1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Body cream is a soft substance or thick liquid used on the skin to protect it or make it feel soft. Body creams are readily used to keep the skin soft and useful. (Oxford Advanced Dictionary; 5th edition) hundreds of thousands of types of body cream have been developed. Body creams come in form of body emollient, moisturizing cream, antiseptic cream face cream etc. An emollient describes something that is softening or smoothing to the skin, or describes anything that is put on sunburned skin for soothing. Example of an emollient include Aloe Vera. Many ingredients have been used both in earlier times and now in the production of body cream and those may include; animal fat, olive oil, mineral oil, petroleum jelly, coconut oil, cardamom, honey, wine, vitamins alpha and beta hydroxyl acids, minerals etc and these ingredients have their respective functions in making the body soft, removing fine lines, age spots, wrinkles, dead skin cells etc. This work will be focusing on coconut oil as a cream ingredient. Coconut oil is an edible oil extract from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (cocos nucifera). It has served as the primary source of fat in the diet of millions of people for generations. It has various applications in food, medicine and industry. Coconut oil is very heat-stable, low in rancidity, lasting up to two years owing to its high saturated fat content (DGA 2010). Researchers of skin care products have discovered the secret that skin care products contains coconut oil as part of its ingredient should be sought for especially by those who have dry skin and really want to avoid premature aging (APCC, 2011). Apart from the ingredients, fragrance have been added to these body creams to make them appealing to the buyer. Now the question is What is fragrance? A fragrance is any substance either in oily, gaseous, or liquid form out on the skin in order for one to smell nice. (Oxford Advanced Leaner’s dictionary 5th edition) so fragrances are added to a cream to improve the perfume quality of the cream in order to make it appealing to the buyers. Fragrances added to creams can come in different forms like the rose fragrance, strawberry fragrance, apple fragrance, banana fragrance, pineapple fragrance, vanilla fragrance etc. but in this work, we will be using vanilla as the creams fragrance. Now the question is, What is vanilla? Vanilla is a substance obtained from the beans of a tropical vanilla plant, used to give flavor to sweet foods or other manufactured products, like ice cream, body cream, juice, custards etc. (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 5th edition). Vanilla is the only fruit-bearing member of the orchid family which have its origin from central Mexico. Vanilla beans are grown in several distinct regions of the world. They produce vanilla beans with unique regional characteristics and attributes, each particularly suited for different use. This work will highlight on the various regions that cultivate vanilla beans, their unique regional characteristics and attribute and even the different uses which those vanilla beans are particularly suited for and their method of extractions. Vanilla essential oil has a lovely earthy-sweet scent that brings is comfort and a sense of fulfillment. It is used in aromatherapy and in the perfume industry (Sooper Articles, 2009). So, the production of body cream involves the process of making cream either for personal use or in large quantities for commercial purposes for this production processes to be effective, the producer must take extreme care in order to make sure that the right steps or procedures are properly and carefully adhered to, the ingredients and fragrance added in the right quantity and proportion in order to achieve the desired result.
1.2 AIMS OF THE WORK The main aim of this work is to produce body cream from coconut oil using vanilla fragrance. This work will also examine other things like; – Users of body cream – Role of coconut oil and vanilla fragrance in body cream – Materials and methods of extraction of coconut oil. – Functions of the ingredients used in making body cream – Effect of coconut and vanilla on the body.
Macrophyte distribution in relation to water quality parameters in roadside ponds was studied in a seasonal wetland at Mkpat EninLocal Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Systematic sampling method was used in sampling the vegetation using a quadrant of 5mx5m space at regular intervals. The vegetation parameters such as density and frequency were determined. Water sample was also collected at different point in the pond and their physiochemical characteristic were analysed. Ten (10) flora species belonging to 10 families were recorded. Cryptosperma senegalense was the species with the highest richness with density value of (9500±150.63st/ha) and this followed by Nymphea lotus (6000±138.36st/ha). The least density value was associated with Alchornea cordifolia (300±43.54st/ha). Crypstosperma senegalense also had the highest frequency (100%) while the least frequency value of 25% was associated with species such as Alchornea cordifolia, Heteranthera cordifolia, Lygodium sp. and physalis angulata respectively. This study shows that water properties have substantial effect on the distribution of macrophyte species and that the density of each species correlated positively or negatively with water parameters. The study provides a baseline information towards the monitoring and management of ponds and other wetland ecosystems within the State.
This project was carried out to study the bird species abundance and diversity at the treasures of the universe, Sabo Kaduna Nigeria in order to generate a checklist that will form the baseline information of avifauna records for the treasures. Data was collected for a period of 15 weeks, from (July-September 2018). Line transect method was used in determining the abundance and diversity and also for generating the list of birds for the area. Seventy seven bird species (taxa) were identified which were comprised of a total of 6,926 individual bird, the most abundance species of bird was the village weaver (1582) individuals which made up of 23% of the bird population; that was followed by pia piac (1163) individuals having 17%. 12% of all the recorded bird was of laughing dove species with (853) individual, the bird species with least number of individuals was African cuckoo (1 individual) which correspondent to 0.014% of all the bird samples. Birds’ activity peaks within the hours of 6:30 – 9:30am. This study indicated that the Treasures of the Universe Resort is an ecologically rich habitat with relatively high variety of bird species.
Birds belong to the class aves and are among the earliest defined and readily recognized categories of animals, due to the presence of feather (Sethy et al, 2015). The members of this group of animals make up to over 10,000 species and 22,000 of species worldwide. This species were traditionally divided into 30 orders but more recent list (in part based on molecular studies) group birds into 23-40 orders (Clements, 2007). Africa alone harbors about 2500 bird species of 111 bird families, in which 20 families are endemic in Africa. The avifaunal population of Nigeria includes a total of 940 species of birds (Lepage, 2007).
Birds play important functional roles in many ecosystems (Ogada et al., 2008). Granivorous (seed & grain eating birds e.g game birds, finches) birds can decrease seed survival (Ogada et al., 2008), while insectivores (birds species which mainly feeds on insects, spiders and small invertebrates e,g warblers) can reduce the abundance of herbivorous arthropods and frugivorous birds (fruit eating birds species e.g bulbul, flowers peckers) can be important agent of seed dispersal (Ogada et al., 2008). Consequently, birds can influence the survival and the reproduction of herbaceous and woody plants both directly through seed predation and indirectly by reducing the abundance of herbivorous insect or by dispersing seeds to more favorable germination sites.
Birds communities have been studied fairly well both in moderate and tropical forest (Sethy et al, 2015). However, only a very little information is known about bird community composition and there dynamics. Understanding the diversity and structure of bird communities is essential to describe the importance of regional or local landscape for avian conservation. (Sethy et al, 2015) Determinations of bird’s population in different habitats are central to understanding the community structure and niche relationships, as well as intelligent management of populations. (Sethy et al, 2015) Furthermore, seasonal monitoring is equally significant to trace the movement of birds in such habitats (Sethyet al, 2015).
Bird communities have direct relation with the structure of habitat and are indicators of environmental changes. The focus of community ecology is the study of the grouping of species, their distribution and the interactions between them and the physical and biological factors of their environment. Birds are one of the best indicators of environmental qualities of any ecosystem.
Bird community valuation has become an essential tool in biodiversity (number and variety of species of plant & animal life within a region). Conservation (the act of preserving and protecting of natural resources) and for identifying convention effect in areas of high human stress
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEAECH PROBLEM
The general loss and alteration of forests through human activities such as logging and agriculture represents major threats to tropical biodiversity (BirdLife International, 2013). Activities such as felling of trees and site constructions at the expense of forest flora can also alter bird species and distribution pattern (BirdLife International, 2013).
Benefit of determining the diversity and abundance of Bird in the treasure resort.
To study the abundance and diversity of bird species in Treasures of the Universe Resort
The Research was designed to determine:
· The bird species diversity and abundance in Treasures of the Universe Kaduna state and the environment.
· The effect of vegetation structure on birds abundance
The major problem which this study work aim to evaluate are captured in the following research questions
· Time of the day has no effect on birth’s activities
· Vegetation structure has no significant effect on the bird’s abundance
Food products are a rich nutrient source that can attract both bacterial and fungal colonizers. Pitt et al (2009). As such, the food product can be regarded as an ecological resource. Colonization with a number of food-borne microorganisms is beneficial with respect to nutritional value and prolonged storage of the food product, which is known as food fermentation in other case. After successful colonization of the product, its nutritional properties are altered. Samson et al. (2004).When the nutritional value, structure, and taste of the product are negatively influenced, this colonization is called food spoilage. It can be accompanied by the production of toxic secondary metabolites which may result in serious medical problems (Dijksterhuis et al., 2007). These two aspects of food colonization are two sides of the same coin. Food spoilage is a major threat for our food stock and is responsible for enormous losses Pitt et al., (2009).
Fungi are the main degraders of the sturdy plant cell wall components that otherwise would accumulate within the ecosystems of the world. Prior to spoilage, the fungi can be present on or inside of the crop in low numbers, or as survival structures. Spoilage fungi can also be introduced to an empty habitat if the food is previously treated by pasteurization treatments. Food products include two main groups, which are living crops and processed food (Karlshøj et al., 2007).
Colonization of food products is hence very diverse. The relationship between the living crop and fungi can be illustrated. Then the association of fungi with different types of processed food is described. Preservation techniques make the food product a difficult environment to colonize, although it is also a rich medium. Only fungi (Springer-Verlag et al 2013) that can survive certain adverse conditions including high osmolarity and heat can successfully spoil processed food. Samson et al. (2004) provide overviews on the taxonomic description and specificity of food spoilage fungi, Dijksterhuis et al (2007) highlight numerous aspects of the relation between food and fungi including spoilage and fermentation.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This research is aimed at isolating and identifying fungi spoilage organisms in packaged and unpackaged milk, soybean flour and corn flour
To isolate fungi spoilage organisms associated with packaged and unpackaged powdered milk, corn flour and soybean flour
To identify the isolated spoilage organism associated with the samples.
Noise is any undesired sound, either one that is intrinsically objectionable or one that interferes with other sounds that are being listened to (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). The extent to which noise is annoying depends on many factors such as the pitch irregularities, duration, rhythm and unexpectedness or whether the noise has any meaning for the particular observer (Ebeniro and Abumere, 1999). Noise become an unjustifiable interferences and imposition upon human health, comfort and quality of human life (Gorai and Pal, 2006).Society has attempted to regulate noise since the early days of the Romans, who by decree prohibited the movement of chariots in the streets at night (Goines and Hagler, 2007). But it was not until the late 1960s that people started to protest against a specific highway or airport and claimed that citizens must be protected from the adverse impact of noise pollution followed by passage of nuisance lawsuits in different parts of the world (Yuhazri et al., 2010). Things changed rapidly in the United States as the Federal Government officially recognized noise as a pollutant and began to support noise research and regulation. Consequently, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969 and the Noise Pollution and Abatement Act (more commonly called the Noise Control Act (NCA)) of 1972 came into existence (Firdaus and Ahmad, 2010). Afterward, various European countries such as The Netherlands (1979), France (1985), Spain (1993) and Denmark (1994), etc. formulated national laws governing noise.Noise caused by traffic is the nuisance that is most often cited by roadside residents. School administrations and students living in the proximity of roadways will increasingly perceive noise problems (Avsar and Gonullu, 2001). The effect of environmental noise on growing2children has become one of the most important problems, because the personality, mentality and physique of children are being formed particularly at this early age. According to the some of the studies, students’ performance and behaviours can be changed both in high noisy ambience and quiet ambience (Sargent et al., 1980). The higher outdoor noise causes the higher indoor noise in classrooms. Disturbance from the outdoor noise is increased in hot seasons in the classrooms, especially when the windowpanes are open (Avasr and Gonullu, 2005).Environmental challenges vary considerably among schools around the world, across countries and within communities (World Health Organization, 2004).
Nowadays, children experience a key part of their childhood in their school and it forms one of their principal social activities and setting (Alsubaie, 2014). The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion stated that “health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and live” (WHO, 1987). World Health Organization defines a health-promoting school as “one that constantly strengthens its capacity as healthy setting for living, learning and working” (WHO, 2014). The American Academy of Pediatrics defines a “healthful school environment” as “one that protects students and staff against immediate injury or disease and promotes activities and attitudes against known risk factors that might lead to future disease or disability” (America Academy of Pediatrics, 1993). The school environment encompasses the social, physical and biological factors. Learning in classrooms is mainly facilitated through verbal and auditory communication between teachers and students (Flexer and Long, 2003).Zannin et al. (2012) said the long and arduous process of individual and collective education takes place primarily in classrooms. It is here that contact is established between teachers3and students and between individual students and their peers. It is here that knowledge is transmitted in its most ancient form, i.e., through oral communication. The quality of this communication, and ultimately, of classroom education itself, is closely linked to the acoustic quality of the classroom. This acoustic quality can be characterized based on the reverberation time, speech transmission index, sound insulation, and the noise levels inside and outside the classroom (Zannin and Zwirtes, 2009). High noise levels in the classroom impair oral communication, causing students to become tired sooner more often, and this premature fatigue tends to have a negative effect on their cognitive skills (Hagen et al., 2002).School is also an important microenvironment just like home and work place. The school is important for the cognitive, creative, and social development of children. Schools are therefore expected to ensure the best possible conditions for child’s physical and intellectual development, including control of excess environmental noise (Ana et al., 2009).Environmental pollution becomes more severe and widespread due to population growth, urbanization and industrialization in the cities (Ralte and Lalramnghinglova, 2013). There are many factors which cause the environment to be polluted and one of those undesired and unpleasant factor is ‘noise’ which affects the quality of life (Haq et al., 2014). Noise pollution is one of the major problems for developing countries.
There is a need to control the noise exposure levels in sensitive areas as hospitals, schools, and kindergartens (Mitra, 2008; Oyedepo and Abdullahi, 2009; Noori and Zand, 2013; Amin et al., 2014; Marriscal-Rammires et al., 2014; Mukhola, 2014).Noise as pollution is said to occur when the noise level is above the maximum permissible level for a given environment (WHO, 1980; FEPA, 1991). The most important measurement of noise is its loudness. This loudness depends on the physical sound pressure that is4measured on the sensitivity of the human ear which in turn depends on the frequency of the sound (Levitt, 2001). Noise pollution has become an important environmental problem in that this problem has negative impacts on public health both physically and psychologically (Aparicio-Ramon et al., 1993; Yoshida et al., 1997; Buchta and Vos, 1998; Kura et al., 1999; Ali and Tamura, 2003; Stansfeld and Matheson, 2003).There have been many attempts to reduce noise pollution in many countries (Arana and Garcia, 1998; Onuu, 2000; Zannin et al., 2002; Li et al., 2002; Morillas et al., 2002; Kumbur et al., 2003; Yilmaz and Ozer, 2005; Ozyonar and Peker, 2008; Pathak et al., 2008; Allen et al., 2009). Due to urbanization and industrialization, noise pollution has gained attention and as an environmental hazard rated third to air and water pollutions (Singh and Davar, 2004). Apart from the psychosocial effects of community noise, there is a growing concern about the impact of noise on public health, particularly regarding cardiovascular outcomes (Passchier-Vermeer and Passchier, 2000).Recently, noise pollution has been of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in the urban centres (Banerjee et al., 2008; Ana et al., 2009; Goswami et al., 2011; Olayinka, 2013; Jamir et al., 2014). Many studies addressing the problem of noise pollution in educational institutes throughout the world have been conducted (Ana et al., 2009; Golmohammadi et al., 2010; Woolner and Hall, 2010; Debnath et al., 2012; Alsubaie, 2014). The auditory system of the teachers and students continuously analysing acoustic information, which is filtered and interpreted by different cortical and sub-cortical brain structures (WHO, 2009). Arousal of the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system is associated with repeated temporal changes in biological responses. In the long run, chronic noise stress may affect the5homeostasis of the organism due to dysregulation, incomplete adaptation and/or the physiological costs of the adaptation (Spreng, 2000).Ikenberry (1974) has analysed some effects of noise pollution to school students and found that the students find it difficult to hear the teacher, lectures, classroom discussions, and other activities. Klatte et al. (2013) in their research work showed that students can perform better under quiet environments than under noisy ones. Debnath et al. (2012) stated that noise pollution produces multi-problems to the teaching-learning process and negatively affects the performance of both teachers and students.Significant increase in the population of urban centres has been witnessed in Nigeria within the last decade. This increase has influenced the lifestyle of the citizenry contributing to the increase in noise pollution (Abel, 2015). Urbanization and industrialization have contributed greatly to noise pollution in recent time without adequate consideration of its effects in the future to come.1.1 Statement of Research ProblemThe noise problems of the modern industrial societies seem incomparable to the past given the larger sources of noise now present outdoors and indoors. Traffic noise is one of the main sources of environmental noise exposure in urban communities (WHO, 2001). Noise pollution has been recognized as one of the major threats confronting the world today. The WHO in 2005 revealed that noise is a dangerous agent which affects human health and the environment (Zanin et al., 2006). Noise pollution has become problematic yet an unnoticed form of pollution in most developing countries (Essandoh et al., 2011). In the recent years, transportation has created excessive noise pollution which is displeasing the activity or balance of human and animal life. Noise can damage physiological and psychological health
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra chromosome 21.
This genetic disorder, which varies in severities cause lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays and in some people it causes health problems.
Down syndrome is the most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children.
Better understanding of Down syndrome and early intervention can greatly increase the quality of life for children and adults with the disorder and help them live fulfilling lives; although it has no cure (Mayo Clinic, April 19, 2014).
This syndrome took its name from John Langdon Down, an English physician who in the late 19th century was able to publish an accurate description of a person with this syndrome hence the name Down syndrome.
There are certain characteristics associated with this syndrome such as:
· Low muscle tone
· Small stature
· An upward slant to the eyes
· A single deep crease across the centre of the palm
· Flattened facial profile
· Heart problem
· Respiratory problems among others.
It is more than 75 years now, since maternal age effect in Down syndrome was discovered and 50 years since the genetic background in Down syndrome involving an extra chromosome 21 material was identified.
Down syndrome is a genetic syndrome occurring in from 1 in 650 to 1 in 1000 live births. In 95% of cases, Down syndrome is caused by non-disjunction during cell division, with mothers contributing the extra chromosome in 85% cases. When this disjunction occurs after fertilization it leads to Down syndrome where one line of cells in the developing fetus contains an extra copy of chromosome 21 and the second line of cells in the developing fetus does not.
Risk for Down syndrome is associated with maternal age. Children with Down syndrome are impaired in verbal processing and expressive language (Fidler, 2008).
In recent years between the 19th century and the 20th century the number of babies born with Down syndrome increased about 30%. Older mothers are likely to have babies affected by Down syndrome than younger mothers. In other words the prevalence of Down syndrome increases as the mother’s age increases.
The actual cause of this syndrome is idiopathic although, maternal age and paternal age are factors that have been linked to an increased chance of having a baby with this syndrome. However due to higher birth rates in younger women which could also be a predisposing factor, 80% of children with Down syndrome are born to women who are advanced in age.
The additional partial or full extra chromosome 21 can originate either from the mother or father. Approximately 5% of cases have been traced to the father. Down syndrome is no respecter of race or economy.
In Down syndrome,only 1% of all cases occur as a result of translocation (hereditary) it occurs sporadically and maternal age cannot be linked to the risk of translocation.
The risk of a mother having a baby with Down syndrome rises dramatically after she reaches 35 years of age.
A woman is born with all of the eggs (ova) she will ovulate with for the rest of her life. So if one is 30 years when one conceives, then the egg (ova) one conceived with is also 30 years old; this is applicable to all age group over 35 years. As the eggs (ova) age, the more likely they are to have errors that can result in trisomies including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) (Kathleen, 2016).
Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for Down syndrome. This risk factor reaches 3.6% of live births when mother’s age is around 44 years. It cannot be prevented but can be detected before the child is born.
A woman’s chance of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome increases with age because older eggs (ova) have a greater risk of improper chromosome division (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
As a woman ages, her fertility that is, the chance she will get pregnant is reduced. On average, this decline begins slowly in the early thirties and speeds up in the late thirties and forties (Rowe, 2008).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The researcher observed that more often than not, more children are coming down with trisomy 21, especially to mothers who are elderly (advanced in age).However, ignorance tends to play a major role. Hence the researcher wants to investigate on the relationship between advanced maternal age and Down syndrome and the possible ways of creating awareness because this syndrome predisposes babies born to advanced mothers to numerous pathological disorders.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
· How knowledgeable are the residents of Busa Buji community about Down syndrome?
· How knowledgeable are the residents of Busa Buji community about the causes of Down syndrome?
· What is the prevalence rate of Down syndrome?
· What is the best means of disseminating information on the cause of Down syndrome?
· What are the ways of enforcing early and curtailed child bearing?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main objective of this study is to determine the causal relationship between advanced maternal age and Down syndrome in Busa Buji community, Jos North, plateau state.
The main objectives will be achieved through the following specific objectives which include:
· To assess the level of knowledge of the residents of Busa Buji community on Down syndrome.
· To determine the level of knowledge/ awareness of the residents of Busa Buji street on the cause of Down syndrome .
· To determine the prevalence rate of Down syndrome.
· To educate the residents of Busa Buji community to gain full knowledge of Down syndrome and its relationship to advanced maternal age.
· To enforce the need for early and curtailed child bearing.
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
To heighten the awareness of health planners in the community that have for a long time considered haemoglobinopathies to be the major genetic disorder and that Down syndrome is also a major genetic disorder. In order to prepare the ground for prevent measures which will provide a baseline for further research work.
This will create awareness to all ambitious ladies n Busa Buji community, Jos, North, Plateau state; that while pursuing education to the highest level as well as other things, child bearing should be put into consideration while one is not yet advanced in age.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is focused mainly on 100 respondents in Busa Buji community, Jos North, Plateau state on the Reationship between Advanced Maternal Age and Down Syndrome.
1.7 OPERATIONAL TERMS
Advanced Maternal Age
A term used to describe pregnant woman over age 35 years.
Progressive degenerative disease of the brain that leads to dementia, (loss of intellectual abilities)
Brush Field Spots
Little white spots that are slightly arranged in a ring concentric with the pupils.
A carrier of genetic information.
Having to do with genes which are the basic biological unit of hereditary.
Decreased muscle tone and strength that results in floppiness.
3.0. Economic Importance of Pteridophytes- – – – – 14
3.1. Pteridophytes Used as Medicine- – – – – – 14
3.2. Pteridophytes Used as Veterinary- – – – – – 15
3.3. Suitability of Pteridophytes as Food Sources- – – – 16
3.4. Pteridophytes Used as Ornamentation- – – – – 17
3.5. Pteridophytes as Building Materials- – – – – – 18
3.6. Pteridophytes in Toxicology- – – – – – – 18
3.7. Pteridophytes used for Controlling Insect Pests- – – – 19
3.8. Use of Pteridophytes as Fertilisers- – – – – – 19
3.9. Pteridophytes used in Phyto-Remediation- – – – – 20
3.10 Pteridophytes in Pharmacology- – – – – – 20
4.0. Conclusion and Recommendations- – – – – – 22
4.1. Conclusion- – – – – – – – – – 22
4.2. Recommendations- – – – – – – – 22
Pteridophytes, including ferns and fern-allies, are the earliest of all the land plants which originated during the Silurian period and went on to become the dominant vegetation of earth’s surface during the Carboniferous period. They became the first ever group of plants on earth’s surface showing the presence of well-developed vascular system, thereby, playing an important link in the evolution from cryptogams (algae and bryophytes) to phanerogams (gymnosperms and angiosperms). Though they have largely been replaced by seed plants in the course of evolution, they continue to form an important part of vegetation today and can be found distributed in a wide range of habitats in the moist tropical and temperate forests in the world. The pteridophytes being moisture and shade loving plants congregate at places where humid and damp conditions prevail. Pteridophytes have been used by different tribal communities and folklore as a source of food, fibre, craft, decoration material and medicine. Being a group of lower plants and their restricted distribution, pteridophytes remain unattended and their useful aspects are largely ignored. This present study mainly focuses on the Economic importance of Pteridophytes. Their use in medicine for treatment of external injuries and wounds, use in ornamention, biofertilizers, food, phyto-remediation.
Man has been using plants as a source of food, medicines and many other necessities of life since ancient times. Even to this day the primitive tribal societies that exist depend on the plant life in their surroundings. Though there were investigations of the edible economic values of the higher plants, especially the pteridophytes and angiosperms have been unfortunately ignored. Pteridophytes existing today represent ancient plant species which appeared about 300 million years ago in the late Devonian period (Fernandez et al., 2011).Pteridophytes including ferns and fern-allies are non-flowering, vascular and sporebearing plants. They form a conspicuous element of the earth’s vegetation and are important from evolutionary point of view as they show the evolution of vascular system and reflect the emergence of seed habit in an the plants. About 250 million years ago, they formed the dominant part of earth’s vegetation. But in present day flora, they have been largely replaced by the seed bearing plants. They grow luxuriantly in moist tropical and temperate forests and their occurrence in different eco-geographically threatened regions from sea level to the highest mountains are of much interest (Dixit, 2000).
The ferns and fern allies do not form a monophyletic group (Smith, et al. 2006) and pteridophyta as a taxonomic group is now regarded as made up of two classes, Lycopodiophyta (fern allies) and Pteridophyta (true ferns) ( Smith et al. 2006; WCMC, 1992). The Lycopodiophyta is represented by only five relict genera (Isoetes, Lycopodium, Phylloglossum, Selaginella and Stilites) (WCMC,1992).The Pteridophyta are much more diverse than the Lycopodiophyta, showing great range of form and cosmopolitan in distribution ( WCMC, 1992) Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta is a small group of about 12000 species (WCMC, 1992; Chapman, 2009), with some species gathered in the wild for food and medicine, and others cultivated as food and ornamental plants. The ferns are thought by most people to be quite useless members of the plant kingdom. The deleterious effects of rapid fern growth are well publicized, but their useful aspects are largely ignored. Ferns are distributed in all climate zones of the planet, but have a greater diversity in the tropics (Smith et al., 2006; Strasburger et al., 2003). Ferns show various economic values towards food, fodder indicators, biofertilizers and insect repellents (Ghosh et al., 2004). Ferns are used as medicines to cure diseases in various countries. In China alone, 401 kinds of pteridophytic medicines have been used for various ailments (Luo 1998).
Sarker et al. (2011) reported the medicinal uses of 30 pteridophytes of Tamil Nadu. They were used to treat various ailments viz., wound healing, body sickness, diarrhoea, skin problems, body pain, knee problem, cough, cold, fever, asthma, kidney problem, tonic, chronic disorders, several aches, hair growth, stomach problems, ulcer, sore throat, leprosy, ophthalmic, typhoid, urinary bladder and rheumatism. Khare and Kumar (2007) studied ethnobotany of five pteridophytes viz., Adiantum philippense, Diplazium esculentum, Helminthostachys zeylanica, Lygodium flexuosum and Ophiglossum reticulatum used by the Tharu tribe of Dudhwa National Park, Lakhimpur-Kheri (U.P). The information collected by Singh et al. (2001) reported that 14 common Pteridophytes were used by the local people of Manipur in various forms. Kirn and Kapathi (2001), observed ethnomedical uses of 19 pteridophytes of Jammu and Kashmir.
The previous work indicate that the medicinal plants specially the flowering plants are given the more importance in these contents, non-flowering plants particularly fern and fern allies are ignored by scientists. According to Pieroni (2001), evaluation of plant species used in different cultural contexts is necessary in order to infer cultural components related to food acceptance and phytochemical constituents that influence the popularity of edible plants. Plant resources have gained prominence in sub-Saharan Africa as a natural asset through which communities derive food, enabling particularly poor families to achieve self-sufficiency. Documentation of use patterns of pteridophytes across sub-Saharan Africa is of relevance in understanding the importance of this ancient plant group to livelihood strategies of different ethnic groups. This is particularly important for this ancient evolutionary lineage which could potentially become extinct if harvested non-sustainably.
This study investigated “Effects of video-learning approach and mind mapping approach on biology students’ academic achievement in genetic in Itu local government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and three hypotheses were stated to guide the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research of non-randomized pretest post-test design. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two co-educational secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area. The population of the study was 1410 students and the sample for the study was 140 senior secondary school two biology students. Two intact classes were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was Genetics Achievement Test (GAT). The instrument was validated by two biology teachers and the project supervisor and its reliability coefficient found to be 0.68 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Spearman Brown Prophetic Formula. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and independent t-test tested at 0.05 level of significant. The result showed that students taught genetics using video-learning approach performed better than those taught using mind mapping approach. There was no significant achievement of male and female biology students taught genetics using video-learning approach and those taught using mind mapping approach. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should be exposed to training on how they can adopt these innovative approaches to keep students enjoyed and motivated throughout the teaching-learning process on genetics and other concepts in biology.
This chapter is discussed under the following subheadings: background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research question, research hypotheses, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Biology is a branch of science concerned with the study of life or living things. According to Parker (2013), biology can be divided into smaller units like anatomy, morphology, histology, physiology. Parker further stated that the knowledge gained from investigation in biology is applied in various fields for example, agriculture, wildlife management, forestry, medicine, genetics and teaching.
There are unifying concepts that govern the study and research in biology. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic gene and unit of heredity and sees evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also known today that all the organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition known as homeostasis.
Some of the usefulness of biology as cited by Sarojiet (2013) is as follows:
i. Scientific research and development of new tools and techniques which in variable improve the quality of lives.
ii. Finding applications in medicine, dentist veterinary, science, agriculture and horticulture.
iii. Biotechnonology which include fields like genetic engineering and hybrid technology.
iv. Dealing with ecological problems such as over population, food storage, erosion, pollution and diseases.
v. It promotes the understanding of the relation of man to his environment as well as acknowledges interrelationships that exist between living and non-living things.
vi. It brings into sharper focus, the need to maintain good health such as using clean water, clean air, having good sanitation, vaccination against infectious diseases, exercise and adequate rest as well as eating balanced diet.
vii. It helps an individual to understand himself, the part of his body and their functions.
viii. It also questions superstitious caused by sustained interest arising from a comprehension of the causes of events, etc.
Parker (2013) stated that genetics is a concept in biology that concerned with biological inheritance, that is, with the causes of the resemblances and differences among related individuals. It is a common knowledge that after sexual reproduction the resulting offspring tends to look like their parents in one or more ways. This resemblance may be related to the immediate parents or even to the grandparents. This tendency of the offspring to look like their parents or grandparents is a phenomenon which goes on from generation to generation. This is due to certain characteristics or traits which the offspring have inherited from their parents.
Genetics then is a concept in biology that deals with inheritance of traits or characteristics from parents to offspring, such as height, and skin colour which are transmitted from parents to offspring during sexual reproduction. The ways and manner by which these characters are inherited from parents is known as heredity.
Green (2010) observed that sometimes in nature, certain changes suddenly occur in the chromosomes without necessarily destroying them. Such changes are known as mutations. When mutation occurs, it will lead to the production of offspring with marked differences in appearance from their members and parents. This condition is known as genetic variation. This variation is based in alleles of genes in a gene pool. It is brought about by random mutation which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of a gene. For example difference in blood group, pattern of finger print, skin colour and height.
The practical application of knowledge of genetics have helped in no small measure to solve, if not completely, at least in part, some human problems, such as improvement measures to produce new breeds of crops and animals to overcome the problem of food shortages and starvation, reducing the incidence of hereditary diseases such as sickle cell through marriage counselling, determination of child’s paternity in case of disputed parentage, blood transfusion and crime detection by the use of finger prints. Genetics as a concept in biology has contributed immensely to personal and social education of the people. It develops in students’ attitudes and values necessary for tolerating a range of opinions needed in solving human problems.
Inspite of the relevance of genetics to human population and in academics, the teaching of genetics become increasingly deplorable in senior secondary schools, due to the methods or approaches used. There are many approaches applied by a teacher to make students learn. Genetics is considered a difficult concept in biology and so new methods and approaches for teaching genetics should be explored to bring meaning, relevance and interest of students for learning the concept.
Active teaching approaches that could be used to arouse and stimulate students’ interest towards the learning of genetics is using of electronic media such as video-learning and mind mapping approaches. These electronic approaches incorporate practical experiences for students’ knowledge when applied accordingly. Eze (2014) stated that students understand better when they have practical experiences. The approach used by a teacher in any teaching learning situation determines to a large extent students’ academic achievement.
Video-learning approach is an approach of teaching which the video is used as an instructional material. Abubakar (2011) is of the view that video-learning has high potentials in teaching the concept of genetics. Videos are modern instructional materials that can transit and transfer learning experiences through sound and motion simultaneously. It has the ability to be played back. Video-learning approach provides students the necessary options for making use of video materials to enhance or promote students’ achievement.
Abdulrasheed (2012) observed that teacher effectiveness depends on the use of appropriate teaching technique and successful learning. Video-learning approach is capable of motivating students’ interest to learn and thus promote their academic achievement. The benefits of using video in teaching the concept of genetics provide and include a sensory experience that allows concepts and ideas come to life as students are guided through each adventure. Videos enable the students to study materials at hand effectively and improve their reading and literacy skills simultaneously. It provides the option for the students to read the presentation as well as watching or listening.
Robertson (2012) stated that video-learning approach play vital role in teaching and learning the concept of genetics in biology. It can stimulate, motivate students’ interest and induces longer retention of factual ideas as students come into contact with what is being taught. Ibrahim (2012) observed that video-learning has greatly improved the achievement of children with special needs and slow learning ability.
Guo (2014) asserts that video-learning approach reduces abstraction as well as boredom among students in the classroom. Teacher utilization of video-learning approach will therefore be of interest to students because of the benefits of colour, sound and motion attached to video-compact disc package.
Mind-mapping approach on the other hand is a visual form of note taking that offers an overview of a topic and its complex information, allowing students to comprehend, create new ideas and connections. Through the use of colours, images and words, mind mapping encourages students to begin with a central idea and expand outward to move in-depth into sub-topics.
Abba (2011) stated that mind-mapping is a simple technique for drawing information in diagrams, instead of writing it in sentences. The diagrams always take the same basic format of a tree, with a single starting point in the middle that branches out, and divides again and again. The tree is made up of word or short sentences connected by lines. The lines that connect the words are part of the meaning.
Lakpini (2012) observed that mind-mapping approach are ideal for teaching the presenting concepts in the classroom as they provide a useful focus for students delivering an overview of the topic without superfluous information. It is perfect for introducing a new subject in a way which is accessible and easy to follow. Mind-map is an excellent way to present concepts and ideas. Teachers can now keep the students engaged and amazed as the lesson branches smoothly. Animate to show the next point. Therefore mind-mapping approach according to Kinchin (2015) is a strategy that helps students organize their cognitive frameworks into more powerful integrated patterns.
Jegede (2010) have observed that mind-mapping approach can improve the achievement of students in the concept of genetics in biology through meaningful learning and help students learn independently. The diagrammatic form of mind-mapping is a useful tool for successful study skill and independent learning as students can recall information more easily through creating mind-maps and can show understanding of cause and effect.
Example of mind-mapping using Mendel’s Law of dominant of genes (Mendel’s first law of inheritance)
Let: T represent tall man (dominant)
t represent short woman (recessive)
Parental phenotypes Tall man x Short woman
Parent gamete T T t t
F1 generation Tt Tt Tt Tt
*The genotype of all the F1 children is Tt (tall children)
*The phenotype is all tall children but (t) remain district in the present of (T) dominant.
To obtain the second filial generation (F2) the F1 children are self-cross.
The F1 children are self-cross
Parent Tall man x Short woman
Gamete T T t t
F2 generation TT Tt Tt tt
The genotypes of all the F2 children are:
1. TT 2. Tt 1. tt
* The genotypic ratio is 1:2:1
* Their phenotypes are:
3 tall children
1 short child
Their phenotypic ratio is 3:1
The influence of gender on students’ academic achievement had been a major concern to educational researchers for long, yet no consistent result had emerged. Researches according to Atauyo (2011) has been conducted to bare the superiority of one gender over the other in certain situations, driven home the point that a particular gender or sex has always been performing and achieving more than the other from time immemorial. To prove this, historical achievements of the male and female gender in all endeavours are always compared so as to make inferences. Madu (2011) noted that gender affects behaviour both biologically and socially, these influences propels of a particular gender in an aspect of life, while regressing the same gender in another. His opinions therefore suggest that there are aspects of life that one gender can really excel but cannot excel in others.
In addition, researchers according to Sadovnik (2012) assert that gender remain competitive in every aspect generally; if aspects are analyzed in isolation a particular gender would be more dominant. Also, scholars like Butler (2010) argued that the above statement may be true but not applicable in all situations especially when both gender has what it takes to perform.
In education, it is a situation whereby achievement is attributed or attached to gender in different subject, concepts and field of study. Some scholars who embarked upon researches in the area of gender and achievement came out with different findings depending on the subject, while some tend to be equivocal, others held their stance supporting that one gender performs more than the other in different subjects and concept.
Pezaris (2011) observed the differences in the cognitive abilities of students in senior secondary school. Females outperform males on several verbal skills tasks, verbal reasoning, verbal fluency, comprehension and understanding logical relations. Males on the other hand perform better on mathematics and scientific skills than females. But in recent times experience show the upsurge of successful female scientists in all areas like medicine, pharmacy, petrochemical, physics and teaching.
Etukudo (2010) posits that this then creates a doubt in the fields of science and mathematics dominated by males. This improvement is as the result of using an appropriate approach in teaching. This study set out to compare the effects of video-learning and mind-mapping approaches on biology students’ academic achievement in genetics.
Isiaka (2011) researched on the effectiveness of video as a media found that video group did significantly better than the mind-mapping group. He concluded that although mind-mapping is also good for teaching in that it can capture students thought and bring them to life visual form, but video-learning approach is the best and more effective medium of approach for teaching and learning in the school. Students’ interest and retention could be aroused through the use of video-learning approach more than mind-mapping approach. Adegoke (2010) also researched on the effects of video-taped instruction and observed that the experimental group/video-taped students acquired better knowledge, retention and improved comprehensive skills more than the control group/mind-mapping who could not retain what they were taught in a long time, in that mind map is basically a diagram that connects information around a central subject.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Given the high value placed on the concept of genetics in biology in Nigerian secondary school curriculum, and the nature of the concept, the need to teach genetics effectively through an effective approach is indisputable. Some of the problems affecting the teaching and learning of biology in general are the meaningless of the concept of genetics. Lack of the use of appropriate approach of teaching, video materials are generally lacking in secondary schools. This hampers the effective teaching of the concept of genetics in biology in senior secondary schools.
In incidence of ineffective teaching and lack of the use of appropriate approach of teaching genetics has resulted in low achievement in the school certificate examinations (Osokoya, 2016). Abimbola (2011) revealed that inappropriate approaches presently employed in teaching biology in most public secondary schools is inadequate or not effective. In few schools, laboratory attendant employed are school dropouts with no basic knowledge on how to prepare electronic media such as vidoes and mind mapping materials for practical. In most cases, these laboratory attendants lack technical know-how to operate, maintain, repair or service the few available video compact disc and mind mapping softwares.
Barford (2016) stated that lack of use of the educational video to teach the concept of genetics causes failure in biology examination. According to Austin (2016), teachers’ incompetency on the use of mind-mapping approach to teach the concept of genetics makes learning boring and meaningless to the students. This also causes poor performance of students in external examination. Sex difference discouragement, according to Lenga (2010) makes a female student to develop low self-esteem, lack of self-confidence and a negative attitude towards genetics. This affects her achievement in the concept of genetics in biology. Perhaps, this may be the case in the secondary schools where discouraging statement such as ‘Art belongs to girls and Sciences belongs to boys’ (Zember, 2011). This discourage the girls including the talented once from being serious in science classes.
Plants have been considered as sources of medicinal agents, as it offers natural products useful for human health. Since the existence of human life on the planet earth, plants have been the source of food, clothing, shelter, fiber, fuel and medicine. Since time immemorial plants are the principle raw materials of traditional medicinal system that has been practiced and continue to provide mankind with novel therapies (Cragg and Newmann, 2005). One of such medicinal plsntis is Rauwolfia Vomitoria whose discovery was accredited to the 16th century German Physician, Leonart Rauwolf. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant species that of the genus Rauvolfia. It is also called the “poison devils pepper”. Rauwolfia vomitoria contains a large number of indole alkaloids, the root bark contains reserpiline as a major component, followed by reserpine, reserpinine and ajmaline. Root products of Rauwolfia vomitoria have been found to be potent in treatment hypertension, as a sedative to calm epilepsy and psychotic or mental illness. They are also used to wash Children with Colic or fever as well as for skin problems such as rash, pimples, etc. (Schmelzer, 2007). It adverse effect include: decreased heart rate and blood pressure, which is due to dilation of blood vessels. It also causes low sex drive increase appetite, weight loss and stomach upset.
Sex hormones are natural substances produced by the body that helps relay messages between cells and organs and affect development of sexual organs and other secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogen and progesterone are the two main female sex hormones. Although testosterone is considered as a male hormones females also produce and use a small amount of it too.
Estrogen is the major female hormones. The major amount of the estrogen is produced by the ovaries but small amounts are produced in the adrenal glands and fat cells. During pregnancy, the placenta also makes estrogen. Estrogen plays a big role in reproduction and sexual development, including puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.
The ovaries also produces the progesterone after ovulation and during pregnancy, the placenta also produces some. Progesterone plays a role in preparing the lining of the uterus for a fertilized egg, supporting pregnancy and suppressing of estrogen production after ovulation.
Testosterone is a male sex hormone that is important for sexual and reproductive development. It is responsible for development of male sex organs before birth as well as development of other secondary characteristics.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Alkaloids have been reported to show varying effects on the serum hormone levels. Rauwolfia vomitoria has a vast composition of alkaloids and is potent in treatment and management of various ailments. However, there is not enough information as to the effect of Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the levels of sex hormones.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on male and female sex hormones.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result from this study will add more knowledge to our existing biomedical and pharmacological potentials of Rauwolfia vomitoria and this may help open up new avenues of investigation for researchers.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Medicinal plants have received a great deal of attention due to their possible beneficial as well as adverse effects. Some of these plants are known to possess anti- fertility effect through their action on hypothlamo-pituitary-gonadal axis or direct hormonal effects on reproductive organs resulting in inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. Sex hormones are natural substances produced by the body that helps relay messages between cells and organs and affect development of sexual organs and other secondary sexual characteristics. Alteration in the levels of these sex hormones may lead to infertilty, abortion, abnormal development of sexual characteristics and sexual organs in male, hence the need for use of medicinal plants as a means of regulating hormonal levels by way of increasing or decreasing it.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study includes:
I. Collection of plant
II. Identification of plants
III. Extraction of plants
IV. Administration of ethanol extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria to male and female albino Wistar rats depending on body weigh
A survey design was carried out in Enugu-South Local Government Area of Enugu State to find out the Secondary School students perception of the Effects of Sickle Cell anaemia on married couples causes and prevention.
The questionnaire was the instrument used in obtaining data for answering the research questions from nine hundred students who were the subjects.
The cluster percents were used to analyze and answer the research questions.
This findings revealed that:-
The students have high perception of the existence of sickle cell anaemia but with low perceptions on:-
Ø The acquisition of sickle cell anaemia,
Ø The management of sickle cell anaemia
Ø The implication of Sickle Cell anaemia on married couples
Based on the findings, it was recommended that:-
Ø Principals of Secondary Schools through their Biology teachers and Guidance and Counselling Unit of their schools should teach the students more on the Genetic unit of Biology.
Ø Government should give public lectures on Sickle Cell anaemia through the National Orientation Agency (NOA).
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Lonergan, Cline, Abbondazo (2001) defined sickle cell anaemia as a chronic, genetic and hemolytic disease peculiar to the negro race due to homozygous inheritance of an abnormal haemoglobin and resulting in a variation in the structure of the globins. According to Claster and Vichinsky (2003), “Sickle Cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affect the red blood cells”. People with sickle cell disease have red blood cells that contain mostly haemoglobin ‘S’, which is an abnormal type of haemoglobin. Sometimes, these red blood cells become sickle-shaped (crescent shaped) and have difficulty passing through small blood vessels.
Umeh (1996) explained further that when, sickle-shaped cells block small blood vessels, less blood can reach that part of the body. Tissue that does not receive a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged because; the function of the normal red blood cell is to transport oxygen with the help o f haemoglobin. Claster (2004) disclosed that sickle cell trait (AS) is an inherited
condition in which both haemoglobin A and S are produced in the red blood cells, always more of A than S sickle cell trait is not a type of sickle cell disease, people with sickle cell trait are generally healthy.
As stated in Sarojini (1998), the sickle haemoglobin is inherited according to Mendelian laws as autosomal recessive character. The homozygous individual for sickle cell haemoglobin are designated as “SS” while the heterozygous individuals are designated as “AS” and are said to have the sickle cell trait or are carriers. Homozygous individual for normal haemoglobin are designated as “AA”.
According to Mendelian laws as cited in vermar (2004), if carriers (AS), marries each other they will probably produce a sickler (SS) in line with the Mendelian ratio 1(SS): 2(AS): 1(AA). In Umeh (2004), “for a person to become a sickler, he must inherit the gene for the sickle cell in a double recessive condition”. A person who inherits the recessive gene from both parents suffers from sickle cell anaemia. In this disease condition, the red blood cells contains less haemoglobin and therefore carry less volume of oxygen to the living cells and hence the loss of energy in the sufferers. The distorted shape of the red blood cells hiders free flow of blood in the vessels resulting in severe pain experienced by sufferers. Mak and Davies (2003), explained that the sickled cells are rapidly destroyed, the patient becomes anaemic, the bone marrow becomes over active in an attempt to build new red blood cells. This causes severe pains on the bones, severe anaemia causes the weakness of the heart; this could lead to heart failure. Umeh (1996), decleared that generally, there is a poor, physical development and the individual is usually very weak, life is miserable and where there is no proper medical attention the patient dies in his youthful age. According to styles and Wright (2005), the sickle cells also block the flow of blood through vessels resulting in lungs tissue damage (acute chest syndrome), pain episodes (arms, legs, chest and abdomen). It also causes damage to most organs including the spleen kidneys and liver. Damage to the spleen makes sickle cell disease patients especially young children easily overwhelmed by certain bacterial infections.
So far there seems to be no known cure for sickle cell anaemia this disease can only be prevented by giving the individual who wish to marry, genetic counselling. Blood tests are usually carried out to determine the genotype of couples wishing to marry. Such tests are usually done in hospitals. A carrier of the gene “SS” can protect his children by marrying an “AA” individual. In this case, their children are either AA or AS all of whom are healthy. Umeh (2004).
In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, Hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusion in adult patient with sickle cell disease. Droxia, the prescription form of hydroxyurea was approval by the FDA in 1998 and is now available for adult patient with sickle cell anaemia. Studies will now be conducted to determine the proper dosage for children. Taylor, Carter. Poulose (2004).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In some secondary schools, students believe that sickle cell anaemia is a curse, which some children inherited from their parents. Some explained that this disease could be caused due to the existence of witches and wizards (Ogbanje) in the societies. Some students also said/explained further, that the sins of the forefathers are the causes of sickle cells anaemia, that any child who suffers from such disease has to be avoided so as to infect them with the disease. This study has the problem of ascertaining the perception of the secondary school students of sickle cell anaemia and awareness of the implication of sickle cell anaemia on married couples.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The general aim of this study is to establish the level of perception of sickle cell anaemia and the effect on couple among the secondary school in Enugu south Local Government Area of Enugu State. Specifically, the study will;
a) Access how far the students know of the existence of sickle cell anaemia.
b) Access, how much the students know on the disease as regards, what the disorders are, how it is acquired and how it is prevented or cured.
c) Determine how far the students know their genotype and whether it would affect marital relationship and birth of children with the diseases.
d) Access the awareness of the students about the implications of sickle cell anaemia on married couples.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There are benefits obtainable from this study if the result of the study is properly utilized because this research work will educate the societies on the checking of genotype among individual to prevent sickle cell anaemia in the society. The study will also help in the reduction of the number of divorces by creating awareness of checking of genotype before marriage. This will also help in reduction of pre-mature death of children as a result of sickle cell disease and also help in the choice of life partners.
These research work will educate the secondary school students on the disease, by creating awareness on how the disease called sickle cell anaemia came about, how it can prevent and exposing them on checking their genotype and also this will make them to know if they are carrier or not.
These stretches out to investigate on all the secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State. A total number of 5 (five) schools will be investigated on their perception of the effects of sickle cell anaemia on couples.
The following guided the study
v To what extent are the students aware of the existence of sickle cell anaemia?
v To what extent do student know how sickle cell is acquired?
v To what extent has the student know about the management of the disorder?
v To what extent are the students aware of the implication of sickle cell anaemia to married couples?
Medicinal plants are plants which contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. The medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. Medicinal plant have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective methods of using plants’ parts(e.g. seeds, stems, leaves, roots, peel, bark etc) for the treatment of many diseases affecting humans. Many important drugs used in medicine today are directly or indirectly derived from plants due to its bioactive constituents such as; alkaloids, steroids, tannins e.t.c. (Hill, 1952).
In recent years, secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as sources of medicinal agents. Thus is anticipated that photochemical with adequate antimicrobial efficacy will be use for treatment of bacterial infections.
The avocado (PerseaAmericana) belongs to the Lauraceaefamily of tropical and Mediterranean trees and shrubs; other members of this family include: laurel, cinnamon, safaris and green-heart (a timber of the Guiana’s). The avocado is thought to have originated from Mexico and Central South America; for thousands of years and till today, it has been a popular food in those places. In the mid 17th Century, they were introduced to West Africa, Mauritius and India.
The world is facing explosive increase in resistant strains of microorganisms. It poses a serious challenge to primary health care in un developing countries, with negative consequences on the economy. Antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin which used to have a high efficacy against bacteria species and strains, have become less effective, due to the increased resistance of many bacteria.
Previous and recent studies have shown that the leaf, back and seed extract of avocado pear (P. americana) are rich sources of photochemical such as saponins, steroids, alkaloids, as such a source of (Idriset al 2010. and Ilozueet al, 2014). However information on antimicrobial effect of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu is scanty. Therefore this works aims to determine and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia into nitrite, followed by the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate by small groups of autotrophic bacteria and Achaea. NH3 removal is beneficial to the plant system as build up is dangerous. Presence and activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in freshwater fishpond of a circulating aquaponics system was examined in respect to random points in the aquaponics system (the fish tank, the bio-filter, and the line supplying water to the plants). The samples FT4, FT6, BF5, BF6, BF1, LN1, LN2, and LN3 were all rod-like in shape, when viewed with 40 objective light compound microscope.While samples BF7 and FT7 were both circular in shape. samples FT4, FT6, FT7, BF5, BF6, BF1, LN1, LN2 and LN3 retained their primary dye ( blueblack colouration). Sample BF7 retained its secondary colour (pink colouration). , samples FT4, FT5, LN2, LN3, LN1 were all in chains. Samples FT6, BF6, and BF1 were spaced. Samples BF7 FT7 were clustered together. From the statistical analysis, it was deduced that nitrifying bacteria can be isolated from any point in the aquaponics unit. Most nitrifying bacteria were discovered to have good yield of plasmid DNA. The potential
nitrification activities and oxidation rates were shown to be linear and activity of ammonia-oxidizingand nitriteoxidizing bacteria was highest in samples from the bio-filter.
Most of the nitrogen available to the biosphere exists as N2 in the atmosphere, and is not useful to most organisms until it is “fixed” either biologically or abiotically (by lightning or aurorae, or industrially). Once it is fixed into NH3, usually it is either assimilated and transformed into organic N or nitrified into NO3-. (NASA-Amens 1996). Nitrification is the process by which ammonia is converted to nitrites (NO2-) and then nitrate (NO3-). This process naturally occurs in the environment, where it is carried out by specialized bacteria (Remay, 2000). The bacteria that carry out nitrification are called “Nitrifying bacteria” (AOBs and NOBs).
In the environments with high inputs of a nutrient such as freshwater fish ponds, mineralization of organic substances as a result of over-feeding and excretion increases the ammonia concentration which is harmful to fish and shrimp (Goldman et al., 1985). Since microbial processes affect water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium, nitrite, nitrate etc. (Moriarty, 1996), hence bacteria in ponds play important role in maintaining the water column chemistry (Vibha, 2011).
Aquaponics is the integration of a hydroponic plant production system with a recirculating aquaculture system. In a simple aquaponic system, nutrient-rich effluent from the fish tank flows through filters (for solids removal and biofiltration) and then into the plant production unit before returning to the fish tank (Christopher, 2015).
Ammonia becomes toxic to plants at certain concentration. This toxicity ranges from causing stunted growth in the plant to inhibiting germination of the seedling (Brain, 2014).
The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of nitrifying bacteria (Ammonia oxidizing bacteria [AOB] and Nitrite oxidizing bacteria [NOB]), in relation to the plants ability to utilize the ammonia produced from fresh-water fishpond in an aquaponic system in National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA) Abuja.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In large urban areas, conventional agriculture is almost impossible, and this is as a result of lack of space for establishment of agricultural field. And it has consequently resulted to unsustainable supply of fresh, local, organic produce.
Aquaponics system which should have provided a reliable answer to the problem also has a little challenge on its own. Ammonia is produced by the fish’s respiratory system and is discharged through their gills. Buildup of ammonia in the fish tank eventually kill them (dead fishes will also produce ammonia). Also buildup of ammonia concentration in the system becomes toxic to the plant, such as causing stunted growth (Brain, 2014). Introduction of Nitrifying bacteria can help shorten the lag phase in starting up aquaponics system, which usually pose loss of resources and frustration on beginners.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The general objective of the study is to determine if there are ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria NOB in Fresh water pond of Aquaponics system in NABDA Abuja. The specific objectives include;
Isolation of bacteria from the fresh water fishpond of aquaponics system in NABDA.
To identify ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) associated with aquaponics system .
To identify specific locations of these bacteria in the culture system.
To identify and characterize these bacteria.
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDIES
Under the auspices of this study, microbial work was carried out in the aspect of isolation of the organisms from the fishpond and gram-identification of the isolates.
Also a biochemical test will be carried out to evaluate the nitrifying potential of the isolates.
Molecular work will be also done by isolating plasmids from the bacteria.
Then a Nano technique will be used to quantify the concentration of the plasmids per isolate, using a Nano-drop spectrophotometer.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research work will provide information on the presence and types of bacteria or a bacteria culture in the Aquaponics or hydroponics system. Also the work will explore the plasmids available in the bacteria for future use in recombinant DNA technology for cloning and possibly in bio-remediation.
is the study of the time course of drug and metabolite levels in different
fluids, tissues, and excreta of the body, and of the mathematical relationships
required to develop models to interpret such data (Gibaldi and Perrier, 2004).
Neligan (2006) defined Pharmacokinetics as the study of what the body does to a
Pharmacokinetics can also be defined as the study of the time course of drug movement in the body during absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (excretion and biotransformation) (Sadee and Beelen, 1980; Coker, 2001). Pharmacokinetic studies can be applied for the safe and effective therapeutic management of a patient. The pharmacokinetic profile of a drug strongly influences its delivery to biological targets, thereby affecting its efficacy and potential side effects (Van de water beemd and Gifford, 2003).
The Pharmacokinetics of a compound are
typically understood, analyzed and interpreted in the context of their
underlying absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) processes
(Gram, 2003). However, there is no unique mathematical model for any of these
processes, usually a number of different models with different underlying
assumptions, parameterization and applicability are concurrent (Poulin and
Theil, 2002). Absorption is the process by which a drug proceeds from the site
of administration to the site of measurement within the body (Brodie, 2007).
The routes of drug administration are: oral, intravenous, buccal, sublingual, rectal, intramuscular, transdermal, subcutaneous, inhalational and topical (Neligan, 2006). Of all these routes, the usual way of administration is the oral route (Benet, 1998). The rate of absorption of a drug depends upon its dissolution characteristics, its ability to pass through biological membranes and upon a number of physiological variables (gastrointestinal) motility, presence of food in gastrointestinal tract etc. Apart from physiochemical properties of the drug (ionization constant, lipid-en water solubility, molecular radius, diffusion coefficient) also the pharmaceutical formulation may be of extreme importance in determining rate of absorption (Bozler and Van Rossum, 2002). We have linear and non-linear absorptions. Linear absorption is the type of absorption whereby the free diffusion of a drug through biomembranes is the rate limiting step in absorption. The non-linear absorption is the type of absorption where some other steps become the rate limiting step.
For instance, dissolution of drug in the gastrointestinal fluid, non-linear phenomenon in the absorption process will arise (Birkett, 2002). Some drugs require the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract to be absorbed, others on the contrary are better absorbed when taken in an empty stomach (Health Encyclopedia, 2006). Distribution is the process of reversible transfer of a drug to and from the site of measurement (Birkett, 2002). Some of the factors that determine the distribution of a drug in the body are: blood flow; protein binding; and lipid solubility and the degree of ionization.
Dirofilaria is a nematode parasite that is widely enzootic in carnivores especially
dog. Itis of the family filariidae
(Soulsby, 1982). There are two known species of importance in dogs: Dirofilaria repens (D. repens) and Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis), of
which D.immitis is more important and is commonly called the dog heart
worm. The adult wormsare found in
the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries of dogs and mammals (Gerald and
Larry, 1989; Urguhart et al., 2003)
and are responsible for delabitating condition known as canine heart worm (CHW)
disease or dirofilarosis. Dirofilarosis cause by D. immitis is zoonotic and is transmitted by the mosquito vector
(Urguhar et al., 2003).
Heartworms go through several live stages before they become adults to
infect the pulmonary artery of the host animal. The worms require the mosquito
as an intermediate host in order to complete their life cycle. The rate of
development in the mosquito is temperature dependent, requiring approximately
two weeks of temperature at above 27oC (80oF). Below a threshold temperature of 14oC, development cannot occur, and
the cycle will be halted (Knight, 2000). As a result, transmission is limited
to warm months and duration of the transmission season varies geographically.
The period between the initial infection when the dog is bitten by a mosquito
and the maturation of the worms into adults living in the heart takes six(6) to
seven(7) months and its known as the “prepatent period”.
Clinically, the signs of D.
immitis infection in dogs are laziness, exercise intolerance, and chronic
soft cough with haemophisis. In later stage there are dyspnoe, sometimes edema
of the lower limbs and escites, haemoglobnuria, icterus, and collapse of the
host usually due to venacaual syndrome (Urguhart et al., 2003).
Canine heartworm infection can be diagnosed based on the clinical signs
of cardiovascular dysfunction; demonstration of microfilaria in the blood;
thoracic radiography showing thickening pulmonary artery and/ or a positive
enzyme linked immunosurbent Assay (E.L.I.S.A) immunochromatography test system.
At postmortem, presence of worms in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Dirofilariasis manifests either as subcutaneous nodules or asymptomatic parenchymadisease in human. These lesions are
often misdiagnosed as malignant tumors, requiring invasive investigation and
surgery (Bionote, 2010).
Heartworm has now spread to nearly all locations where the mosquito vector is found. Transmission of the parasite occurs in all of the United States (cases has been reported in Alaska and the warmer regions of Canada). The highest infection rates are found within 150 miles of the coast from Texas to New Jersey, and along the Mississippi river and its major tributaries. It has also been found in South America, Southern Europe, Southern Asia, The Middle East, Australia, Korea and Japan. ( Edward, 2003).
A pollutant is any substance in the environment, which causes
objectionable effects, impairing the welfare of the environment, reducing the
quality of life and may eventually cause death. Such a substance has to be
present in the environment beyond a set or tolerance limit, which could be
either a desirable or acceptable limit. Environment is defined as the totality
of circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms especially, the
combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the
growth, development and survival of organisms (FarlexIncorporated, 2005). It
consists of the flora, fauna and the abiotic components, and includes the
aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric habitats. The environment is considered in
terms of the most tangible aspects like air, water and food, and the less
tangible, though no less important, the communities we live in.
Comprising over 70% of the Earth‟s surface, water is undoubtedly the
most precious natural resource that exists on our planet (Terry, 1996).
Population growth, urbanization and industrialization have led to rapid
degradation of the environment and publichealth due to improper sewage
disposal, especially in developing countries. Conventional solutions are
inappropriateand expensive because the infrastructures and skilled labour are
The development of the intensive agriculture in Nigeria between 1960 and
1990 totally neglected the aspect connected with the negative impact of the
chemical compounds toxic on the air, water and soil. As one of the consequences
of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by
heavy metals. Contamination of the aquatic environment by the heavy metals
has become a serious concern in the developing world(Chandra et al., 1997). Heavy metals unlike
organic pollutants are the persistent in nature, therefore, tends to accumulate
in the different components of the environment (Chandra et al., 1997). Sources of metals in the environment are widespread
and data on typical concentrations in the various media and environmental
settings exits worldwide (Mwamburi, 2015).These metals are released from a
variety of sources such as mining, urban sewage, smelters, tanneries, textile
industry and chemical industry.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes,
rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when
pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without
adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Aquatic environments are
increasingly affected by human activity because of urban, industrial,
mineraland agricultural waste. The use of the ocean as a dumpingground for
wastes could lead to high levels of pollution in the aquatic environment
(Bramha et al.,2014; Bodin et al., 2013). Water pollution affects
plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases, the
effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to
the natural biological communities.
Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing
evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international
down to individual aquifers as well). It has been suggested that it is the
leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the
deaths of more than 14,000 people daily(Pink, 2006; West, 2006).
The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals and pathogens. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water, and what is a contaminant. High xxiv
concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials, such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances such as may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species (EPA, 2005).
UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED MUCUNA PRURIENS LEAF MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR SOYABEAN MEAL IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS DIETS
1.1Background of the Study
The intensive production of farmed fish with compound feeds, has been largely increased mainly due to the growth of aquaculture production, and also because it is the most efficient way of production to meet the fish demand (Olsen and Hasan, 2012). Although, capture fishery production has been relatively stable at about 90 million tonnes since the 1990s, the rising demand for fishery products has not been met by a fast-growing aquaculture industry, which set an all-time high record at 67 million tonnes in 2012, providing 50% of the fish used for human consumption (FAO, 2014). In fish farming, nutrition is critical because fish feed represents about 60% of the total production costs (Sogbesan et al., 2006). Protein component represents about 50% of feed cost in intensive culture (El-Sayed, 2005). Therefore, the selection of proper quantity and quality of dietary protein is a necessary tool for successful fish culture practices.
Soya bean meal (SBM) is one of the most nutritious of all plant protein sources (Batal, 2000). Due to its high protein content, high digestibility and relatively well balanced amino acid profiles, it is widely used as feed ingredient for many aquaculture species (Storebakken et al., 2000). It is currently the most commonly used plant protein source in fish feed. Lim and Akiyama (1992) reported that soya bean products have been used to replace a significant portion of fish meal in fish feed with nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, wider utilization and availability of this conventional source for fish feed is limited by increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001), hence the need to focus on using less expensive and readily available plant protein sources to replace soya bean meal without reducing the nutritional quality of the feed becomes imperative.
The Mucuna pruriens belongs to the family Fabaceae and has been described as a multipurpose plant which is used extensively both for its nutritional and medicinal properties (Adepoju and Odubena, 2009). It is twinning and tropical legume known as velvet bean and of common names such as: cow-itch, cowhage, Bengal beans, itchy bean, buffalo bean and velvet bean (English), while it’s called Agbara (Igbo), Yerepe (Yoruba) and Karara (Hausa) (Manyham et al., 2004). The roots are bitter, stimulants, purgative, aphrodisiac and diuretic. The leaves of Mucuna pruriens are used as remedy for various diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, dysentery, and cardiovascular diseases (Barrows et al., 2008). Mucuna pruriens has been shown to increase testosterone levels (Amin et al.,1996), leading to deposition of protein in the muscles and increased muscle mass and strength (Bhasin et al., 1996), and some medicinal properties attributed to the plant include that the roots are thermogenic, antihelminthic, and also used to relieve constipation, neuropathy and ulcer (Warrier et al.,1996). The seeds have been found to have anti-depressant properties when consumed, and it has also shown to be neuro-protective (Manyham et al., 2004).
TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS
One of the most challenging problems encountered in Nigeria is the improper disposal of industrial effluents into water bodies. These effluents from industries have a great deal of influence have a great deal of influence on the pollution of the water body, these effluents can alter the physical, chemical and the nature of the receiving water body (Sangodoyin, 1995).
Water bodies which are major receptacles of treated and untreated or partially treated industrial wastes have become highly polluted. The resultant effects on this on public health and the environment are usually great in magnitude (Osibanjo, et al., 2011). Textile industries form part of these prominent industries with attendant‟s indiscriminate discharge of effluent into the surrounding water bodies. They constitute severe environmental problems because the effluent are made up of complex composition such as chemical reagents, which are very diverse in chemical composition ranging from inorganic compounds to polymers and organic products such as dyes plasticizers, detergents (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).
They form one of the main sources with severe pollution problems world wide and its dye-containing wastewaters (i.e. 10,000 different textile dyes with an estimated annual production of 7.105 metric tones are commercially available worldwide; 30% of these dyes are used in excess of 1,000 tones per annum, and 90% of the textile products are used at the level of 100 tones per annum or less) (Robinson et. al.2001 Solomon et. al. 2009 Baban etal.2010).The discharge of dye-containing effluents into the water environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many of dyes released and their breakdown products are toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic to life forms mainly because of carcinogens, such as benzidine, naphthalene and other aromatic compounds. Without adequate treatment these dyes can remain in the environment for a long period of time affecting terrestrial and aquatic environments. The physico chemical parameters of water are thus affected such as temperature, pH, hardness, dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand (Auta, 2001).Water pollution is the resultant effect of these textile discharges and these pollutants build up in the foodchain. They accumulate in the organism and persist in the environment due to their stability or poor biodegradability (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).
TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE (HERBICIDE) TO JUVENILES OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BÜRCHELL, 1822)
The ever-increasing world population and the attendant increase in food demandnecessitated that new ways of increasing agricultural output be sought. In an attempt to increase agricultural output, man relies heavily on the use of chemicals to protect crops from pests, right from the time of dressing of seeds before planting, through fighting weeds and other pests on the farm, to the preservation of already harvested products. On one side, benefits derived from the use of pesticides in agriculture are immense, but on the other side, environmental pollution and/or degradation is one major problem that is linked to their application (Olusegun, 2001).
The competition for survival between humans and other organisms in the environment dates back to the beginning of history. Insects, rodents and generally pests have taken a serious liking for cultivated crops (Olusegun, 2001), or the conducive environments in which they are grown. This competition became more intense as humans continued to modify the environment, leading to the evolution of an organized pattern of pest control through the development of pesticides (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979).
At its onset, the development of pesticides was actually slow and limited in application. In such instances, their use was highly restricted to small acreage, hence small and restricted impacts on the environment (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979). The increase in the world population led to the increase in the use of pesticides, resulting in higher and more pronounced impacts on the environment.
The presence of pesticides in the environment has caused significant social and scientific development anxiety worldwide, as their all-over-the-world extensive usage can create potential risks to the environment and human health, and easily pollute bodies of water thereby resulting in extensive damage to non-target species, including fish (Moreno et al., 2010). Be it by intentional or unintentional application, water is contaminated through direct application into the aquatic system, drifts during spray, atmospheric fallout as rain and dust, soil erosion, sewage, industrial effluent and occasionally by spillage (McEwen and Stephenson, 1979).
SEROPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RUBELLA VIRUS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the Study
Rubella is a mild viral illness commonly known as German measles though its etiologic agent differs from Measles (Nayeri and Thung, 2013; NICE, 2013). It is also called „three day measles‟ because of the short duration of the rash (Bubuk et al., 2002; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). Rubella rash starts on the face and neck and spreads centrifugally to the trunk and extremities within 24 hours (Heymann, 2008; Pickering et al., 2012; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). The rash begins to fade on the face on the second day and disappears throughout the body by the end of the third day (Gabbe et al., 2002; Heymann, 2008; Elias and Ruselle, 2014). The disease is contagious and can affect people of all ages and sex (Hobman et al., 2007). The name Rubella was coined from Latin and it means “little red”. Rubella was initially considered to be a variant of measles or scarlet fever and thus called “third exanthematous disease of childhood”. It was first described as a separate disease in the German medical literature by German physicians, de Bergan and Orlow, hence the common name “German measles” (Lee and Bowden, 2000; Atkinson, 2011).
The etiologic agent of the disease is Rubella virus (Deka, et al., 2006; Murry, 2006). It is an enveloped, non-segmented, positive-stranded, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus which replicates in the cytoplasm (Frey, 1994; Hobman et al., 2007). It is the only member of the Rubi virus genus belonging to the family; toga viridae (Lee and Bowden, 2000; Chantler et al., 2001; Heymann, 2008).
The rubella virus genome consists of less than 10,000 nucleotides and encodes five proteins including three structural proteins: E1 glycoprotein, E2 glycoprotein and capsid protein and two non-structural proteins: P150 and P90. The E1 glycoprotein is a structural glycoprotein with neutralising epitopes (WHO, 2000; Chantler et al., 2001; Plotkin and Reef, 2004). According to a report on the meeting organised by World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 to discuss the standardization of nomenclature for describing the genetic characteristics of wild-type rubella virus, the E1 gene sequence between genome positions 8731 and 9469 was recommended as a target site for routine genotyping analysis for molecular epidemiology (WHO, 2005).