THE EFFECT OF VARYING RANGE OF SOIL GRAIN SIZES ON CASSAVA STARCH STABILIZED COMPRESSED EARTH

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Earth as a building material is available everywhere. In developing countries, earth construction is economically the most efficient means to house the greatest number of people with the least demand of resources (Al-Sakkaf, 2009). Traditional earth construction materials such as adobe bricks suffer from moisture attack and cracks, thus the need to continuously maintain them in order to keep them in good condition. According to Adam and Agips (2001), traditional earth construction technology has undergone considerable developments that enhance earth’s durability and quality as a construction material for low-cost buildings. Such methods include rammed earth and machine pressed compressed stabilized earth bricks. Stabilization of these earth bricks is achieved using various methods that often involve the use of a variety of stabilizers. Adam and Agip (2001) identified these stabilizers to include artificial ones such as Portland cement and lime and the natural ones such as agricultural waste amongst others.

Cassava starch which is the stabilizer in view in this research was recently evaluated for its suitability as stabilizer and found to improve some mechanical properties of selected soil types (Khalil 2005). Incidentally the abundance of the cassava crop in Nigeria is not in doubt. Phillips et al (2004) pointed out that Nigeria is the highest cassava producer in the world.

The effects of soil grain sizes in imparting changes in mechanical behavior of soils have also been pointed out by researchers like Wang, Lu and Shi. (2010), Rahardjo et al (2002) and many more.

This research work intends to evaluate the possibility of further improving the strength and durability characteristics of the cassava starch stabilized compressed earth bricks through the exploration of mechanical behavior of different grain size range of a selected soil type.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Despite the diverse number of policies and programme adopted by the Nigerian Government, housing delivery has remained a major challenge leading to deficits in delivery. Oluwakiyesi (2011) puts the housing shortfall at between 16 and 18 million housing units. Ajanlekoko

(2011) pointed out that the National housing programme launched by the Nigerian Government in1994 had a delivery target of 121,000 units to be distributed throughout the states of the Federation. Only 1,367 were completed and another 17,792 units were under construction. The National Rolling Plan (NRP) on the other hand, puts the housing requirement of Nigeria at a conservative annual estimate of between 500,000 and 600,000 thus needing an estimated 250 to 300 million Naira to make up for the shortfall. It can therefore be inferred that initiatives at enhancing housing delivery need not be limited to housing policies and programs of Government alone but should more importantly include reduction in overall construction cost particularly amongst the rural populace. Ajanlekoko (2001) asserted that the rapid up-swing in the prices of building materials in the last five years has further reduced the affordability for most Nigerians. Oresegun (2011) noted high cost of building materials and labour to be amongst major problems affecting housing delivery in Nigeria. Satprem (2009) recommended among other measures, a reduction in the amount of cement for brick making in other to enhance cost effectiveness.

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THE EFFECT OF VARYING RANGE OF SOIL GRAIN SIZES ON CASSAVA STARCH STABILIZED COMPRESSED EARTH

ANALYSIS OF POVERTY IN ZARIA URBAN AREA AND THE URBAN MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS

CHAPTER ONE

CONCEPTION AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Many African cities are urbanizing to a crisis level due to high rate of population growth and migration from rural areas to the cities. In the movement from the countryside to cities, poverty is highly evident. In some African countries (Nigeria for instance), the growth is so fast to the extent that by 2015, it is expected that there would be more people in urban areas than in rural areas. The United Nations Population Fund estimates that half of the world’s population-about 3.3 billion people will be living in urban areas in 2009. It is equally envisaged that the figure will rise to five billion by 2030, the majority of whom will be poor people living in unplanned squatter settlements without water and electricity and in an environment of squalor, poverty, crime and disease. Currently, more than 7.9 million urban households, that is, about 42% of the total number of households in Africa, are living in poverty. The overall poverty situation in Nigeria is that, about seventy-seven percent (77%) of the urban households are poor and 68% of rural households are poor (FOS, 1996).That is, that poverty is becoming more of urban than rural phenomena.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) brought poverty unto the global agenda and stimulated a new commitment by all nations to the battle against poverty. Measurements to improve the quality of life by reducing poverty are therefore receiving greater attention than ever before the world over. Over past decades, city managers and activists have faced an urgency to respond to the plight of the urban poor.

Rapid urbanization places enormous pressure on cities to use their limited resources to meet or facilitate the increased demand for water, sanitation, electricity, basic education, health, housing and transport. With rapid growth of cities comes the typical urban dimension of poverty. Poverty is defined as the human condition characterized by the sustained or chronic deprivation of the resources, capabilities, choices, security and power necessary for the enjoyment of an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Poverty is a common plague afflicting people all over the world especially in the less developed countries. The factors that influence poverty are high inflation rate, unemployment, bad economic policies, huge wastage of scarce resources and bad governance. The problem of poverty in Nigeria has not only become entrenched and multifaceted over the years, but has defied efforts at eradication. Poverty is associated with the lack of, or inadequate necessities of life such as food, clothing, light etc.

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ANALYSIS OF POVERTY IN ZARIA URBAN AREA AND THE URBAN MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS

EFFECTIVE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE (RIVERS STATE)

EFFECTIVE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE (RIVERS STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Material management can be defined as a process that coordinates planning, assessing the requirement, sourcing, purchasing, transporting, storing and controlling of materials, minimizing the wastage and optimizing the profitability by reducing cost of material. Baldva (1997) noted that Materials management is a process for planning, executing and controlling field and office activities in construction. While Eduardo (2002) viewed Materials management as the system for planning and controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner, are obtained at a reasonable cost and most importantly are available at the point of use when required.

According to Khyomesh and Chetna, (2011) Building materials account for 60 to 70 percent of direct cost of a project or a facility, the remaining 30 to 40 percent being the labour cost. Therefore, efficient procurement and handling of material represent a key role in the successful completion of the work. It is important for the project manager to consider that there may be significant difference in the date that the material was requested or date when the purchase order was made, and the time at which the material will be delivered. These delays can occur if the contractor needs a large quantity of material that the supplier is not able to produce at that time or by any other factors beyond his control. Chan (2002) noted that the project manager should always consider that procurement of materials is a potential cause for delay. The management of

Construction processes to reduce, reuse, recycle and effectively dispose of wastes has a serious bearing on the final cost, quality, time and impact of the project on the environment. (Dania, 2007)

The goal of materials management is to ensure that construction materials are available at their point of use when needed. The materials management system attempts to ensure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately selected, purchased, delivered and handled on site in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost, (khyomesh and chetna 2011). The scope of materials waste is vast, and this waste occurs in the industry irrespective of the size of the building firm, instructions about handling, storage and stacking are not provided with the goods or sent in advance to the site (Abdulazeez, 2000).

Materials management in construction is also regarded as the efficient use of goods and equipment before, during and upon completion of a building process. Petra (2013) observed that Successful materials management requires the participation of all persons involved in a construction process. For Materials may deteriorate during storage or get stolen unless special care is taken. Delays and extras expenses may be incurred if materials required for particular activities are unavailable. Ensuring a timely flow of materials is an important concern of material management (Shah, 1993).

 

Thus, Materials management is an important element in project management. Materials represent a major expense in construction, so minimizing procurement costs improves opportunities for reducing the overall project costs. Poor materials management can result in increased costs during construction. On the other hand, efficient management of materials can result in substantial savings in project costs. If materials are purchased too early, capital may be held up and interest charges incurred on the excess inventory of materials (Wendy, 2006).

Johnston (2001) opined that Material Management is divided between head office and site in major construction companies. The selection, pricing, ordering, preparation of schedules and payment accounts are dealt with at head office, learning the receipt storage, protection and use of materials to management on site. Due to the high cost of materials, if not properly managed during the period of execution of contract can lead to abandonment of project.

In his submission, lan (2008), opined that the rate at which materials are been squandered on site due to poor management is getting too rampant in our society and if not curbed, it can jeopardize the future of our construction industry. This is particularly true in view of the fact that mismanagement of construction resources (i.e materials, plants and labour) affects the continuity and profit margin of such project and if not checked can lead to technical insolvency or bankruptcy.

Therefore, attention must be paid to how materials are been procured, stored and managed in order to achieve perfect work, effective handling of materials, right usage of materials and control of construction resources.

This, explain the reason why Johnston (2001), noted that Materials management begins with planning and estimation, these can be achieved through proper site co-ordination measure of reducing wastes, the location and security of materials on sites, procurement of quality materials as being specified and effective administration of site together with quality control.

Lee and Donald (2001), observed that the problem associated with the absence of proper materials management on construction site could be wastage of resources making contract cost more than budget sum, reduction of profit margin of the contractor ineffectiveness of project handlings reduction of output e.t.c. and if these are not properly taken care of it might be disastrous to the firm.

No construction project can commence and proved effective without an adequate supply of raw materials, apart from the careful planning of materials required by the builder, it is to his advantage to foster a good relationship with the suppliers, many of whom will have been selected due to their fulfillment of orders to the standard required and meeting of delivery times over a number of years (Pheng and Chuan, 2001).

Besides the builder’s own suppliers, the architect may specify that a certain supplier must be used and these are termed “nominated supplier” whatever the type of suppliers to be used, the information passed to them and receive from them is the same and in all but in the smallest firms this information and document will pass through the buyer. (Yang, et al., 2003).The buyer must also ensure that the architect receives any samples from the suppliers in the very early stage of contract procedure to satisfy him of the relative merits of the material. It may, for example, not be possible to obtain the specified material in time in conjunction with the building programme, but by obtaining samples of similar products the architect may decide on a new form of construction or design to prevent hold ups.

In most cases, a buyer will send enquiries to two or three suppliers or in some cases, direct to manufacturers for such items as sand, gravel, brick, block, cement, e.t.c, regarding prices, delivery dates and such, for use at the estimating stage of the project. This will enable the estimator to use the figures obtained in the preparation of the tender figure.

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EFFECTIVE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE (RIVERS STATE)

PORT REFORM ON CARGO THROUGHPUT LEVEL AT ONNE SEAPORT NIGERIA

EFFECT OF PORT REFORM ON CARGO THROUGHPUT LEVEL AT ONNE SEAPORT NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This Thesis focuses on the impact of reforms on port performance using Onne and Rivers ports as a reference point. It analyses the pre and post reform eras of the ports in terms of their performance. The reforms took effect from 2006 after the Federal Government of Nigeria concessioned the ports to private investors. Parameters such as Ship traffic, Cargo throughput, Ship turn round time, Berth Occupancy and personnel were used as variables for the assessment. Secondary Data were collected from the Nigerian Ports Authority and Integrated Logistics Services Nigeria (INTELS) for the period 2001 to 2010 and analyzed using two techniques, a two-sample t-test to evaluate the difference between sample means and Data Envelopment Analysis to assess the efficiency of the ports.The findings show that the reforms resulted in significant improvements in cargo through put as compared to the pre-reform era. The t-test shows that average Port throughput has increased significantly since the reform(concessioning) came into effect.Data envelopment analysis revealed a continuous improvement in the overall efficiency of both Ports since 2006 when the new measure was introduced. Average Ship turnaround time improved in the ports due to modern and fast cargo handling equipment and more cargo handling space which were provided. There is an increase in Ship traffic calling at the ports, resulting in increased cargo throughput and berth occupancy rate at the ports of Onne and Rivers. The reform also led to more private investment in the ports’ existing and new facilities and the introduction of a World Class service in port operation. This study concludes that the ports of Onne and Rivers are performing better under the reform programme of the Federal Government of Nigeria. It finally recommends the introduction of an integrated intermodal transport system for an effective and swift transfer of cargoes to and from the hinterland. Also, there is an urgent need for a regulator to appraise the performance of the reform programme from time to time as provided by the agreement and for the full adoption and utilization of management information system (MIS) to aid performance efficiency.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Certification ———————————————————————————–ii

Dedication ————————————————————————————-iii

Acknowledgements —————————————————————————iv

Abstract —————————————————————————————-v

List of Tables ———————————————————————————ix

List of Figures ——————————————————————————–x

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Background ——————————————————————–1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ————————————————————-6

1.3 Objectives of the Study —————————————————————-7

1.4 Research Questions  ——————————————————————–8

1.5 Research Hypotheses  ——————————————————————8

1.6 Significance of the Study  ————————————————————-9

1.7 Scope of the Study ———————————————————————-9

1.8 Limitation of the Study ——————————————————————-9

1.9 Brief Description of  Onne and Rivers Ports —————————————-9

1.9.1 Port Harcourt Port (Hard Quays) —————————————————-10

1.9.2 Onne Port Complex ——————————————————————-10

1.9.3 Federal Ocean Terminal (FOT) ——————————————————11

1.9.4 Federal Lighter Terminal (FLT) —————————————————–11

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction —————————————————————————–12

2.1 Conceptual Framework —————————————————————-12

2.1.1 Port Privatization ———————————————————————13

2.1.2 Commercialization ——————————————————————-16

2.1.3 Corporatization ———————————————————————–16

2.1.4 Port Performance Measurement —————————————————-17

2.1.5 Performance Measurement Studies Using Data

Envelopment Analysis (DEA) —————————————————–18

2.1.6 Privatization ————————————————————————–21

2.1.7 Devolution —————————————————————————-22

2.2 Port Reforms in other Countries ——————————————————22

2.2.1 Colombia and Argentina Ports —————————————————–24

2.2.2 India Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), Mumbai —————————-26

2.2.2.1 The Pre-reform Scenario ———————————————————-27

2.2.2.2 Evolution of Port Reforms Policy in India ————————————–28

2.2.2.3 Impact of Reforms ——————————————————————29

2.2.2.4 Performance Indicators ————————————————————29 2.2.3 Reforms and Infrastructure Efficiency in Spain’s

Container Port ——————————————————————————–32

2.3 Empirical Review ———————————————————————–33

2.3.1 Early Port Performance in Nigeria ————————————————-33

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Data Collection ————————————————————————-37

3.1.1 Research Design ———————————————————————-37

3.1.2 Primary Data ————————————————————————–37

3.1.3 Secondary Data ———————————————————————–37

3.2 Methods of Data Analysis ————————————————————-38

3.2.1 DEA Application to Seaport Efficiency Measurement ————————–38

3.2.2 Paired Sample t-test ——————————————————————40

3.2.3 Cargo Throughput (Metric Tonnes) ————————————————41

3.2.4 Berth Occupancy Rate (BOR) (%) ————————————————-41

3.2.5 Turn Round Time (TRT) (Days) —————————————————-42

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 Data Presentation ————————————————————————-44

4.2 Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of Onne and Rivers Ports

Efficiency Level from 2001 – 2010———————————————————49

4.3 DEA Comparative Analysis of Performance of Onne& Rivers ports– ———-51

4.4 Test of Hypothesis ————————————————————————54

4.5.1 Discussion: Cargo Throughput ——————————————————–61

4.5.2 Berth Occupancy Rate (%) ————————————————————-64

4.5.3 Vessel Turn Round Time —————————————————————67

4.6 New Port Performance Indicators ——————————————————-68

4.6.1 Port Related Employment in the Region ———————————————69

4.6.2 Emergence of more Companies ——————————————————-70

4.6.3 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Port ———————-71

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND   RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction ——————————————————————————–72

5.2 Summary of Findings ———————————————————————72

5.3 Conclusion ———————————————————————————-75

5.4 Recommendations ————————————————————————-75

5.5 Contribution to Knowledge —————————————————————77

5.6 Area for Further Study ———————————————————————77

References ———————————————————————————–78

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Port of Cartegena (Colombia) Performance improvement since

Private concessioning in 1994 ————————————————————–24

Table 2.2 Selected Performance Indicators for Argentina (Buenos Aires) ———–25

Table 2.3 Colombia: Operating Performance before and after Reforms ————–26 Table 2.4 Selected Performance Indicators of all major Indian ports taken  together over the period 1995-2003 ——————————————————–31

Table 2.5 Selected Performance Indicators of JNPT over the period of

1995- 2002————————————————————————————–31

Table 4.1 Onne and Rivers Port Performance 2001- 2005——————————-45

Table 4.2 Onne and Rivers Port Performance 2006 – 2010 —————————–47

Table 4.3 DEA Performance Analysis for Onne Ports ———————————–50

Table 4.4 DEA Performance Analysis of the Rivers Ports ——————————51

Table 4.5 DEA Comparative Analysis of Onne and Rivers Ports– ——————–52 Table 4.6 Cargo Throughput (m/t) Of Onne and Rivers ports (2001-2010)

Including Petroleum Products —————————————————54

Table 4.7 Paired Samples Descriptive Statistics for Onne Port ————————-55

Table 4.8 Paired Samples Descriptive Statistics for Rivers Ports ———————-55

Table 4.9 Paired Sample‘t’-test analysis for Cargo throughput————————-56

Table 4.10 Cargo Throughput (m/t) of Onne and Port Harcourt Ports

(excluding petroleum products) from 2001-2010 —————————————-57

Table 4.11 Paired Samples Descriptive Statistics for Onne Port ———————–58

Table 4.12 Paired Samples Descriptive Statistics for Port Harcourt ort —————58

Table 4.13 Paired Sample t-test analysis for Cargo throughput ————————59

Table 4.14 Cargo Throughput (m/t) of Onne and Rivers ports (including

Petroleum Products) from 2001-2010 ——————————————————63

Table 4.15 Berth Occupancy Rate (%) of Onne and Rivers Ports ———————-66 LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1 Breakdown of Ship time in port ————————————————42

Figure 4.1 Comparative Analysis of Ports graphs —————————————–53

Figure 4.2 Cargo Throughputs (m/t) of Onne and Rivers Ports

(including Petroleum Products) 2001-2010 ————————————————63

Figure 4.3 Berth Occupancy Rate (%) of Onne and Rivers

Ports (2001-2010) ——————————————————————66

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EFFECT OF PORT REFORM ON CARGO THROUGHPUT LEVEL AT ONNE SEAPORT NIGERIA

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION IN NIGERIA(IMPACT OF SEPTIC TANKS DISTANCES TO WELLS)

EFFECT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION IN NIGERIA(IMPACT OF SEPTIC TANKS DISTANCES TO WELLS)

ABSTRACT

Water is essential for growing food., for household water uses including drinking, cooling, sanitation., as a critical input into industry, for tourism and cultural purposes., and for its role in sustaining the earth’s ecosystem (Mark et al., 2002). In addition to water value for direct human consumption, it is integrally linked to the provision and quality of ecosystems service. Domestic water is used for drinking, cooking, bathing and cleaning, However, access to safe drinking and sanitation is critical in terms of health especially for children. For instance, unsafe drinking water contributed to numerous health problems in developing countries such as the one billion or more incidents of diarrhea that occur annually (Mark et al., 2002)

In Nigeria, inadequate supply of pipe borne water is a major concern; hence many homes have wells as a source of water for household uses. The groundwater of forty wells in Agbowo community was assessed for Total Aerobic Bacteria Counts (TABC) and Total Coliform Counts (TCC). The location and distances of wells from septic tanks were determine using the Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a tape rule respectively. All the wells sampled had high TABC(4.76±1.41 log CFU/mL) and TCC (2.29±0.67 log CFU/mL) counts which exceeded the international standard of 0 per100 mL of potable water. There were no significant differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncovered wells (p >0.05). The mean distance (8.93±3.61m) of wells from the septic tanks was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft) set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). TABC increased with a decrease in distance between the wells and septic tanks though not significant (p <0.05)A very weak positive correlation (r2=0.021)ensued between the distance from septic tank and CC, while a weak negative correlation (r2=‒0.261)  was obtained between the TCC and TABC. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks while considering all possible sources of well contamination as well as treatment of ground water before use.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –

Title Page – – – – – – – – – –

Certification – – – – – – – – – –

Dedication – – – – – – – – – –

Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –

Abstract – – – – – – – – – –

Table of Content – – – – – – – – –

Chapter One: Introduction

Background of the Study – – – – – –

Statement of the Problem – – – – – –

Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –

Research Questions – – – – – – –

Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –

Significance of the Study – – – – – – –

Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –

Definition of Terms – – – – – – –

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –

2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –

2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –

2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –

Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –

4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study – – – – – –

Groundwater from shallow and deep (borehole) wells has become the major source of potable water in most semi-urban and rural areas of Nigeria. This is especially so because, aside its assumed low susceptibility to pollution the method is a readily available and reliable but cheap source of domestic water supply. For instance, Eduvie (1995) stated that groundwater is usually preferred to surface water because it is available in most areas, potable without treatment and of low cost technologies. As a result of the foregoing, governments and individuals in Nigeria have explored groundwater in forms of shallow and deep wells for the supply of potable water. The use of the method became more pronounced especially during the last fifteen years in a way to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of potable water supply target in the [6]. However, there is spatial variation of groundwater quality based on the type of geological formation in an area, exposure to pollution sources and method of abstraction amongst other factors [7, 8]. Consequently, there is the need for the assessment of the quality of groundwater at local scales in the country for safety purpose. The quality of groundwater is a measure of its wholesomeness. This means that such water should not contain any physicochemical and microbial substances in amounts that are harmful when consumed by man. Thus any source of water for human consumption must conform to the quality control guidelines set by both international and national agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS), respectively. This is necessary to avoid the negative health implications of the consumption of such water [9-11]. Studies have shown that many health challenges such as mortality, morbidity and poverty are consequences of consumption of water from unwholesome sources [12-14]. In addition, about 80% of the diseases causing deaths in developing countries are contracted through the consumption of polluted water [15]. Naturally, groundwater is usually of high quality, but as a result of urbanization, indiscriminate siting of septic tanks and pit latrines, refuse dumps and mining activities, the quality of many ground water resources has been degraded [16]. For this reason, there is the need to continuously assess the quality of water from this source, especially in areas where people depend solely on it.

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EFFECT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION IN NIGERIA(IMPACT OF SEPTIC TANKS DISTANCES TO WELLS)

A STUDY OF PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF TIMBER AS EXTERNAL MATERIAL IN BUILDING PRODUCTION IN HOT CLIMATE REGION (CASE STUDY BENUE STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY OF PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF TIMBER AS EXTERNAL MATERIAL IN BUILDING PRODUCTION IN HOT CLIMATE REGION (CASE STUDY BENUE STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Timber as external material in building production simply means using timber on the external part of the building such as timber work covering, timber external walls, and timber external windows, doors and frames.

Timber use practices in building production industry is endowed with a variety of tree species in her nature forests and in recent years there has been an increase in the establishment of exotic trees species such as pine and eucalyptus on plantations. Despite the abundance of wood resources, wood has been under utilized with a view that it is material to be avoided due to its perceived unreliability, variability and unknown properties.

Generally, timber research has been academic and has concentrated on a few tree species, resources have not explored the key indicators of wood strength such as bending stiffness and bending strength, they have concentrated on density which has been reported as poor surrogate strength. This is purely the reason timber users cannot accept lesser-known timber. Limited studies have been done to predict the allowance load from bad deflection relationship. This is probably the reason timber users prefer timber with proven truck record, a practice which unfortunately exerts pressure on well-known timber species leading to their building environment coupled with population growth and dwindling wood resources globally necessitates research into optional use of multiple trees species with quality control procedures.

The aim of the study was to examine timber use practices with emphasis on analyzing weakness and strength in the application of wood as an external material in building.

Timber is a cellular material consisting of minute cell called fibre or trenched which have inter-communicating pits or values that allow water and solutions to be conducted through out the structure.

The word timber described wood, which has been cut for use in building. Timber has many advantages as a building material. It is high weight material that is easy to cut, shape and join by relatively cheap and simple hand or power operated tools in the production of timber. Timber is used all parts of building such as farm work, doors and windows, frames, timber, wall plates, floors and also in roof carcass. Timber is a very important material in building production which helps to facilitate building construction. As a structural material it has favourable weight to lost of elasticity relations and coefficients of thermal expansion, values density and specific heat with sensible selection, fabrication and fixing and adequate impregnation or protection. It is a reasonable durable material in relation to the life of most building, wood burn at temperature of about 3500 and chairs, the chaired outer face of the wood protecting the unborn inner wood for period adequate for escape during fire in most building.

 

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A STUDY OF PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF TIMBER AS EXTERNAL MATERIAL IN BUILDING PRODUCTION IN HOT CLIMATE REGION (CASE STUDY BENUE STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

 

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SUCCESSFUL BUILDING PROJECT DELIVERY. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SUCCESSFUL BUILDING PROJECT DELIVERY. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of effective building production management in successful building project delivery in Akwa in Anambra State. A three research question were formulated which guided the study. The population of the study comprises of building production management professionals in construction firms. A well structured questionnaire was distributed and 30 were retrieved out of 40 distributed for data collection. Frequency count / percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer the research questions. It was concluded among other that; impact of effective building production management leads to successful building project delivery. Building production management; for quality assurance, utilization of labour and complete success in construction project supervision must be use at all time based on the conclusion drawn from the study, recommendations were made for the importance of effective building production management. 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0           INTRODUCTION
1.1.0        BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The Nigeria construction industry has witnessed continued growth at a phenomenal rate construction methods have witnessed changes with current trends tending towards industrialization,  mechanization, prefabrication and the authomation of all the processes involved in the erection and installation of structure Kashish C. (2016). All these require high management impact with the population explosion and continued demand for new building of all kinds couple with the infrastructural facilities there is the need for professional practitioners in the building industry to impart knowledge of production management toward construction planning at the design stage for successful building delivering with appropriate construction tools. Robert F.C. and Michael C.L. (2001)
A concept and contents of modern day construction work are changing in a complex direction, the indication is a clear need for professionals to improve on modern techniques for learning and practice. It is only in this way that the construction industry can meet challenges and responsibilities imposed upon it is an effective and efficient manner so as to ensure quality of production in the construction industry. This will not only offer better value for money to the client but will make profitability of the industry more stable for any building project to be successfully execute on site, the constructors must forcast, plan and put in place various production Management Documents (Builder’s documents).
Federal Government National Building Code (2006).
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Bamisile (2004), the public at large, believe that most building product fails to offer value for money, construction projected are said to cast for much, take too long to complete and too prone to failure.
        Ibironke T.O. (2009), asserted that the problem experience in the course of managing the three parameters, manifest primarily art two point in the total building process, i.e at the interface between the client and designer and the interfaces between the designer and the constructor.

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SUCCESSFUL BUILDING PROJECT DELIVERY. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to determine the needs for environmental friendly materials for building construction. The population of the study consisted mostly of big constriction firms in Anambra State that have had more than five years of active construction experience the sample for the study was 10 reputable construction firms which were drawn using simple random sampling. Four research questions and two hypothesis were formulated, which guided the study. A 30-item structured questionnaire was developed for data collection. Frequency count / percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer the research questions, which chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. It was concluded among others that environmental unfriendly building materials has serious negative impacts on the environment. Which needs an urgent attention in other to save the environment from global warming and other negative effects. Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from the study recommendations were made for  Anambra State government to take a legislation that will help for effective use of environmental friendly material for building construction in Anambra State. 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In recent years more and more attention is being paid to the environmental impacts of building materials. The constantly increasing cost of energy and raw materials force the construction industry to think about alternatives such as renewable energy sources and raw materials and the reduction of wast.
Climate change and environmental pressures are major drivers for the promotion of environmental friendly materials.
Furthermore, this trend is spreading fast and the international document stating intent of being more environmental friendly one as presented. The Kyoto protocol, the energy performance of building directive of the EU, Eneergy Efficiency Directive. In line with the desire for environmental friendly materials, some government have change their legislation setting targets for the sustainability of public and residential buildings.  On the other hand, statistics show that an important factor for the well-being of the inhabitants is the choice of building materials, “unhealthy” materials cannot only cause environmental problems but can equally cause asthma and cancer and therefore it is extremely important to choose low emitting building materials. We spend most of our times indoors and building materials influence the “health” and safety of the indoor environment.
        The building industry in Anambra state is rapidly changing-new building materials are all the time emerging on the market and new construction techniques are being developed and more and more challenging designs are being developed to be built it in the expectation that the next building generation will be of low energy and sustainable building materials. The first step towards environmental friendly construction is the appropriate choice of building materials. This is a challenging task and which this research intends to investigate to ascertain the environmental impacts of the chosen materials before the design and construction phases.

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTLAND CEMENT/VOLCANIC ASH CONCRETE EXPOSED TO CHEMICALLY AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTLAND CEMENT/VOLCANIC ASH CONCRETE EXPOSED TO CHEMICALLY AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Current trend in concrete research is towards finding materials that can partially or fully replace cement. However, too much emphasis is given to compressive strength as the quality index; with little or no consideration given to durability property. The concrete can be strong but not durable especially when it is subjected to chemical aggressive environments. This research therefore assessed the durability characteristics of Portland/cement volcanic ash concrete exposed to chemically aggressive environments. Preliminary tests of the different properties of materials used for this research were carried out. The concrete samples were prepared using 5% and 10% volcanic ash replacements and nominal mix of 1:2:4 with a 0.5 w/c ratio. Cube mould of size 100mm x 100mm x100mm and cylinder mould of size 200mm x 100mm were used to cast a total of 405 concrete samples. Out of the 405 samples, 162 cubes were used to assess compressive strength test while 162 cylinders were used to determine the tensile strength by the split tensile method. The specimens were cured in H2O, MgSO4 and H2SO4 and tested at 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 90 days. Another set of 81 concrete cube samples were also produced and cured in the same curing media for test on abrasion resistance and water absorption test at 28, 56 and 90 days of age. The results show increase in compressive strength of about 8.68% for concrete samples with 10% volcanic ash replacements than 0% replacements cured in normal environment (H2O) at 28 days. A decrease in compressive strength of about 15.02% was observed for concrete samples with 0% volcanic ash replacements than 10% replacements cured in MgSO4 at 28 days. Also concrete samples with 0% volcanic ash replacements cured in H2SO4 withstood the medium better than the samples with 10% volcanic ash replacements as indicated by 12.78% increase in compressive strength at 28 days. Concrete samples made with 10% volcanic ash replacements have high resistance to abrasion and less sorptivity than 0% volcanic ash replacements in both normal and chemically aggressive environments at 90 days. In conclusion Miango JP 3 is a pozzolanic material having satisfied the requirement of ASTM C618-05. Therefore it was recommended to be used to produce a strong, dense and durable concrete which can be used both in normal and chemically aggressive environments.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1                                                         Background of the Study
Concrete was first used as a structural material during the nineteenth century when Portland cement was discovered in Portland England (Yasin et al., 2012). According to Lappiatt and Ahmad (2004) in Shoubi et al.,(2013) it was estimated that the concrete industries throughout the world produces annually about 12 billion tons of concrete and uses about 1.6 billion tons of Portland cement.

DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTLAND CEMENT/VOLCANIC ASH CONCRETE EXPOSED TO CHEMICALLY AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

EFFECT OF LIME-STABILIZATION ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BRICKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

EFFECT OF LIME-STABILIZATION ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BRICKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Clay soils have been used locally in Sokoto to make bricks without stabilizing the soil. The bricks usually experience structural failure such as cracking and seasonal swelling when used for the construction of wall. Collapsing of wall also occurs in the area where non-stabilized bricks are used for wall construction. This research aims to assess the effect of lime-stabilization on strength of bricks made with Sokoto Red Clay Soils with a view to determining the physical properties of the soil and the optimum level of lime-stabilization required in the case of Sokoto Red Clay Soil (RCS). RCS used in this research were stabilized by lime and the method adopted for the stabilization is additive method. The method involves addition of certain percentages of stabilizer(s) to soil to improve the strength properties and durability of the soil. This study carries out laboratories work on the physical tests of the soil sample and the compressive strength test on the bricks produced. The Optimum Moisture Content of the soil and stabilized soil were determined to be 14.6% and 16.8% respectively. Percentages of lime-stabilization used in this research are 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. A total of 120 bricks were produced and tested for compressive strength after stipulated curing period. The curing method adopted is moist curing method for 3, 7, 14, 21and 28days. The results of compressive strength at 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21% in 28days are; 0.5N/mm2, 1.35N/mm2, 1.24N/mm2, 0.85N/mm2, 0.82N/mm2, 0.63N/mm2, 0.47N/mm2 and 0.37N/mm2. A continuous increase in compressive strength of the bricks from 3days to 28days in both 3% and 6% stabilizations were further observed. At 3% and 6% stabilization, the highest average compressive strengths recorded in 28days are 1.35N/mm2 and 1.24N/mm2 respectively.. However, the highest value is not up to 2.8N/mm2 as stipulated in BS 5628 part 1 (1978). This might be as a result of the low value of plasticity index (10.4) and the stabilizer used. It was also found that the highest compressive strength of the bricks at 0% stabilization was 1.11N/mm2 in 21days and the compressive strength reduced to 0.50N/mm2 at 28days. The reduction in compressive strength derived at 0% stabilization in 28days might be as a result of cracks showed on the surface of the bricks which may be attributed to lack of stabilization. Compared to 3% stabilization, compressive strength of 1.11N/mm2 was recorded in 3days due to the effect of lime on the bricks. The highest value recorded at 3% stabilization indicates that lime alone cannot be used to stabilize red clay soil for brick production.

EFFECT OF LIME-STABILIZATION ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BRICKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN APPRAISAL OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PLANNING IN NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN APPRAISAL OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PLANNING IN NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Planning in construction involve defining the activities, actions, time, cost, durations and performance milestone which will result into successful completion of the project. Previous researches attributed insufficient construction planning to Nigerian indigenous construction companies, this insufficiency in construction planning was found to contribute to their low productivity, profitability, time overrun and cost overrun. This study was carried out to assess construction project planning of indigenous contractors with a view to enhance their performance. The objectives of the research were to assess contractors’ perception of construction project planning, articulation of contractors’ current method of construction project planning and assessing the efficiency of each contractor’s method of planning construction projects. The methodology of the research involve use of purposive sampling technique, sample size of 50 companies was determined using 90% confidence level from a population size of 1920 calculated with sample size table and formula. Questionnaire was self-administered to respondents, questionnaire (A) was administered to project managers of the organizations which contains questions that aim at assessing how organizations plan and what planning entails in their organizations, this questionnaire record 83% response rate. Questionnaire (B) was administered to professionals in the organizations who manage construction on site, questionnaire (B) aim at assessing the effectiveness of construction planning, problems associated with construction planning and how to improve construction planning, questionnaire (B) records 88% response rate. Questionnaires were analyzed and results was presented in tables and bar charts. Findings from the research revealed that construction project planning is insufficient and requires improvement. Cost overrun, time overrun, poor scope control and reduction in profit are problems experienced by contractors. The failure of construction project planning was attributed to client unethical dealings, lack of integrity in financial dealings of client and poor communication among project members. In order to improve planning of construction project, the research recommends contractors to perform financial and ethical check on client, employ distinct project manager to each project, employ the use of computerised systems and experience in planning construction projects. The research also recommend contractors to improve communication among project team through establishment of reliable and accessible communication channel.

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
The guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PM BOK (2004) defined project to be a temporary human effort which has definite start and finishing date and also has clear objectives. Henry (2006) identified project to be made up of group of interrelated activities constrained by specific scope, budget and time to deliver specified product or service. Example of projects are construction of a house, building a software and accomplishing a space mission. Hence, a project is characterized by time, scope and objectives.

AN APPRAISAL OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PLANNING IN NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP HOUSING SCHEME. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP HOUSING SCHEME. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
The study focused on the provision of infrastructure in public private partnership housing scheme by estate developers in Abuja. Cases of no and poor infrastructure have been reported by residents in estates under this scheme. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role to the wellbeing of individuals in any society hence the need for this study. The research administered 63 questionnaires to private estate developers randomly in order to assess the factors affecting the provision of infrastructure in public private partnership housing scheme. A sample size of 56 estates was selected to ascertain the compliance of private estate developers in the provision of infrastructure, a checklist was used for this purpose. From the research findings, the inability of government to provide primary infrastructure to districts, insufficient finance and high interests on loan ranked as the high significant factors affecting the provision of infrastructure. Early provision of primary infrastructure by government, availability of funds to provide infrastructure in estates, low interest on loans, provision of subsidies on materials by government and availability of long term loans ranked as the high significant practices that would enhance the provision of infrastructure  in  housing estates under the public private  partnership  arrangement.

From the estates visited, there is poor provision of sewer lines (0%), water supply (10.94%), shopping facility (14.6%) and recreational parks (29.2%). From the findings, it was concluded that government’s inability to provide primary infrastructure in districts is the most significant factor affecting the provision of infrastructure, while early provision of infrastructure in districts by government and availability of loans and subsidies for developers are practices that would enhance the provision of infrastructures in PPP housing scheme. The research recommends active participation from the government in the provision of primary infrastructure, the provision of soft loans and subsidies for private estate developers.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1                                                                 Background to the Study
Housing has been viewed as the process of delivering a large number of residential buildings on a permanent basis, with sufficient physical infrastructure and social amenities, in planned, decent, safe and sanitary neighborhoods (The Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, 2002; Ibrahim and Mbamali, 2013). Rapid growth in population creates high demand towards shelter and efficient supply and distribution of basic utilities and services for city dwellers (Bala and Bustani, 2009). In most urban centers, the problem of housing is not only restricted to quantity but to the poor quality of available housing units (Ajayi and Omole, 2012). According to Coker et al., (2007), a satisfactory home is one in a suitable living environment with portable water, adequate shelter and other services and facilities. The housing condition of a country is a pointer to the health motivation, economic well-being and the social circumstances of her citizens. Housing affects the life of an individual as it provides the space for protection, privacy, economic activities, recreation and livelihood (Ajayi and Omole, 2012).
The introduction of Public Private Partnership in housing in Nigeria started in the early 1990s with the introduction of National Housing Policy (NHP) (Ademuyi, 2010). According to

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP HOUSING SCHEME. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN EVALUATION OF HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR NIGER STATE CIVIL SERVANTS UNDER PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN EVALUATION OF HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR NIGER STATE CIVIL SERVANTS UNDER PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Niger state government achievement in Public housing delivery for its citizen since its creation in 1976 has been very minimal–with just 3,000 houses provided for a population of 3,954,772 so far. Changing its delivery strategy from being the sole provider of housing, the government in 2007 opted for a new strategy of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) which was to provide affordable housing for all workers under a private sector driven mechanism. Since 2007, some houses have so far been allocated to the planned beneficiaries–mostly state civil servants. However, the challenge has been to ascertain how affordable the provided houses were to the state civil servants who are earning various salaries within the state‟s wage system. The study conducted affordability analysis of the housing products for the various levels of civil servants allotees. Data used for the analysis were sourced from the project record files, government approved wage table and a questionnaire survey. The purposive sampling technique was employed in administering the questionnaire to a sample of 187 beneficiaries. The analysis revealed that applying the standard housing affordability yardstick of not more than 30 percent of gross household income, only civil servant allotees from level 10 to 16 can afford the 2-bedroom housing at a total cost of N1.9M and a monthly repayment amount of N10,000.00 while 3-bedroom houses were not affordable to any of the allotees at a total cost of N2.9M and a monthly repayment amount of N19,000.00.This probably explains why 44 percent were partially satisfied while 68 percent respondents stated that their dissatisfaction was due to the monthly repayment amount. The study by way of sensitivity analysis was able to recommend that if the cost of 2-bedroom house is reduced to N1.2M and mortgage repayment interest rate reduced to 3 percent for an extended period of 25 years every workers from level 1 to 16 could afford the houses in such modified scheme.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
Housing is an integral element of a nation‟s economy and its backward and forward linkages with other parts of the economy closely bond people‟s needs, demands and social processes. These linkages allow housing to act as an important engine for sustainable development and poverty reduction in both society and the economy, and without a functioning housing sector, urban centers cannot be established or developed. A functioning housing sector offers appropriate, affordable housing and sustainable patterns of urbanization which are critical for the future of our ever-urbanizing planet (Arias, 1993).
Public housing delivery for civil servants in Niger State started after the creation of the State in 1976 when some government quarters were constructed under the supervision of Niger State Ministry of Works, Transport and Housing. Later, Niger State Housing Corporation was created in 1979 for housing delivery in the state. However, between 1976 and 2007 less than 3,000 houses were developed by the public sector. Niger State Evolving Strategy for Sustainable Housing (NSESSH, 2007).

AN EVALUATION OF HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR NIGER STATE CIVIL SERVANTS UNDER PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN INVESTIGATION INTO BUILD OPERATE AND TRANSFER IN THE PROVISION OF HOSTEL. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN INVESTIGATION INTO BUILD OPERATE AND TRANSFER IN THE PROVISION OF HOSTEL. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Inadequate hostel for students in Universities has been of great concern to Government and the University authorities. The Government has been trying to involve the private sector in the provision of hostel through Build Operate Transfer scheme since 2004. Challenges have been faced in implementing the scheme. The aim of the study was to investigate the slow adoption of the University Build Operate and Transfer scheme including readiness to adopt this policy. It also examined the cause of low participation of developers and investors in the BOT scheme. A structured questionnaire was designed and administered to Developers, Student Affairs Division and Physical Planning and Works Department of Federal Universities. An interview was also conducted with the Infrastructure Concession Regulatory Commission. Data was analysed using Percentages, Mean and Relative Importance Index (RII). The study found that Federal Universities in Nigeria are ready to implement this policy with a readiness assessment score of 3.63 out of 5. Developers are aware and willing to participate in the scheme. The level of private sector participation was found to be low as only 5 BOT projects were identified. Inadequate knowledge and understanding of BOT scheme by prospective developers (RII=0.86); Time and Cost Intensiveness a BOT Project (RII=0.8), Preference for traditional procurement route (RII=0.78) were factors militating against implementation of the scheme by Universities. High interest Rate on Loans (RII=0.83), Lack of availability of long term loan (RII=0.82), Inconsistent Government policy (RII=0.81) are most important challenges faced by developers in adopting Build Operate Transfer for provision of hostel accommodation in tertiary institutions. The study concludes that ensuring fairness, competitiveness and transparency in the procurement process, standard/rarely altered academic calendar, acceptable rent charges (flexible and adapted for adjustment) and mutual trust are practices that could enhance BOT adoption in hostel provision in Nigerian Universities.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in some developing countries like Nigeria has been suffering from inadequate funding. Poor funding of Tertiary education is seen as an African phenomenon (Onuka, 2004 and Ayo-Sobowale & Samuel, 2011). This lack of funding has been one of the major factors affecting the quality of education in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Babalola (2002) and Samuel (2003) further affirmed that Federal Universities in Nigeria are lacking the financial resources to maintain educational quality in the face of enrolment explosion. UNESCO recommended at least 26% of national budget to educational funding, but Nigeria has not been able to meet that percentage in previous years (Onuka, 2004).
The Federal Government of Nigeria in 2013 established 3 (three) new Federal Universities making the total number of Federal Universities in the country to 40 (Nigerian Universities Commission, 2013). One of the infrastructure problems facing institutions of higher learning in the country is inadequate hostel accommodation for the increasing students‘ population and this has been causing serious concern to the government and university authorities.

AN INVESTIGATION INTO BUILD OPERATE AND TRANSFER IN THE PROVISION OF HOSTEL. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN THE PROVISION OF BUILDING SERVICES IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN THE PROVISION OF BUILDING SERVICES IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Universal design (UD) can be described as the design of products and environments to be usable by all people to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design, thus bridging the gap between housing and disability though the concept of Universal Design or ‘Design for all’ has been neglected in most developing countries including Nigeria. This study assesses the implementation of universal design principles in the provision of building services in multi-storey buildings. It also seeks assess conformity of thedesign of building services in multi- storey buildings to Document M (disability standard of the United Kingdom) and establish if Statutory Authorities check designs to ascertain its conformity to universal design principles. Questionnaires were distributed to building designers and a checklist structured using disability standard of the United Kingdom was used as a guide to assess these buildings services for conformity to universal design. Also, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data generated from the questionnaires. It was established that most designers of building services became familiar with UD through personal study or on-the-job trainings as very few of the building services designers in Abuja learned about UD in the university. Development control agencies have equally added to the non-implementation of UD as most designs are rarely or never checked for conformity to UD. In conclusion, Persons living with temporal or permanent disabilities have been segregated or stigmatized by architectural and building services designs, there is a of shallow knowledge of UD by professionals in the construction industry and most building services provisions have shown low conformity to UD principles.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND
There has been an increasing focus on the interface between housing and disability, as
community attitudes and physical barriers in the built environment have prevented people with disabilities from fully participating in society (Zola, 2006). Access to education, employment, housing, recreation, cultural events, and transportation has been denied many people due to designs that do not put the needs of people with disability into consideration (Shapiro, 1994). Along with the growth in the disabled population, the quest for independence and equal rights has grown, as well(Shapiro, 1994).
Universal design (UD), which entails the designs of products that are universally accommodating and cater for all their users (Bone, 1996), is an important and integral aspect

of building design. Seven principles of Universal Design have been identified by Saville-Smith (2006) as: flexibility in use, simple and intuitive use, perceptible information, tolerance of error, low physical effort, and size and space for approach and use, provide a framework for cost-effective policies and strategies to increase physical accessibility for people with disabilities. The aim is to ensure that no one is unable to or finds it very difficult to use a building or its features on account of the way it was designed (Goldsmith, 2000).This seems to have been neglected in Nigeria and advocates of universal design recognize the legal, economic, and social power of a concept that addressed the common needs of people with and without disabilities (Miji, 2009). Access to buildings, spaces and the services therein, can be set at different levels of functionality for disabled people. Welch and Palmers (1995) identify a continuum of accessibility for domestic buildings that ranges from Negotiable, Visitability, Liveable, Adaptable and Universal.

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN THE PROVISION OF BUILDING SERVICES IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ANALYTICAL AND APPROXIMATE VARIANCE OF PUBLIC BUILDING TOTAL PROJECT COST, ESTIMATION BY MEAN COMPONENT COSTS METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ANALYTICAL AND APPROXIMATE VARIANCE OF PUBLIC BUILDING TOTAL PROJECT COST, ESTIMATION BY MEAN COMPONENT COSTS METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Building construction project has become an everyday issue, and this involves the spending of hard earned money by the project owner called the client. The expectation of the owner of any building project is justification of good project delivery. This is enabled by the objectives of the project which definitely includes project cost that envelopes the cost and quality of delivery at the expected time. The major issue, is the project cost which dictates its success. Project cost variance has been affecting the speedy and successful delivery of building construction projects. The key fact in this study method was to collect and analyse public building project cost estimates containing building components, which includes preliminaries, substructure, superstructure, mechanical/electrical, external works and contingency in the bill of quantity (BOQ) from projects handled by Education Trust Fund(ETF) in the tertiary institutions located in Kaduna, Kwara, Kogi and Abuja from 2009 to 2010. The study adopted mean component cost method modeled by Skitmore and Ng (2002) to determine the projected cost variance of the Lecture Theatres and Lecture Rooms handled by the organization in various tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The analysis of the data collected was made by using standard method of analysis which employs SPSS for the project costs.Skitmore and Ng (2002) model was employed to test the variability of the project cost data. The result shows that; the building component cost data 4782.50 had closer link to the mean 4773.92(mean) for preliminaries component column in project ID 4 of Lecture Theatreandanother component data 2797.62 is also close to 2312.91(mean) for Ext.Wkscolumn in project ID 7 for the Lecture Theatre building projects butfor the Lecture Classrooms building the preliminaries column had 1531.41 and 1416.33(mean) in project ID 2 and 1611.22 and 1673..58(mean) for M/E column for project ID 5. This project therefore concludes in addition to the results of the cost variances, that the lecture theatre and classrooms projects are underestimated.Interview was also conducted on the professional estimators in building industry. Moreover significant differences exist among the components in those public buildings.The analytical calculation shows that the correct variance for an average lecture theatre project from this research was found to be 34.73%. The sample analyzed had shown that the correct variance of the class room was found to be 38. 50%. Therefore lecture theatre is observed to be a better building project than the class room building. The study recommends the need to minimize the occurrence of the overrun by thoroughly crosschecking the initial estimate and addressing other technical issues before the contract is awarded. It also recommends the employment of the mean component cost method of analysis and setting of a committee to properly scrutinize the estimate.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
In the building construction industry, it is a formal procedure to determine the initial cost of a building project before awarding the contract. This is in order to ascertain the financial level of the client whether the project is worth undertaking. The underlyingfact is because of the instability of the market prices of material, labour and equipment which are the major tools involved in the construction.

ANALYTICAL AND APPROXIMATE VARIANCE OF PUBLIC BUILDING TOTAL PROJECT COST, ESTIMATION BY MEAN COMPONENT COSTS METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF ERGONOMIC ADAPTABILITY PRACTICES AMONG SELECTED CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF ERGONOMIC ADAPTABILITY PRACTICES AMONG SELECTED CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Health and safety is about the prevention of ill-health among workers caused by their working conditions. Ergonomics is one of the methods to eliminate the health hazards and risk in the construction industry. The aim of the study is to assess adaptability of ergonomic practices among selected building construction craftsmen in Abuja with a view to enhancing health and safety practices on the construction site. The study assesses awareness of ergonomics among building construction craftsmen. The study also assesses the challenges and drivers to ergonomics among construction craftsmen. One hundred and Twenty five interviews were conducted among Masons, Electricians, Carpenter, Tilers and Iron-fixers. Site observation was used to fill checklist assessing adaptability of ergonomics practices on construction site in Abuja. Data was analysed using percentage. The study found that awareness of ergonomics among craftsmen is low with at of 4%. It also found that 66% of craftsmen have experienced Work related musculoskeletal injuries. The study concludes that ergonomics practice among craftsmen is low. Lack of knowledge and understanding of ergonomics, cost of procuring ergonomic equipment, employees reluctant to use safety tools and gadgets, lack of legislation enforcing ergonomics practices and temporary employment were factors militating against adoption of ergonomics. The study recommends increasing awareness of ergonomics through education and training. Introducing ergonomics in the syllabus of construction related courses in tertiary institution, continuous professional development of professional bodies and apprenticeship training of craftsmen.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1                                                             Background of the Study
Construction workers have high injury rates and construction work by its very nature is difficult. This could be because of working above the shoulder and below the knees level, and also building materials are heavy. Mcintos (2001) in Abdulahi (2012) declare that working in the construction industry has been identified as a risk factor for chronic disability. Every year many construction site workers are killed or injured as a result of their work; others suffer ill health, such as musculoskeletal disorders (Health and Safety Executives, 2006).
According to Muhammed (2014) occupational health and safety in construction is about preventing people from being injured at work or becoming ill through appropriate precautions and providing a satisfactory working environment. Health and safety is about identifying risk and eliminating or controlling factors to prevent accident and occupational ill-health (European Commission, 2011). Health and safety is an inevitable aspect of construction because the only time an employee will perform his duties is when the employee is in good health and is sure of a safe working environment. Any rational worker or employee will perform his or her duty diligently when he knows that even in case of an injury or accident he will be taking care of. One of the efforts in trying to prevent occupational hazard in construction is ergonomics. Al-Swaity and Enshassi (2012) assert that ergonomics is one of the procedures that eliminate the hazards and risk in the construction industry.

ASSESSMENT OF ERGONOMIC ADAPTABILITY PRACTICES AMONG SELECTED CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SOIL CEMENT BLOCK EXPOSED TO NPK FERTILIZER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SOIL CEMENT BLOCK EXPOSED TO NPK FERTILIZER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
The large number of farmers, especially the rural farmers, make use of NPK fertilizer for farming. These farmers lack adequate storage facilities for storing farm products. This study is aimed at determining the compressive strength of soil cement blocks (SCB) in contact with NPK fertilizer with a view to study the chemical reaction and ascertaining the suitability of the SCB in the construction of ware houses for the storage of NPK. The SCBs were obtained from a Hydraform block firm constructing an estate in Kuje, LGA Abuja. A total of 150 samples of the SCB, the soil used to produce the SCB, obtained from the site in Kuje LGA. The properties of the soil that determines the cement content and properties of the blocks were investigated in accordance with BS EN 771-1:2011 and BS EN 772-1:2011 respectively. The shrinkage has a value of 5.8% and sieve analysis (clay and silt 0.95%) indicates that the cement content can be increased to improve
the  strength  of  the  SCB.  The  wet  compressive  strength  (1.8N/mm2)  was  78%  of  the  dry
compressive strength (2.3N/mm2) and less than 80% as recommended by BS EN 772-1:2011. Chemical analysis of the cement, soil and NPK were carried out, a saturated solution of NPK was determined to produce different concentrations. The solutions were prepared and three blocks selected at random were immersed for 7days, 14days, 21days, 28days, 56days and 90days respectively to ensure adequate exposure to the NPK solution. The compressive strength tests shows that the behaviour of the control differs from those in the solution. It was observed that the control experienced leaching of calcium hydroxide from the cement paste with low compressive
strength of 1.64N/mm2. Whereas, the compressive strength of the SCBs in NPK solution was
higher at 7days (1.7N/mm2, 1.74 N/mm2, 2.12N/mm2, 2.13N/mm2, 2.11N/mm2). After 56 days and 90 days, a white layer was observed to form within the SCB exposed to high concentrations of NPK. This was related to the likely ions exchange reaction with calcium hydroxide. The SCB were found to be suitable for use in the construction of ware houses to store NPK fertilizer as long as the selection of the soil and block production was based on standard code and the structure is kept dry from moisture.

ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SOIL CEMENT BLOCK EXPOSED TO NPK FERTILIZER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF THE TRAINING NEEDS OF CRAFT SKILL WORKERS IN NORTH-WESTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ASSESSMENT OF THE TRAINING NEEDS OF CRAFT SKILL WORKERS IN NORTH-WESTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Training of construction craftsmen in the Nigeria construction industry which should have enhanced productivity and competitiveness has suffered a lot. This study assessed craft skills training needs in the North-western Nigeria. The objectives of the study included identifying general and specific craft skill training need, extent of the need, militating factors against craft skill training and effective training methods. Purposive sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires (140) to professionals (40) and some selected craftsmen (100) within small, medium and large construction companies in the North- western Nigeria. Questionnaire survey was used to collect data from craftsmen on site and professionals that are directly involved in building production. Mean score and standard deviation of each item was determined and ranked accordingly. SPSS version 16.0 was used in this analysis. The study revealed that, lack of assessing worker‟s training needs prior to training program has a mean score of (3.308), lack of adequate tools / equipment has (3.189) and high cost of training has (3.126), and these were ranked high among the major factors militating against craft skill training. Understanding drawing has a mean score of (3.304), basic safety has (3.284) and multi skilling has (3.170), and these were among the training areas that should be given higher priority in training craftsmen under study. For effective craftsmen training methods, the result shows, traditional apprenticeship training has a mean score of (3.304), practical demonstration has (3.018) and on the job training has (2.996). It was concluded that assessment of craft skill training need is an important strategy through which construction companies identified and respond to their training areas in their respective companies. It was recommended that master craftsmen (foremen) should be encouraged and supported to train craftsmen on site.

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
The construction industry is the sector of the economy that plans, designs, constructs, alters, refurbishes, maintains, repairs and eventually demolishes buildings of all kinds (Jaggar, and Smith 2000). Construction industry in Nigeria is built on a foundation of skill craft workers who are primarily supplied through various sources such as craft training institutions, vocational or technical colleges, on the job training and apprenticeship (Yakubu, 2003). Ubenyi (1999) and Anigbogu (2002) opined that the labour-intensive nature of construction activities in Nigeria was attributed to the predominance of large number of small-scale construction firms that rely solely on skilled and unskilled labour for their operations.
Some studies (Obiegbu, 2002; Bokinni, 2005 and Njoku, 2007) have indicated the existence of shortages of quality craftsmen in the Nigerian construction industry. Some of the root causes of the shortages are as follows; aging of skilled craft workers in the industry, decline in the number of new entrants into skilled trades, poor funding and ineffective state of vocational education and training system in the country. Other causes include poor image associated with construction labour as work done by less intelligent people, lack of commitment by government and the construction industry toward training and development.

ASSESSMENT OF THE TRAINING NEEDS OF CRAFT SKILL WORKERS IN NORTH-WESTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTHS OF SOLID AND GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTHS OF SOLID AND GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
Timber isa construction material with unparalleledenvironmental credential. Howbeit, limitations of span and crossectional dimension, strength reducing defects and anisotropy limits its engineering application. Mechanical methods of jointing to address the earlier challenge has introduced serious wood fiber failure and increased the embodied energy in timber as a green material. However, developed societies have established in literature the possibility of overcoming these limitations to utilize timber beyond the traditional application in Nigeria being glueable for developing engineered wood products like glued laminated timber (glulam) using their timber species. Conversely, while little or no interest is shown in timber as a structural material in Nigeria, many of the few researches in timber have focused on solid timber elements leaving its limitations unattended. Consequently, its structural capabilities is yet unappreciated. Nevertheless, the fact remains that reconstituting natural timber as glulam is an effective way of optimizing this green material for limitless structural use. Whether these qualities are achievable with local timber is the main thrust of this research. The research therefore conducted laboratory experiments on selected timber species namely; Ire (Funtumia africana), Awun (Alstonia congensis) and Oriro (Antiaristoxicaria) being readily available and widely used species with no information on Oriro and Ire in NCP 2 of 1973. The aim was to assess their strength properties as glulam elements with the view to improving their structural capacity.It also set out to determine their glueability, the effects of temperature variation on compressive strength parallel to grain for glulam short columns by subjecting specimens ofequal dimension for the three species to different temperatures of 0 0C, 40 0C, 50 0C, 70 0C, 100 0C and room temperature for 4 hours in an electric oven prior to testing; to compare the mechanical properties of solid and glulam elements. In furtherance, specimens were prepared and tested for; static bending strength, compression parallel and perpendicular to grain, density and moisture content in line with ASTM D193, EN 408(2003) and EN13183-1(2002). The research established that the species are; structurally glueable, that due to temperature increase compressive strength is lost in glulam columns from control temperature (30 0C and 27.90C) to 100 was 41% 14.4% and 21.6% in Ire, Awun and Oriro. Results showed that glulam elements developed 55%, 95% and 143% of clear solid wood bending strength and that bending strength of 65.22N/mm2; 36.44N/mm2, 26.15N/mm2; 25N/mm2 and 14N/mm2; 20N/mm2 in solid and glulam in the species are structurally significant.The study has therefore demonstrated that the timber species studied can be engineered to load bearing glued laminated structural elements using polyvinyl acetate glue without severe loss of strength below and above room temperature.

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The versatility of timber finds wide application in the construction industry spanning from simple framing in housing projects to large scale public facilities. However because sawnwood hasrestrictionsto spans and cross-sectional dimensions due to size of tree as well as strength reducing features which occur at growth, its value as a structural material for extensive structural applications is limited. Engineered wood products such as glue laminated timber (glulam) were thereforedeveloped to improve the use of natural timber beyond its natural limitations.

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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTHS OF SOLID AND GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON BUILDING TECHNOLOGY