: amoral concern in contemporary Nigeria, the study has the following objectives,To examine the level of Christian participation in politics considering the moral concerns in contemporary Nigeria, To examine the factors limiting Christian participation in politics in Nigeria, To determine the prospects of Christians active participation in politics in Nigeria.

Concerning methodology for this study, data was obtained from primary source that is questionnaire. The data to be obtained out there in the field shall be presented in a tabular form and analyzed through the use of a simple percentage table to enhance quick and easy understanding of the respondents’ responses or opinion the topic being researched on. The statistical took employed to test the hypotheses of the study is the regression and chi-squared. The sample size of this study consists of thirty-two (32) respondents. This research work adopted the convenience sampling technique in selecting the respondents from the total population. A total sample size of two hundred and forty (200) respondents was selected from the research population using the convenient sampling method.

The study has the following findings; to examine the level of Christian participation in politics considering the moral concerns in contemporary Nigeria. To examine the factors limiting Christian participation in politics in Nigeria and to determine the prospects of Christians active participation in politics in Nigeria.

This research will educate the general public on the level of participation of Christians in Nigerian politics and will also enlighten on how the teachings of Christianity can be used as a tool for national development through eradication of corruption and other social vices.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.2    Statement of General Problem   –        –        –        –

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Hypothesis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –        –        –

1.6    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

  • CONCEPTUAL ISSUES –        –        –        –        –
    • POLITICS IN THE CIRCULAR – –        –        –

2.2.4 THE VARIETIES OF POLITICAL EXPERIENCE         –

2.5 POLITICS IN RELIGION       –        –        –        –        –

2.5.1 The Role of Religion Today       –        –        –        –

2.6 POLITICS AND RELIGION BE KEPT SEPARATE –        –        ­

2.6 BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE OF POLITICS       –        –        –

2.6.1 Purpose of Government            –        –        –        –        –

2.6.2 Origin of Politics               –        –        –        –        –         –

2.6.3 Christians Duties to the Politics      –        –        –        –

2.6.3 Submit and Obey the Authorities             –        –        –        –

2.6.4 Times of Disobedience                     –        –        –        –        –

2.6.5 Dual Citizenship                      –        –        –        –        –         –

2.6.6 How Should Christians, Vote           –        –        –        –        –

2.7 CHRISTIAN AND POLITICS        –        –        –        –        –

2.7.1 Political Involvements             –        –        –        –        –

2.7.2 How Christians Should be Involved         –        –        –        –

 

2.7.3 Why should a Christian be involved in politics        –        –

2.7.3 Spiritual Obligation to God    –        –        –        –        –

2.7.4 Social Obligation to Others     –        –        –        –        –

2.7.4 Moral Obligation to Truth      –        –        –        –        –

2.7.5 Eternal Obligation to Righteousness       –        –        –        –

2.8 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER                    –        –        –        –        –

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                –        –        –        –        –         –

DICTIONARIES                                 –        –        –        –        –        –

JOURNALS AND PAPERS                –        –        –        –        –

REFERENCES                                          –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.4    Population of Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.5    Sample size and Sampling Techniques        –        –        –        33

3.6    Instrument for Data Collection   –        –        –        –        33

3.7    Validity of the Instrument –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument       –        –        –        –        34

3.9    Method of Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        34

3.10  Method of Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        34

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        –        36

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents     –        –        –        36

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        46

4.5    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –        51

4.6    Discussion of Findings        –        –        –        –        –        52

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        58

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        61

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigerian Christianity dates back to the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the early nineteenth century, which was followed by the emergence of a literate African elite, consisting of liberated and returned slaves as well as local converts. The need for political stability in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Indeed, all segments of the Nigerian society are interested in the political future of the nation. However, this interest is approached from various dimensions. A major interest in the Nigerian polity is the Christian participation in politics, moral concern in contemporary Nigeria.

Politics is about the acquisition of power and the use of such power. The Oxford Dictionary of Words defines politics as “matters concerned with acquiring or exercising power, within a group or an organization”. Onyekpe (1998) defines the term politics as the struggle for power which itself is the authority to determine or formulate and execute decisions and policies, which must be accepted by the society. It is the struggle for power of governance, especially executive authority (Onyekpe 1998).

Onyekpe however gives a caveat to the first part of his definition. According to him, the struggle for or the acquisition of power and the reaction of the society to it, depend greatly on the level of political development of the country. In an undemocratic society, it does not really matter whether the decisions and policies are accepted by the society. Thus the value of political power or politics leaves little or no room for the people to have input, except where democracy has already been entrenched.

Abogunrin (1984) in his paper titled “Towards a Unifying Political Ideology and Peaceful Coexistence in Nigeria: A Christian View”Dal et al, (1999) opines that Christianity and politics are two inseparable institutions in the human social psyche and structure. He equally asserts that earthly governments are mere agents of God’s theocratic governance of the physical and the spiritual world (Abogunrin, 1984). He, however, points out that the ideals of Christianity is a good guide to better political conducts, but the practices of such ideals are usually influenced by the socio-cultural institutions in the society, including politics.

Christians have always present argument based on the statement of Jesus Christ that “Give unto Caesar what is Caesar and unto God the things that are God’s” (Matt. 22:17-22). This phrase has often been used to exclude from participation Christians and clergymen, who want to venture into politics. Matthew Hassan Kukah however, disagrees with this school of thought, with an exegesis on this passage. He writes that what Jesus really meant was not that Christianity and politics do not mix, nor did He mean that Christians should not participate in politics, the coin was representation of the power of Caesar and that was why the coin had Caesar’s sign. In the case of God, His authority is over and above the realm of Caesar’s empire. In that sense both Caesar and his coin are under the aegis of God and the issue of separation or Christians should not participate in politics is an aberration (Kukah 1998). It should be noted that the argument of these opposing schools are hinged on their belief, perhaps based on experience, that politics often corrupt Christian religion. Also that political leaders use Christianity as a platform to deceive the people.

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CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY

CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1     Introduction

The role of the Christian home in our society is to be a model of life. Not only are man and woman created in the image of God, they are also called to unite with each other in order to fulfill the maximum of human nature and human existence. Their union within marriage is founded upon love that stems from God and goes beyond nature. At the same time, it gives nature quite a different dimension—the call for sanctification.

We talk so much about love in our religion. We make it the only and total principle of life. We define God as being LOVE. What does this mean to us in our daily life, our family life? Love, from our Christian viewpoint, implies some-thing that goes beyond the individual. Each spouse loves the other for his or herself, and, beyond all this, they love each other in God.

We define genuine love in psychology as the capacity to sacrifice one’s own interests and pleasures for another, to love the other before one’s self, to seek his or her interest.Astonishingly, two thousand years before modern psychology, the main ideas of modern clinical psychology were found in the gospel and in the first epistle of John—a magnificent contribution to the philosophy of love.

After Jesus and John, love become a principle of knowledge alongside that of reason. It is one of the basic contributions of Christianity to the history of civilization and ideas.When a marriage is based upon genuine love, it becomes a way of a new knowledge for the human being, something that opens the family to society, and makes out of it an active element that serves as a model of change and evolution.

Plato denied the reality of the world of senses. He considered only ideas as “real.” The genuine Christian, however, conceives of the flesh as being completely worthy, completely ontological, rooted in being—it has to be transformed through the effect of love, rooted in God Himself.Any marriage cannot be conceived of as “real” if it is not founded on love. Between spouses, there is a vocation of unity in the spirit and in the flesh, a vocation of mutual understanding, and the vocation of begetting children and bringing them up worthily.

The second basic model that must be implemented by the Christian family is to be an adequate setting for bringing up children, in order to prepare them for life and service in their immediate society. The upbringing of children in a Christian family is a tremendous task. Now, because of scientific knowledge we have very efficient tools for implementing Christian ethics and social values through practical education and psychology.What modern psychology has taught us is that genuine love is learned by the child. From birth to six or seven years of age the child learns to love, either adequately or inadequately.

Emotional deprivation in the first years of life is catastrophic for a child’s inner-psychology. When there is a lack of proper love, the child’s personality may be stifled; he or she may remain immature forever. It is therefore very important for mothers’ love to be intense and adequate in order to build up a child’s capacity to love. Psychological maturation constitutes the psychological foundation of the ethical life of an individual.

Emotional maturity is the capacity to love, sacrifice, and forget one’s self for the sake of community. We have a very excellent definition of genuine love in Paul’s epistle to the Corinthians. It is a masterpiece of psychological and ethical analysis of the nature of love. There is no text in modern psychology that matches the description or analysis of Paul. There is no success without mature, genuine love.

We seem to consider sex education as one of the basic elements for marriage preparation. One of the basic findings of psychology is that sexual life in its biological dimensions is completely determined by the psychological element. People confuse sexual information and sexual education— emotional psychosexual or emotional, sexual education. Information is part of a whole structure. That’s why we have to begin with emotional educational or psychosexual education. Knowledge about sex that comes at the age of five to seven, or eight to fourteen should first answer personal questions of the child. There should be a natural need for knowledge that may come by a change that stimulates questions for the child. We have to answer him or her in a scientific way with a respect for the truth, but we also have to adapt truth to his or her level of understanding. If we conceive of marriage preparation as a double process, stressing mainly emotional maturity and at the same time informing the child and the adolescent about the facts of life—then this new information can easily be integrated into the whole personality and become something operational and efficient.

1.2     Background of Study

In order to let the key notions described and analysed by Paul become concrete in life, we have to use scientific methods of bringing up children, because emotional maturity is the condition of the whole balance of personality.It is important for the Christian family to sufficiently prepare young men and women for marriage and their future family life. This is one of the major tasks of the church. There is a tremendous gap in this field. Do we strive earnestly to prepare couples for marriage? Do we show them the difficulties of marital life and the enlightenment of the Christian teachings in this field? As a matter of fact, real preparation for marriage does not start only some months or years before getting married. Real preparation for marriage starts at birth. Why? Because a marriage cannot succeed without the emotional maturity that begins developing at birth. At the moment of birth, the child starts to be moulded by the human environment, namely by his or her mother. A child builds up a personality along lines of direction from his or her mother. A mother shapes a child’s destiny.

Thus, there is a threefold vocation of the Christian family to serve as a model of genuine love:

1)      To be an open community to society

2)      To bring up children so as to prepare them for modern life and for Christian life

3) To prepare young people for marriage

Hence, this research study was carried out to evaluate and investigate the role of a Christian family in the society.

 

1.3     Objectives of Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To make the readers to know more about the concept of the Christian family and the society;
  2. To look into the roles of the Christian family in the furtherance or otherwise of the concept of morality and societal advancement in Nigeria;
  3. To look into whether there is any nexus, positive or negative, between the Christian home and societal development;
  4. To show the importance and impact of Christian home to society and the relationship between them; as well as to the development of a country;

 

1.4     Focus of Study

This study focuses on the Christian home and its role in the society. Family and society are concepts which have been recognized throughout the world; and both have become practices of most countries of the world. However, for the purpose of this study, the major concern is limited to the Christian home and society.

1.5     Methodology

Materials are sourced from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include the documentaries, articles, textbooks, articles from learned journals, internet materials and other relevant materials necessary to enhance credibility of this study. Therefore, the study is essentially a library based (doctrinal) research.

CHAPTER TWO

THE CONCEPT OF HOME AND SOCIETY

2.1     CHANGES AS A REALITY: THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

Rapid change is undeniable in modern times. Individuals and societies in the Middle East are aware of the drastic changes in their lifetime. Industrialization and urbanization are two main changes that have affected all sectors of life. Modes of living are changing; so are attitudes. Secularization has invaded society and the church. The challenge of change has brought out the conflict between Western and African culture.

Societies in Nigeria have their own social institutions. It is not necessary that they follow the same patterns of change as the West. Our assumptions regarding what changes will take place, and the nature of their impact on Nigerian structures need not be modelled on the Western image. This is particularly true when we consider, for example, the importation of Western systems of education and otherwise, which are not adapted to local needs.

However, much change takes place in spite of us; the individual still has power to direct change. He or she must be viewed as an actor in this process, not merely a passive onlooker.

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CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY