THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROQUINE, PARACETAMOL AND PROMETHAZINE ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF CHLORPROPAMIDE IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics is the study of the time course of drug and metabolite levels in different fluids, tissues, and excreta of the body, and of the mathematical relationships required to develop models to interpret such data (Gibaldi and Perrier, 2004). Neligan (2006) defined Pharmacokinetics as the study of what the body does to a drug.

Pharmacokinetics can also be defined as the study of the time course of drug movement in the body during absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (excretion and biotransformation) (Sadee and Beelen, 1980; Coker, 2001). Pharmacokinetic studies can be applied for the safe and effective therapeutic management of a patient. The pharmacokinetic profile of a drug strongly influences its delivery to biological targets, thereby affecting its efficacy and potential side effects (Van de water beemd and Gifford, 2003).

The Pharmacokinetics of a compound are typically understood, analyzed and interpreted in the context of their underlying absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) processes (Gram, 2003). However, there is no unique mathematical model for any of these processes, usually a number of different models with different underlying assumptions, parameterization and applicability are concurrent (Poulin and Theil, 2002). Absorption is the process by which a drug proceeds from the site of administration to the site of measurement within the body (Brodie, 2007).

The routes of drug administration are: oral, intravenous, buccal, sublingual, rectal, intramuscular, transdermal, subcutaneous, inhalational and topical (Neligan, 2006). Of all these routes, the usual way of administration is the oral route (Benet, 1998). The rate of absorption of a drug depends upon its dissolution characteristics, its ability to pass through biological membranes and upon a number of physiological variables (gastrointestinal) motility, presence of food in gastrointestinal tract etc. Apart from physiochemical properties of the drug (ionization constant, lipid-en water solubility, molecular radius, diffusion coefficient) also the pharmaceutical formulation may be of extreme importance in determining rate of absorption (Bozler and Van Rossum, 2002). We have linear and non-linear absorptions. Linear absorption is the type of absorption whereby the free diffusion of a drug through biomembranes is the rate limiting step in absorption. The non-linear absorption is the type of absorption where some other steps become the rate limiting step.

For instance, dissolution of drug in the gastrointestinal fluid, non-linear phenomenon in the absorption process will arise (Birkett, 2002). Some drugs require the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract to be absorbed, others on the contrary are better absorbed when taken in an empty stomach (Health Encyclopedia, 2006). Distribution is the process of reversible transfer of a drug to and from the site of measurement (Birkett, 2002). Some of the factors that determine the distribution of a drug in the body are: blood flow; protein binding; and lipid solubility and the degree of ionization.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROQUINE, PARACETAMOL AND PROMETHAZINE ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF CHLORPROPAMIDE IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

PREVALENCE OF DIROFILARIA IMMITIS IN DOGS IN ZARIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTON

1.1         Background of Study

Dirofilaria is a nematode parasite that is widely enzootic in carnivores especially dog. Itis of the family filariidae (Soulsby, 1982). There are two known species of importance in dogs: Dirofilaria repens (D. repens) and Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis), of which D. immitis is more important and is commonly called the dog heart worm. The adult wormsare found in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries of dogs and mammals (Gerald and Larry, 1989; Urguhart et al., 2003) and are responsible for delabitating condition known as canine heart worm (CHW) disease or dirofilarosis. Dirofilarosis cause by D. immitis is zoonotic and is transmitted by the mosquito vector (Urguhar et al., 2003).

Heartworms go through several live stages before they become adults to infect the pulmonary artery of the host animal. The worms require the mosquito as an intermediate host in order to complete their life cycle. The rate of development in the mosquito is temperature dependent, requiring approximately two weeks of temperature at above 27oC (80oF). Below a threshold temperature of 14oC, development cannot occur, and the cycle will be halted (Knight, 2000). As a result, transmission is limited to warm months and duration of the transmission season varies geographically. The period between the initial infection when the dog is bitten by a mosquito and the maturation of the worms into adults living in the heart takes six(6) to seven(7) months and its known as the “prepatent period”.

Clinically, the signs of D. immitis infection in dogs are laziness, exercise intolerance, and chronic soft cough with haemophisis. In later stage there are dyspnoe, sometimes edema of the lower limbs and escites, haemoglobnuria, icterus, and collapse of the host usually due to venacaual syndrome (Urguhart et al., 2003).

Canine heartworm infection can be diagnosed based on the clinical signs of cardiovascular dysfunction; demonstration of microfilaria in the blood; thoracic radiography showing thickening pulmonary artery and/ or a positive enzyme linked immunosurbent Assay (E.L.I.S.A) immunochromatography test system. At postmortem, presence of worms in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery are diagnostic.

Dirofilariasis manifests either as subcutaneous nodules or asymptomatic parenchymadisease in human. These lesions are often misdiagnosed as malignant tumors, requiring invasive investigation and surgery (Bionote, 2010).

Heartworm has now spread to nearly all locations where the mosquito vector is found. Transmission of the parasite occurs in all of the United States (cases has been reported in Alaska and the warmer regions of Canada). The highest infection rates are found within 150 miles of the coast from Texas to New Jersey, and along the Mississippi river and its major tributaries. It has also been found in South America, Southern Europe, Southern Asia, The Middle East, Australia, Korea and Japan. ( Edward, 2003).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE OF DIROFILARIA IMMITIS IN DOGS IN ZARIA

EFFECTS OF COPPER AND LEAD ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SALVINIA MOLESTA, PISTIA STRATIOTES AND LEMNA TRISULCA AND THEIR PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIALS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1         General Introduction

A pollutant is any substance in the environment, which causes objectionable effects, impairing the welfare of the environment, reducing the quality of life and may eventually cause death. Such a substance has to be present in the environment beyond a set or tolerance limit, which could be either a desirable or acceptable limit. Environment is defined as the totality of circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms especially, the combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development and survival of organisms (FarlexIncorporated, 2005). It consists of the flora, fauna and the abiotic components, and includes the aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric habitats. The environment is considered in terms of the most tangible aspects like air, water and food, and the less tangible, though no less important, the communities we live in.

Comprising over 70% of the Earth‟s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet (Terry, 1996). Population growth, urbanization and industrialization have led to rapid degradation of the environment and publichealth due to improper sewage disposal, especially in developing countries. Conventional solutions are inappropriateand expensive because the infrastructures and skilled labour are lacking.

The development of the intensive agriculture in Nigeria between 1960 and 1990 totally neglected the aspect connected with the negative impact of the chemical compounds toxic on the air, water and soil. As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals. Contamination of the aquatic environment by the heavy metals

has become a serious concern in the developing world(Chandra et al., 1997). Heavy metals unlike organic pollutants are the persistent in nature, therefore, tends to accumulate in the different components of the environment (Chandra et al., 1997). Sources of metals in the environment are widespread and data on typical concentrations in the various media and environmental settings exits worldwide (Mwamburi, 2015).These metals are released from a variety of sources such as mining, urban sewage, smelters, tanneries, textile industry and chemical industry.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Aquatic environments are increasingly affected by human activity because of urban, industrial, mineraland agricultural waste. The use of the ocean as a dumpingground for wastes could lead to high levels of pollution in the aquatic environment (Bramha et al.,2014; Bodin et al., 2013). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases, the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers as well). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily(Pink, 2006; West, 2006).

The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals and pathogens. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring  (calcium,  sodium,  iron,  manganese,  etc.)  the  concentration  is  often  the  key  in determining  what  is  a  natural  component  of  water,  and  what  is  a  contaminant.  High xxiv

concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials, such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances such as may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species (EPA, 2005).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

EFFECTS OF COPPER AND LEAD ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SALVINIA MOLESTA, PISTIA STRATIOTES AND LEMNA TRISULCA AND THEIR PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIALS

UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED MUCUNA PRURIENS LEAF MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR SOYABEAN MEAL IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS DIETS

UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED MUCUNA PRURIENS LEAF MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR SOYABEAN MEAL IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS DIETS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

The intensive production of farmed fish with compound feeds, has been largely increased mainly due to the growth of aquaculture production, and also because it is the most efficient way of production to meet the fish demand (Olsen and Hasan, 2012). Although, capture fishery production has been relatively stable at about 90 million tonnes since the 1990s, the rising demand for fishery products has not been met by a fast-growing aquaculture industry, which set an all-time high record at 67 million tonnes in 2012, providing 50% of the fish used for human consumption (FAO, 2014). In fish farming, nutrition is critical because fish feed represents about 60% of the total production costs (Sogbesan et al., 2006). Protein component represents about 50% of feed cost in intensive culture (El-Sayed, 2005). Therefore, the selection of proper quantity and quality of dietary protein is a necessary tool for successful fish culture practices.

Soya bean meal (SBM) is one of the most nutritious of all plant protein sources (Batal, 2000). Due to its high protein content, high digestibility and relatively well balanced amino acid profiles, it is widely used as feed ingredient for many aquaculture species (Storebakken et al., 2000). It is currently the most commonly used plant protein source in fish feed. Lim and Akiyama (1992) reported that soya bean products have been used to replace a significant portion of fish meal in fish feed with nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, wider utilization and availability of this conventional source for fish feed is limited by increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001), hence the need to focus on using less expensive and readily available plant protein sources to replace soya bean meal without reducing the nutritional quality of the feed becomes imperative.

The Mucuna pruriens belongs to the family Fabaceae and has been described as a multipurpose plant which is used extensively both for its nutritional and medicinal properties (Adepoju and Odubena, 2009). It is twinning and tropical legume known as velvet bean and of common names such as: cow-itch, cowhage, Bengal beans, itchy bean, buffalo bean and velvet bean (English), while it’s called Agbara (Igbo), Yerepe (Yoruba) and Karara (Hausa) (Manyham et al., 2004). The roots are bitter, stimulants, purgative, aphrodisiac and diuretic. The leaves of Mucuna pruriens are used as remedy for various diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, dysentery, and cardiovascular diseases (Barrows et al., 2008). Mucuna pruriens has been shown to increase testosterone levels (Amin et al.,1996), leading to deposition of protein in the muscles and increased muscle mass and strength (Bhasin et al., 1996), and some medicinal properties attributed to the plant include that the roots are thermogenic, antihelminthic, and also used to relieve constipation, neuropathy and ulcer (Warrier et al.,1996). The seeds have been found to have anti-depressant properties when consumed, and it has also shown to be neuro-protective (Manyham et al., 2004).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED MUCUNA PRURIENS LEAF MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR SOYABEAN MEAL IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS DIETS

TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most challenging problems encountered in Nigeria is the improper disposal of industrial effluents into water bodies. These effluents from industries have a great deal of influence have a great deal of influence on the pollution of the water body, these effluents can alter the physical, chemical and the nature of the receiving water body (Sangodoyin, 1995).

Water bodies which are major receptacles of treated and untreated or partially treated industrial wastes have become highly polluted. The resultant effects on this on public health and the environment are usually great in magnitude (Osibanjo, et al., 2011). Textile industries form part of these prominent industries with attendant‟s indiscriminate discharge of effluent into the surrounding water bodies. They constitute severe environmental problems because the effluent are made up of complex composition such as chemical reagents, which are very diverse in chemical composition ranging from inorganic compounds to polymers and organic products such as dyes plasticizers, detergents (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).

They form one of the main sources with severe pollution problems world wide and its dye-containing wastewaters (i.e. 10,000 different textile dyes with an estimated annual production of 7.105 metric tones are commercially available worldwide; 30% of these dyes are used in excess of 1,000 tones per annum, and 90% of the textile products are used at the level of 100 tones per annum or less) (Robinson et. al.2001 Solomon et. al. 2009 Baban et al.2010).The discharge of dye-containing effluents into the water environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many of dyes released and their breakdown products are toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic to life forms mainly because of carcinogens, such as benzidine, naphthalene and other aromatic compounds. Without adequate treatment these dyes can remain in the environment for a long period of time affecting terrestrial and aquatic environments. The physico chemical parameters of water are thus affected such as temperature, pH, hardness, dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand (Auta, 2001).Water pollution is the resultant effect of these textile discharges and these pollutants build up in the foodchain. They accumulate in the organism and persist in the environment due to their stability or poor biodegradability (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE (HERBICIDE) TO JUVENILES OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BÜRCHELL, 1822)

TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE (HERBICIDE) TO JUVENILES OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BÜRCHELL, 1822)

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Information

 

 

The ever-increasing world population and the attendant increase in food demandnecessitated that new ways of increasing agricultural output be sought. In an attempt to increase agricultural output, man relies heavily on the use of chemicals to protect crops from pests, right from the time of dressing of seeds before planting, through fighting weeds and other pests on the farm, to the preservation of already harvested products. On one side, benefits derived from the use of pesticides in agriculture are immense, but on the other side, environmental pollution and/or degradation is one major problem that is linked to their application (Olusegun, 2001).

The competition for survival between humans and other organisms in the environment dates back to the beginning of history. Insects, rodents and generally pests have taken a serious liking for cultivated crops (Olusegun, 2001), or the conducive environments in which they are grown. This competition became more intense as humans continued to modify the environment, leading to the evolution of an organized pattern of pest control through the development of pesticides (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979).

At its onset, the development of pesticides was actually slow and limited in application. In such instances, their use was highly restricted to small acreage, hence small and restricted impacts on the environment (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979). The increase in the world population led to the increase in the use of pesticides, resulting in higher and more pronounced impacts on the environment.

The presence of pesticides in the environment has caused significant social and scientific development anxiety worldwide, as their all-over-the-world extensive usage can create potential risks to the environment and human health, and easily pollute bodies of water thereby resulting in extensive damage to non-target species, including fish (Moreno et al., 2010). Be it by intentional or unintentional application, water is contaminated through direct application into the aquatic system, drifts during spray, atmospheric fallout as rain and dust, soil erosion, sewage, industrial effluent and occasionally by spillage (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE (HERBICIDE) TO JUVENILES OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BÜRCHELL, 1822)

SEROPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RUBELLA VIRUS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

SEROPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RUBELLA VIRUS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Rubella is a mild viral illness commonly known as German measles though its etiologic agent differs from Measles (Nayeri and Thung, 2013; NICE, 2013). It is also called „three day measles‟ because of the short duration of the rash (Bubuk et al., 2002; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). Rubella rash starts on the face and neck and spreads centrifugally to the trunk and extremities within 24 hours (Heymann, 2008; Pickering et al., 2012; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). The rash begins to fade on the face on the second day and disappears throughout the body by the end of the third day (Gabbe et al., 2002; Heymann, 2008; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). The disease is contagious and can affect people of all ages and sex (Hobman et al., 2007). The name Rubella was coined from Latin and it means “little red”. Rubella was initially considered to be a variant of measles or scarlet fever and thus called “third exanthematous disease of childhood”. It was first described as a separate disease in the German medical literature by German physicians, de Bergan and Orlow, hence the common name “German measles” (Lee and Bowden, 2000; Atkinson, 2011).

The etiologic agent of the disease is Rubella virus (Deka, et al., 2006; Murry, 2006). It is an enveloped, non-segmented, positive-stranded, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus which replicates in the cytoplasm (Frey, 1994; Hobman et al., 2007). It is the only member of the Rubi virus genus belonging to the family; toga viridae (Lee and Bowden, 2000; Chantler et al., 2001; Heymann, 2008).

The rubella virus genome consists of less than 10,000 nucleotides and encodes five proteins including three structural proteins: E1 glycoprotein, E2 glycoprotein and capsid protein and two non-structural proteins: P150 and P90. The E1 glycoprotein is a structural glycoprotein with neutralising epitopes (WHO, 2000; Chantler et al., 2001; Plotkin and Reef, 2004). According to a report on the meeting organised by World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 to discuss the standardization of nomenclature for describing the genetic characteristics of wild-type rubella virus, the E1 gene sequence between genome positions 8731 and 9469 was recommended as a target site for routine genotyping analysis for molecular epidemiology (WHO, 2005).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

SEROPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RUBELLA VIRUS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

SCREENING FOR VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING HOSPITALS IN SAMARU, ZARIA- NIGERIA.

SCREENING FOR VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING HOSPITALS IN SAMARU, ZARIA- NIGERIA.

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the susceptibility of S.aureus to Vancomycin and other antibiotics used for the treatment of patients attending Hospitals in Samaru. A total of 400 samples comprising urine (250), wound (75) and pus swab (75) were analysed. The clinical samples yielded a prevalence of 71 (17.80%) of S.aureus by conventional method and confirmed with microgen analytical test kit.Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disc diffusion method. There was a higher prevalence of S.aureus from in-patient than out-patient. The highest frequency of S.aureus was found in age group (0-9 years). The S. aureus strains showed a 100.00% susceptibility to vancomycin and gentamicin but showed resistance to ampicillin (90.10%), chloramphenicol (12.70%), erythromycin (28.20%), cefoxitin (33.80%), tetracycline(14.10%), and linezolid (9.90%). In this study, the MIC of Ampicillin againstS.aureus ranged from 3.91 µg/ml to 62.50µg/ml, Tetracycline ranged 15.63-31.25µg/ml, Cefoxitin ranged from 7.81µg/ml to 62.50µg/ml, Chloramphenicol ranged from 3.91-31.25µg/ml and Erythromycin ranged from 3.91-15.63µg/ml. While the MBC of Ampicillin against S.aureus ranged from 7.81-125.00µg/ml, Tetracycline ranged from 31.25-62.50µg/ml, Cefoxitin ranged from 15.63-125.00µg/ml, Chloramphenicol ranged from 7.81-62.50µg/ml and Erythromycin ranged from 7.81-31.25µg/ml. The study showed that a significant percentage of the isolates were resistant to different antibiotics used suggesting the need for control strategies to avoid dissemination of resistant strains.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus)continues to be a major cause of community-acquired and healthcare related infections around the world (Lowy, 1998). Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to cause diverse array of diseases ranging from minor infection to life threatening septicaemia and its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions (Franklin,2003). The emergence of high levels of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semi-synthetic penicillins (methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin), macrolides, tetracyclines and aminoglycosides has made the therapy of staphylococcal disease a global challenge (Lowy, 1998; Saderi et al., 2005).

In the 1980s, due to the widespread occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), empiric therapy of the infections (particularly nosocomial sepsis) was changed to vancomycin in many countries which also increased during this period because of the growing number of infections with Clostridium difficile and coagulase-negative Staphylococci in healthcare facilities (Saderi et al., 2005). Thus, the early 1990s saw a discernible increase in vancomycin use. As a consequence, selective pressure was established that eventually led to the emergence of strains of S. aureus and other species of staphylococci with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin reported from Japan (Hiramatsu et al., 1997; Saderi et al., 2005).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

SCREENING FOR VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING HOSPITALS IN SAMARU, ZARIA- NIGERIA.

REPLACEMENT OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merr. WITH TAMARINDUS INDICA L. SEED IN THE DIET OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) FINGERLINGS

REPLACEMENT OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merr. WITH TAMARINDUS INDICA L. SEED IN THE DIET OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) FINGERLINGS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

Fish is an important source of both food and income to many people in developing countries. The exponential growth of the aquaculture sector during the past two decades is a result of the progressive intensification of production systems and use of quality feeds, which meet the nutritional requirements of cultured fish (FAO, 2006). Stimulated by higher global demand for fish, world fisheries and aquaculture production reached 157million tons in 2012 and is projected to reach about 172 million tons in 2021, with most of the growth coming from aquaculture (FAO, 2013). This increase of aquaculture production must be supported by a corresponding increase in the production of designed diets for the cultured aquatic animals (Rahman et al., 2013).

In culturing fish in captivity, nothing is more important than sound nutrition and adequate feeding and feeding takes up 50 to 60 percent of cost of production. If the feed is not consumed by the fish or if the fish are unable to utilize the feed because of some nutrient deficiency, then there will be no growth. An undernourished animal cannot maintain its health and be productive, regardless of the quality of its environment. The production of nutritionally balanced diets for fish requires efforts in research, quality control, and biological evaluation. Faulty nutrition impairs fish productivity and results in a deterioration of health until recognisable diseases ensues.

Tilapia is the common name given to three genera of fish in the family Cichlidae namely Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and Tilapia (Santiago and Laron, 2002). However, Tilapia is not the most cultured fish in Nigeria but regionally, tilapia is the most preferred cultured fish in East Africa and are the second most important cultured fish in the world after carps (El-Sayed, 2006). Tilapia growth is attributed to high resistance to diseases, ability to survive at low oxygen tensions and ability to feed on wide range of foods including feed with anti-nutrients contents. Nile tilapias are relatively inexpensive fish to feed unlike other carnivorous finfish thanks to their low trophic feeding level and herbivorous mode of feeding.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

REPLACEMENT OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merr. WITH TAMARINDUS INDICA L. SEED IN THE DIET OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) FINGERLINGS

 

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM REFINERY EFFLUENT USING SAWDUST INOCULATED WITH ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM SPECIES

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM REFINERY EFFLUENT USING SAWDUST INOCULATED WITH ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM SPECIES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

It has long been established that, waste effluents from petroleum refineries are heavily contaminated with a wide range of toxic organic compounds (Zhu et al., 2001; Bako et al., 2002; Vanhamme et al., 2003) and heavy metals (Beddri and Ismail, 2007; Marcus and Ekpete, 2014). The literature is also replete with evidence of the harmful impacts of these toxic pollutants on the environment and human health (Varsha et al., 2010; Mudhoo et al., 2011; Ramzan etal., 2011; Silins and Johan 2011; Tokar, et al., 2011; Marcus et al., 2013; Ho et al., 2014). The known toxic pollutant metals include lead, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, arsenic and mercury (Hamza-Izzeldinet al., 2013). These metal ions are toxic to humans, aquatic flora and fauna. Lead, cadmium and nickel may be accumulated in the human body causing different diseases such as erythrocyte destruction, muscular cramps, renal degradation, pulmonary fibrosis, skeletal deformity, diarrhea, dermatitis and encephalopathy. They also suppress plant and animal life, damage aquatic life and kill microorganisms (Okerentugba and Ezeronye, 2003; Alao et al., 2010).

Many of the conventional treatment technologies such as chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, solidification, ultrafiltration, flocculation, electrolyte extraction, dilution, sedimentation, evaporation, reverse osmosis, neutralization and membrane separation have been used for removal of metal ions from solution (Yan and Viraraghauan, 2005; Ahluwalia and Goyal, 2007; Amany et al., 2015). However the application of such methods is limited because of economical or technical constraints. The methods have also been reported to be inefficient in the removal of heavy metals from effluent (Bishnoi and Garima, 2004; Iqbal et al., 2005; Otukunefor and Obiukwu, 2005; Ezzouhri etal., 2009).

For these reasons, the past two decades have witnessed continuous and consistent search for efficient, cost effective and eco-friendly means of treating waste and effluents from petroleum related industries prior to their release into the environment (Kapoor et al., 1999; Park et al., 2006; Demirbas, 2008; Khashimova et al., 2008; Farooq et al., 2010). The outcome of such researchestablished adsorption as the most effective and versatile technique for heavy metals removal even at very low concentration (Rao et al., 2010; Dhokpande and Kaware, 2013; Mohammed et al., 2015). However, the high price of adsorbents (usually activated carbon) is the major problem for industrial applications. Biological methods such as biosorptionor bioaccumulation strategies for the removal of metalsions may provide an attractive alternative to existing technologies(Volesky and Holan, 1995; Preetha and Viuthagiri, 2005; Wuyep et al., 2007; Dhankhar and Hooda, 2011).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM REFINERY EFFLUENT USING SAWDUST INOCULATED WITH ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM SPECIES

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GLUCOAMYLASE USING CANDIDA FAMATA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED MASHED PINEAPPLE MUST UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GLUCOAMYLASE USING CANDIDA FAMATA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED MASHED PINEAPPLE MUST UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

 

 

Glucoamylases also known as (α-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase, amyloglucosidase) are important enzymes that allow the hydrolysis of starch and related polymers to glucose, they can be obtained from microbial as well as other sources. The major application of glucoamylase is the saccharification of partially processed starch/dextrin to glucose, which is an essential substrate for numerous fermentation processes and a range of food and beverage industries. Glucoamylase consecutively hydrolyzes alpha 1,4-glycosidic bonds from the non-reducing ends of starch and alpha 1,6-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides yielding glucose as the end-product, which in turn serves as a feedstock for biological fermentations (Norouzian et al., 2006; Siddhartha et al., 2012). A more technical name is (1,4) glucan glycohydrolase where glucan is the name for a series of glucose units attached and glycohydrolase describes the breaking of the bond between two glucose units. Glucoamylase has a wide range of use among industrial enzymes. This enzyme is used in the baking industry, the brewing process, and the most important application of glucoamylase is the production of high glucose syrups, it also has various applications in major areas of food processing, animal nutrition, fermentation biotechnology, paper making, fabric industries and in whole grain hydrolysis for the alcohol industry (Selvakumar et al., 1996; Zambare, 2010). Glucoamylases of microbial origin are divided into exo-acting, endo-acting, debranching and cyclodextrin producing enzymes. Glucoamylases hydrolyze α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages and produce glucose as the sole end product from starch and related polymers (Svensson et al., 2000; Parbat and Singhal, 2011).

Glucoamylases are industrially important hydrolytic enzymes of biotechnological significance and are currently used for dextrose production, confectionary, baking and in pharmaceuticals. Glucoamylase is an economically important enzyme because of its capacity to hydrolyse starch and related polymers into β-D-glucose as the sole end product, the principal industrial use of glucoamylase is therefore, the production of glucose, which in turn serves as a feedstock for biological fermentations in the production of ethanol or high fructose syrups, it is a key enzyme in the production of saké and soy sauce. Glucoamylase is also used to improve barley mash for beer production. (Pandey et al., 2000; Pavezzi et al., 2008; Zambare, 2010).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GLUCOAMYLASE USING CANDIDA FAMATA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED MASHED PINEAPPLE MUST UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN RELATION TO THE OCCURRENCE OF INTERMEDIATE SNAIL HOST IN PARTS OF ZANGON-KATAF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN RELATION TO THE OCCURRENCE OF INTERMEDIATE SNAIL HOST IN PARTS OF ZANGON-KATAF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by parasitic fluke of the genus Schistosoma. There are five most common species that infect humans. These species include, S. mansoni, found in Africa and South America; S. haematobium, found in Africa and the Middle East; S. intercalatum, found in Central and West Africa; S. japonicum, found in China, Southeast Asia, and the Philippines; and S. mekongi, found in parts of Southeast Asia (Sturrock, 2001). Schistosoma guineensis has been recently discovered in as one of the common important schistosome species that infect humans (Webster et al., 2006). It was identified 2003 in the western Africa, mainly in Cameroon, Equatoral Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria etc (WHO 2010). Schistosomiasis is also referred to as Bilharziasis. This is because it was discovered by Theodore Bilharz (1951), a German surgeon working in Cairo who first identified the etiological agent, Schistosoma haematobium (Ross et al., 2006).

Schistosomes are helminth parasites whose adult forms live in the blood stream of humans, hence, the name blood flukes. The two species present in Africa are Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni (Cunin et al., 2003). Their life cycle involves two hosts (a definitive host and an intermediate host). The definitive host for both species is man, while the intermediate host for S. mansoni and S. haematobium are snails of the genus Biomphalaria and Bulinus species respectively. The species differ as follows: their predilection site (i.e.final location) in the human host, the species of the intermediate (snail) host involved in their life cycle, the pathology they induce and the number, size and shape of the eggs they produce.

The presence of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in Africa had brought about two major forms of schistosomiasis affecting humans in Africa. These are the urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, which are caused by Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni respectively (Colley et al., 2014).

Schistosomiasis usually manifests as a chronic and debilitating disease in humans. It is the most prevalent of the waterborne diseases and one of the greatest risks to health in rural areas of developing countries. The disease is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas, especially in poor communities that have low access to usable water bodies and adequate sanitation (Ogbe, 2002). Urinary schistosomiasis affecting the urinary tract involves Schistosoma haematobium with an appropriate aquatic snail intermediate host called Bulinus species. The worms live in the blood vessels of the bladder and rectum.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN RELATION TO THE OCCURRENCE OF INTERMEDIATE SNAIL HOST IN PARTS OF ZANGON-KATAF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DAKACE DISTRICT, ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DAKACE DISTRICT, ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Schistosomes are important human and animal parasites throughout Africa, Asia and South America, predominantly in rural areas that support agriculture and inland fisheries. The distribution of Schistosomes are linked to that of their snail intermediate hosts (Bulinus and Biomphlaria spp.), which differ in their habitat preferences for slow-flowing or still waters (CDC, 2011). The impact of schistosomiasis has long been underestimated (Bergquist, 2002). It ranks second only to malaria as the most common parasitic disease, killing an estimated 280,000 people each year in the African region alone (CDC, 2011). The prevalence of schistosomiasis, like most parasitic disease is related to poverty and poor living conditions (Engels et al., 2002).

Despite intensive efforts to control the disease, it has been found to affect nearly 240 million people worldwide each year and more than 700 million people live in endemic areas (WHO, 2010). Nonetheless, 85% of the cases reported annually occur in sub-Saharan Africa and over 150,000 deaths are associated with chronic infection caused by S. haematobium in the African region (Hotez and Kamath, 2009; WHO, 2010). Schitosomiasis with soil-transmitted helminthiasis continue to represent more than 40% of the disease burden caused by all tropical diseases, excluding malaria (Hotez and Kamath, 2009). The disease is common in the Niger basin and is found in every country within the West African sub-region (Brown and Wright, 1985; Hegertun et al., 2013).

In Nigeria, one of the most severely affected countries in Africa, it is estimated that 101.28 million people are at risk of infection while 25.83 million are infected with Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma intercalatum (Chitsulo et al., 2000). The risk and reemergence of urinary schistosomiasis is attributed to the range of snail habitats promoted by water development schemes such as dam construction (WHO, 2010). Furthermore, school age children who have frequent water contact are more vulnerable to schistosomiasis, and hence this age group that are often associated more frequently with schistosomiasis problems (Deribe et al., 2011; Bala et al., 2012).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DAKACE DISTRICT, ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES AND CO-INFECTION WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS AMONG SELECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING ABUTH, ZARIA-NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES AND CO-INFECTION WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS AMONG SELECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING ABUTH, ZARIA-NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Infectious agents are important contributors to the global cancer burden particularly in Africa. Of the 12.7 million new cancer cases diagnosed worldwide in 2008, about two million were attributable to infectious agents, of which 1.6 million occurred in less developed regions of the world (Odutola, et al., 2016). In its 2009 review of the carcinogenicity of infectious agents, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) found sufficient evidence to conclude that seven viruses: human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), Kaposi‘s sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), were carcinogenic to humans (Odutola, et al., 2016).

In March, 1964 the Lancet Medical Journal published a remarkable piece of research from three scientists called Anthony Epstein, Yvonne Barr, and Burt Achong. They had discovered the first human virus that is the etiology of cancer, and the virus was named after them: Epstein-Barr virus, EBV (Smith, 2014). Owing to Burkitt‘s intrepid studies in Africa and Epstein‘s persistence, we now know that EBV infection plays a role in diverse types of cancer, including lymphomas, nasopharyngeal cancers and some stomach cancers (Smith, 2014).

Epstein-Barr virus was the first human virus to be directly implicated in carcinogenesis (Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004). It infects >90% of the world‘s population (Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004). Although most humans coexist with the virus without serious sequelae, a small proportion progress to develop tumors (Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004). Normal host populations can have vastly different susceptibility to EBV-related tumors as demonstrated by geographical and immunological variations in the prevalence of these cancers (Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004). The presence of this virus has also been associated with epithelial malignancies arising in the gastric region and the breast, although some of this work remains in dispute(Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004). Epstein-Barr virus uses its viral proteins, the actions of which mimic several growth factors, transcription factors, and anti- apoptotic factors, to usurp control of the cellular pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions (Thompson and Kurzrock, 2004).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES AND CO-INFECTION WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS AMONG SELECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING ABUTH, ZARIA-NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN ASSOCIATION WITH BODY MASS INDICES OF CHILDREN 0-5 YEARS PRESENTING WITH GASTROENTERITIS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN ASSOCIATION WITH BODY MASS INDICES OF CHILDREN 0-5 YEARS PRESENTING WITH GASTROENTERITIS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION 

1.1         Background to the Study

Acute gastroenteritis presenting as infant diarrhoea remains a common illness among infants and children throughout the world. Among children in the United States, acute diarrhoea accounts for more than 1.5 million outpatients, 200,000 hospitalized inpatients and about 300 deaths per year (Zimmerman et al., 2001; CDC, 2014). It has been established that in the very poor countries of Africa, Asia and South America a child suffers up to 15 to 19 episodes of diarrhoea with 4.6 million to 6 million deaths annually (Grote et al., 2011). In Nigeria, available report indicates that more than 315,000 deaths of preschool age children occur annually as a result of infantile diarrhoea disease with 80% of the population affected (Aminu et al., 2008; Ayolabi et al., 2012).

Gastroenteritis or gastro is an illness caused by infection and/or inflammation of the digestive tract. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and/or stomach cramps. Other symptoms may include fever, headache, blood or pus in the faeces, loss of appetite, bloating, lethargy and body aches (CDC, 2014). Infectious gastroenteritis is caused by a variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Intestinal parasites have a worldwide distribution and have been associated with gastroenteritis in children. One of the most common intestinal protozoa parasite is Giardia lamblia (Jelinek and Neifer, 2013).

Among the intestinal flagellates, Giardia lamblia and Dientamoeba fragilis are pathogenic to man (Monali et al., 2012). The highest rates of infection are therefore encountered in developing countries (10-30% in young children). While in developed countries, infections occur mostly in persons living in closed communities, homosexual men, immigrants and of increasing importance travelers returning from highly endemic countries (Carmena et al., 2012; Jelinek and Neifer, 2013).

About 3.5 billion people are infected worldwide and about 450 million people are ill due to these infections which are mainly in children of about 2-14 years. The infections cause iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation and other physical and mental problems in children (Nyamngee et al., 2006).

Giardia is an enteric protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, being the causative agent of gastrointestinal disease of humans in both developing and developed countries (Jombo et al., 2011). Giardial infection also has significant impact on livestock health, causing diarrhoea and loss of weight (Carmena et al., 2012).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN ASSOCIATION WITH BODY MASS INDICES OF CHILDREN 0-5 YEARS PRESENTING WITH GASTROENTERITIS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIIC SUSCEPTIBILTY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN – RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSAMONG THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.

PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIIC SUSCEPTIBILTY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN – RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSAMONG THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the species of the genus Staphylococcus. It is a gram positive, non-motile, catalase positive, coagulase positive, facultative anaerobe, involved in causing a number of diseases including boils, pustules, impetigo, osteomyelitis, mastitis, septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome. For humans, this organism is an important cause of food borne intoxication, pneumonia, post-operative wound infections, and nosocomial bacteremia (Umaru et al., 2011). Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most resistant of all non-spore forming pathogens, with well-developed capacities to withstand high salt concentrations (7.5 – 10%), extremes in pH and high temperatures (up to 60OC for 60minutes), it also remains viable after months of air–drying and resists the effects of many disinfectants and has overcome most of the therapeutic agents that have been developed in recent years and hence, antimicrobial chemotherapy for this species has always been empirical (Jun et al., 2004). Its mechanism of resistance to beta lactam and the fluoroquinolones has been documented (Kloos, 1998).

Staphylococcus aureus colonises the skin and nasal carriage occurs in about 25-30% of healthy people (Chambers, 2009). It is a versatile human pathogen responsible for nosocomial (Hospital acquired) and community acquired (CA) infection, with clinical manifestation of superficial and systemic diseases, associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The unique characteristic of S.aureus is the production of virulence factors responsible for the establishment of staphylococcal diseases and propensity to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics ( Tenoveret al., 2000; Chambers, 2009).It has also been reported that S. aureus strains have a wide variety of multi-drug resistant genes on plasmids, which can be exchanged and spread among different species of staphylococcus and can be transferred to new bacterial hosts by any of transduction, conjugation or transformation (Lujanet al., 2007).

Staphylococcus aureus is known to be notorious in their acquisition of resistance to new drugs and continues to defy control measures (Talaro and Talaro, 2002). Many strains of S. aureus carry a wide variety of multi-drug resistance genes on plasmids. Staphylococcus aureus are frequently resistant to penicillinase-reistant penicillin‘s. An organism exhibiting this type of resistance is referred to as methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Such organisms are also frequently resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents, including the amino-glycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones (Tenover and Gaynes, 2002; Ikeagwu et al., 2008;Umaru et al.,2011).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIIC SUSCEPTIBILTY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN – RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSAMONG THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH SPECIES DIVERSITY OF DADIN-KOWA RESERVOIR, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH SPECIES DIVERSITY OF DADIN-KOWA RESERVOIR, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The rapid urbanization of many towns and cities across the world necessitate theconstruction of reservoirs to supply these towns with potable pipe borne water. Dadin-Kowareservoir is one of such water bodies located in the north east of Nigeria in Gombe State. It supplies municipal water to Dadin-Kowa,YamaltuDeba Local Government Area and other parts of Gombe State. Reservoirs apartfrom their primary function also have secondary uses for fisheries and irrigation of farmlands(Ahmed and Philip, 2012).

Water is an essential component for life on earth. It contains minerals which are extremelyimportant in human nutrition (Versari et al., 2002). However, the drastic increase inpopulation results in an enormous depletion (Ho et al.,2003). It is observed that human activities are a major factor determining the quantity and quality of thewater through atmospheric pollution, effluent dischargesand use of agricultural chemicals,eroded soils and land use (Sillanpa et al., 2004).As pointed out by Kofi(2001), freshwater is indispensable and is sensitive ashuman activities have great impact on the quantity and quality of freshwater: both thequality and quantity of our planet’s freshwater are under threat.

According to Roy and Mazumdar (2005), the use of water in the world has increasedby more than 35 times over the past three centuries and recent estimate shows that 3240km3 offreshwater is withdrawn globally on annual basis. A major portion of this (69%) is used foragriculture, 23% for industry and the remaining 8% for domestic use.Owing to inadequatemanagement of wastes, freshwater potential has been reduced due to widespreadpollution. Studies have shown deterioration of water quality and low faunal abundance anddiversity caused by stress imposed by effluents from land based sources (Chukwu andNwankwo, 2005). If left unchecked, these ecosystems will cause a seriousthreat to aquatic life as well as to man due to continuous depletion and eventual extinction of some fishspecies.Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources includingterrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystem and ecological complex of which they are part(Ali, 1999). The diversity of fish mainly depends upon the biotic factors and types ofecosystem (Nanda and Tiwari, 2001). Climatic characteristics influence the waterquality and quantity and that invariably affects biodiversity.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH SPECIES DIVERSITY OF DADIN-KOWA RESERVOIR, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH DIVERSITY OF DOMA RESERVOIR, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH DIVERSITY OF DOMA RESERVOIR, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

Nigeria lies between Longitudes 2⁰ 49‟ and 14⁰ 37‟E and Latitudes 4⁰ 16‟ and 13⁰52‟ N of Equator. It is blessed with vast expanse of inland fresh water and brackish ecosystems from the coastal region to the arid zone. Thirteen lakes and reservoirs with a total surface area of 953600 ha representing about 1% of the country have been reported (Olaosebikan and Raji, 1998). They are of significant importance because they hold populations of diverse fish species. Species that are of great commercial value and importance vary in their composition depending on the water body. These species of fish serve as a source of protein and food in the face of ever increasing population in the developing countries. In addition, the lake fisheries had serve as a source of livelihood to the riparian communities and biodiversity of tremendous conservation values.

There are about 268 different freshwater fish species in Nigeria. They inhabit over 34 well-known fresh water bodies (rivers, lakes and reservoirs) which constitute about 12% of Nigeria‟s total surface area put about 94,185,000 ha (Ita 1993). Fish stocks in rivers are generally replenished from their adjacent flood plains after each flood season during which fish breed. Therefore, any natural phenomenon as drought or artificial activities such as dam construction, which eventually affect the natural cycle of flooding, will certainly undermine fish species diversity both in lakes and wetlands. Considering this facts, therefore, that lakes, wetlands and reservoirs are supplied with by their inflowing rivers, the rivers will be characterized by higher species diversity (Ita, 1993).

Fish Production from inland water resources (rivers lakes and streams) is under threat from pollution, habitat alteration and degradation, changes in river flows and over exploitation. According to Wotton (1990), material pollution of rivers is caused by toxic pollutants (heavy metals, phenols, insecticides etc) that have direct adverse effect on aquatic biota and by pollutants that indirectly affects aquatic biota like human and animal wastes which are non-toxic but due to bacterial action on them, dissolved oxygen is used up which harms aquatic biota.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FISH DIVERSITY OF DOMA RESERVOIR, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM IN-PATIENTS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM IN-PATIENTS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

 

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of serious infections in community and hospital settings (Lowry et al., 1998). Staphylococcus aureus, is a major human pathogen causing large variety of infections worldwide and predominates in surgical wound infections with prevalence rate ranging from 4.6% – 54.4% (Bannerman, 2003).

It is one of the species of the genus Staphylococcus. It is a Gram positive, non-motile, catalase positive, mostly coagulase positive, facultative anaerobe, involved in causing a number of diseases including boils, pustules, impetigo, osteomyelitis, mastitis, septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome,post operation wound infection, food borne intoxication and nosocomial bacteremia (Talaro and Talaro, 2002;Jun et al., 2004;Cheesbrough, 2006).

It is considered the most resistant of all non-spore forming pathogens, with well-developed capacities to withstand high salt concentrations (7.5 – 10%), extremes in pH and high temperatures up to 60oC for 60 minutes(Jun et al., 2004).

Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the skin and nasal carvities, it occurs in about 25-30% of healthy people. It is a versatile human pathogen responsible for nosocomial (HA) and community acquired (CA) infection, with clinical manifestation of superficial and systemic diseases, associated with high morbidity and mortality rates (Jun et al., 2004).

The unique characteristic of S. aureus is the production of virulence factors responsible for the establishment of staphylococcal diseases and propensity to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics (Jun et al., 2004).

Patients subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive therapies have higher risk of infection by this microorganism (Prasad, 2014).

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is now endemic in health care facilities, with rates up to 15.0% in some health care settings (Fridkin et al., 1999). Also, recent reports describe MRSA carriage in persons in the community who do not have health care–associated risks. The increased incidence of MRSA has led to more frequent use of vancomycin, the drug commonly relied on for treating MRSA infections (Salgado et al., 2003).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM IN-PATIENTS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIGENIC MOULDS AND EFFECTS OF PROCESSING ON AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF SOME WHEAT MILLS FROM NORTHERN NIGERIA

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIGENIC MOULDS AND EFFECTS OF PROCESSING ON AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF SOME WHEAT MILLS FROM NORTHERN NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by certain strains of moulds as secondary metabolites that represent a serious risk for human and animal health (Noelia et al., 2011; Dorwish et al., 2014). Aflatoxins are difuranocoumarin derivatives produced via a polyketide pathway (Yu et al., 2004; Juan et al., 2008) by two fundamental aflatoxigenic strains; Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus (Klich et al., 2000, Bennett and Klich, 2003; El-Khoury, 2011). Other very rare aflatoxin producers have also been reported (Horn, 2007). These two aflatoxigenic species have been reported to have different toxigenic profiles: Aspergillus flavus produce aflatoxin B1 (excreted in breast milk as M1), B2, cyclopiazonic acid, aflatrem, 3-nitropropionic acid, sterigmatocystin, versicolorin A and aspertoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus produces aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and versicolorin A (Wilson et al., 2002). Aflatoxin B1 is usually the most predominant and the most toxic metabolite within this family and is also the most potent genotoxic agent and hepatocarcinogen to man. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified aflatoxin B1 as a human group one carcinogen (IARC, 2002).

Incidence of aflatoxin poisoning has been known primarily to occur through ingestion of contaminated foods or feeds and to some extent through skin contact. The diseases caused by aflatoxin consumption are loosely called aflatoxicosis. There are two types of aflatoxicosis; acute aflatoxicosis which results in death, and while chronic aflatoxicosis give rise to cancer, immune suppression, and other ―slow‖ pathological conditions (Etzel, 2002). Aflatoxin contamination has been linked to increased mortality in farm animals and also significantly lowers the value of grains as an animal feed and as an export commodity (Aydin et al., 2008).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIGENIC MOULDS AND EFFECTS OF PROCESSING ON AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF SOME WHEAT MILLS FROM NORTHERN NIGERIA