VALORIZATION OF RICE HUSK FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

VALORIZATION OF RICE HUSK FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

 

The amount of wastes produced from agro-processing industries is continuously increasing and poses serious environmental problems. This reason leads to many research groups to be investigating the opportunities for the valorization of such residue (Tobias et. al., 2014).

Agricultural residue is any unwanted or unsalable material produced wholly from agricultural operations which is directly related to the growing of crops or raising of animals for the primary purpose of making a profit or for a livelihood (Tobias et. al., 2014). The term “agricultural residue” is used to describe all the organic materials which are produced as by-products from harvesting and processing of agricultural crops.

Agricultural residues, which are generated in the field at the time of harvest, are known as primary or field based residues whereas those that are co-produced during processing are called secondary or processing based residues (Zafar, 2013). Many agricultural residues such as apple pomace (Hang and Woodams, 1984), kiwifruit peel (Hang and Woodams, 1987), orange waste (Aravantinos-Zafiris et. al., 1994), sugar cane bagasse (Shankaranand and Lonsane, 1993), coffee husk (Shankaranand and Lonsane, 1994), carrot waste (Garg and Hang, 1995), pineapple waste (Tran et. al., 1998), cassava bagasse, (Vandenberghe et. al., 1999), pumpkin (Majumdar, et. al., 2010), date syrup (Mostafa and Alamri, 2012), rice straw (Ali et. al., 2012), and oat bran (Raja and Kruthi 2013) were tried successfully as substrates for citric acid formation and under optimum conditions are known to produce good quantities of citric acid.

Rice husk (or hull) is the outermost layer of the paddy grain that is separated from the rice grains during the milling process (Alaric 2013). Rice husk is one of the most widely available agricultural residues in many rice producing countries around the world (Ajay et al., 2012). It has potential application in different field of endeavour which includes; preparation of activated carbons, insulating board material, chopstick production, fuel in power plant, source of silica and silicon compound, etc. (Ajay et al., 2012).

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VALORIZATION OF RICE HUSK FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

THE ROLES OF MOLECULAR MODELING STRATEGIES IN VALIDATING THE EFFECT OF CHRYSIN ON SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED CHROMOSOMAL AND DNA DAMAGE

THE ROLES OF MOLECULAR MODELING STRATEGIES IN VALIDATING THE EFFECT OF CHRYSIN ON SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED CHROMOSOMAL AND DNA DAMAGE

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Arsenic is a major environmental toxicant as well as a human carcinogen which is present in large amounts in the environment(Martinez et al., 2011). When ingested, it affect different organs of the body through induction of oxidative damage(Sadiaet al., 2015). Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous in nature and found in the environment via industrial or agricultural processes as well as some medical applications(Aliyu et al., 2013). They are widely used for many industrial purposes, including mining, smelting, herbicidal products, medicines, wine preservatives and electronics(Cheng et al., 2011). Consumption of arsenicals through contaminated water is prevalent in many areas of the world(Aliyu et al., 2013).Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem(Cheng et al., 2011). Both acute and chronic arsenic exposures have been associated with a higher than normal risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer(Riedmann et al., 2015; Ajani and Olufunke, 2016). It is also known that arsenic interact with other substances, metals inclusive there by potentiating or depressing its effects(Aliyu et al., 2012).

The most common forms of arsenic are water-soluble, arsenite (the trivalent form, As III) and arsenate (the pentavalent form, As V). Trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic and its inorganic forms are more toxic than organic forms(Moktar et al., 2008). After ingestion, the dissolved arsenicals are readily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and distributed in the blood to the liver, kidney, spleen, lung and many other organs of the body(Moktaret al., 2008).

Once in the tissues, arsenic exerts its toxic effects through several mechanisms, the most significant of which is, the reversible combination with sulfhydryl‘s groups and inhibition of numerous other cellular enzymes(Muhammad and Ibrahim,2015), especially those involved in cellularglucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation(Kumar, 2015). It also alters multiple cellular pathways including expression of growth factors, suppression of cell cycle checkpoint proteins, promotion of apoptosis, inhibition of DNA repair(Amal et al., 2012), decreasing immunosurveillance and increasing oxidative stress(Sadiaet al., 2015). Arsenic generates reactive oxygen species which also include dimethyl arsenic peroxyl ([(CH3)2AsOO])

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THE ROLES OF MOLECULAR MODELING STRATEGIES IN VALIDATING THE EFFECT OF CHRYSIN ON SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED CHROMOSOMAL AND DNA DAMAGE

STUDIES ON ANTIANAEMIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RED CREOLE ONIONS (Allium cepa) IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE-INDUCED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN RATS

STUDIES ON ANTIANAEMIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RED CREOLE ONIONS (Allium cepa) IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE-INDUCED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN RATS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Anaemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood (Iwalewa et al, 2009). However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency. Because hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the capillaries, anemia leads to hypoxia in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia has a wide range of clinical consequences. Anaemia is characterized by excessive destruction of erythrocytes at a rate that exceeds the bone marrow‟s capability to compensate for the blood loss (Holy et al, 2015).

Anaemia is one of the clinical conditions that constitute a serious health problem in many tropical countries as a result of the prevalence of different forms of parasitic infections, including malaria (Dacie and Lewis, 1994). In the tropics, due to prevalence of malaria and other parasitic infections, between 10 to 20 % of the population are reported to possess less than 10g/dl of haemoglobin in the blood (Diallo et al, 2008).

Hemolytic Anemia is an acquired type of Anemia caused by hemolysis (premature destruction of red blood cells). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the primary type, in which antibodies produced by the immune system damage RBCs. The causes of hemolytic anemia is sometimes unknown or associated with disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, lymphoma, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Other causes are high exposure to certain metals or chemicals (lead, copper, benzene, naphthalene), snake and insect bites, malaria, transfusions, post-surgical complications, and drugs such as methyldopa. In infants, blood group incompatibility between mother and child or infections in the womb can cause hemolytic anemia. As for its treatment, corticosteroids can be used for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Blood transfusions is also beneficial in many cases. Various immunosuppressive drugs may be tried, as well as splenectomy. Eculizumab (Soliris) is approved for treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (Alleyne et al, 2008)

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STUDIES ON ANTIANAEMIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RED CREOLE ONIONS (Allium cepa) IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE-INDUCED HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN RATS

PROTON PUMP (H+/K+ – ATPase) INHIBITORY POTENTIAL AND ANTISECRETORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF Saccharum spontaneum Linn. IN ASPRIN-INDUCED GASTRIC LESIONS

PROTON PUMP (H+/K+ – ATPase) INHIBITORY POTENTIAL AND ANTISECRETORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF Saccharum spontaneum Linn. IN ASPRIN-INDUCED GASTRIC LESIONS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Acid-related disorders are highly prevalent in both developed and developing world, which have a significant impact on patient quality of life and cause heavy burden on health care systems (Cylwik et al., 2005). Gastric acid has been demonstrated to be a major pathogenic factor in peptic ulcer diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcer as well as gastroesophageal reflux disease (Shin et al., 2008). Peptic ulcer embracing both gastric and duodenal ulcers has been a major threat to the world‘s population over the past two centuries, with a high morbidity and substantial mortality (Pahwa et al., 2010).

An estimated 15,000 deaths occur each year as a consequence of peptic ulcer disease (Valle, 2005). Peptic ulcer is a gastro-intestinal disorder due to an imbalance between the aggressive factors like acids, pepsin, non-steroidal anti-inflamatoery drugs (NSAIDs), Helicobacter pylori infection and defensive factors such as bicarbonate secretions, prostaglandins, gastric mucus, and innate resistance of the mucosal cell factors (Dashputre and Naikwade, 20011). Factors related with lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol, spicy foods and stress are also associated with peptic ulcer formation. Peptic ulcer usually develops when aggressive factors overcome the defensive factors (Izzo and Borelli, 2000). Ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa is caused by disruption of normal balance of the corrosive effect of gastric juice and the protective effect of mucus on gastric epithelial cells (Waugh et al., 2006).

The gastric proton potassium (H+/K+)-ATPase is the proton pump responsible for the final step of acid secretion in the stomach, which locates in gastric membrane vesicles and catalyzes the electro-neutral exchange of intracellular H+ and extracellular K+ coupled with the hydrolysis of cytoplasmic ATP (Shin et al., 2009; Weidemüller and Hauser, 2009).

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PROTON PUMP (H+/K+ – ATPase) INHIBITORY POTENTIAL AND ANTISECRETORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF Saccharum spontaneum Linn. IN ASPRIN-INDUCED GASTRIC LESIONS

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increase thirst and increased hunger (Passmore,1989). If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced (Passmore,1989).There are four main types of DM.Type 1 DM results from the pancreas failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile “diabetes” (Passmore,1989). Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult – on set diabetes.” The primary cause is excessive body weight and no enough exercise (Passmore,1989).

Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Malnutrition related diabetes which occur due to protein energy malnutrition and also found in patient with history of childhood malnutrition due to poor socio-economic status. As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people have diabetes worldwide, with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases. (W.H.O, 2014) This represents 8.3% of the adult population, with equal rates in both women and men from 2012 to 2014, diabetes is estimated to have resulted in 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year. The number of people with diabetes hasbeenforecasted to increase to 592million by 2035 (W.H.O, 2015). DMis a significant contribution to medical morbidity and mortality risk worldwide. Many factors are involved in the etiology of DM.

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PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIETARY PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG ADULTS IN BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIETARY PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG ADULTS IN BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background Introduction

The major cause of mortality in developed and developing countries of the world are diseases in which nutritional lifestyle plays an important role. The choices of what people eat are determined by various factors such as religions, customs and socio-economic differences (Shehu et al., 2011).

The environments affect individual‘s lifestyle. Changing these factors in the direction of nutritional lifestyle patterns could postpone the age of onset of permanent mobidity, disability, disease occurrences and death and could have a major effect on quality of life (Waijers et al., 2006). Nutrition as the science of food and its relationship to health has been recognized in recent years as the cornerstone of socioeconomic development (Parks, 2009). Adequate nutrition is important for a variety of reasons, including optimal cardiovascular function, muscle strength, respiratory ventilation, protection from infection, wound healing and psychological well-being (Martin, 2006).

Adequate nutrition entails a diet that contains the constituents (carbohydrate, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals) that are required for body building, energy supply, body defense and regulatory functions in quantities commensurate with the body need. Malnutrition refers to either inadequate intake of nutrients due to lack of food, ignorance, socio cultural factors, and diseases among other causes, resulting in underweight and other nutrient deficiency diseases; or intake of nutrients in excess of body requirements due to poor dietary habit (erroneously perceived as a sign of affluence), resulting in overweight and obesity.

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NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIETARY PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG ADULTS IN BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD (RUTF) FORMULATED FROM SESAME, WHEAT AND SOYA BEANS BLEND

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD (RUTF) FORMULATED FROM SESAME, WHEAT AND SOYA BEANS BLEND

 

CHAPTERONE

1.0   Introduction

Malnutrition is one of the major problems faced by most countries in the world. Malnutrition has been defined by WFP (2000), as “a state in which the physical function of an individual is impaired to the point where he or she can no longer maintain adequate performance process such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, physical work and resisting and recovering from disease.” The term malnutrition is a broad term which literally means bad nutrition, and technically refers to both over nutrition and under nutrition.The problem of over nutrition which is associated with excessive nutrients intakes is mostly found in advanced or developed countries. Whereas under nutrition is more prevalent in developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. It occurs when people do not consume food consistently, or the food consumed is not adequately absorbed by the body, or the food is lacking in essential nutrients required by the body for its normal functions.

In Nigeria, malnutrition (referring to under nutrition in this case)among children is a very serious problem, accounting for about fifty percent (50%) of one million (1 Million)deaths of children under five annually (NDHS, 2013).About 2 out of every 5 Nigerian children are stunted, with rates of stunting varying from one region to another across the country. Almost 30% of Nigerian children are underweight, meaning that their weight is less than the expected weight for their age. Wasting (i.e. being too thin for their height) constitute about 18%(NDHS,2013).

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a major killer of children under five years of age. It is defined by a very low weight for height (below -3z-scores of the median WHO growth standards), by visible severe wasting, or by the presence of nutritional (bilateral pitting) oedema (WHOet al., 2006). Children with SAM need to be treated with specialized therapeutic diets in combination with diagnosis and management of infections and other complications.(WHOet al.,2007).

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NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD (RUTF) FORMULATED FROM SESAME, WHEAT AND SOYA BEANS BLEND

LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN AND DACROYDES EDULIS (G.DON) H.J LAM ON THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES

LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN AND DACROYDES EDULIS (G.DON) H.J LAM ON THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview

Mosquitoes are an ancient group of insects which have persisted for millions of years. Through the process of evolution, nature has superbly perfected them that they may survive under the most adverse and diverse of environmental conditions (Manimegalai and Sukanaya, 2014). Mosquitoes have been a problem for people all over the world as long as humans have existed. They are the most nuisance creatures of nature and the most medically important arthropod vectors of diseases to humans (Beernste et al., 2000; Arti et al., 2012). They are responsible for the transmission of dengue, malaria, yellow fever, filariasis (Ali et al., 2013), hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases which are today among the greatest health problems in the world. Mosquitoes contribute to social debility and poverty in tropical countries (Rajkumar and Jebanesan, 2005; Alam et al., 2011).

Tropical areas are more susceptible to parasitic diseases and the risk of contracting arthropod borne illnesses is increasing due to climate change and rising temperatures worldwide. Trade and unplanned urbanization have also contributed to the impact of disease transmission in recent years. Mosquitoes have been declared public enemy number one by the World Health Organization and they belong to three genera; (anopheles, culex and aedes) responsible for the transmission of diseases to more than 700 million people annually and are responsible for one (1) death in every seventeen (17) people alive (El-Bahnasawy et al., 2013).

Although an ancient and historical disease, malaria persists in many parts of the world today (Hall and Fauci, 2009). Malaria causes human mortality single-handedly killing nearly 3 million people yearly. Malaria fever is one of the deadliest diseases ravaging Africa (Ubulom et al., 2012). It is estimated to have killed between 537,000 and 907,000 in 2010 alone, 86% being children under the age of five with more than 40% of the world‟s population living in malaria endemic areas (Massebo et al., 2009) and an estimated 3.3 billion people in 109 countries are at risk of contacting this serious and often life threatening disease (Hall and Fauci, 2009; Alam et al., 2010)

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LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN AND DACROYDES EDULIS (G.DON) H.J LAM ON THREE MOSQUITO SPECIES

ISOLATION, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAF EXTRACT OF Adenodolichos paniculatus (Hua) Hutch. & Dalz (FABACEAE)

ISOLATION, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAF EXTRACT OF Adenodolichos paniculatus (Hua) Hutch. & Dalz (FABACEAE)

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

There are a large number of medicinal plants whose scientific importance has not been explored. All over the world, plants have served as the richest source of raw materials for traditional as well as modern medicine, particularly in Africa and Asia (Tsakala et al., 2006). Medicinal plants contain some compounds which have definite physiological actions on animals and humans. These are called secondary metabolite, and include tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids (Doge et al., 2005).

Medicinal plants are useful for healing as well as for curing of human diseases because of the presence of phytochemical constituents (Ododo et al., 2016). Phytochemicals are naturally occurring in medicinal plants leaves, stem bark, fruits and roots where they serve as defense mechanism and protect from various diseases (Ahmad et al., 2006). Traditional medicine by means of plant extracts continues to provide health treatment for over 80% of the world‘s population, especially in the developing world (WHO, 2002).

The rapid increase of bacterial drug resistance is becoming a worldwide problem. There is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial drugs with better/improved activity in order to overcome bacterial drug resistance (Afolayan et al., 2008). The continual search for, and the interest in natural plant products, for use as medicines has acted as the catalyst for exploring methodologies involved in obtaining the required plant materials and hence searching into their constituents for possible medicinal usage (Ibrahim et al., 2013). The identification and isolation of such active compounds makes it a more effective therapeutic application. It prevents consumers from taking certain plants that have no medicinal value or are poisonous to them (Ozolua et al., 2009).

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ISOLATION, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAF EXTRACT OF Adenodolichos paniculatus (Hua) Hutch. & Dalz (FABACEAE)

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF Combretum lamprocarpum (DIELS)

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF Combretum lamprocarpum (DIELS)

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

 

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases is as old as mankind. A medicinal plant is defined as a plant that is useful in therapeutics because it contains active constituents (Sher, 2004). These constituents are mostly secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, resins, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids (Cowan, 1999).

Plants remain a rich source of secondary metabolites that have been widely used as bioactive constituents in therapeutically effective medicines for several ailments (Hoareau and Da Silva, 1999). Fossil records revealed that the use of plants as medicines by human may be traced back to about 60,000 years ago (Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001). The search for plants that for remedy against diseases and ailments have been documented since ancient times in the form of traditional medicine. Historically,the beginning of the nineteenth century marked the era of “modern” drugs (Joo, 2014). In the year 1805, morphine, the first pharmacologically active compound was isolated from the opium plant by a German pharmacist, Friedrich Sertürner (Hamilton and Baskett, 2000).

Despite the breakthrough made by mankind in the synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs, the decreasing efficacy of synthetic drugs and the increasing contraindications of their usage, make the continueduse of plants as important sources of medicinal agents (Petrovska, 2012). According to the World Health Organization, traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health, as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illnesses (WHO, 2005). Traditional medicines could not be risk-free, and due to their rampant use, it is important that the population be informed of risks that may be linked to their use.

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF Combretum lamprocarpum (DIELS)

INVITRO ANTI MALARIAL POTENTIAL OF CHROZOPHORA SENEGALENSIS EXTRACTS ON CYSTEINE PROTEASE OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM

INVITRO ANTI MALARIAL POTENTIAL OF CHROZOPHORA SENEGALENSIS EXTRACTS ON CYSTEINE PROTEASE OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease is global. It is caused by a parasite in the blood called Plasmodia. Five species of this genus are implicated in human malaria, of which the most deadly is Plasmodium falciparum. They are usually transmitted via the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The disease is mainly characterized by fever in uncomplicated cases but can develop into severe malaria as soon as 24 hours after it first appears (Trampuz et al., 2003). Malaria is an Infectious disease that continues to be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. It was estimated that there were over 300 million cases of malaria every year in developing countries especially in Africa Sub-Sahara (90%) and other developing countries.

Malaria kills over one million people a year-mainly children under five years and pregnant women (Christopher, 2002). Malaria is a major health problem in Nigeria. It constitutes 30% of all attendance to health facilities. It is the main cause of hospital death and the failure of malaria control is largely due to the increasing parasite resistance to chloroquine and vector resistance to insecticides used (Roll Back Malaria, 2002). In all malaria endemic countries, plants are used in traditional medicine for treatment of the disease. Examples are numerous with the urgent need to develop new, safe and effective drugs against malaria. Plants may provide such drugs directly as with quinine from Cinchona bark or artemisinine from the Chinese herb Artemisia annual and/or they may provide template molecules on which to base further novel structures by organic synthesis.

In some rural areas of Nigeria, antimalarial traditional medicines are even preferred to pharmaceutical compound drugs, suggesting that the herbal preparations used by traditional healers contain useful active ingredients. Many gaps still remain to fully exploit the potential of herbal medicines as a solution to the malaria burden and this demands combined efforts from public sector, research institutions, funding bodies and pharmaceutical groups, traditional healers, and the populations themselves.

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INVITRO ANTI MALARIAL POTENTIAL OF CHROZOPHORA SENEGALENSIS EXTRACTS ON CYSTEINE PROTEASE OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM

EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA FRUIT (LINN) ON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA-INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA FRUIT (LINN) ON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA-INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. An estimated 14.1million new cancer cases occurred in 2012 (GLOBOCAN, 2012). Lung, female breast, colorectal and stomach cancers accounted for more than 40% of all cases diagnosed worldwide (GLOBOCAN, 2012). In men, lung cancer was the most common cancer (16.7% of all new cases in men). Breast cancer was by far the most common cancer diagnosed in women (25.2% of all new cases in women), (Srijita-Dutta, 2015). Approximately, 32.5 million People diagnosed with cancer in 2008 were alive at the end of 2012. Most were women after their breast cancer diagnosis (6.3 million), men after their prostate cancer diagnosis (3.9 million), and men and women after their colorectal cancer diagnosis (3.5 million) (Popoola et al., 2013).

The incidence of colorectal carcinoma has been on the increase in the developing countries, including Nigeria, as a result of change in diet and adoption of western lifestyle (Echendu al., 2015). A total of 241 cases of colorectal carcinoma were reported, 144 cases (60%) in males and 96 cases (40%) in females with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. The peak age of occurrence for males was between 51 and 60 years, while that of the females was between 41 and 50 years. The malignancy was found in the rectum in 60.2% of the cases, while the least affected site is the descending colon (1.2%) (NJCP, 2011).

However, colon cancer is a disease of the large intestine which begins at a structure called the caecum, located in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and continues through all portions of the abdomen to its junction with the rectum, located in the deep pelvis (Yeatman, 2001). Colon cancer begins from colon polyps that turn cancerous and individuals who develop polyps are at the highest risk of colon cancer (College of American pathologists, 2011). Most colorectal cancers develop slowly over several years.

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EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA FRUIT (LINN) ON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA-INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF THE MODULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CADABA FARINOSA Forssk ON CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

EVALUATION OF THE MODULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CADABA FARINOSA Forssk ON CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of impaired glucose regulation, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic subjects. The development of long-term complications in diabetes is influenced by hyperglycemia. Poor control of hyperglycemia accelerates progression of diabetic complication.

Hyperglycemia, the major defining feature of all forms of diabetes, arises due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency, increased hepatic glucose production (HGP), due to increased hepatic lactate uptake produced by glycolytic cells. It has been reported that the plasma glucose level is maintained by regulation of HGP and glucose uptake in the peripheral tissues (DeFronzo and Ferrannini, 1987; Cherrington et al., 1987). Moreover, fasting plasma glucose level has been shown to be directly correlated with the rate of fasting hepatic glucose production (Bogardus et al., 1984; Firth et al., 1987). Thus, the increase in hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetes may be due to increased supply of gluconeogenic precursor (lactate) for increase gluconeogenesis. Previous studies have found that increased rates of glucose lactate interconversion termed cori cycle have been observed in diabetic dogs (Stevenson et al., 1983). Zawadzki et al. (1988) concluded that the rates of endogenous glucose production and that of Cori cycle are increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes. These showed that, increased provision of lactate is of considerable importance for increased hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is being combated through aggressive treatment directed at lowering circulating blood glucose and inhibiting postprandial hyperglycemic rise mainly by stimulating pancreatic β-cells to secret more insulin, increasing insulin receptor sensitivity, inhibiting hepatic glucose production and also enhancing glucoseuptake by glucose utilizing tissues. Current strategies to treat diabetes include reducing insulin resistance using glitazones (or thiozolidinediones) which are insulin sensitizers, supplementing insulin supplies with exogenous insulin, increasing endogenous insulin production with oral hypoglycemic such as sulfonylureas and meglitinides, reducing hepatic glucose production through biguanides, and limiting postprandial glucose absorption with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

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EVALUATION OF THE MODULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CADABA FARINOSA Forssk ON CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

EVALUATION OF THE CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF BALANITE AEGYPTICAAND ZIZIPHUS SPINA-CHRISTY SUPPLEMENTON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF THE CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF BALANITE AEGYPTICAAND ZIZIPHUS SPINA-CHRISTY SUPPLEMENTON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The causes of cancer can involve external factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and exposure to radiation, also genetically inherited factors such as genetic mutations and immune deficiencies (WHO 20014).

Estimated numbers of survivors for the 10 most prevalent cancer sites among males and females in the United States as of 2014 are 6,876,600 males and 7,607,230 females (American Cancer Society, 2014). Also in 2016, the Center for Disease Control listed cancer as the second leading cause of death behind heart disease. The loss of cellular regulation such as the mechanisms governing the control of growth and proliferation of cells often gives rise to cancer.

The National Cancer Institute suggests that there are five main categories of cancer viz-a-viz; carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma, and cancer of the central nervous system. Carcinoma is cancer arising from skin and other epithelial cells and tissue that encase organs in our body and is the most common type of malignant tumor. In contrast to carcinomas, sarcomas arise from our connective tissue such as bone, muscle and fat. Blood cancers such as leukemia arise from blood and bone marrow cells and promote the abnormal proliferation of blood progenitor cells such as leukocytes, (Zieve and Chen, 2009). Lymphoma and myeloma are also cancers targeting the immune system and thus mainly target lymphocytes and white blood cells. Lastly, cancers of the central nervous system target the brain and spinal cord and are thought to be some of the deadliest forms of this disease.

The development of cancer is suggested that initiation, promotion, and progression are the three main phases of tumor formation as reported by (Kufe et al 2003).

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EVALUATION OF THE CHEMOPREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF BALANITE AEGYPTICAAND ZIZIPHUS SPINA-CHRISTY SUPPLEMENTON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENTS AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS AND AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENTS AND TOXICOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS AND AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background

 

Increasing population of the world has doubled the food demands and inundated the available land resources. Alongside other food alternatives, vegetables are considered cheap source of energy (Hussain et al., 2009). Vegetables are rich sources of essential biochemicals and nutrients such as carbohydrates, carotene, protein, vitamins, calcium, iron, ascorbic acid and palpable concentration of trace minerals (Salunkhe and Kadam, 1998). Plants also contain compounds which can potentially compromise health. These are termed ‗anti-nutritive‘ compounds such as oxalates, tannins, nitrates which are present in spinach. Amaranth is one of important vegetables of Amaranthaceae family. Amaranth has been naturalized in central parts of Asia and possibly Iran (Kawazu et al., 2003) and has cultivation history of more than 2000 years (Daneshvar, 2000), but it is also widely grown in Nigeria and many part of the North including Kaduna state. Amaranth is eaten as a vegetable across various states in Nigeria.

Organic and inorganic fertilizers are essential for plant growth. Both fertilizers supply plants with the nutrients needed for optimum performance (Erisman et al., 2008). Organic fertilizers have been used for many centuries whereas chemically synthesized inorganic fertilizers were only widely developed during the industrial revolution. Inorganic fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth, it has been estimated that almost half the people on the earth are currently fed as a result of artificial nitrogen fertilizer use (Erisman et al., 2008). Commercial and subsistence farming has been and is still relying on the use of inorganic fertilizers for growing crops (Masarirambi et al., 2010). This is because they are easy to use, quickly absorbed and utilized by crops. The continued dependence of developing countries on inorganic fertilizers has made prices of man agricultural commodities to skyrock (Makinde et al., 2010). Most vegetable farmers in tropical Africa are small holders who cannot afford cost of inorganic fertilizers, although soil fertility limits yield of vegetables especially in urban centres (Makinde et al., 2010). In Nigeria, fertilizer being costly and sometimes scare can make farmers not apply enough for good growth (Alonge et al., 2007). Fertilizer application rates in intensive agricultural systems have increased drastically during recent years in Nigeria. Farmers depend largely on locally sourced organic fertilizers (Makinde et al., 2010). In Nigeria, huge amount of organic wastes such as poultry waste, animal excreta, sewage sludge, refuse soil and palm oil mill effluent are generated and heaped on damp sites, posing potential environmental hazard (Agboola and Omueti, 1982). Incorporating these wastes materials into the soil for crop production is expected to be beneficial to the buildup of organic matter layer that is needed for a steady supply of nutrients by tropical soils (Agboola and Omueti, 1982). However, due to high quantity needed, adequate quantity of an organic and inorganic waste may be obtained, hence the farmers often apply organic and inorganic fertilizer combined. Also, getting the appropriate application protocol or rates is important in obtaining good yield (Agboola and Omueti, 1982).

Oyedeji et al. (2014) reported that NPK and poultry manure improve the growth and yield of three different species of amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus deflexus and Amaranthus cruentus) but influenced proximate composition differently where NPK had the highest crude fibre, protein and fat while poultry manure showed the highest fat content. Emede et al. (2012) reported that poultry manure influenced the plant growth and yield of Amaranthus cruentus L. positively. Makinde et al. (2010) reported that organic material alone or in combination with NPK significantly increased protein and ash while fibre was reduced;

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DIFFERENT TYPES ,ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ,GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENTS ,TOXICOLOGICAL COMPOSITION ,AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS ,AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENTS COMPOSITION, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE CORACANA) FOOD PRODUCTS

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENTS COMPOSITION, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE CORACANA) FOOD PRODUCTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         Introduction

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder and has been defined as a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces sufficient insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin produced, therefore, the glucose in the blood cannot be taken up by the cells of the body (Goldhaber et al., 2011). Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that presently affects 415 million people of the world population and the majority are aged between 40 and 59 and 80% live in low and middle income countries (IDF,2015). Current figures indicate that people living with diabetes is expected to rise from 382 million in 2013 to 642 million by 2040, if no urgent action is taken (IDF, 2015).

The World Health Organization described diabetes as a chronic disease that causes serious complications such as; cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage (which can lead to blindness), nerve damage (of several kind) and micro vascular damage, which may cause impotence and poor healing of wounds, particularly of the feet, which can lead to gangrene and may require amputation (WHO, 2015).

Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact leading to disabilities such as; reduction in quality of life and massive rise in direct and indirect medical cost. International Diabetes Federation (IDF,2015) recommended adequate treatment of diabetes with increased emphasis on blood glucose control, lifestyle factors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, keeping a healthy body weight by increasing physical activity and a healthy eating habit which include the consumption of whole grains.

According to Global Report on Diabetes (WHO, 2016), 499 billion US dollars were spent on health care for diabetes in 2011, 548 billion in 2013 and 673 billion in 2016, but the disease is still ravaging many parts of the world especially Africa where more than three quarters of deaths from diabetes in 2013 occurred in people under 60 years which is a prime productive years(WHO,2016).

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EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENTS COMPOSITION, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE CORACANA) FOOD PRODUCTS

 

ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF THE PULP AND SEED OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA (CHINEE APPLE)

 

ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF THE PULP AND SEED OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA (CHINEE APPLE)

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

Since the beginning of human civilization, medicinal plants have been used for their therapeutic value. Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. Many of these isolations were based on the uses of the agents in traditional medicine. The plant-based, traditional medicine system continues to play an essential role in health care, with about 80% of the world‟s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care (Shaikh and Hatcher, 2005).

According to the World Health Organization “a medicinal plant” is any plant, which in one or more of its organs contains substances that can be used for the therapeutic purposes or which, are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs(WHO, 2001). This definition distinguishes those plants whose therapeutic properties and constituents have been established scientifically and plants that are regarded as medicinal but which have not yet been subjected to thorough investigation. The term “herbal drug” determines the part/parts of a plant (leaves, flowers, seeds, roots, barks, stems, etc.) used for preparing medicines (Anonymous, 2007). Furthermore, WHO defines medicinal plant as herbal preparations produced by subjecting plant materials to extraction, fractionation, purification, concentration or other physical or biological processes which may be produced for immediate consumption or as a basis for herbal products(WHO,2004). Medicinal plants are plants containing inherent active ingredients used to cure disease or relieve pain (Okigboet al., 2005).

The use of traditional medicines and medicinal plants in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed (UNESCO, 1998). Modern pharmacopoeia still contains at least 25% of drugs derived from plants and many others, which are synthetic analogues, built on prototype compounds isolated from plants. Interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well-being and the bioprospecting of new plant-derived drugs. The growing recognition for medicinal plants use is due to several reasons, including escalating faith in herbal medicine (Kala, 2005). Furthermore, an increasing reliance on the use of medicinal plants in the industrialized societies has been traced to the extraction and development of drugs and chemotherapeutics from these plants as well as from traditionally used herbal remedies (UNESCO, 1998).

The medicinal properties of plants could be based on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antipyretic effects of the phytochemicals in them (Ayodele, 2005). According to World Health Organization, medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs. Therefore, such plants should be investigated to better understand their properties, safety and efficacy (Nascimentoet al., 2000).

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ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF THE PULP AND SEED OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA (CHINEE APPLE)

ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM LEAVES

ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM LEAVES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The word hypertension is defined as a persistence increase in systemic arterial blood pressure (Sembulingam and Sembuligam, 2006). Clinically, when the systolic pressure remains elevated above 140mmHg and diastolic pressure remains elevated above 90mmHg, it is considered as hypertension. The prevalence varies with age, race, education, occupation and many other variables (Benowitz, 2009). In Nigeria for example, the true incidence of hypertension remains unknown but its prevalence among male and female is estimated to be 11.2% with age adjusted figure of 9.3% (Nurudeenet al., 2013). This translates into approximately 13.4 million Nigerians becoming hypertensive at the age of 15years and above, using the projected national population census figure of 120million (Akinkungbe, 1998). In fact, hypertension is reported to be next to malaria as most serious health problems in developing tropical countries (Agunwa, 1988).

The global dimension of hypertension is immense, as it ranks the most common cardiovascular ailment afflicting about one billion people in the world and causing roughly 7.1 million deaths annually (Brundtland, 2002). Hypertension is said to be the most common cardiovascular disease among Africans and congestive cardiac failure its commonest complication (Akinkungbe 1972, 1985). Earlier studies suggested that hypertension was rare in African population (Sharper et al., 1969, Pobeeet al., 1977), however, epidemiological transition, urbanization, adoption of urban and foreign lifestyles and improved case findings, among others, have made hypertension more prevalent as shown in some studies (Cooper et al., 1998). The last Nigerian National Non-communicable Disease Survey (NNCDS) conducted in 1997 reported 11.4% prevalence of adult hypertension, varying from 14.8% in urban to 9.8% in rural residences respectively. However, a report on Nigeria from the World

Health Organization says that, in 2008, the probability of dying between the ages of 30 and 70 years from any of the 4 main NCD is 20% while adult risk factors for raised blood pressure was 34.8% – 33.5% for males and 36.1% for females (WHO, 2008). Another report estimated 38.6% of males and 41.2% of females in the country suffered from hypertension in 2012, figures that were above the regional average for both genders (WHO, 2012). The high prevalence of hypertension together with its deleterious effect on health makes it a major public health problem.

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) is a glycoprotein with peptidyl dipeptide hydrolase activity which cleaves Angiotensin I to produce Angiotensin II in the blood. The powerful vasoconstrictive action of Angiotensin II and its stimulatory action on the synthesis and release of aldosterone favours retention of sodium and water. It also hydrolyzes and inactivates bradykinin, a peptide with a powerful vasodilatory action (Hernandez-Ledesmaet al., 2003; Wong et al., 2004). The utilization of synthetic ACE inhibitors, such as the well-known captopril, provides definitive positive health effects and is considered an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of high blood pressure, though the use of these pharmacological drugs is not advisable in healthy or low-risk populations (Carretero and Oparils, 2000).

The evidence that certain flavonoid-rich natural products can induce reductions in blood pressure and inhibit ACE activity opens the possibility that their consumption may mimic synthetic ACE inhibitors and provide preventive health benefits probably avoiding adverse side effects associated with the synthetic ones in current usage (Actis-Gorettaet al., 2006). If the formation of angiotensin II and the activation of vasodilatorykinins are suppressed by selective ACE inhibitors, there will be a lowering of blood pressure. Some plant products and substances isolated from plants show inhibitory effects on ACE (Farzamirad and Aluko, 2008).

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ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM LEAVES

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT
Cyanide is known to be one of the most toxic substances present in a wide variety of food materials that are consumed by animals.
One of the cyanide detoxifying enzymes is 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Indeed, recent studies have clearly shown that 3-MST is involved in the detoxification of cyanide.
Rhinoceros (Oryctes rhinoceros) larva feeds on dead, decayed and living plants, wood and palm. Plants are known to contain cyanide as a defence mechanism for intruding/pesting organisms. Thus, for rhinoceros larva to be able to live on plants, it must have possessed a cyanide-detoxifying enzyme.
3-MST, a cyanide-detoxifying enzyme was purified from Rhinoceros (Oryctes rhinoceros) larva in this work.
The 3-MST enzyme was isolated from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae and purified using Ammonium Sulphate Precipitation, Bio-Gel-P-100 Gel Filtration Chromatography and Reactive Blue-2-Agarose Affinity chromatography.
The specific activity of the enzyme was 0.22U/mg.
The presence of this enzyme could be exploited by including it in the diet of animals which would serve as a source of protein and 3-MST. Perhaps, these rhinoceros larva could be introduced on farmland with contaminated soil whereby they will process the dead roots and plants into soil thereby providing more space and manure for plants to grow healthy.

 

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ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY