THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter one

Introduction

Research questions

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Delimitation of the study

Definition of terms

Chapter two

Literature review

introduction

theoretical framework

conflicts in nigeria

examples of cases of conflicts in nigeria

the concept of peace building

peace building through reconciliation

church as an actor in reconciliation

the role of ngos in conflict and peace building in nigeria

Chapter three

Research methodology

Research design

The study population

Sampling procedure

The research instrument

The administration of questionnaire

Analysis of data

Chapter four

Analysis and interpretation of data

Discussion of findings

Chapter five

Summary, recommendation and conclusion

Summary

Recommendation

Conclusion

Suggestion for further studies

Bibliography

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The Christian tradition has made significant contributions to world peace at a number of different levels (Albert, 2011). Among these are public statements by Church leaders, programs of action at local and international levels, organizations dedicated to bringing about peace, courses of study, commemorative days etc.In recent decades, Church leaders have frequently made statements in support of peace. In some cases these statements have been specific appeals for peace in particular circumstances, however, on other occasions they have also published more comprehensive statements on the need for peace and the means of achieving it. The teachings of Christianity which is guided by the dictates of the bible (word of God) has constantly encourage the members to ensure peace and harmony in the society. Christian leaders have always publicly stood for societal peace and harmony and against violence. It is now widely accepted that violent conflict is the major hindrance to the development of the African continent and Nigeria in particular. It inflicts human sufferings through death, destruction of livelihoods, constant displacement and insecurity (Barash, 2000). Violent conflict disrupts the process of production, creates conditions for pillage of the country’s resources and diverts their application from development purposes to servicing war. Violent conflict is thus responsible for perpetuating misery and underdevelopment in the country-Nigeria and the continent at large (Adetula,2006).

Peace is a universal phenomenon that everyone desires and wishes to enjoy endlessly.Traditions, cultures, religions and societies do have different prescriptions to attaining and enjoying peace. Whenever and wherever there is peace there tends to be development and longevity is enjoyed (Salawu, 2010). To this end, Christianity which is one of the predominant religions in the world today teaches peace and encourages all adherents to the faiths to pursue peace and live peacefully with one another. The above statement now seems to be questionable with the rise of intra, inter and ethno-religious conflicts in the world. While most Arab and some European countries are faced with intra-religious conflicts, an African country like Nigeria is faced with both intra and inter-religious conflicts. Nigeria, which is popularly known as Africa’s most populous black nation with a population of now about 170 million people, with more than 250 ethnic groups hensuring as Christianity and Islam as its predominant religions, though there is still in existence the African Traditional Religion (ATR).

Christianity as a word means followers of Christ or Christ like. Christians therefore are those who follow and act the teaching of Christ in all ways of life. One of the climaxes of Christianity or Christian virtue is peace. Christians are enjoined in the Bible to embrace and live peacefully with their neighbors’. The following scriptures confirm this:Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it (Psalm 34 vs 14) . Blessed are the Peace makers for they shall be called the children of God Matthew 5 vs 9).Let him eschew evil and do good; let him seek peace and ensue it (1 Peter 3 vs 11).Follow peace with all men and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord (Hebrews 12 vs 14). If it be possible, as much as it lieth in you, live peaceably with all men (Rom 12 vs 18)

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THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ENSURING PEACE AND HARMONY IN THE SOCIETY

THE ROLE OF CHURCH LEADERS IN GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A CHURCH

THE ROLE OF CHURCH LEADERS IN GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF A CHURCH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Leadership is indeed a dynamic reciprocal process of personal influence by which a manager or a leader shapes the attitudes and activities of others towards the achievement or attainment of organizational objectives (Abogunrin, 1986). Even before the modern concepts of leadership came into being, the apostle of Jesus Christ, Paul in the Pastorals lists the qualifications for church leaders to ensure sustainable growth and survival (Dairo, 2007). These have remained the model for ages. For any church leader to steer the ship of the church successfully, these qualities must be imbibed. But contemporary experience in Nigeria has shown a marked departure from this Pauline list of qualifications for church leaders which has really affected growth and survival of churches. The level of understanding expected from both the leaders and the followers is missing in most cases. This often results in crises within “the body of Christ”.

There are some common features in various definitions of leadership. It will be presumptuous for anyone to attempt a definition that will satisfy the populace especially regarding church leadership. Leadership is nothing if not linked to collective purpose; and the effectiveness of leaders must be judged not by press clippings but by actual social change, measured by intent and by satisfaction of human needs and expectations which on the long term will be visible on the church growth and development.

Oluwasegun (2005) defines leadership as the ability to gain consensus and commitment to common objectives beyond organizational requirements which are attained with experience or contribution and satisfaction on the part of the working group. Leadership could also be defined as the relationship in which one person or the leader influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that which the leader desires. It is a means of direction. Leadership is the ability of management to induce the subordinates to work towards a group’s goals with confidence and keenness. It implies that the leader accepts responsibility for the achievement of the group objectives and it is, therefore, essential for the trust and cooperation from both sides to be evidence all the time (Oluwasegun, 2005). Leadership is an art of getting things done. It can be learnt, improved, developed and perfected. It is the key process of influence and the process always includes a number of key components such as leader and followers, they interact in situations and means of influence which emerge from the leader and from the followers, based on their value system and goals which the leader and the followers seek to achieve (Dairo, 2004).

With respect to church leadership, it implies that the church leader gives direction, motivates, reprimands and develops a set objective along with his group and resolves individual or group needs within the church. This is perceived as the only way towards the church growth and survival.In the New Testament it was more often used as Christological title for the exalted Jesus. The results of semasiological and lexicographical investigation of secular Greek indicate an extremely polyvalent spectrum of meaning for the word “church leader”, the basis being he who is the first, who stands at the head of, who leads.

According to the New Testament, the terms “bishop,” “pastor,” and “elder” are synonymous. Bishop means”overseer,” and the elders had the responsibility of overseeing the work of the church (Acts 20:17,28; 1Pet5:1-3). “Elder” is the translation of the Greek word presbytes, which means “an old man.” Paul used the word presbytery in (1Tim 4:14), referring not to a denomination, but to the “eldership” of the assembly that ordained Timothy. Elders and bishops (two names for the same office, (cf Titus 1:5,7) were mature people with spiritual wisdom and experience to ensure the survival of the church of God. Also, “pastor” means “shepherd,” one who leads and cares for the flock of God (Vine, 1996:67).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to Dairo (2008), many Churches in Nigeria are characterized with false teaching, preconceived ideas and human-formed regulations which have too often undermined the Holy Spirit’s specification and has militated greatly against church growth and survival. According to Apostle Paul, church leader must be kind of man that can carry the followers along. All church leaders may not possess these qualities in the same measure but a leader must have these quality attributes to a degree that is noticeable in his life to ensure sustainable growth. If a man is known to be harsh instead of being gentle, intemperate instead of being temperate, disgraceful instead of being respectable, he has disqualified himself (Bible Org. 2004). The work of church leadership is a noble task. Suchan office needs the right kind of people to serve. Accumulation of material wealth, by capitalizing on the “gross ignorance” of the people about the teaching of the Bible on wealth by church leaders as also limited growth and survival of many churches because of the increased awareness of these dubious strategies. However, the researcher is examining the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church.
  2. To identify the functions and duties of church leaders in a church.
  3. To identify the other factors militating against church growth and survival.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  4. What is the role of church leaders in the growth and survival of a church?
  5. What are the functions and duties of church leaders in a church?
  6. What are the other factors militating against church growth and survival?

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THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

 THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Christian tradition has made significant contributions to world peace at a number of different levels (Albert, 2011). Among these are public statements by Church leaders, programs of action at local and international levels, organizations dedicated to bringing about peace, courses of study, commemorative days etc. In recent decades, Church leaders have frequently made statements in support of peace. In some cases these statements have been specific appeals for peace in particular circumstances, however, on other occasions they have also published more comprehensive statements on the need for peace and the means of achieving it. The teachings of Christianity which is guided by the dictates of the bible (word of God) has constantly encourage the members to ensure peace and harmony in the society.
Christian leaders have always publicly stand for societal peace and harmony and against violence. It is now widely accepted that violent conflict is the major hindrance to the development of the African continent and Nigeria in particular. It inflicts human sufferings through death, destruction of livelihoods, constant displacement and insecurity (Barash, 2000). Violent conflict disrupts the process of production, creates conditions for pillage of the country’s resources and diverts their application from development purposes to servicing war. Violent conflict is thus responsible for perpetuating misery and under development in the country-Nigeria and the continent at large (Adetula, 2006).

Peace is a universal phenomenon that everyone desires and wishes to enjoy endlessly. Traditions, cultures, religions and societies do have different prescriptions to attaining and enjoying peace. Whenever and wherever there is peace there tends to be development and longevity is enjoyed (Salawu, 2010). To this end, Christianity which is one of the predominant religions in the world today teaches peace and encourages all adherents to the faiths to pursue peace and live peacefully with one another. The above statement now seems to be questionable with the rise of intra, inter and ethno-religious conflicts in the world. While most Arab and some European countries are faced with intra-religious conflicts, an African country like Nigeria is faced with both intra and inter-religious conflicts. Nigeria, which is popularly known as Africa’s most populous black nation with a population of now about 170 million people, with more than 250 ethnic groups has Christianity and Islam as its predominant religions, though there is still in existence the African Traditional Religion (ATR).
Christianity as a word means followers of Christ or Christ like. Christians therefore are those who follow and act the teaching of Christ in all ways of life. One of the climaxes of Christianity or Christian virtue is peace. Christians are enjoined in the Bible to embrace and live peacefully with their neighbors’. The following scriptures confirm this: Depart from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it (Psalm 34 vs 14). Blessed are the Peace makers for they shall be called the children of God Matthew 5 vs 9). Let him eschew evil and do good; let him seek peace and ensue it (1 Peter 3 vs 11). Follow peace with all men and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord (Hebrews 12 vs 14). If it be possible, as much as it lieth in you, live peaceably with all men (Rom 12 vs 18)
The word Peace in Christianity is translated from the Hebrew word ‘Shalom’, which is a key word in the Bible and its at the center of how God wants us to live on earth. One of the key things Jesus came to give humanity is Peace and expects us to live in peace as cited in the scriptural verses above. Peace was not only what Jesus taught but He also lived it, this in most cases is what scholars call pacifism, as Jesus never taught violence, even at his arrest by the Pharisees and one of his disciples struck the ears of the priest, Jesus rebuked the disciple and said that “those who live by the sword shall die by the sword” (Mathew 26:52, NKJV). In another place Jesus taught the people not to retaliate any evil done to them as it used to be, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, if one should strike you on the right cheek, turn the left cheek (Mathew 5:38-39, NKJV) but now to always forgive those that offend them and he charged them to forgive their neighbors even seventy times seven (Matthew 18:22, KJV). With all these scriptural teachings of the church, Christians are suppose to live in peace and harmony in the society.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The church has always taught the members on the act of non retaliation as taught by Jesus which helps to absorb violence instead of escalating it, hence every cycle of violence provoking revenge, which in turn provokes more violence is broken by the simple act of tolerating the violence and avoiding retaliation. On the contrary, there has been increased cases of disruption to peace and harmony in the world today despite the church teachings of peace as stipulated by Jesus Christ. However, the researcher is examining the role of church in ensuring peace and harmony in the society.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific objectives of the study include:

1. To identify to what extent the Church can contribute to peace making.

2. To determine to what extent the Church has been vital and relevant in peace making of Nigeria.
3. To determine the problems of development still facing the Church and how it can still contribute in peace making in communities in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

– Has the Church played any role in peace making in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state?

– To what extent has the Church been relevant in peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state?

– How can the Church help provide sustainable development in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state in the 21st

century?

1.5 HYPOTHESES
Ho The Church has played a significant role in the peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state.
H1 The Church has not played a significant role in the peace making of Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state
.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant in various ways:

1. It will provide valuable insights into existing relationship between the government and the church in peace making in our rural communities.
2. It will bring to the fore the prominent roles the Church has been playing in peace making since she made her advent and the situation today.

3. It could also motivate the various stakeholders in peace making to partner well with the Church in bringing peace to the grassroots.
4. It will add to existing knowledge and equally serve as a benchmark for further studies.

5. It will serve as a model to other NGOs in their contributions to peace making.

6. It could also bring to the knowledge of other religions that religion is not just “otherworldly,” that they work for the material and psychological well being of men and women when they are being well practised.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

To determine and study the various roles the Church has been playing in the field of peace making in Nigeria. It is restricted to the socio-economic, cultural and political roles of the Church especially in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna state.

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 THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN SUSTAINING PEACE IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF JAMA’A LGA, KADUNA STATE

YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Church Growth is a movement within evangelical Christianity which focuses on developing methods to grow churches based on business marketing strategies.It cannot be disputed that youths play a vital role in the life of a Church as they are the leaders of tomorrow and future of the church. The elderly stands out but youth’s contributions have been shinning and have always been flag bearers of every Church. For any tangible growth to take place in any Christian community, the youth must be significant in that process of growth. This is the more reason why wise nations, countries, groups and organization focus more on the development of youths so that the future of such investments would never be improvised or blind. It is therefore of vital importance in the Catholic Church to prepare assiduously youths for the tasks they would naturally face in the coming future. It is only when we have nourished our youths that they in-turn develop the Church. The questions are “what amount of attention do we give the youths and what level of devotion does the youths give to the church.

The youths of today have very high ideals, and to deny this would be grossly unfair. But we must admit that very often these ideals can sour, can be perverted and can be exploited. Often young people ultimately relinquish their ideals if they suspect that the situation is hopeless; if they conclude that nowhere can these ideals be fulfilled. Unfortunately, this is the usual progression of events today. Disappointments lead to abysmal falls, often to depths lower than those they condemned when their idealism was fresh. Where this does not happen, ideals are exploited by false prophets of good. The sectarians far from the fullness of truth are able to inspire youth to make such amazing sacrifices Yet at the same time, the Orthodox Church, possessing the fullness of Truth, has a real difficulty in keeping her youth(Abednego: 1989). It could be that in ignoring the high ideals and potential moral heroism of our youth we have failed to familiarize them with our examples of such heroism, displayed by our own young, even the very young, who loved Christ and His Church in past ages. The youths are important fabrics in the society. Can there be any society without youth?Obviously no, that is why we must see to it that our youths find their rightful places in the church.

Church growth begins with church health and not the other way around. We see in nature that healthy things grow. This is by no means a new concept, but it’s still true. From this research, we will discover what a healthy church is like and how youth life style can boost church growth.

  • Statement of the problem

One key problem is the inability to examine youth life style and church growth.Another problem is how best to measure numerical growth. A variety of indicators for attendance and occasional offices are available, but all are affected to some degree by measurement error and random fluctuations. Such variability poses particular problems with small churches, where the addition or subtraction of just a few people produces large proportional changes in the totals.

  • Objectives of the study
  1. To examine youth life style and church growth.
  2. To change the unhealthy culture of some church youth ministries.
  3. To cast a fresh vision for the church.

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YOUTH LIFE STYLE AND CHURCH GROWTH

IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The church and the modern technologies seem to be ever more connected as we move further into the twenty-first century” (Hoover 2006). This assertion clearly defines the link between religious belief and the new information and communication technologies which are the most defining media instruments of the twenty-first century. ICT driven technologies can be applied in virtually all areas of the church activities including the payment system (Ovia, 2005). However, different types of payment are done by members in the church. Examples of common payments done during church service includes tithe, general offering, special offering, thanksgiving, harvest, covenant offering, offering for the less privileged/needy, building construction donations etc.

The role and importance of efficient payment systems has been closely monitored and promoted by monetary authorities in all countries. However, the Nigerian payment system that is cash-driven cannot and has not guaranteed the much needed efficient and effective transactions required for a sustainable economic development. Among the problems often associated with cash transactions are armed robberies, use of counterfeit bank notes, frauds, inconveniences of carrying large quantities of currency notes, long period of waiting in bank halls, frequent trips to banks, frequent printing of bank notes (Nnanna and Ajayi, 2005). However, churches in Nigeria are beginning to key in into this cashless system of payment by incorporating modern and cashless method of payment especially the use of PoS.

Point-of-sale (PoS) systems have always been around in many forms for a number of years now. Many businesses use these systems not only to accept payment, but to provide other operational information such as accounting, sales tracking, and inventory management. Thus far, this system has gone a long way in improving customer’s experience through customer loyalty programs and suggestions in businesses (Ojo, 2004). Nowadays, the use of POS system is not only available in business set ups but also in churches which have gone a long way in impacting churches.Though for a number of reasons in Nigeria, there has been various arguments and criticismsamong Christians that the use of POSsystem in church is ungodly and this has been one of the major challenges faced by the use of this system in Nigerian churches.

Some church executives in Nigeria has come to say that the banks offered it to the church and since the world was going digital, the members should try and also fit in. They also say it would ease the stress of looking for change every Sunday and for those who forget to bring money to church.So all that is needed to be done is when you get to church is to use your ATM card at the designated points, and collect your receipts! It’s these receipts that you present at the altar as offering to promote efficient and accountability.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Reliance on cash based system of donation and offering in churches has however been found to be risky and cumbersome because money outside the banks cannot be subjected to regulatory and operational procedures, and the ability of monetary policy to achieve set objectives in the presence of sizeable currency out of Bank (COB) is therefore limited. Hence, many churches make use of POS for offering and donation collection from members to prevent the risks involved in carrying cash about. This cash carrying character of Nigerians is also responsible for large pool of money in the hands of the unbanked citizens. No research has been carried on the impact of POS on churches. However, the researcher is examining the impact of POS on churches.

  • OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the impact of POS on churches.
  2. To examine the existing payment method/system in churches.
  3. To examine the limitations of POS on church payment system
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. What is the impact of POS on churches?
  1. What are the existing payment methods/systems in churches?
  2. What are the limitations of POS on church payment system?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: the use of POS in churches does not promote efficiency and accountability

H1:the use of POS in churches promotes efficiency and accountability

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. Findings from this study will educate church authorities and executives and the general public in Nigeria on how they can key in to the CBN cashless policy to promote efficiency in the churches.
  2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

This study will cover the existing payment structures in churches with comparison to the modern payment system of POS considering the benefits of POS in the collection of offering and donations in churches.

Limitations of study

  1. Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  2. Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

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IMPACT OF POS BANKING ON CHURCHES ( A CASE STUDY OF HOUSE ON THE ROCK CHURCH, UYO)

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The high level of moral decadence and insurgencies in Nigerian nation is an indication that there is poor religious teaching in secondary school system. Christian religious studies (CRS) as one of the religious subjects taught in secondary school in Nigerian takes a central position in ensuring moral and spiritual well being of individuals in the society. The key roles of CRS in equipping the individuals and ensuring high level of morality is made clear in the objectives of CRS at the senior secondary level which include; to provide more opportunities for Nigerian youths to learn more about god and thereby develop their faith in god; to enable the youths to accept Christ as their savior; to help the youths develop Christian attitude and moral values (such as humility, respect, love, and justice, etc); to instill in the youth the spirit of tolerance , reconciliation ,peaceful co existence and non-violence as well as to develop and foster in the youth the spirit of respect for all people and human life (Universal Basic Education Curriculum (UBA), 2013).

Without effective religious studies Nigerian nation will likely to end up in conflict, religious crisis, insurgencies and social unrest among other things. This is because religious control human actions in both social, political, economical and otherwise (Eluu, 2009). The teaching of CRS dates back to the 19th century with the pioneers of Nigerian education (Banjo, 2003). During the missionary administration because of the moral values it teaches the people. Following the government takeover of schools, Nigerian, secondary school curriculum was reviewed and more emphasis was placed on the studies of science and technological subjects. This shift affected the study and interest of students in CRS in school system leading to poor enrollment in CRS. Gbenda (2004) stresses that student’s enrollment and interest in CRS could as well be as of result of inadequate provision of teaching aids, fewer professional teachers and lack of incentives among other things. Njoku (2009) equally adduced that poor enrollment of student in CRS could be attributed to teacher’s instructional delivery system and teachers’ personality. CRS is taught in all the senior secondary schools in Nigerian as an elective subject. The elective nature of the subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria equally reduced the number of students that register for the subject in West African examination council (WAEC) and national examination council (NECO) as well as other internal examination. CRS is a subject that bases its teaching on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ (Ugwu, 2001) as a teaching subject, it is not only geared towards converting people to Christianity, but is necessary for value formation, orientation and reorientation of value system as well as spiritual up liftment of the student. Ali and Akubue in Njoku (2009) observed that, CRS is a subject which aims at developing and fostering in the lives of the students Christian attitudes and values such as respect to life, obedience to constitutional authority, responsible self, selfless series to God and humanity. To them, CRS is seen as an academic discipline that is designed to provide the leaner with moral and spiritual transformation. This shows that CRS is the study of Christian lifestyles such as love, caring, patience, faith, forgiveness and hope in God as well as good relationship among men. Obanya in Njoku (2004) maintained that CRS like every other subjects has five features. These features are; a set of rational theoretical formulation, inherent capacity for growth, applicable solution to human problems, organized Body of the knowledge and a degree of uniformity with other area of academic activities. In the context of this study, CRS is defined as a social science subject that teaches students good moral behaviour, fearing of God, knowledge and skills that will make them to contribute their quota in socio-economic and moral development in senior secondary schools. The inclusion of sound religions and moral values in the life of students invariably could help in the development of spiritual and moral sound being of the students. These important values attached to the study of CRS in schools cannot be achieved if teachers do not utilized effective teaching method that appeals to all the senses of students in leaning situations.

Following the shift in the study of CRS, motivation started dwindling, and interest in the subject dropped Arinze (1982:28) observed that the teaching of the subject witnessed slackening of control by principals /head teachers, difficulty of training and assigning teachers, placing the subject in the school timetable, teachers’ lack of commitment and other defects such as students’ dishonesty, examination malpractices and disrespect to mention but a few. In support of the above assertion, Ndarwa (2007) maintained that pupils nowadays are groomed to be intellectual giants in science and technology with little or no interest in the moral growth, this he referred to as spiritually dwarfism. Ndarwa maintained that when the children /pupils grow older, they may create an avenue to close the spiritual vacuum. Some of the pupils may join secret cults to perpetuate evil in diverse forms.

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PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ABA SOUTH LGA

PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The issue of moral decadent in our society is a thing that is needed to be looked into. Many things have gone wrong, since no one sees the reason to be upright in action at all times, in all places and in all circumstances. The continuing degeneration of personal virtue among the world’s societies seems to be emerging as the single-most urgent issue of our time. Until recent years, churches had since deferred from their original roles in morality, though many outside the church continued political pressure to move churches either towards or away from a value oriented. This posse’s questions and ideas about the appropriate approach to learning of morality in the society today. (Oviawe, 2012). Oviawe, (2012) opined that moral and morale are polite, decent and appropriate way of portraying ourselves in our duties, home and society. It is a socially acceptable manner of life. It can also be referred to as the principle of right and wrong or decorum. Our parents and ancestors practices moral and morale to the core and had h9igh regards of them. They also handed them to us with diligence. At that time they paid particular attention to the manner of sitting, walking, talking, greeting, eating, principle of right and wrong, discipline and commitment in everything they did and the way they did it. They were conscientious about their duties, keeping to the rules and regulations related to them. They saw this as maintaining their own dignity and respect for themselves and others. They made sure that everybody was well brought up. BERKOWITZ, MARVIN W., and OSER, FRITZ, eds. (1985) opined that in the past our society had a high sense of respect, determination and diligence to work. Today the sense of awe, respect, determination, and diligence to work is gradually fading away. This they say is obvious in the way people do things carelessly. We are all aware of how much our society is bereaved of morality this day. There is no doubt that things are falling apart many people behave as if there is no need for decency and diligence for things that matter. Thee is an increase in moral, social and cultural decadence. Children seem to be losing their innocence. As a result so many young people and even children tend to become slaves to fashions and modern things that destroys them. They parade themselves with arrogance, cultism, vandalism, and great lack of morals. The youths and children are now like sheep without a shepherd. They can no longer concentrate or remain focused.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Everyone wants to be successful, everyone wants to be healthy, happy and rich, but most people are not willing to pay the price. Occasionally, they may be willing to pay part of the price, but they are not willing to pay the whole price. They always have some excuses or rationalizations to not discipline themselves to do everything that they need to do to achieve their goal.
The problem in our society today is the high moral decadence in the society, as the churches, parents and tutors etc have failed in their role of moral education. Hence this study intends to investigate the proliferation of churches in Nigeria and increase in moral decadence in the society.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which moral decadence have eaten deep into our Nigeria society today. And to proffer some solutions on how the problems of moral decadence can be reduced.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does lack of moral education a cause of moral decadence?
2. Does lack of parental care a cause of moral decadence?
3. Does discipline in churches a means of eradicating moral decadence?
4. Is high rate of divorce in Nigeria a cause of moral decadence?
5. Does truancy in school a cause of moral decadence?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Lack of parental care has no significant effect on the moral decadence in Nigeria
H1: Lack of parental care has significant effect on the moral decadence in Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research is important because it teaches us the relationship between church and morality. It will serve as a documents that can be referred to in order to clear some doubt about the issue of moral decadence.
It will serve as documents that will enlighten the Christian leaders on the need to embark on teaching of morality in churches.
Finally, the study will also enlighten the public on the causes of moral decadence and how to find a lasting solutions to such a problem.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is designed to investigate into the proliferation of church in Nigeria and increase in moral decadence in the society. The study is restricted to the Nigeria society

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Christianity: Religion: Church: Belief: Value

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PROLIFERATION OF CHURCHES IN NIGERIA AND INCREASE IN MORAL DECADENCE IN THE SOCIETY

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

ABSTRACT

Nigeria is a multi – ethnic country which means that, there are diversified interests of individual due to differences in tribes, culture and religion. It is hard for each individual with a religious consciousness to respect the interest of the other since the other might force such interest on the former. However, religious conflict was never known in history, since each country is still battling with it. Hence, killings and destruction of lives and properties are still on- going. We therefore need to find a solution to it in all the ramifications, either politically, socially, religiously or economically in as much as the society is based on all these factors. This work will be carried out using analytic and descriptive method and recommends that human life and sanctity of life should be respected, each religion should value and respect human life because lives are precious and should not be taken by anyone.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL

INTRODUCTION

  • Introduction

1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Aims and objective

1.4 Scope and limitation

1.5 Research methodology

1.6 Definition of terms

1.7 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Literature review

2.2 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER THREE:

RELIGIOUS CONFLICT IN NIGERIA

3.0 Introduction

3.1 Religious conflicts in General

3.2 Religious conflict in Nigeria

3.3 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER FOUR:

TOWARDS A SOLUTION

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Religious conflict in Nigeria and its solution

4.2 Conclusion

End notes

CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendation

5.3 Conclusion

Bibliography

 

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

 1.0     Introduction 

Many will attest to it that the Jos crisis vividly exemplifies or by locus classicus describes a rancorous experience against religious intolerance. In a nation bound with vast geographic and vast ethnic and religious differences, these religious differences aid conflict which is a basis for showing religious biases and prejudices with the adherents being too fundamentalistic and extremistic in nature.

Naturally, the psycho-social description of man shows him as genetically selfish, fighting for his own interest alone. However, this does not necessarily explain or construe the religious nature of man. With various descriptions of the religious nature of man especially Africans, Mbiti have described him as ‘notoriously religious’.1 Maybe this can adequately give a hypothesis for action that is behind religious conflict in Nigeria. But how rational or how plausible is it for two notable religions to fight against each other, killing and giving a psychological aftermath or psycho-negative effect since God can neither be described as a Christian nor a Muslim?

However, the underlying principle for religious conflict is not purely religious but also political as we have seen in the last six years with the encounter with the Islamic fundamentalist known as Boko Haram.  The episodes of mass killing structured or engineered by this extremism is enormous. However, all written above has not defined what religious conflict is but has only given us an introduction to what the researcher tends to discuss.

1.1       Background to the study

The quest to understand what religious conflict is starts from the breaking down of the two separately from the basis for a rational clarification. But we must understand that the basis for a religious conflict is one to different ideologies, beliefs, values etc. The social network coordinated by belief system is so strong that as it can make heal, so it can be used to champion a cause of war or struggle. This was what Dawkins tried to explain when he elucidated that,

Imagine … a world with no religion. Imagine no suicide bomber, no 9/11, no 7/7, no crusades, no witch-hunts, no gunpowder plot, no Indian partition, no Israeli/Palestinian wars, no serb/croat/muslim massacres, no persecution of Jews as Christ-killers’…2

In defining religion, Dawkins noted that it is a false, a delusion similar to scotosis or insanity. He said, ‘when one person suffers from a delusion, it is called insanity, when many suffer from a delusion it is called religion’.3 But is religion truly a delusion? If it is, then what do we mean by delusion? ‘It is a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence, especially as a symptom of psychiatric disorder’.4 However, what is important to note here, is that it is the belief in religion that serves as the mechanism engineering the prominent attacks against the other religion. But is belief the only thing embedded in religion? According to Wood,

For a group or philosophy to be protected as a religion under current human right legislation in the United Kingdom, it must be able to demonstrate a combination of (a) belief and/or conviction, (b) practice and/or ethics, and (c) a sense of belonging or community. Belief and practice are separated in this definition, and the element of belonging in interesting because it recognizes the role of social relationship is religion.5

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RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN YOLA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Teaching is an important part of the process of education. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skill (Aggarwal, 1995). Teaching and learning are opposite sides of the same coin; a lesson is not learned until it has been taught. Teaching,therefore, should be thought of as a process that facilitates learning. One of the main objectives

of the secondary school 8-4-4 system in Kenya is to prepare students for self-reliance, training and further education. The Christian Religious Education curriculum is broad-based and is built upon the concepts, principles and skills established through the integrated relationship with

other subjects and the learners’ environment (Kenya Institute of Education [KIE], now Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development [KICD], 2000).

Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God (KIE, 2000). One of the objectives of Christian Religious Education in Kenya is to help learners acquire social, spiritual and moral insights to help them make appropriate moral decisions in a rapidly changing society (KIE, 2000), yet observations of CRE students indicate that this objective is not being achieved. This could beat tributed to the way the subject is taught. Like any other subject, CRE needs to be taught by use of audiovisual resources and the right methods for students to understand and for the subject to be relevant to their lives.

The Wangai Committee (2001) tasked with investigating student discipline and unrest in secondary schools acknowledges that the decay in moral values and norms of the society to a great extent influence the behaviour and character of students. Despite acknowledging moral decay, the Wangai Committee (2001) never investigated whether or not CRE as a subject is achieving its intended purpose of inculcating moral values in learners. The Committee also never looked at an instructional approach that would help more effectively impart skills,knowledge and attitude to students which would help them during and after school life.Because of the development of modern technology, teachers no longer have to rely solely on mere lectures to deliver their teaching content. There is a great variety of materials that can be used to make meanings more vivid and more interesting. These materials are often referred toas instructional aids; devices used to supplement or complement the teachers’ task. Like any

other subject, CRE content can be made clearer, more interesting and relevant if audio visual media are used in teaching.Aggarwal (1995), citing a research done by Cobun (1968), indicates that more is learnt and retained when audiovisual media are used during teaching. If CRE was taught by use of audiovisual media, the students would understand and retain more of what they would have learnt and this is likely to have a positive moral impact in their lives. Based on research done in 1969 by Chiba Prefectural Education Centre in Japan, Bishop (1986) observes that there are considerable educational advantages with the application of educational technology in primary and lower secondary schools. If CRE was taught by use of modern technology students would gain more than if it was taught by verbal communication only.

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THE STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

ABSTRACT

The main aim of the research is to determine if the difference in belief is the major cause of church division, the study made use of primary data from the information obtained from the distribution of research questionnaire. The study made use of a total population of 100. The sample of 40 was considered for the study, the data hypothesis was analyzed using the chi-square method. The study concluded that the difference in belief is the major cause of church division. Proper recommendations were made to assist the Pentecostal churches, the catholic churches and its member on the factors responsible for the divisions in the churches.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

        1.1   Background of study

1.2   Statement of problems

1.3   Objectives of Research

1.4   Scope and limitations

1.5   Research questions

1.6   Significance of study

  • Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Introduction

2.1.1 Establishment, Growth and Development of Churches

2.1.2 Theological teachings of Churches on Church unity

2.1.3 Factors that Cause Divisions in Churches

2.1.4 Effects of divisions on Churches

2.2 Conceptual framework

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Introduction

3.1   research design

3.2   population of study

3.3   sample size/sample technique

3.4   research instrument:

3.5   validity and reliability of instrument

3.6   sources of data collection

3.7   method/techniques of data analysis

3.8   limitations of the methodology

CHAPTER FOUR

        Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1   Introduction

4.2   Data Analysis

  • Test of Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

        5.1   Findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

5.5   References

  • Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the study

The will of God for us is that we are united, that is why Jesus prayed in John 17 that his disciples would have unity. He prayed in verses 20-23, “I do not ask on behalf of these alone, but for those alsowho believe in Me through their word; that they may all be one; even as You, Father,are in Me and I in You, that they also may be in Us, so that the world may believethat You sent Me. The glory which You have given Me I have given to them, thatthey may be one, just as We are one; I in them and You in Me, that they may beperfected in unity, so that the world may know that You sent Me, and loved them,even as You have loved Me”.

This prayer he madedid not just focus on the eleven remaining disciples but alsoto those who would reach discipleship through their ministry(Britney; 1994). The Bible lets us know that Christ Jesus is crediting his disciples with the numbers that will beproduced. Theprimary concern Jesus expresses at this time of his impending death is the issue ofunity among the disciples as their unity will most definitely be a vital prerequisite fortheir subsequent mission (Jessica; 2004:497).Disunity and division are threatsfound among the members of the Body especially as the Church increases and grows in numbers. As Christ is definitely supplicating theFather with references to God and himself, it is clear the unity herein described ismore transcendent than that of “simply human fellowship or the harmonious interaction of Christians” (Ebere; 1970). The external expression of this unity is to be the evangel of the Church to the world, which attests to the sending of Christ by the Father.

In 1 Corinthians 1:10 he exhorts, “Now I exhort you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the same mind and in the same judgment”, here Paul states this directive and takes a hard stand against division and factions in the Church Body, in light of both personal division and in light of doctrine. Unfortunately, Paul himself falls victim to one of these chasms of opinion in his relationship with Barnabas. Paul’s terminology to address doctrinal differences (1 Corinthians 11:19 and Galatians 5:20) is haireseis, denoting a difference of sound doctrine, even to the point of being an unjustified group (Accordance 2010). Just prior to the prayer in John 17 Jesus had established the institution of the Lord’s Supper in light of the Passover celebration, an institution given in great part to exhibit and foster unity with the Godhead, and unity as members of the Body of Christ. Paul affirms in 1 Corinthians 10:16, that the pinnacle of this desired oneness of communion, or church is displayed materially in the act of the Lord’s Supper, as it is a “sharing” in the blood and the Body of Christ. Mounce holds that the term church conveys the idea of fellowship, communion, participation and sharing (Mounce 2006:127, 247). Paul subsequently uses the term only in a religious sense rather than a secular one to denote something greater than a society, to denote a fellowship of a higher level; he as well uses this term to express a “religious fellowship (participation) of the believer in Christ and Christian blessings for the mutual fellowship of believers” (Hauck 1983:804). 1 John 1:3 and 2 Corinthians 13:14 affirm that church is also held with the Father, Son and Holy Spirit in addition to the communion of the saints, it is the Holy Spirit alone however, who brings believers into this fellowship (Prime 2008:105).

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THE BIBLICAL EXAMINATION OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DIVISIONS IN THE CHURCHES(A CASE STUDY OF MINNA DISTRICT)

THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN   RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

ABSTRACT

This study is an examination of the language of Christian religion with particular reference to the Roman Catholic Church and Pentecostal denominations. Chapter one embodies the introduction to the study, the objective of the work, its scope and delimitation, a brief origin of Christian religion, and that of the two denominations. Chapter two is a brief review of the related literature. Chapter three brings out the features of the language of Christian religion; the lexical, grammatical, metaphorical, typographical and graphological features. Chapter four is a further analysis of the sermons, rituals, liturgies and sacred text of the two denominations. The final chapter includes a comparative summary analysis of the two denominations, a brief conclusion of the work and recommendation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page——————————————————————————————- i
Approval Page ———————————————————————————— ii
Dedication —————————————————————————————– iii
Acknowledgment ——————————————————————————— v
Abstract ——————————————————————————————– vi
Table of Contents ——————————————————————————– vii
Definition of Terms——————————————————————————-viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction ———————————————————————————– 1
1.1 Background of the Study ——————————————————————– 3
1.2 Statement of Research Problem ———————————————————— 7
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study ————————————————————7
1.4 Significance of the Study———————————————————————7
1.5 Scope and Delimitation ———————————————————————–8
1.6 Research Methodology ———————————————————————–8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Review of Related Literature—————————————————————-10
2.1 Sources of Literature ————————————————————————–10
2.2 Review of the of Language of Christian Religion—————————————-14

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Features of Language of Christian Religion ———————————————–17
3.1 Grammar of the Langue of Christian Religion———————————————18
3.2 Lexis of the language of Christian Religion ———————————————–20
3.3 Metaphorical Language of Christian Religion———————————————22
3.4 Typographical Features of Language of Christian Religion—————————–23
3.5 Graphlogical Features of Language of Christian Religion——————————–24

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Liturgies of the language of Roman Catholic Church ———————————–25
4.2 Sermon of the Roman Catholic Church —————————————————-27
4.3 The Sacred Test of Roman Catholic Church ———————————————-31
4.4 The Sermon of Pentecostal Denominations ———————————————–35
4.5 Sacred Text of Pentecostal Denominations ————————————————37

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Comparative Summary————————————————————————40
5.2 Conclusion ————————————————————————————–41
5.3 Recommendation ——————————————————————————43
Works Cited ——————————————————————————–43
Appendices ———————————————————————————46

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SERMON: It is a moral statement whose aim is to dictate a certain kind of behaviors through series of examples.

LITURGIES: It can be invocations, petitions and they can be written to be read or sung.

THEOLOGICAL TEST: It is a discursive document with a moral purpose written by a biblical scholar, theologians or clergy

RITUALS: It is a specific ceremony to mark baptisms and funerals.

OMNIPOTENT: Having total power, able to do something.

SUPERNATURAL: Events forces or powers that cannot be explained by he laws of science and seem to involve gods or magic.

BENEDICTIONS: A blessing pronounced at the end of church service.

CARNALITY: A state of being unspiritual.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The major objective of language is communication but the manner in which language communicates appears to be interlinked with individual experiences in terms of linguistic attitude, cultural influences and personal perception. Register is a term that is used to describe variations in language according to use. For instance, Thorne says that lawyers use a legal register, doctors a medical register and the priests a religious register ( 95).
The language of Christian religion will be examined by analysing the spoken and written forms of the language of Roman Catholic Church and the selected Pentecostal denominations. Christian religion is the most widely distributed of the world religions. In the 1990s its total membership exceeded up to 1.9 billion people (Probert Microsoft Encarta).There are other systems of beliefs and values such as Platonism, Marxism, Freudianism or Democracy. Christianity is in many ways comprehensible only to those who share its benefits and strive to live by its values.
Wilken points out that Jerusalem is the center of Christian religion, at least until its destruction by the Roman armies in A.D 70. From it Christianity radiated to other cities and towns in Palestine and beyond. At first, its approval was large although it was not completely confined to the adherents of Judaism to which it was presented as new but not a brand new religion (820).

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THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN   RELIGION A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SOME SELECTED PENTECOSTAL DENOMINATIONS

THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There are many problems that weigh on the life of man and very often man goes in search of the truth that lies behind these problems. Traditionally, faith and reason have been considered to be sources of justification for religious belief. Because both purportedly serve this same epistemic function, it has been a matter of much interest to philosophers and theologians how the two are related and thus how the rational agent should treat claims derived from either source.

Some have held that there can be no conflict between the two- that reason properly employed and faith properly understood will never produce competing claims, where others have maintained that faith and reason can (or even must) be in genuine contention over certain propositions or methodologies. Those who have taken the latter view disagree as to whether faith or reason ought to prevail when the two are in conflict. Kierkegaard for instance, prioritizes faith even to the point that it becomes positively irrational, while Locke emphasizes the reasonableness of faith to such an extent that a religious doctrine’s irrationality- conflict with itself or with known facts- is a sign that it is unsound. Other thinkers have theorized that faith and reason can govern their own separate domains, such that cases of apparent conflict are resolved on the side of faith when the claim in question is, say, a religious or theological claim, but resolved on the side of reason when the disputed claim is, for example, empirical or logical. Some relatively recent philosophers, most notably the logical positivists, have denied that there is a domain of thought or human existence rightly governed by faith, asserting instead that all meaningful statements and ideas are accessible to thorough rational examination. This has presented a challenge to religious thinkers to explain how an admittedly non-rational or translational form of language can hold meaningful cognitive content. It is based on these that the philosophy of Saint Augustine of Hippo has become a veritable ground to attempt to quench this controversy and problem of faith and reason. Faith and reason are like two wings on which the spirit rises to the contemplation of truth. There is no incompatibility between the two, but rather an ultimate harmony. Faith is not opposed to reason; rather it requires the full development of reason. And reason itself requires faith in order to strengthen and guide it.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The key philosophical issue regarding the problem of faith and reason is to work out how the authority of faith and the authority of reason interrelate in the process by which a religious belief is justified or established as true. The questions raised are: How shall we Christians deal with apparent conflicts between faith and reason, between teaching of the bible and the teachings of science? As a special case, how shall we deal with apparent conflicts between what the Bible initially seems to tell us about the origin and development of life, and what contemporary science seems to tell us about it? We have two principles in operation, reason on the one side, and faith leaning on authority on the other; and if the one should be at discord with the other, how are the respective claims of each to be settled? Throughout this work the principle is affirmed and reaffirmed that faith and reason are really complementary, and neither should be sacrificed for the other.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this work is to expose the nature and roles of faith and reason in our lives, how they influence and have need of one another in the attainment of truth. Also it is aimed at bringing faith and reason within the grasp of many lay readers. And it is expected that at the end of this paper that Christians will take delight in understanding and contemplating that which they believe, and that they might be prepared to give satisfactory answers to those who ask them for the reason for that hope which lies within them.

 1.4 METHOD OF THE STUDY

The researcher adopted the phenomenological method: critical exposition and textual analysis of relevant materials. Both books written by Saint Augustine and works written by various scholars that have proven to be of great relevance to the given literature, and then commentaries, articles, encyclopedia and other richly endowed documentaries and publications, library were used.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research centers on the philosophy of Saint Augustine of Hippo, with special focus on the interdependence or philosophical relationship that lies between faith and reason in the attainment of truth and how the two are to be treated in our lives.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

What do I care about knowledge? What can a Christian and a non- Christian gain from this work? Is it of any usefulness to human life and salvation? Yes. This work is written for the general reader who wants to know more about these questions: Is Christian belief rational?  What is the best way of helping other people see the reasonableness of Christian faith? Can faith and reason still be thought as incompatible? Can a man of faith be a man of reason as well? Does reason confuse and lead the man of faith into unbelief? Can faith still be viewed as an arbitrary influence upon human intellect? This work can serve as a useful tool to them who lacking conscience attack God with pure reason, also to enquirers of rationalism and revelation. It will also strive to correct the notion of the layman, scientists, psychologists, religious fanatics and Christian believers. It intensifies the need for every faith to be based on reason and every reason to be likewise based on faith. This is because, as faith is the logical foundation for all reasoning, so also, reason is a necessary condition for a well meaning and grounded faith.

 END NOTES

  1. Platinga Alvin, When Faith and Reason Clash: Evolution and Bible (University of Notre Dame- Christian scholars’ Review XXI: 1, September 1991) 1.
  2. Donald A. Crosby, Faith and Reason: Their Roles in Religious and Secular Life (New York: State University of New York Press, 2011) X.
  3. Mircea Eliade (ed), the Encyclopedia of Religion (Macmilan and Free Press, 1987) Vol. 1 (520- 526).
  4. “Faith and reason,” Internet encyclopedia of philosophy (IEP).
  5. George Galloway, Faith and Reason in Religion (London: Nisbet & Co. Ltd., 1927) 9- 17.
  6. John E. Fagan, Fides et Ratio (Faith and Reason), from the Teachings of Pope John Paul II: Summaries of Papal Documents (New York: Scepter Publishers, 2005) 64- 71.
  7. John Paul II, “Chapter VI: Encyclical Letter, Fides et Ratio of the Supreme Pontiff to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Relationship Between Faith and Reason”.
  8. Dick Sztanyo, Faith and Reason (Apologetics Press Inc., 1996) 1.

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Faith, in probably the best known definition of it, is “the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.”1 It is belief in what has neither been seen nor experienced. On the other hand, reason is the human faculty (or practice of) seeing, forming, and investigating cognitive relations. The use of the term ranges from its application to more or less routine calculation to a supposed means for directly apprehending the ultimate nature of things.2 Much has been written on faith and reason, and their relation has been the subject of many controversies. While the position of this work stems from the philosophy of St. Augustine, on the unity and complementary relation of the twin concept of faithful reason and rational faith, for the ordinary rationalist reason is the sure light. In this spirit Clifford wrote: “it is always wrong to believe anything on insufficient evidence.”3 We must therefore back up our convictions and provide support, justification for our religious beliefs instead of merely asserting them.

In theology, as a rule, the disposition has been to shut any violent antithesis between faith and reason. By the acceptance of the reality and Divine Revelation the Christian theologian presupposes that the religious man has to recognize truths which he could not have reached by his own unaided powers. They must therefore be received in faith. On the other hand, he is not inclined to say that those truths, being divine, are irrational: he rather regards them as supra-rational, beyond what reason can explicate here and now. In other words, religion is justified by reason to a point, but it’s deeper and more mysterious truths are apprehended by faith alone.4 But should anything “be received as a divine doctrine and revelation without good evidence that it is so; that is, without a good argument sufficient to satisfy a prudent and considerable man?”5

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THE NATURE AND ROLE OF FAITH AND REASON IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is basically targeted at producing sensible, reasonable, refined and responsible being or a group of people either for an individual or group development of either his/her self or the society. All over the world, education has been discovered and accepted as the bedrock of all-round developments of both human beings and their society. United Nations Organization emphasizes the need to train every child in the world. Africa, being one of the seventh continents in the world is trying her best despite the facts that she has a lot of challenges everywhere.While Nigeria with the population of about 170 million people knowing the importance of education, has been running free education in some parts of the country for a very long time (Ajodo, 2013). When the country, had regional governments, the western Region, then governed by the late sage Chief Obafemi Awolowo, as the premier, ran free education. Some states still run it till date. There have been clear dichotomy between missionary owned/ran/governed/managed schools and the non-missionary owned schools. A Church-sponsored school has been mainly identified as moral, religion, intelligent, discipline etc aspects (Jaiye & Alaga, 2005). However, this study is examining the impact of church administration on effective management of church-sponsored school with focus on the Convenant University, Ota.

In Nigeria, there are Federal, States and privately owned universities. For example, the first university in Nigeria, University of Ibadan was established in 1948 by the colonial master. She was recently ranked as the best university, in the country, followed by University of Lagos, University of Ilorin,Covenant university and others. The first three are Federal Government owned Universities, while the other and the fourth one, happens to be Covenant university, that is owned by a church/ religion leader.

It is believed by most people, that the involvement of church leaders in the establishment of universities is basically to assist in the upbringing of upright children who will be morally fit to live their lives and govern the society well; help to reduce the observed long queue of students seeking admission, enforcement of merit in the course of offering admission/employment of personnel, considerable/moderate/affordable school fees etc simply because the best hands in all the professional and non -professional careers that the country had had till date have been products of missionaries schools.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In Nigeria, Federal, States and Privately owned institutions have some basic common problems among them, namely: lack of fear/believe in God, Poor funding, inadequate staff and facilities (glorified secondary schools), discrimination in the offering of employment of staff and admission to students,living condition, labour organization, working condition, wage level, opportunity for further education, deviation from the norms of those days missionaries established and ownership of schools. Some church owned schools in Nigeria has out-performed some government owned schools in an excellent manner. This has increased the awareness and patronage for church-sponsored schools in Nigeria. In the light of this, the researcher will examine the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To determine the prevalence of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools.
  3. To examine the administrative performance of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the prevalence of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of church administration on the effective management of church-sponsored schools?
  3. What is the administrative performance of church-sponsored schools in Nigeria?

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IMPACT OF CHURCH ADMINISTRATION ON EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHURCH SPONSORED SCHOOLS (A case study of Covenant University, Ota)

EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

Education is a conscious and purposeful effort directed towards the transmission of accumulated abilities, knowledge and attitudes from one generation to the other with ultimate intension of producing men and women who will be relevant and useful to themselves and the society. Education is a process by which individuals are assisted formally through proper direction and guidance to develop their capacities for their own benefits and that of the society (Okeke, 2003). Hence education positively changes the behaviour patterns of the citizens. Education is the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imparted, faculties trained and skills developed (Farrant 1980) especially formal education. Formal Education came into Nigeria with the arrival of missionaries. The missionaries trained personnel for evangelization and teaching catechism in addition to other religious doctrines in the church. According to Akuyimu (1991) this continued till the 19th century when formal institutions for the training of teachers were established in the country. Teacher education came into existence in 1959 by the Ashby commission. One major event in the development of teacher Education in Nigeria was the publication and subsequent implementation of the Ashby commission report. The commission observed that there was a gravely inadequate supply of trained and educated 2 teachers in Nigerian secondary grammar schools even when there was an increase in demand for more secondary grammar schools. The commission recommends the following; the opening of more universities; the institution of a Bachelor s Degree in Education B. A (Ed),  B.Sc (Ed) or B. Ed;  the training of more teachers for the nations secondary schools.

Following the recommendation, two schemes of Teacher Education were introduced. One of these schemes was teacher certification programme which was established with the assistance of UNESCO. In 1962 the federal and the then Regional governments established Advanced Teacher Training Colleges (ATT) which was later changed to Colleges of Education (COE). The objectives of colleges of Education were to train teachers in various teaching subjects and methods to enable them teach in both primary and junior secondary schools. Later the National policy on education was first published in 1977 as a result of the 1969 National curriculum conference. The conference was a culmination of expression of general dissatisfaction with the existing education system which had become irrelevant to national needs and aspirations and goals. The objectives of colleges of education include the followings to:

  • produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of educational system.
  • encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers
  • help teaches to fit into the social life of the community and society and enhance their commitment to national objectives provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world.
  • enhance teacher s commitment to the teaching profession (NCCE, 2012).

In line with these objectives students are trained to acquire the knowledge and skills needed because teacher education programme provides a framework in which students acquire potent knowledge about the subject matter.

Teacher education programme is the strategic optional system, for preparing and graduating teachers with the framework of an operative institutional or public policy on education, and in pursuit of the educational goals (Osah Ogulu 2000). According to Shuaibu (2006) the role teacher education programme plays in the educational system are as follows:

  • Preserves the system by selecting what to teach.
  • Evaluative of not only what is learnt but what has been considered worthwhile and how these have been taught.
  • Generative as the programme predicts the future and work out the skills and attitudes required to study.
  • Maintenance as the programme creates opportunity for retracing through in-service resulting to expansion of the education system.

Teacher education therefore is the training of individuals to equip them with necessary competencies and skills in a given subject area that will enable them teach same to students in schools

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Christian religious study is one of the subjects mounted in colleges of education to meet the need of the learner and society. Considering its role in social and ethical development of any individual and society it is one of popular religious subject to so many students. Even though various instructional techniques have been adopted by teachers to improve student’s achievement in Christian religious study, very little impact in terms of improvement has been achieved. There are still persistent reports of the rate of mass failure in Christian religious study at the junior secondary school level and in examination conducted by testing bodies in Nigeria such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). These persistent reports of failure in Christian religious study have raised serious issue on the manpower produced by colleges of education who in turn are expected to lay a solid foundation for the pupil/students at the primary/junior secondary school. It is therefore pertinent to evaluation Christian religious study Education programme. An evaluation of Christian religious study education programme need to be focused on student s performance, availability/ adequacy of facilities, staff, instructional material in addition to the teaching methods adopted, admission requirements and its compliance to NCCE minimum standard. Programme evaluation of this nature is useful for programme improvement, decision- making, personnel 9 accountability and availability of facilities. Therefore the problem of the study is to determine to what extent the objectives of Christian religious study education programme in college of education in south geopolitical zone of Nigeria have been achieved.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to evaluate Christian religious study Education programmes of colleges of Education in South East Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Determine the extent to which the objectives of CRS Education Programme of colleges of education are achieved by state and federal colleges.
  2. Determine the number admitted by state and federal colleges of education using admission requirement specified by the NCCE minimum standard.
  3. Determine the number and qualification of staff for the implementation of the CRS education programme objectives as stipulated in the minimum standard by state and federal colleges of education.
  4. Determine the availability and adequacy of instructional materials facilities and equipment for effective teaching of CRS in state and federal colleges of education.
  5. Determine the extent state and federal colleges of education adhere to the stipulated instructional methods for teaching CRS education at NCE level.
  6. Determine classes of certificate NCE graduates of CRS education obtain in state and federal colleges of education.

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EVALUATION OF CRS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ENUGU STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION(TECHNICAL

CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

The Christian Religious Education has emerged as a subject of prime importance in Nigerian schools. Its value in the school curriculum is unique among other subjects. The teaching of Christian Religious Knowledge in Primary schools in Nigeria can be dated back to the first half of the nineteenth-century when the Christian missionaries established the first school in Badagry in 1842. This form of education spread to the North in the early 19th century and CRK was taught in the schools. At the early period, proprietors of schools were the Christian missionaries (Methodist, Church Missionary Society (CMS), and Roman Catholic who considered CRK as an important subject to be taught in schools. Since then, Christian Religious education has occupied a prominent position in Nigerian school curriculum till date. The view was asserted by Onovughe 2008. In recognition of the value attached to the subject the subject was not only offered in the primary school alone but also in all levels of institution in Nigeria. Religious training and moral instruction was considered as fundamental to the development of sound education. The essence of teaching Christian religious education includes academic, moral; civil and spiritual objectives. In Christian religious education it is obvious that pupils are taught the way of life. Thus the teaching of the subject instils discipline and obedience in the products. The study of CRK will enable pupils to learn the tenets of the faith and to live a life that is that is pleasing to God. CRK therefore is aimed at producing (training) persons who will be fit or equipped for religious and social responsibility. Thus the focus of CRK curriculum among other things is for pupil’s moral training and academic pursuance. From the above observations, it is understood that Christian Religious Education is not only a subject to learn, but also a way of life, but what is not clear, is whether the teaching of this subject has made any meaningful impact on the students who learn it and on the Nigerian society as a whole. Moreover it can be seen that there is little relationship between what is learned in C.R.K classes and the C.R.K. graduates’ lives at home, as now one hears of so much evil, indiscipline and moral decadence in Nigerian society. C. M. 2000 lament on the Moral decadence in our institution as a result of religious Education. A look at Christian religious examination as if the Objective in the subject are of shows that these objectives are not achieved. Parents are misguided with the belief that any teacher can teach CRK, the authority concerned does not bother to recruit qualified CRK teachers. The pupils too were misguided with the assumption that CRK is simple to pass since they are Christians and can read Bible. This has adverse effect on Religious in Nigeria. This is mostly the practice in Primary and Secondary. This is why pupils will be non chalet. The goal of teaching CRK as a subject in our schools is to develop the morals of the individuals and the society as a whole. In other words, the aim of teaching CRK in Nigerian schools is to develop the pupil’s character and moral training which will enable them to have sound attitude. In Nigerian society, many parents and educationists have aired their views on the respect for moral decadence of their Children. This has made some parents to doubt the credibility of CRK in the Primary school’s curriculum as an agent of moral-upbringing. It is in the light of this, that the author attempts to find what could have been the problems of implementing the curriculum.

 

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CONSTRAINT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN SCHOOL

CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study examine Christian participation in politics: amoral concern in contemporary Nigeria, the study has the following objectives,To examine the level of Christian participation in politics considering the moral concerns in contemporary Nigeria, To examine the factors limiting Christian participation in politics in Nigeria, To determine the prospects of Christians active participation in politics in Nigeria.

Concerning methodology for this study, data was obtained from primary source that is questionnaire. The data to be obtained out there in the field shall be presented in a tabular form and analyzed through the use of a simple percentage table to enhance quick and easy understanding of the respondents’ responses or opinion the topic being researched on. The statistical took employed to test the hypotheses of the study is the regression and chi-squared. The sample size of this study consists of thirty-two (32) respondents. This research work adopted the convenience sampling technique in selecting the respondents from the total population. A total sample size of two hundred and forty (200) respondents was selected from the research population using the convenient sampling method.

The study has the following findings; to examine the level of Christian participation in politics considering the moral concerns in contemporary Nigeria. To examine the factors limiting Christian participation in politics in Nigeria and to determine the prospects of Christians active participation in politics in Nigeria.

This research will educate the general public on the level of participation of Christians in Nigerian politics and will also enlighten on how the teachings of Christianity can be used as a tool for national development through eradication of corruption and other social vices.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.2    Statement of General Problem   –        –        –        –

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Hypothesis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –        –        –

1.6    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

  • CONCEPTUAL ISSUES –        –        –        –        –
    • POLITICS IN THE CIRCULAR – –        –        –

2.2.4 THE VARIETIES OF POLITICAL EXPERIENCE         –

2.5 POLITICS IN RELIGION       –        –        –        –        –

2.5.1 The Role of Religion Today       –        –        –        –

2.6 POLITICS AND RELIGION BE KEPT SEPARATE –        –        ­

2.6 BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE OF POLITICS       –        –        –

2.6.1 Purpose of Government            –        –        –        –        –

2.6.2 Origin of Politics               –        –        –        –        –         –

2.6.3 Christians Duties to the Politics      –        –        –        –

2.6.3 Submit and Obey the Authorities             –        –        –        –

2.6.4 Times of Disobedience                     –        –        –        –        –

2.6.5 Dual Citizenship                      –        –        –        –        –         –

2.6.6 How Should Christians, Vote           –        –        –        –        –

2.7 CHRISTIAN AND POLITICS        –        –        –        –        –

2.7.1 Political Involvements             –        –        –        –        –

2.7.2 How Christians Should be Involved         –        –        –        –

 

2.7.3 Why should a Christian be involved in politics        –        –

2.7.3 Spiritual Obligation to God    –        –        –        –        –

2.7.4 Social Obligation to Others     –        –        –        –        –

2.7.4 Moral Obligation to Truth      –        –        –        –        –

2.7.5 Eternal Obligation to Righteousness       –        –        –        –

2.8 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER                    –        –        –        –        –

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                –        –        –        –        –         –

DICTIONARIES                                 –        –        –        –        –        –

JOURNALS AND PAPERS                –        –        –        –        –

REFERENCES                                          –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.4    Population of Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.5    Sample size and Sampling Techniques        –        –        –        33

3.6    Instrument for Data Collection   –        –        –        –        33

3.7    Validity of the Instrument –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument       –        –        –        –        34

3.9    Method of Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        34

3.10  Method of Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        34

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        –        36

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents     –        –        –        36

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        46

4.5    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –        51

4.6    Discussion of Findings        –        –        –        –        –        52

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        58

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        61

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigerian Christianity dates back to the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the early nineteenth century, which was followed by the emergence of a literate African elite, consisting of liberated and returned slaves as well as local converts. The need for political stability in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Indeed, all segments of the Nigerian society are interested in the political future of the nation. However, this interest is approached from various dimensions. A major interest in the Nigerian polity is the Christian participation in politics, moral concern in contemporary Nigeria.

Politics is about the acquisition of power and the use of such power. The Oxford Dictionary of Words defines politics as “matters concerned with acquiring or exercising power, within a group or an organization”. Onyekpe (1998) defines the term politics as the struggle for power which itself is the authority to determine or formulate and execute decisions and policies, which must be accepted by the society. It is the struggle for power of governance, especially executive authority (Onyekpe 1998).

Onyekpe however gives a caveat to the first part of his definition. According to him, the struggle for or the acquisition of power and the reaction of the society to it, depend greatly on the level of political development of the country. In an undemocratic society, it does not really matter whether the decisions and policies are accepted by the society. Thus the value of political power or politics leaves little or no room for the people to have input, except where democracy has already been entrenched.

Abogunrin (1984) in his paper titled “Towards a Unifying Political Ideology and Peaceful Coexistence in Nigeria: A Christian View”Dal et al, (1999) opines that Christianity and politics are two inseparable institutions in the human social psyche and structure. He equally asserts that earthly governments are mere agents of God’s theocratic governance of the physical and the spiritual world (Abogunrin, 1984). He, however, points out that the ideals of Christianity is a good guide to better political conducts, but the practices of such ideals are usually influenced by the socio-cultural institutions in the society, including politics.

Christians have always present argument based on the statement of Jesus Christ that “Give unto Caesar what is Caesar and unto God the things that are God’s” (Matt. 22:17-22). This phrase has often been used to exclude from participation Christians and clergymen, who want to venture into politics. Matthew Hassan Kukah however, disagrees with this school of thought, with an exegesis on this passage. He writes that what Jesus really meant was not that Christianity and politics do not mix, nor did He mean that Christians should not participate in politics, the coin was representation of the power of Caesar and that was why the coin had Caesar’s sign. In the case of God, His authority is over and above the realm of Caesar’s empire. In that sense both Caesar and his coin are under the aegis of God and the issue of separation or Christians should not participate in politics is an aberration (Kukah 1998). It should be noted that the argument of these opposing schools are hinged on their belief, perhaps based on experience, that politics often corrupt Christian religion. Also that political leaders use Christianity as a platform to deceive the people.

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CHRISTIAN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: A MORAL CONCERN IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY

CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1     Introduction

The role of the Christian home in our society is to be a model of life. Not only are man and woman created in the image of God, they are also called to unite with each other in order to fulfill the maximum of human nature and human existence. Their union within marriage is founded upon love that stems from God and goes beyond nature. At the same time, it gives nature quite a different dimension—the call for sanctification.

We talk so much about love in our religion. We make it the only and total principle of life. We define God as being LOVE. What does this mean to us in our daily life, our family life? Love, from our Christian viewpoint, implies some-thing that goes beyond the individual. Each spouse loves the other for his or herself, and, beyond all this, they love each other in God.

We define genuine love in psychology as the capacity to sacrifice one’s own interests and pleasures for another, to love the other before one’s self, to seek his or her interest.Astonishingly, two thousand years before modern psychology, the main ideas of modern clinical psychology were found in the gospel and in the first epistle of John—a magnificent contribution to the philosophy of love.

After Jesus and John, love become a principle of knowledge alongside that of reason. It is one of the basic contributions of Christianity to the history of civilization and ideas.When a marriage is based upon genuine love, it becomes a way of a new knowledge for the human being, something that opens the family to society, and makes out of it an active element that serves as a model of change and evolution.

Plato denied the reality of the world of senses. He considered only ideas as “real.” The genuine Christian, however, conceives of the flesh as being completely worthy, completely ontological, rooted in being—it has to be transformed through the effect of love, rooted in God Himself.Any marriage cannot be conceived of as “real” if it is not founded on love. Between spouses, there is a vocation of unity in the spirit and in the flesh, a vocation of mutual understanding, and the vocation of begetting children and bringing them up worthily.

The second basic model that must be implemented by the Christian family is to be an adequate setting for bringing up children, in order to prepare them for life and service in their immediate society. The upbringing of children in a Christian family is a tremendous task. Now, because of scientific knowledge we have very efficient tools for implementing Christian ethics and social values through practical education and psychology.What modern psychology has taught us is that genuine love is learned by the child. From birth to six or seven years of age the child learns to love, either adequately or inadequately.

Emotional deprivation in the first years of life is catastrophic for a child’s inner-psychology. When there is a lack of proper love, the child’s personality may be stifled; he or she may remain immature forever. It is therefore very important for mothers’ love to be intense and adequate in order to build up a child’s capacity to love. Psychological maturation constitutes the psychological foundation of the ethical life of an individual.

Emotional maturity is the capacity to love, sacrifice, and forget one’s self for the sake of community. We have a very excellent definition of genuine love in Paul’s epistle to the Corinthians. It is a masterpiece of psychological and ethical analysis of the nature of love. There is no text in modern psychology that matches the description or analysis of Paul. There is no success without mature, genuine love.

We seem to consider sex education as one of the basic elements for marriage preparation. One of the basic findings of psychology is that sexual life in its biological dimensions is completely determined by the psychological element. People confuse sexual information and sexual education— emotional psychosexual or emotional, sexual education. Information is part of a whole structure. That’s why we have to begin with emotional educational or psychosexual education. Knowledge about sex that comes at the age of five to seven, or eight to fourteen should first answer personal questions of the child. There should be a natural need for knowledge that may come by a change that stimulates questions for the child. We have to answer him or her in a scientific way with a respect for the truth, but we also have to adapt truth to his or her level of understanding. If we conceive of marriage preparation as a double process, stressing mainly emotional maturity and at the same time informing the child and the adolescent about the facts of life—then this new information can easily be integrated into the whole personality and become something operational and efficient.

1.2     Background of Study

In order to let the key notions described and analysed by Paul become concrete in life, we have to use scientific methods of bringing up children, because emotional maturity is the condition of the whole balance of personality.It is important for the Christian family to sufficiently prepare young men and women for marriage and their future family life. This is one of the major tasks of the church. There is a tremendous gap in this field. Do we strive earnestly to prepare couples for marriage? Do we show them the difficulties of marital life and the enlightenment of the Christian teachings in this field? As a matter of fact, real preparation for marriage does not start only some months or years before getting married. Real preparation for marriage starts at birth. Why? Because a marriage cannot succeed without the emotional maturity that begins developing at birth. At the moment of birth, the child starts to be moulded by the human environment, namely by his or her mother. A child builds up a personality along lines of direction from his or her mother. A mother shapes a child’s destiny.

Thus, there is a threefold vocation of the Christian family to serve as a model of genuine love:

1)      To be an open community to society

2)      To bring up children so as to prepare them for modern life and for Christian life

3) To prepare young people for marriage

Hence, this research study was carried out to evaluate and investigate the role of a Christian family in the society.

 

1.3     Objectives of Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To make the readers to know more about the concept of the Christian family and the society;
  2. To look into the roles of the Christian family in the furtherance or otherwise of the concept of morality and societal advancement in Nigeria;
  3. To look into whether there is any nexus, positive or negative, between the Christian home and societal development;
  4. To show the importance and impact of Christian home to society and the relationship between them; as well as to the development of a country;

 

1.4     Focus of Study

This study focuses on the Christian home and its role in the society. Family and society are concepts which have been recognized throughout the world; and both have become practices of most countries of the world. However, for the purpose of this study, the major concern is limited to the Christian home and society.

1.5     Methodology

Materials are sourced from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include the documentaries, articles, textbooks, articles from learned journals, internet materials and other relevant materials necessary to enhance credibility of this study. Therefore, the study is essentially a library based (doctrinal) research.

CHAPTER TWO

THE CONCEPT OF HOME AND SOCIETY

2.1     CHANGES AS A REALITY: THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE

Rapid change is undeniable in modern times. Individuals and societies in the Middle East are aware of the drastic changes in their lifetime. Industrialization and urbanization are two main changes that have affected all sectors of life. Modes of living are changing; so are attitudes. Secularization has invaded society and the church. The challenge of change has brought out the conflict between Western and African culture.

Societies in Nigeria have their own social institutions. It is not necessary that they follow the same patterns of change as the West. Our assumptions regarding what changes will take place, and the nature of their impact on Nigerian structures need not be modelled on the Western image. This is particularly true when we consider, for example, the importation of Western systems of education and otherwise, which are not adapted to local needs.

However, much change takes place in spite of us; the individual still has power to direct change. He or she must be viewed as an actor in this process, not merely a passive onlooker.

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CHRISTIAN HOME AND THE SOCIETY

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FAITH IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FAITH IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGE

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………..       1

TABLE OF CONTENT………………………………………..       2

DEDICATION………………………………………………..…      3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………….        4

CERTIFICATE…………………………………………………        5

  1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………..   6 – 7
  2. CHAPTER ONE

FAITH FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE………………….  8 – 16

 

  1. CHAPTER TWO

FAITH AND BELIEVE………………………………………  17 – 24

 

  1. CHAPTER THREE

FAITH THE FUSE OF CHRISTIANS……………………….        25 – 32

 

  1. CHAPTER FOUR

FAITH AND KNOWING………………………………………        33 – 39

  1. CHAPTER FIVE

FAITH AND FEAR……………………………………………         40 – 46

CONCLUSION……………………………………………………      47

REFERENCES…………………………………………………..      48

DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am exceedingly grateful to the Almighty God for his strength and wisdom given to me to accomplish this project despite all odds and indeed I say Glory, Adoration and Majesty be unto him forever and ever.

I also deem it expedient to express my sincere gratitude to Past Caleb Awili the co-operation and understanding which enabled me to complete this research work with a measure of ease.

My gratitude goes to lot of friends, colleagues consellors, I met in the course of my project work. I give thanks to the Almighty God in whom I trust for seeing me through, may His Name be glorified forever.

CERTIFICATION/APPROVAL PAGE

This is to certify that this authentic project written under the guidance of the supervisor has been submitted and accepted by the Institute of Spiritual Warfare, Asaba Campus, Delta State in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of certificate in Biblical Studies.

PASTOR CALEB P.N. AWILI                                    ………………………

SUPERVISOR                                                             SIGNATURE/DATE

 PASTOR CALEB P.N. AWILI                                    ………………………

SCHOOL CO-ORDINATOR                                       SIGNATURE/DATE

   PASTOR (MRS) MODUPE ABATAN                       ………………………

REGIONAL CO-ORDINATOR/REGISTRAR            SIGNATURE/DATE

ABSTRACT

This project comes to you with a fresh angle on the subject of importance of faith in the body of Christ. It offers profound insights into its trials and triumphs, and puts the spotlight on God’s character and His word. Here is just one brief example of how scriptures illustrate the relationship between faith and feelings.

When danger looms large, fear is inevitable. When our body chemistry sets up a sense of in pending disaster, when we suffer heavy blows and our circumstances are oppressive, and dark. What  then, does faith do? It breaks down every fear that comes our way. With God, fear will not stop us. We overcome it. “Why are you cast down, O my soul?…….(Psalm 45:5).

Blessings unfold with each chapter, the focus being firmly set on Jesus Christ, “The author and finisher of our faith” (Hebrews 12:2).

My desire is, to teach the never changing importance of faith in the body of Christ and also faith principles revealed in the Word of God. They have been proven in my own yours of following Jesus against the backdrop of decades of front-line evangelism grateful to our Lord Jesus.

Believers need to know that faith is important in the house of God. Without faith we can receive nothing from God. We must not wave in out of faith, that is the only way that we can see the miraculous wok of God in our lives. Faith can change any impossible situation to possibility.

CHAPTER ONE

FAITH FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE

The Bible was written for people with no real faith. We all begin with a minus. If we have no faith, reading the Bible produces it, and if we have some faith we get more the same way. We don’t acquire faith first and bring it to scripture. Scripture encourages faith “faith comes by hearing the Word of God” (Romans 10:17).

Many who don’t believe don’t read the Bible. They are sick and leave the medicine with the bottle tightly corked. People without faith should be warned that if they open the Bible they are likely to finish up as believers.

The Bible brings us to the cross people do not start moving mountains until they have been to mount Calvary. They could not move even a molehill or a mole. Real faith doesn’t start in university. We’ll have less if we go there without any! If we have not been to where Christ save not even a Doctorate in Theology will do.

The starting point is fired at the “green hill for away outside the city wall”. From there, we tread on and on towards the mark of the high calling of God in Christ (Philippians 3:14). Walking in doubt is like going back to a Victorian age. We need a radar and faith provides it in this world of uncertainly.

“the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith as it is written, ‘the just shall live by faith’ (Romans 1:17). Believe God! It is life’s knowledge and experience across the area of faith as widely as I can, whether people are well along the road or just and share treasures with them I have collected over a life time.

The plus life, one morning Jesus walked along the shingled edge of Lake Galilee and beckoned too few local fishermen. He said, “follow me!” (Matthew 4:19). At the moment everything began for them. Until then “Everything” had only been fish and then it became people, action, and changing world history, with ever-increasing faith, ever-increasing effects.

Jesus did not call them, smiles and wear sackcloth. Jesus didn’t want to turn folk into stick in the – mud’ people. He wasn’t so conventional himself! The disciplines caught His bubbling spirit, which challenged the stuffy establishment. He showed them new things, especially faith and love, and them they conquered the world.

The primary truth about God is that He is the Deliverer, the emancipator, and the saviour. He is God only to the free. Faith is a venture  that turns life into an adventure. Doubts get us nowhere. They are mooring ropes. Believing God means we cast off, like ships designed for riding the high seas and going somewhere. Faith inspires. Doubt paralyzes. Faith says “I can do all things  through Christ who strengthens me” unbelief does nothing, faith is God is exciting.

We becomes what we were born to be only when we are “born again” by faith in Christ Jesus. Christ said, “If the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed” (John 8:36). The world’s greatest book on freedom is the Bible. The very idea of freedom came from the Bible not from Greece or Rome. Read it! Remember God made the first free nation ever seen on earth, Israel, and He wants to put a sense of liberty in our very soul. God opposes tyranny. The Gospel makes us the freeborn sons of God.

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FAITH IN THE LIFE OF A CHRISTIAN

A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JESUS’ CONVERSATION WITH THE SAMARITAN WOMAN

A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JESUS’ CONVERSATION WITH THE SAMARITAN WOMAN

ABSTRACT

It is a known fact that Discourse Analysis is the analysis of language in use. This work showed how discourse analysis and pragmatic elements can be used in decoding facts and foregrounded information in the Holy Bible especially Jesusconversation with the Samaritan woman. The discourse elements such as: participants, context, turn-taking, exchange structure, reference, presupposition, inference, intention were used to bring out the foregrounded information in the conversation.In conclusion, we were able to show that addressee deduced or inferred more information from addressor’s utterance beyond what the original intention might have been.

  TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                               i

Certification                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                             v

Acknowledgment                                                                 vi

Abstract                                                                                 vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • General Introduction 1
  • Purpose 2
  • Scope and delimitation 2
  • Justification 3
  • Methodology 3

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Introduction                                                                                            4

2.2 Discourse                                                                                                            4

2.3 Discourse Analysis                                                                               5

2.4 Elements of discourse analysis                                                                       8

2.4.1Participants                                                                                          8

2.4.2 Context                                                                                                            8

2.4.3 Turn-taking                                                                                         11

2.4.4 Exchange structure                                                                            12

2.4.4.1 Initiation, response and feedback                                                            12

2.4.4.2 Adjacency pairs                                                                              13

2.4.5 Topic                                                                                                    13

2.5 Pragmatic concepts of discourse                                                         14

2.5.1 Presupposition                                                                                    14

2.5.2 Implicature                                                                                          15

2.5.3 Reference                                                                                            17

2.5.4 Inference                                                                                              18

2.5.5 Intention                                                                                              18

2.6 Data description                                                                                                19

2.6.1 Jesus Christ                                                                                         20

2.6.2 The Samaritan woman                                                                                   20.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Introduction                                                                                            21

3.2 Datum 1                                                                                                   21

3.3 Datum 2                                                                                                   27

3.4 Datum 3                                                                                                   31

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Summary                                                                                                 37

4.2 Findings                                                                                                  38

Bibliography                                                                                                 41

  CHAPTER ONE

  • GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Over the years, several researches have been conducted in the field of discourse analysis with various definitions given to it. Brown and Yule (1983:1) opine that “the analysis of discourse is necessarily the analysis of language in use”.

Ambiguity is the word used by Stubb (1993:1) to describe discourse analysis. He says; “the term discourse analysis is very ambiguous…to refer to mainly the linguistic analysis of naturally occurring connected spoken or written discourse”.

Cooks (1996:1) argues that “although the main focus of discourse analysis is on language, it is not concerned with language alone. It also examines the concept of communication”.

Discourse analysis has been applied to the analysis of many literary works by scholars. Cooks (1996) uses discourse analysis to analyze advertisement. Woods (2006) examines the discourse of advertising, politics, law, medicine and the discourse of education respectively. Laniru (2010) uses it for “who wants to be a millionaire,” a television program in Nigeria.

This investigation is an attempt to take discourse analysis some steps further, using its basic elements such as turn taking, exchange structure, context, participants and so on, alongside some pragmatic features to make explicit the implicit aspect of the interaction between our participants, Jesus and the Samaritan woman as recorded in John chapter four of the holy Bible. Our expectation is that this will give a better understanding and insight into the conversation.

1.2     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The Holy Bible is one of the most sought after books in the world today. Jesus Christ who has His name or image as the central subject of discourse from Genesis to Revelation is possibly the most mentioned name in the universe. However, the interpretation of many of the teachings, conversation and events he partook in, are being subjected to diverse meaning explication by several people both in the field of religion and outside religion.

A discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman attempts to show how elements of discourse analysis can be used in decoding facts and foregrounded information from the Holy Bible.

  • SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This research seeks to undertake a discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman. It attempts to show how best discourse and some pragmatic elements can be used to decode the meaning of conversation in the Holy Bible. Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman has been selected from several Biblical conversations just as a sample among others.

1.4   JUSTIFICATION

Some researchers have conducted investigations into the Holy Bible using discourse        analysis. For instance, Balogun’s “A Discourse Analysis of selected parables of Jesus Christ (2010)”. However, as at the period of this study to the best of our knowledge, no researcher has used discourse analysis to analyze Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman.

Moreover, “A discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman” will not only add to the knowledge bank but it will show how effectively discourse analysis can be used in decoding meaning  in conversations in the Holy Bible which has been described by many as being more spiritual than psychological.

  • METHODOLOGY

Our primary data will be drawn from the New International Version of the Holy Bible because of its simplicity and general acceptability. The data will be as recorded by Saint John chapter four (John 4). It will be presented excluding the writer’s comments in an exchange structure format. The elements of discourse analysis found within shall be used alongside some pragmatic elements.

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A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JESUS’ CONVERSATION WITH THE SAMARITAN WOMAN