THE USE OF BUILDING SURVEY FOR MAINTENANCE OF BUILDING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONE STOREY BUILDING AT OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This research project present the use of building survey for maintenance of buildings. It used analytic model and field studies on improper building maintenance to discuss the causes and remedial measures to be used. It was discovered that low level of awareness about building survey is the major problem of our building maintenance (i.e carrying-out maintenance programme without proper inspection or investigation to know the causes of the defects in building)

       The study tried to find out how building survey helps in maintenance of building in our society. It also identified the application and importance of sound building surveying for maintenance of building.

       In constructing this research project, the research had to review some literati on and subsequently embarked on data collection through observation, interview and questionnaire.

       The objective of chapter one of the research projects is to introduce the topic which the need for the research is given and stated. The background of the study and other important aspects like the significant of the problem, the scope and limitation were given.

       The objective of chapter two is to present a piece of the extensive literature review carried out in order to reveal the expressed opinion of notable authors and scholar as regards to the relevance of the building survey. A case study of building survey on one storey residential building was included for reference purpose. The chapter three presents the research design and methodology. Chapter four and five presents the analysis of the research and result, conclusion an recommendation respectively which summarizes the use building survey.      

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

       A historic building report provides documentary graphic and physical information about a structures history and existing condition. Broadly recognized as an effective part of preservation planning, a historic structures report also addressed management or owner goals for the use and re-use of the structure. It provides a thoughtfully considered argument for selecting the most appropriate approach to treatment, prior to the commencement of work, and outlines a scope of recommended work. The building survey report serves as an important guide for the changes made top a historic structure during a project repair rehabilitation or restoration and can also provide information for maintenance procedures. Finally, it records the findings or research and investigation as well as the processes of physical work for future researches.

       The introduction to the first historic structure report in this country, Charles E. Peterson of the National part service wrote in 1935 any architect who undertakes the responsibility of working over a fine old building should feel obligated to prepare a detailed report of his findings for the information of those who will come to study it in future years’ since then, thousands of historic structure report (HSRS) have been prepared to help guide work on historic properties.

       The first historic structure report prepared in the United States is the moor House. The site of the surrender Yorktown, was written by charles E Peterson of the National Park Service in the early 1930s. In the decades since the Moore House report was completed, preservation specialists commissioned by owners and managers of historic properties have prepared thousands of reports of the type. Similar studies have also been used for many years as planning tools in France, Canada, Australia and other countries as well as in the United States. Although historic structure reports may differ in format, depending upon the client, the producer of the report. The significance of the structure, treatment requirements and budgetary and time restrictions, the essential historic perseveration goal is the same. “Just as an art conservator would not intervene in the life of an artistic, artifact before obtaining a thorough knowledge of it’s history, significance and composition, so those proceed only from a basis of knowledge. Too often in the past the cultural integrity of countries buildings has been compromised by approaches to restorations grounded on personal whim, willful romanticism, and expedient notions of repair. The preparation of historic building report is the first step in adopting a disciplined approach to the care of a historic building “(From the introduction of the University of  Virginia, Pavilion 1, Historic structure Report, Mesick Cohen Waite Hall Architects, 1988).

THE USE OF BUILDING SURVEY FOR MAINTENANCE OF BUILDING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONE STOREY BUILDING AT OWERRI)

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF DAMPNESS ON BUILDINGS IN ATIA IBIAKU SETTLEMENT IN ITU LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

The work was carried out with the aim of investigating dampness in the buildings within Atia Ibiaku Settlement of Itu Local Government Area, assessed the causes and effects of dampness in the area in order to identify the possible remedial measures approach necessary to these problems. Ninety (90) buildings were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered, at least one for each of the building out of which 87 were collected. Simple percentage, severity index were employed in data analysis.

Results showed that 78.16% of the total respondent had incident of dampness in their buildings; and that of all the nine common causes of dampness in the area, rising dampness has the highest significant mean score of (3.49) while condensation was identified as the least with a mean score of 1.70.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

One of the important functional requirements of a building is that it should be durable. It is important that all new buildings should be soundly designed and constructed with a view to making them entirely water Proof. Building Regulation (1991) requires that walls, floors and roof of new buildings should have built-in-proof measures to stop the passage of moisture to the inside of the building designs should take account of normal sources of moisture such as penetrating, rising and condensing dampness. But moisture can as well rise in other ways, which may not have been anticipated at the design stage such as leakage from roof, plumbing systems, leaking pipes and cisterns.

        Dampness spoils paint, interior decorating, encourages mold and rot growth, hampers aesthetics, poses a threat to the health o f the occupant, bacterial and fungal growth. The causes of dampness are however numerous and before the effect can be adequately rectified the source must be located (Aukrust, 1979). Moisture gets into building and instead of disappearing, becomes trapped into the structure. Once inside, it remains where it is or find its way into more vulnerable areas, by which time the damage has been done.

        Seeley (1995) described damp proofing as the treatment of masonry walls internally and externally to prevent dampness or moisture from penetrating the masonry fabric. Manzie (1989) reported that the way to reduce both dampness problem and the associated health effect is to improve the design, construction, operation and maintenance of building. Begum and Nolard (1994) explained that all modern buildings have what is known as Damp proof course (DPC) or Damp proof membrane (DPM) and that its purpose is to prevent moisture from the outdoor environment and the ground rising up through the block work via capillary action which can render the walls damped. Wyath (1978) also stated that dampness could entered the building through the cracks, movements of building can result in cracking also, subsequent water penetration causes dampness.

        It is obvious that the prevailing dampness problems experienced in the areas is as a result of much of the rainfall in the area induced by conventional processes, (flood erosions). Atia Ibiaku settlement is located on the North East section of the Uyo metropolis. It is a relatively undulating plain bounded at the North by the mountainous ridges that delineate the backstretch of the Calabar- Itu Federal Road. The prevailing climatic situation of the study area hinges up alternate seasons of hot and cold weather conditions, interspersed with an average period of seven months of rainfall, with June being the peak period. The topsoil nature of the study area is predominantly clayey.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of dampness has assumed an alarming dimension in buildings within the settlement of Atia Ibiaku of Itu. The main problem addressed by this research is the accelerated deterioration of the materials of which the building is constructed and thus reduces the expected life of the building.

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF DAMPNESS ON BUILDINGS IN ATIA IBIAKU SETTLEMENT IN ITU LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AKWA IBOM STATE

ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING COST PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Background of the study

The growing need for construction of all types coupled with a tight monetary supply has provided the construction industry with a big challenge to cut cost.

According to Mendelson and Greenfield (1996) the remaining part of the twentieth century would involve corporations, institutions and government in a race to survive. The attendant dwindling economic fortune of nations economies around the World have geared up the participant in these sectors (the client in particular) to take up the challenge of ensuring efficient use of their resources to obtain value for money in terms of performance.

The total cost of construction in normal circumstances is expected to be the sum of the following cost: Materials, Labour, Site Overheads, Equipment/Plant, Head office Cost and Profit but in many parts of the world particularly in Nigeria, there are other costs to be allowed for.

These costs according to Mbachu and Nkado (2004) have obvious negative implications for the key stakeholders in particular, and the industry in general. To the client, high cost implies added costs over and above those initially agreed upon at the onset, resulting in less returns on investment. To the end user, the added costs are passed on as higher  rental / lease costs or prices. To the consultants, it means inability to deliver value – for – money and could tarnish their reputation and result in loss of confidence reposed in them by clients. To the contractor, it implies loss of profit through penalties for non- completion, and negative word of mouth that could jeopardize his/her chances of winning further jobs, if at fault. 

The proposed work will investigate and report the other costs to be allowed for, which are the basic factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria and also proffer solutions to how construction cost can be minimized.

1.1        Statement of the Problem

The demand for more construction of all types, coupled with a tight monetary supply has provided the construction industry with a big challenge to cut costs. The problem of high contract costs of all aspects of construction is becoming obvious. Consequently, substantial increases are being observed in projects.

This substantial increase has brought about loss of client confidence in consultants, added investment risks, inability to deliver value to clients, and disinvestment in the construction industry.

1.2        Aim and Objectives of the study

The aim of the study is to find out the factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria and proffer solutions to how construction cost c  an be minimized.

The objectives of the study are as follows:

1.  To identify the main factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria.

2.  To determine the severity rank of the factors amongst clients, consultants and contractors.

3.  To determine the agreement ranking factors between clients, consultants and contractors.

4.  To proffer solutions on how to minimize construction cost in Nigeria.

  1.3     Research Hypotheses

To test the hypothesis:

1 (a). Ho: Contractors and Clients do not generally agree on the severity rank of the factors    affecting construction cost in Nigeria

1                    (b). H1: Contractors and Clients generally agree on the severity rank of the factors    affecting construction cost in Nigeria

2                    (a). Ho: Clients and Consultants do not generally agree on the severity rank of the factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria

2.                  (b)   H1: Clients and Consultants do not generally agree on the severity rank of the factors   affecting construction cost in Nigeria

3.                  (a) Ho: Consultants and Contractors do not generally agree on the severity rank of the factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria

3. (b) H1: Consultants and Contractors generally agree on the severity rank of the factors affecting construction cost in Nigeria

1.4       Significance of the study

An assessment of the study would enable Clients, Contractors and Consultants give an economic approach to construction work such that they would be able to identify the dominating factors leading to high construction cost in Nigeria.

The application of the solutions proffered to minimizing construction cost would restore client’s confidence in consultants, reduce investment risks, and generally boost the viability and sustainability of the industry

1.5        Scope and Delimitations

The scope of this research is limited to identification of essential factors affecting construction cost and proffering solutions on how to reduce construction cost in Nigeria.  The study is limited to projects in the Lagos metropolis of Nigeria because there is easy access of information in the Lagos metropolis by the researcher.

Target respondents for this study are the principal actors in the construction industry namely: the Client, the Consultant and the Contractor.

ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING COST PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN NIGERIA

IMPORTANCE OF INCENTIVES IN ENHANCING WORKERS PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

This study was based on the importance of incentives in enhancing workers performance on sites, that is, both financial and non-financial incentives, as applicable on construction sites. It was carried out to find out the type of incentives in operation in construction firms, whether only financial and non-financial or combination of both  is in operation including those available in the contracting firms with their variability from one firm to the other, considering indigenous and foreign contracting firms. The population was a random sampling of professionals chosen for the research, the data analysis was based on data collected with aid of structured questionnaire distributed to 200 workers on 2 sites in the building team,. The data were analyzed with the aid of chi-square distribution test, and rank correlation coefficient methods. The study concluded with the financial incentives like cash awards, transport allowance, overtime with pay, accident insurance, hospital allowance being preferred by the workers to others and that management should give further encouragement to their provision in order to enhance productivity.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Performance has been an essential contributor to corporate success. This is as a result of its direct translation into cost savings and profitability. Performance has also been a key to long-term growth and sustainable improvement and when associated with economic growth and development generates non-inflationary increases in wages and salaries (Mojahed, 2005). The construction industry generally plays a vital role in a national economy due to the usage of its products such as roads, buildings and dams for the production of goods and services. In spite of the immense size and significance of the construction industry to the economies of most nations, its productivity is one of the controversial and least understood factors (Haskell, 2004).

In the construction industry, site workers account for 40% of direct capital cost of large construction projects and there is the need to maximise the productivity of human resources (Thomas et al., 2004). More so 30% to 50% of workers time is spent directly on the work and, hence, there is the need for proper utilisation.

In Nigeria’s construction industry for instance, companies are currently applying various non-financial incentive schemes aimed at improving operatives’ productivity (Olabosipo, 2004). Considering the fact that the construction industry in Nigeria  is quite similar to that of Nigeria, it can be concluded that the introduction of a non-financial incentive will contribute to worker incentive  in Nigeria ian construction industry. This will, in effect, enhance workers output and the overall performance within the construction industry and further contribute to the national economy.

1.2 Problem Statement

Lack of workers’ incentive  on construction sites has been identified and this has contributed the low employees’ work performance (Thomas et al., 2004). This has been a result of the difficulties in emphasising the positive side of worker incentive . Several attempts have been made by management over the years to enhance workers’ incentive  in order to achieve the desired performance from the employees which may be more psychological. According to Shun (2004), management is often frustrated by lack of incentive  generated by the end of the year bonuses. There is therefore the need for craftsmen and other subordinates to be motivated by providing them with the right conditions and opportunity. A correlation exists between worker incentive  and performance therefore; there is the need for workers to always feel motivated in order to increase performance. Thomas et al., (2004) posits that an unsatisfactory work environment can have an adverse effect on worker incentive  that tends to make minimal effort towards work there by lowering performance.

Non empirical evidence shows that non-financial incentive is understood by the craftsmen to be a motivator to improve performance and productivity in the Nigerian construction industry. This study seeks to identify certain incentive strategic practices that may contribute in improving construction workers performance in Abuja  Municipal assembly in the Greater Abuja  region, Nigeria .

1.3 Aim of the Study

The aim of the study is to investigate into the main incentive practices in use by construction firm in Nigeria as a means to identify those which result in the improvement on the performance of construction workers.

IMPORTANCE OF INCENTIVES IN ENHANCING WORKERS PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS

ABSTRACT

The research examined factors of effective maintenance management in the public sector. Data gathering and analysis involved personal interview and questionnaire. The research hypothesis was subjected to test and analysis using chi-square (x2). The tested hypothesis disclosed that funds were the key to project success and sustainability. A number of constraints as well as economic benefits of the study were highlighted. Recommendations from the study indicated that projects and facility maintenance should be tailored to the size of revenue realizable, maintenance implications should be considered along with project conception and the need for government sound policies in this regard. Deductions from the study clearly show that when the required wherewithal for managing and maintaining projects/facilities are provided and properly carried out by competent managers, an outcome of satisfaction and drastic reduction in environmental accidents in our society could be assured.

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1  INTRODUCTION

Project management is an outgrowth of the need to develop and produce projects in the shortest possible time. Project management is necessary in complex projects in order to provide a unity of purpose and to establish a focal point for pulling together the cooperative efforts of literally dozens of relatively autonomous organizations or bodies. It is particularly useful wherever considerable coordination is required between several parties.

On the other hand, facility maintenance is not only valuable for the sake of longevity of the life of machines or other productive facilities but also it serves as a safety valve for the operators of the equipment. According to Priel (1994), the maintenance of plant and equipment in working order is essential to achieve total quality, reliability and efficient working. The best project or equipment will not work satisfactorily unless it is cared for, and cost of a breakdown in the system can be very high, not only in financial terms but also in poor staff morale and bad relations with customers. The people and materials must also be maintained, through training, motivation, healthcare and even entertainment for the people, and proper storage and handling of materials.

Kerzner (2000) defines project management as the planning, scheduling, and controlling of series of integrated tasks such that the objectives of the project are achieved successfully and in the best interest of the project’s stakeholders. Therefore, project management is an important factor for determining project success. Where management is poor, there is failure. There is no project that can provide the expected results without proper and sufficient management. Sound project management is indeed a key factor in achieving the desired goals and objectives of a project.

There are many factors that affect sustainability and continuous derivation of services from projects long after their completion, perhaps the most important is the maintenance of projects or the facilities therein. Maintenance in this context refers to the act of keeping the productive facilities in good condition, so that the optimal expected performance or output of the facilities remains about the same as when the facilities were initially put to use.

Maintenance of productive facilities is so important for any kind of organisation because the alternative – the replacement of equipment

– may be very costly financially and in terms of other requirements. In view of the limited resources of organizations and especially, Local Government Areas, the desire to acquire new facilities from time to time may be strong, but the capacity may be low.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Recently, there have been a series of environmental accidents such as air disasters, collapsed buildings, bridges etc in our cities in the various Local Government Areas. These structures and infrastructures were designed to have a life span of over 30 years but they are neglected to decompose rapidly beyond repair because of sub-standard materials used or due to poor/lack of maintenance.

The main problem of this study is centred around inefficiency of project management and facility maintenance. This work seeks to find solution to the problem.

(1)        How the Local Government Area recognizes the need for project Management and facility maintenance.

(2)         How projects are to be properly implemented and supervised.

(3)        How the administrators and politicians appreciate the essential elements of project management and facility maintenance.

(4)        How inadequate funds affect the project management and facility maintenance in the Local Government.

(5)        How project execution is to be approved and monitored by Government.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS

ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL’S PERCEPTION ON MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES IN SELECTED STATES IN NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Material management can be defined as a process that coordinates planning, assessing the requirement, sourcing, purchasing, transporting, storing and controlling of materials, minimizing the wastage and optimizing the profitability by reducing cost of material. Baldva (1997) noted that Materials management is a process for planning, executing and controlling field and office activities in Manufacturing. While Eduardo (2002) viewed Materials management as the system for planning and controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner, are obtained at a reasonable cost and most importantly are available at the point of use when required. 

According to Khyomesh and Chetna, (2011) Building materials account for 60 to 70 percent of direct cost of a project or a facility, the remaining 30 to 40 percent being the labour cost. Therefore, efficient procurement and handling of material represent a key role in the successful completion of the work. It is important for the project manager to consider that there may be significant difference in the date that the material was requested or date when the purchase order was made, and the time at which the material will be delivered. These delays can occur if the contractor needs a large quantity of material that the supplier is not able to produce at that time or by any other factors beyond his control. Chan (2002) noted that the project manager should always consider that procurement of materials is a potential cause for delay. The management of Manufacturing processes to reduce, reuse, recycle and effectively dispose of wastes has a serious bearing on the final cost, quality, time and impact of the project on the environment. (Dania, 2007)

The goal of materials management is to ensure that Manufacturing raw materials are available at their point of use when needed. The materials management system attempts to ensure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately selected, purchased, delivered and handled on site in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost, (khyomesh and chetna 2011). The scope of materials waste is vast, and this waste occurs in the industry irrespective of the size of the building firm, instructions about handling, storage and stacking are not provided with the goods or sent in advance to the site (Abdulazeez, 2000).

Materials management in Manufacturing is also regarded as the efficient use of goods and equipment before, during and upon completion of a building process. Petra (2013) observed that Successful materials management requires the participation of all persons involved in a Manufacturing process. For Materials may deteriorate during storage or get stolen unless special care is taken. Delays and extras expenses may be incurred if materials required for particular activities are unavailable. Ensuring a timely flow of materials is an important concern of material management (Shah, 1993).

Thus, Materials management is an important element in project management. Materials represent a major expense in Manufacturing, so minimizing procurement costs improves opportunities for reducing the overall project costs. Poor materials management can result in increased costs during Manufacturing. On the other hand, efficient management of materials can result in substantial savings in project costs. If materials are purchased too early, capital may be held up and interest charges incurred on the excess inventory of materials (Wendy, 2006).

Johnston (2001) opined that Material Management is divided between head office and site in major Manufacturing companies. The selection, pricing, ordering, preparation of schedules and payment accounts are dealt with at head office, learning the receipt storage, protection and use of materials to management on site. Due to the high cost of materials, if not properly managed during the period of execution of contract can lead to abandonment of project.

In his submission, lan (2008), opined that the rate at which materials are been squandered on site due to poor management is getting too rampant in our society and if not curbed, it can jeopardize the future of our Manufacturing industry. This is particularly true in view of the fact that mismanagement of Manufacturing resources (i.e materials, plants and labour) affects the continuity and profit margin of such project and if not checked can lead to technical insolvency or bankruptcy.

Therefore, attention must be paid to how materials are been procured, stored and managed in order to achieve perfect work, effective handling of materials, right usage of materials and control of Manufacturing resources.

This, explain the reason why Johnston (2001), noted that Materials management begins with planning and estimation, these can be achieved through proper site co-ordination measure of reducing wastes, the location and security of materials on sites, procurement of quality materials as being specified and effective administration of site together with quality control.

Lee and Donald (2001), observed that the problem associated with the absence of proper materials management on Manufacturing site could be wastage of resources making contract cost more than budget sum, reduction of profit margin of the contractor ineffectiveness of project handlings reduction of output e.t.c. and if these are not properly taken care of it might be disastrous to the firm.

No Manufacturing project can commence and proved effective without an adequate supply of raw materials, apart from the careful planning of materials required by the builder, it is to his advantage to foster a good relationship with the suppliers, many of whom will have been selected due to their fulfillment of orders to the standard required and meeting of delivery times over a number of years (Pheng and Chuan, 2001).

Besides the builder’s own suppliers, the architect may specify that a certain supplier must be used and these are termed “nominated supplier” whatever the type of suppliers to be used, the information passed to them and receive from them is the same and in all but in the smallest firms this information and document will pass through the buyer. (Yang, et al., 2003).The buyer must also ensure that the architect receives any samples from the suppliers in the very early stage of contract procedure to satisfy him of the relative merits of the material. It may, for example, not be possible to obtain the specified material in time in conjunction with the building programme, but by obtaining samples of similar products the architect may decide on a new form of Manufacturing or design to prevent hold ups.

ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL’S PERCEPTION ON MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES IN SELECTED STATES IN NIGERIA.

APPRAISAL OF BUILDING MAINTENANCE PRACTICE AMONG LANDLORDS IN NIGER CENTRAL SENATORIAL ZONE OF NIGER STATE

Abstract

The study is appraisal of building maintenance practice among landlords in Niger central senatorial zone of Niger state. The specific purposes of the study were to find out the importance of building maintenance among landlords in Niger Central Senatorial District, find out the responsibilities of landlords and the rights of tenants in building maintenance practice in Niger Central Senatorial District and determine the factors affecting building maintenance practice among landlords in Niger Central Senatorial District, e.t.c. Three research questions were designed and used to guide this study. The sample population of the study is 30. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of the study is Niger central senatorial zone. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument.Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that; There is need for good preventive maintenance through regular inspections to avoid breakdowns and repairs, which costs more, There is need for public awareness on the danger of lack of maintenance and the advantages of good maintenance, Laws enforcing every occupant to carry out proper maintenance should be enacted and agencies to enforce the law should be established, In order to avoid the use of sub-standard materials as an alternative to the high cost of good quality materials, there should be a research into how the government can help with the local building materials industries in the country to survive.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Over the years, there has been increasing abandonment of houses and infrastructural facilities in Niger central Senatorial District which has led to the dilapidation, degradation and deterioration of buildings and infrastructural structures. Recently there has been a lot of research investigations and analyse which points unshakably to the fact that certain factors such as client’s perception, cost of maintenance works, unskilled maintenance technicians, lack of Building Maintenance policy, Government legislations not being properly enacted, inability to prepare and follow maintenance schedules are direct causes of neglect which lead to dilapidations and deterioration of building structures, Draft National Building Maintenance Policy (2011).

There are also the remote causes of lack of maintenance such as force majeure, cultural problems, state of the economy, the receding global economic meltdown, lack of time and general illiteracy of the occupants of the building or structures and users of the facilities.

However, there has also been growth in the significance of building maintenance as a proportion of the output of the construction industry which takes place against a backdrop of mounting pressure on new building activity and a growing awareness of the need to manage the condition of the nation’s building and infrastructure more effectively, Draft National Building Maintenance Policy (2011).

Though, it is still the case that such maintenance activity takes place in a context that does not create a fully integrated approach to managing building performance and thus the full potential of many buildings and infrastructures are never wholly realized. Basically in virtually all the areas of Niger Central Senatorial District, buildings and infrastructural facilities are gradually and systematically decaying, dilapidating and deteriorating with reduced or no degree of maintenance programme and activity.

A lot of research have been done in regard to maintenance and management of low income housing especially controlled tenancy, but little emphasis has been laid to maintenance practice among landlords which is key to the overall management of the houses.

From a normal visual perception in the urban metropolis, it can be noted that majority of the constructed buildings both private and public, road network, water supply systems, sanitary and drainage systems, transmission poles and electricity lines, sign posts and route location posts are deteriorated and badly in need of maintenance. The lack of maintenance of these buildings and infrastructures negatively affects the populace which thus affects the output of the working class, capacity of the populace is thus lost, time value for achievement of goals and objectives minimized, it also causes all forms of ill-health and psychological effects thereby reducing the economic growth of the nation. Therefore, this study will appraise Building Maintenance Practice among Landlords in Niger Central Senatorial District.

Statement of the Problem

The primary aim of maintaining a building and its environment is to ensure that the building continues to serve its purpose for which it was intended, yield optimum return and ensuring safety, health and comfort in its usage. Management of housing and infrastructure in required continuous source of funding for provision of services such as garbage collection, lawn mowing, street lighting, cleaning and maintenance of ablution blocks, roads and drainage systems, sewer problems, security and care takers in the estates, without which the shared facilities become dilapidated, prompting for much more on cost of renovations. The rent collected is barely enough for the houses to be regularly maintained let alone the shared facilities.

APPRAISAL OF BUILDING MAINTENANCE PRACTICE AMONG LANDLORDS IN NIGER CENTRAL SENATORIAL ZONE OF NIGER STATE

MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS ON HIGHWAY ACCIDENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background

 Traffic accidents have been recognized as one of the major causes for human and economic losses both in developed and developing countries, therefore, they are considered as the main criterion for road safety. The three basic aspects of transport humans, roads and vehicles, are the primary factors in accidents. Human factor seems to be the dominant cause of accidents compared to the others. However, the number of accidents can be seriously reduced if the road factor is evaluated better and highway design is made correctly (kabir, 1998).

in Nigeria, the problem of traffic accidents is very huge to the extent that more than 50000 accident was recorded during the year 2012 (FRSC, 2013). These accidents caused about 7200 deaths (an average of 19 deaths from accidents every single day), 39000 injuries and social costs increasing rapidly.

In addition, the very high cost of highway accidents paid by societies around the world makes highway safety improvement an important objective of transportation engineering. Highway safety specialists can influence traffic safety either through means such as road rules, law enforcement, and education, or by applying local traffic control and geometry improvements,(Fred, 2011) .

 Therefore, highway safety must be based on both historic accident data and the risk (probability) of accidents at a location. On the other hand, numerical modelling is a common tool for estimating the frequency of road accidents. For this concern, road safety modelling has attracted considerable research interest in the past three decades because of its wide variety of applications and important practical implications. Numerous road-accident-prediction models have been developed to investigate the effects that various variables may have on the value of a pre-selected crash indicator. Transportation engineers may be interested in identifying those factors (traffic, geometric, etc.) that influence accident rates. This is to improve the design of roadways and to make driving more safer, (Udemise, 2011).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Motor vehicle accidents kill about 1.2 million people a year world-wide and the number will grow to more than 2 million in 2020 unless steps are taken, a study released by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Bank has found [Washington: Article-Traffic accidents becoming one of world’s great killers, By Matthew Wald, April 8, 2004].

Road transport plays vital role in economic development, trade and social integration, which rely on the conveyance of both people and goods. Vehicular traffic carrying goods and people increases with the increasing economy resulting in an increase of traffic accidents. Three major factors causing traffic accidents are human, road and vehicles. The human factor has the most significant effect on accident. However, this factor is governed by an individual thought process and cannot be studied empirically. Moreover, any design solution mitigating this kind of individual human behaviour cannot be predicted only some safety rules can be enforced. Also, different mechanical behaviour of vehicles factors are not the scope of civil engineering study. Hence, road factors are only considered as a part of this study. It is very important for the highway to establish a harmony between the all the three factors at the design stage of a highway. With a geometrically good design, it is possible to compensate for the other factors and thus decrease the number of traffic accidents (A.F. Iyinam et al., 1997).

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The high socio-economic cost of the injuries and fatalities, occurring due to road accidents and the need for effective policies for curbing road accidents make it imperative to study the causes of road accidents. The present study aims to detect and identify the role of geometric modeling elements on accident and prediction of accident rate.

RESERCH QUESTIONS

The research questions for this study are:

1.     What is the role of geometric modeling elements on accident?

2.     What is role of geometric modeling elements on prediction of accident rate?

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

In this regard our significance of study will be both on the theoretical levels and practical levels. Theoretically, this study seeks to highlight and widen scholarly perceptions Of Geometric Elements On Highways,Thus, the study will be a response to the intellectual challenges involved in enhancing an understanding of the Effects Of Highway Geometric Elements On Highway Accident.

Also, this study will be of vital importance to scholars on Geometric Elements of highways and the global reading public, and as such serve as a further take off point for future inquiry in the study under review.

MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS ON HIGHWAY ACCIDENT

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT DELIVERY METHODS IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research studied “evaluating the effectiveness of project delivery methods in South-East Nigeria”. There are alternatives delivery methods for executing a project, the choice of selection are mostly done on familiarity bases, which is purely subjective and may not offer a better approach to optimize the overall success of the project. An extensive review of literatures in relation to the study was made with respect to text and similar work done by other scholars. The choice of a delivery method of a project needs to be subjected to a proper evaluation, with respect to the key pertinent issues (client objectives). The types of project delivery methods was sieved first through an extensive literature review; and about Nine (9) methods were identified. An evaluation on the delivery method is further carried out using related literatures. Eleven (11) pertinent issues (client and project objectives) were used to assess how effective a delivery method responds to a pertinent issue. A field survey was furrther carried out to generate reactions from experienced professionals in the industry, this was achieved by first conducting a pilot study to enable determine those factors or issues that actually affects a project in the course of its delivery. A total of ten (10) respondents were randomly selected from the parent population using an open-ended question. The first ten (10) issues or factors that had the highest percentages of occurrence or frequencies from their responses were further used as the major issues to evaluate the delivery methods. However Time, Cost, and Quality were the issues with the highest frequencies. The field survey was conducted in four (4) South-Eastern states in Nigeria, a population of one hundred and fifty (150)  respondents was used for the study, their responses were used in generating of the data needed for the evaluation. The data generated were analyzed using frequency tables, simple percentages, mean scores, and z-test. The result obtained was futher used in evaluating and ranking the delivery methods, using the Spearman Rank Correlation Analysis. The evaluation reveals that Time, Cost, and Quality are three close-ended interdependent issues, which borders on every project. Some delivery methods respond positively to any of these issue, but yet, negatively to any of them at the same time. Hypothetical testing among these three (3) key issues was conducted to see if there is any significant relationship among them in evaluating a delivery method using the z-test. The result revealed that time, and quality has a significant relationship, which could be either positive or negative; cost and quality equally have a relationship, but time and cost has no significant relationship in evaluating a delivery method. However the result of findings was used in the summary and recommendation. However no project delivery method can be said to possess all the advantages required in a project with respect to the pertinent issues. But a project should be subjected to a full and proper evaluation before selecting a particular method.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The construction industry is one of the important Economic Sectors especially in a developing country like Nigeria, Infact, no sector of the economy can develop effectively without infrastructural facilities e.g. building, roads etc. Osofisan (2007), states that “in many developing countries like Nigeria, the construction sector to which the building industry belongs is one of the biggest contributors to the Gross National Product (GNP)”. She further concluded that “Similarly, it has been noted that in some developed countries, more than 16 percent of their GNP is devoted to the construction industries”. The construction sector is a sub-sector of the economy that creates basic infrastructure needed to accommodate inputs of all other sectors. That’s is why construction products are regarded as the essential of life and economic development.

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT DELIVERY METHODS IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA

MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN NIGER STATE

ABSTRACT

This study examines the performance of Commercial Banks institutions in Kaduna State, based on the development of small and medium Scale industry. Simply random sampling technique was employed in selecting the 110 that constituted the sample size of the research. Structure questionnaire was designed to facilitate the collection of relevant data which was used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics which involves simple percentage, and chi-square (contingency test). The findings indicate that the operations of CBN have grown phenomenally in the last three years, driven largely by expanding informal sector activities, the conversion of the community banks to commercial banks and the reluctance of banks to fund the emerging commercial enterprises. The study also reveals the sub sector faces a number of challenges, which have been addressed in this research. They include the urgent need to approved and implement a policy frame work that would regulate and standardize the operations; accessing medium to long term sustainable commercial sources of funds, such as SMIEIES. Commercials banks traditionally lend to medium and large enterprises, which are judged to be credit worthy. They avoid doing business with small and medium scale industry because the associated cost and risks are considered to the relatively high. Commercial institutions have therefore become the main sources of funding small and medium scale industry in Africa and in other developing regions.  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

            The post-independence Nigerian government adopted the          entrepreneurship government which constrained it to assume the role          of entrepreneur and the urge to offset the economic neglect of the       colonial government and that resulted in engaging in ambitious             industrialization programs.

            When the Nigerian industrial development Bank Limited (NIDB) was    established in 1964 for the purpose of speeding up the industrialization           process, its mandate was to promote industrial projects which were   large enough to make applicable contribution to the national economy.     However, the collapse of the oil boom in the early 1980’s exposed the            inherent weaknesses of this importation of inputs resulted in large idle     capacities, thereby creeping many gross domestic product (GDP)   declined in the face of the strong national aspiration for the             restructuring of the economy and reduction of the dependence on      petroleum. Small and medium scale enterprises have since become the    focus of national industrial policy.

            In pursuit of self-reliance in a developing country particularly in Nigeria,         the central government enacted a decree called “Enterprises promotion      Decree” when there was need for small scale enterprises in the      promotion of economic development. This has since been at the fore    front of development strategies.

            However, many developing countries have failed to adopt these            strategies owing to their belief it is a relatively slow process of     industrialization. Without the development of small scale enterprises in            Nigeria, the nation’s quest for industrialization will certainly remain             forever at a slow pace. It is the humble opinion of the researcher that             further development on our business enterprises must add to the basic             issue of creating linkages within the economy to begin to yield real       inputs to our economic activities. Priority attention must therefore be given to those business enterprises for which domestic inputs could     easily be produced. The objective should be to maximize the value             added in their processing and manufacturing as final strong producer          incentives to small scale enterprises are necessary not only to meet the     food requirement but also to promote growing input supplier industrial             growth.

MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN NIGER STATE

EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SAND WITH LATERITIC SOIL IN SANDCRETE BLOCKS

ABSTRACT

Of recent, the attention of most researchers is shifting towards the optimization of building materials by using local contents; the use of indigenous materials; and local industrial by-products unique and abundant in certain localities. This study therefore explored ways in which lateritic soil could be utilised in hollow sandcrete block production in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Sandcrete blocks were made with lateritic soil taken from different sources replacing the conventional fine aggregate (local river sand) in steps of 10% up to 60%. Their compressive strengths determined to check for conformity with standard sandcrete block as specified in the  Nigerian National Building Code (2006) with a view to determine the acceptable  percentage replacement. Soil tests were performed on the lateritic soil samples to characterise the soils. Classification of the lateritic soil samples within Ota revealed that the lateritic soils are mostly sandy clay of high plasticity and may replace sand by up to 20%, though an approximate linear decrease in strength with increasing sand replacement with lateritic soil was observed. This percentage replacement can be recommended to the block making industries within Ota with a view to encouraging utilization, though it is encouraged to confirm the percentage before embarking on mass block production.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Most African countries are confronted with acute housing problems regardless of their socio-economic and developmental challenges. While the situation is felt by majority of the population, the most affected are the low-income earners, the unemployed and rural dwellers. This has been attributed to the adaptation of highly mechanized and capital-intensive production facilities in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing demand for building materials.          One way to improve this situation is by making basic materials available in sufficient quantities, and at affordable prices, to prospective builders, including low-income earners.

One building material which has arguably revolutionized the construction industry in Ghana is sandcrete block or brick normally used as a walling unit. These walling materials have been an essential element in the housing delivery in Ghana predominately due to their affordability, availability, versatility and durability characteristics.

 In Ghana, the supply of quality sand for construction purposes has seen a sudden surge in demand which has unequivocally been associated with numerous environmental and habitat damage not forgetting the skyrocketing cost of procuring this material. Some of these challenges have compelled researchers to intensify works on alternative building materials which could satisfactorily perform wholly or partially as a substitute for the natural sand in the production of sandcrete blocks so as to bring down the cost of construction. One of the forefront suggestions has been the provision of local alternatives to the use of natural sand as fine aggregates.

One such material is the fines of laterite (particle sizes < 10mm) known to have some similar physical characteristics as conventional sand. Previous works [21] on laterites shows sharper variations in the particles sizes than sand after preliminary assessment of the particles size distribution. This has quicken interest on the use of laterite in structural masonry works especially concrete as the particle sizes contribute significantly to the strength properties of building materials.

Lateritic soils undergoes weathering and laterization processes which involve chemical and physico-chemical transformation of primary rock-forming minerals that are rich in secondary oxides of iron, aluminium or possibly both laterite constituents and clay minerals [8]. These processes occur predominately in the tropics by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. It is nearly devoid of base and primary silicates but may contain large amount of quarts, and kaolinite. It has been used in the construction of Adobe, Wattle and daub and making bricks for buildings. Although, its use as a construction material has been extensive, it is hardly accepted due to insufficient technical data, hence limiting its wider application in the analysis and design of structures built of laterites.

In recent times, researchers have shifted focus on the alternative material like laterite for sand in the production of concrete referred to as laterized concrete. The use of laterite as fine aggregate was first studied by. He concluded that concrete containing laterite fines in place of sand could satisfactorily be used for structural members. It was also discovered that the most suitable mix of laterized concrete for structural purposes is (1:1½:3), using batching by weight with a water/cement ratio of 0.65, provided that the laterite content is kept below 50 percent of the total fine aggregate content [3]. Using a combination of crushed granite, sharp sand and fine laterite was used in their experiment, they further asserted that compressive strength of not less than 25N/mm2 was obtained at 28days for the mix with laterite content between 25-50%. It was also reported [12] that incorporating laterite soil should not exceed 20% of the sand used in their sandcrete block production in Ota, Nigeria.

EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SAND WITH LATERITIC SOIL IN SANDCRETE BLOCKS

ENERGY SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC USE AND IMPACT ON THE URBAN POOR IN MAKURDI NIGERIA

Abstract

In Nigeria, as many developing countries, providing energy for the population has proven to be a great challenge thereby increasing dependence on other sources of energy such as fuel-wood. The consumption of forest product such as wood in Nigeria exceeds its regeneration rate thereby resulting in environmental problems such as deforestation, desert encroachment, soil erosion and habitat loss. The aim of the research is to investigate household’s fuel-wood consumption pattern and its impact on the urban poor using Makurdi Nigeria as my case study. Three factors level of qualification, monthly income and number of households were tested to know the influence of these factors on fuel-wood consumption. Methods used to collect data includes primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected by administering questionnaires and secondary data from journals and articles. Result of the findings shows that there is statistical significant impact of monthly income of fuel-wood consumption while level of qualification and number of household members has no statistical significance. The survey revealed some gaps on strategies to reduce deforestation and increase efficiency in fuel-wood consumption. Short term, medium term and long term strategy were recommended.

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Nigeria as considered by many to be the giant of Africa is known for its renewable and non-renewable energy sources (Ajani, 1996). The renewable energy sources in Nigeria consist of solar, wind, hydro plants and biomass such as fuel-wood, dung and plant residue. While the non-renewable sources are mainly petroleum products such as; kerosene, crude oil, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and coal (Ajani, 1996).

Nigeria has a population of over 168 million and it is estimated to reach 188 million by 2016 and 221 million by 2020 (NPCN, 2013). In Nigeria, as many developing countries, providing energy for the population has proven to be a great challenge thereby increasing dependence on other sources of energy such as fuel-wood.

The economy has for over two decades been plagued by continuous energy crisis, which is caused by ‘erratic electric power supply, acute shortages of petroleum products on several occasions, sudden price increase on energy commodities such as crude oil and natural gas and frequent conflict between the populace led by the labour movement, and the Federal Government on what should constitute appropriate prices of petroleum and other energy supplying commodities’ (CBN, 2000).

A study by Onoja and Emodi, 2012 suggest that the inaccessibility of the population to sufficient energy supply by the government has led to increase in the consumption of fuel-wood as an alternative source of energy. This consumption pattern has both economic benefits and environmental impact on the environment.

The energy demand and consumption according to various sectors in the country shows that residential sector has the second highest energy demand (Dayo, 2008). Presently, fuel-wood accounts for over 50% of total energy consumption in Nigeria and it recorded as the major source of energy in the domestic sector (Nigerian Energy Policy, 2003).

Over 70% of Nigeria’s total population rely on fuel-wood as their major source of energy for cooking, heating, preservation and other domestic purposes and 87% of the energy consumed is estimated to be wood (Onoja and Emodi, 2012). According to statistics, 96.4% of fuel-wood is used for cooking, 3.3% is used for lighting and the rest is for other domestic purposes (Dayo, 2008).

 The population growth rate couple with the consumption rate of the forest product has raised an alarming rate of forest product depletion. The consumption of forest product such as wood in Nigeria exceeds its regeneration rate as there is an increase in the rate of exploitation of immature trees especially by farmers (Mekonnen et al., 2008). This indicates that as consumption rate increases, forest product will continue to decrease in an unsustainable manner as demand and supply will not be proportional. The unsustainable fuelwood consumption could lead to environmental problems such as forest depletion, soil erosion, habitat loss and climate change (Akinbamia et al., 2003).

The Nigerian forest covers about 36million ha of land which is approximately 36.6% of land cover (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2001). Presently, the forest reserve accounts for 10,762,702ha but due to the indiscriminate felling of trees, the forest reserve is reduced to only about 130,446ha that is left untouched and that is because of inaccessibility to the location (Amiebenomo, 2002). The Federal Department of Forestry (2001) records that the Nigerian forest depletes at the rate of 3.5% annually and has presently lost about 60% of its natural forest to extensive agriculture, excessive logging and urbanization between 1960 and 2000( FAO, 2006). 

ENERGY SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC USE AND IMPACT ON THE URBAN POOR IN MAKURDI NIGERIA

THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL CULTURE ON WORKERS SAFETY CLIMATE IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

The research explored and analyzed the influence of national culture on workers safety climate in the Nigeria construction industry. It identified the attitudes and perceptions of construction workers towards safety, the national culture dimensions that influence workers attitudes and perceptions and the relationship between the national culture dimensions and construction workers safety climate. It employed survey research method where two set of similar questionnaires were structured and distributed to a total of 180 respondents which comprised 120 site operatives and 60 site management personnel. Out of the total number of questionnaire distributed only 141 were returned and utilized for analysis. Data obtained from the questionnaire survey were subjected to analysis using the following statistical tools; simple bar chart, pie charts, frequency tables and percentages. Means score Index and standard deviation were calculated and used to evaluate the effects of safety climate factors and national culture dimensions on workers attitudes and perceptions towards safety. Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between national culture dimensions and safety climate, while two-tailed t-test was used to ascertain the significance of the correlation of the relationship. Again, one-way ANOVA was used to determine if there is any significant difference between the opinions of operatives and managers on the influence of national culture on workers safety climate. It was then found that workers involvement and beliefs and perceptions were among the safety climate factors that mostly affect workers attitudes and perceptions towards safety while the low mean values for management commitment and safety education and training indicates the level of management commitment to safety issues on construction sites. Five national cultural dimensions: power distance, collectivism, femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation greatly influence safety climate of construction workers. All the five culture dimensions except long term orientation have a very high positive correlation with safety climate. The correlation coefficients of the other four dimensions ranged from 0.75 to 0.99 while long term orientation dimension has correlation coefficients of 0.47 and 0.65 for operatives and managers respectively. Also the influence of all the five culture dimensions were statistically significant on workers safety climate at 5% significances level except for the long term orientation dimension which was not significant at 5% significance level. Likewise, there was no significant difference between the opinions of site operatives and site management personnel at 5% significance level, except for the power distance dimension which showed a significant difference as a result of large power distance between the operatives and management due to their job positions. In view of these, there is urgent need for the speedy passage of National Building Code Enforcement Bill so as to enforce the usage of project health and safety plan in all construction works, provision of health and safety regulations for construction work, training of site workers in basic safety practices, and putting into consideration workers cultural values and beliefs whenever any project is being embarked upon as it affects workers beliefs and perceptions and attitudes towards safety.

Key words: National Culture, Safety Climate, Construction Workers, Nigerian Construction Industry.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Construction industry is the hub of social and economic development in all countries of the world. Though in 2009, construction industry contributed only 1.98% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to the Nigeria economy (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010a); its importance and roles in the development of economy of any nation can never be disputed.

However, when compared with other labour intensive industries, construction industry has historically experienced a disproportionately high rate of disability injuries and fatalities for its size (Hinze, 1997). The industry alone produces 30% of all fatal industrial accidents across the European Union (EU), yet it employs only 10% of the working population (Mckenzie et al., 1999); in The United States of America (USA), it accounts for 22% of all fatal accidents and only 7% of the employed (Che Hassan et al., 2007). Bomel (2001) notes that in Japan, construction accidents account for 30%-40% of the overall industrial accidents , with the total being 50% in Ireland and 25% in the United Kingdom (UK). This situation is even worse in the developing countries and Nigeria in particular, because there are no reliable sources of data for such accident records.

THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL CULTURE ON WORKERS SAFETY CLIMATE IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

THE CHALLENGES OF REDUCING LABOUR COST IN NIGERIA BUILDING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE)

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to identify and rank, according to relative importance, factors affecting high cost of labour in Nigerian building industry. Structured questionnaires comprising of various pre-selected factors were used for data collections. Using a five-point likert scale, consultants and building contractors expressed their views on the relative importance of pre-selected factors on high labour cost. A total numbers of forty questionnaires (40) where prepared and administered and thirty five (35) were received. The data presented were derived from the responses of the respondent through the use of administered questionnaire it also highlighted the summary of the findings. It was found that the labour cost is too high, the labour cost is range between 30-40% of the total construction cost. The scarcity of tradesman in Nigerian Building Industry is believed to be the major problem and causes of high labour cost.

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1    INTRODUCTION

The growing need for construction of all types’ coupled with a tight monetary supply as provide the construction industry with a big challenges to cut labour cost.The Nigerian construction industry is one of the major industries that contribute significantly to socio-economic development, through the design and construction of infrastructure.

The cost intensiveness of these construction projects require adequate management of all the resources employed for overall project success. Cost is the foremost consideration in project delivery and is regarded as one of the most important criteria of project success. (Memon, 2010). The need to focus on cost assessment stems from the fact that, client in Nigerian construction industry are usually compelled to pay for unbudgeted increase in project cost at every degrees. Ogunsemi and Dagboro (2011) attributed such increase in project cost to poor cost anticipation and allocation.

The task of forecasting project cost is part of project planning and an incorrect forecast will inevitably lead to ineffective use of resources (Ujene, 2012). The resources that constitute cost element comprise material, labour, plant and machinery costs. The attendant dwindling economic fortune of nations economics around the world have geared up the participant in these sectors (the client particular) to make up the challenge of ensuring efficient use of their resources to obtain value for money in terms of performance.

The total cost of construction in normal circumstances is expected to be the sum of the following cost, material, LABOUR, site overhead, equipment, head office cost and profit but in many part of the world particularly in Nigerian building industry the cost of LABOUR has occupied almost 30-40% of the construction cost.

This study focus on a group called “tradesman” (craftsmanship and related work) and will be referred to as “LABOUR”. The tradesman is the craftsmen or craft operative who is skills in a particular trade. This trade may be plumbing, masonry (bricklaying, electrical, painting, woodwork (carpentry), metal work (iron bending) or other related works. LABOUR has one of the components of the housing delivering system constitutes of the second largest single component or resource input required by the building industry. The labour force in the building industry has been described as exceptionally important and having a higher level skill. (Jinadu 2004). However studies have shown that labour in the building industry is scarce, because few trainees are ready to endure the tenure of training as an artisan since everyone wants cheap money. (Onibokun 2002). In addition, available data revealed that the three major supply categories of labour: the vocation education (formal training), the traditional vocational training (apprenticeship system) and the on-the job training (informal training) have not been able to produce adequate labour supply.

Mbachu and Nicado (2004) have obvious negative implication for the key stakeholders in particular, and the industry in general. To the client, high cost of labour implies added costs over and above those initially agreed upon at the onset, resulting in less returns on investment. To the consultants, it means inability to deliver value- for- money and could tarnish their reputation and result in loss of confidence reposed in them by the clients.To the contractors, in implies loss of profit through penalties for non- completion caused by the excessive cost on labour and negative word of mouth that could jeopardize his/her chance of winning further jobs, if at fault.

THE CHALLENGES OF REDUCING LABOUR COST IN NIGERIA BUILDING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE)

NAILS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN OFFICE ROOF CONSTRUCTION BY BUILDING TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Nailing can be said to be the most basic and most commonly used means of attaching members in wood frame construction. Usually, nailing is used as a structural connection and appearance is not a factor. Exceptions to this are nails can also be used for cladding, decking and finish work, where care in the selection of the type of nail can lead to enhanced appearance.

The building and construction industries are fast growing especially in the Africa largest economy like Nigeria. The market demand for nail in Nigeria is on the increase daily. As a result of inadequate importation of nail, the local industry is growing bigger in the production of nail, hence, there are various type of nails in the market, the quality of some of the product are low. Nail is an important element of Nigeria’s building business sector.

Most nails made today are wire nails, machine made from mild steel wire and more or less round from specific gauges. Previously, ‘cut nails’ were more common; cut nails which are still made, are from steel or iron plate and so have a rectangular section and have holding power of about 1.5 times greater than that of wire nails of the same length, but are more expensive to manufacture (Vable, 2012).

Nails as a means of fastening wood is increasingly important, and other composite materials. Some product couldn’t function as expected, this may be due to the fact that they are new and are still undergoing testing or their design is not well studied. In addition, some product couldn’t function as expected because they aged quickly or lose value. More so, the material they are made of may be of low quality and quantity, this therefore reduces their performance.

Furthermore, the failing in the product may be due to lack of modern equipment for the processing and manufacturing. These had prompted the use of laboratory tests to standardize nails and testing procedure in this research effort.

Nail can be best described as a headed pin or spike of metal, commonly of iron. The principal use of nails is in fixing members in wooden construction, but nail are also employed in shoemaking, upholstery and saddler work. The locally produced nails in Nigeria are been manufacture from the gathering of metal wire which are been hand pick from waste composite at home and industrial waste metals.

The metal wires are put into a locally produced nail-making machine which can produce between 500 -700 nails per minute. The nails are then twisted to formed nail shape, which are cleaned, finished, and packaged.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nail is one of the essential materials used in building construction, apart from building construction; nail is also used for various other things within and outside our premises. In building construction industry, low quality nail production might be seen as one of the problems in constructing office roof, the number of nails that will fail to hold a joint or penetrate a wooden or composite material without deformation or fracture increases as the amount of nails used increases. Finally, most research has been carried out on construction of a roof but not even a single research has been carried out on nails used in the construction of an office roof constructed by building technology students.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to examine nails used in the construction of an office roof. Other specific objectives of the study include;

1.          to determine the effect of low quality nails in the building construction process.

2.          to determine the effect of incompetency in the building construction process.

3.          to determine if nails manufacturing companies have specific testing standards for building construction.

4.          to examine the possible factors affecting nails use in building construction.

5.          to proffer possible solution to the problems stated.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.          What is the effect of low quality nails in the building construction process?

2.          What is the effect of incompetency in the building construction process?

3.          What are the specific testing standards of nail manufacturing companies for building construction?

4.          What are the possible factors affecting nails use in building construction?

5.          to proffer possible solution to the problems stated.

NAILS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN OFFICE ROOF CONSTRUCTION BY BUILDING TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS

THE EFFECT OF COST OF ROOF ON THE TOTAL COST OF A BUILDING. A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS IN AWKA SOUTH- ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

The research looked at the effect of cost of roof on the total cost of a building (A case study of some selected buildings in Awka South, Anambra).It determines the attributes that effect the cost of roof, it finds out type of roofs and their cost implications and also examine the cost of the roof on the total cost of a building. Practicing Quantity Surveyor were consulted and their experiences on various types of roof were shared and compared. These experiences were used in fixing prices to the unpriced bill of quantities given to them. Data so collected were subjected to analysis: Bill of Quantities was used in presenting the cost of different types of roof design as it affects the total cost.

The following findings and recommendation were made:

·  On cost alone, low pitch roof is cheaper to construct than a higher pitch roof. Concrete flat roof of the same size and shape were found to be costlier than the previously stated roof types.

·  Adequate attention should be given at the design stage when deciding on the geometrical shape of roofs because complex design in roof leads to in crease in cost of roof.

·  Architect and Quantity Surveyors should critically examine the effect of any particular type of roof design before specifying them, especially where cost is the critical factor in a building project.

·  To improve on duration of roof covering, the material should be adequately protected from rust by use of anti- rust and in the case of aluminum, it must be stucco embossed or baked but not spray painted.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The overall building cost of both private and public buildings are important as it is the summation of all the building element cost. Douglas and Peter (1980) believe that the total expenditure on the development of a project will be much higher than the net cost (of production) of the building fabric, necessitating financiers and stake holder in the industry need to know the total cost of fabric within a short time from the giving brief while contractors are concerned on how cost is allotted within the building.

A Quantity surveyor whose work is to cost the materials for the building will know which material that is relevant to that particular building, and remove those that are not relevant in order to reduce cost. He must bear in mind that the effective development of project depends on the estimated total cost of that project. Efficiency in execution and completion on time would be expedited by comparison of the cost of materials, time and labor with respect to various elements of building project especially the roof element.

Building material and components constitute between 50-60% of the total cost of construction input. Building materials and components for buildings must be properly selected to comply with standard and specifications. Many materials are satisfactory in some condition but not in others. However their choice will be governed by the ability of the materials to withstand the effect of climate and fulfill their design function, with respect to maintenance and overall economic implication. With this Architects should be careful during the design stage to avoid making wrongly selection of material for example if wrong roof covering was selected during design stage, the cost of the roof construction may be lower but the maintenance cost will be higher and the roof may not last long. To achieve quality roof, the Architects should have in mind the quality of the material they are specifying so that the material should be such that can withstand the effect of climate on the total cost of the building project.

The Prime Consultant who is responsible for obtaining the necessary approvals from appropriate authorities, designing of the work and other important steps, should ensure that his design is not for aesthetics but for functionality because some designers may fail to realize that their design can be too complex for site conditions and can present problems of build ability. For example, the choice of complicated roof design or concrete flat roof may pose more construction, maintenance problem and higher cost of construction than design that specified simple pitched roof.

1.2 AIM

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cost of roof on the total cost of a building in Awka South Local Government Area.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY.

The objectives of this study are:

1.     To determine attributes that affect the cost of roof

2.     To find out type of roofs and their costs implications.

3.     To examine the cost of the roof elements to the total cost of a building.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The versatility in roof design implies that roofs vary as variety of designs thus affecting the total cost of the building. This should therefore advise careful selection of design and materials for roof structure.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The study is based on a building design with a selected range of differing roof designs. A comparison is thus made of the varying total building cost to prove the hypothesis.

THE EFFECT OF COST OF ROOF ON THE TOTAL COST OF A BUILDING. A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS IN AWKA SOUTH- ANAMBRA STATE

RETRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

This work studied the retraining of professional builders in the Nigerian construction industry. The study identified the key areas of professional practices of a builder, the skills and competencies required by professional builder, the means of developing professional builders for continuous improvement and benefits of continuing professional development for a professional builder. A survey research method was adopted after a literature search has been done on the subject. A total of forty (40) questionnaires were distributed by hand to professional builders in various areas of practice in Enugu and Anambra State. A 100% questionnaire response was achieved. Data obtained from the questionnaire were presented and analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. Quantitative and descriptive analysis were also done, while mean score index was used to find the mean score values of the responses of the respondents based on five (5) point likert scale. The result was used to evaluate the answers to the research questions and objectives. It was found that professional builders have the capacities to practice in variety

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.

The act of Building can be traced back to the biblical creations. The professionalization of Building materialized when the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) was established in UK in 1934. Over a century later, specifically in1967, the profession of Building was inaugurated in Nigeria by the Nigerian Institute of Building (NIOB), as the first Oversea centre of the UK Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB). However, the Nigerian Institute of Building (NIOB) gained its autonomy from the CIOB in May, 1970. After many years of successful and recognized activities, the Institute gained its statutory backing of the profession by obtaining the Builders (Registration, etc). Degree No. 45 of 1989 (now Act Cap B13, LFN, 2004), from the Federal Government of Nigeria.

The scope of training a professional builder and the study of building programme is contained under the current minimum education standard approved by the National University Commission (NUC) and Nigeria Institute of Building (NIOB) and Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria (CORBON) guidelines.

The need for retraining of professional builders is occasioned as a result of constant change in technology, practice and management of building production and construction industry in general. In response to this, Ademoroti (1997) sees the need to establish a culture of learning through study and experience, self improvement and commitment to enhance the building industry’s products and services. When counted the numerous importance of construction industry to the nations economy (Wahab, 2005, Akanni, 2001, Husseini, 1991), one will see the need for adequate training and retraining of professional builders in the construction industry.

According to Kontagora (1991), the failure of the construction in this country including the professions, depends on their education and training of all levels, if contracting is to gain prestige and build up a properly trained labour force. He further suggested that an area that should be examined is the issue of continuing professional development (CPD) which should now becomes the focus in the construction industry. Then to keep abreast of new developments in technology and management and also broaden the knowledge of building professionals, a mix of work experience, and continuing education and training is of utmost importance.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

According to Obiegbu (2001), human resources for the construction industry appear in many varieties, styles, sizes and other attributes; some are of professional status; some technical; while others are skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled. Any attempt to neglect the development and continuous existence of any of these is detrimental to the overall success of construction industry.

The Nigeria today construction industry has been regarded as an avenue for human tragedies and losses. The sequential incessant of building collapse all over the nation, the poor quality of building works, the high rate of litigation and increasingly clients dissatisfaction all are evidence of technological and managerial mismatch in the construction industry.

Vishwakarma (2008) observed that due to globalizing economy, students pursuing technical degree programs including those related to competence in construction industry, may not be adequately educated to meet the demand that will be expected out of their profession during the next decade in the on going changing scenario worldwide.

Wahab (2005) and Ogunbiyi (2004) noted that Nigerian construction industry is being dominated by foreign players, leaving the ingenuous contractors with virtually nothing. This can be attributed to technological and managerial deficiency of the Nigerian construction professionals. It is on this premise that the construction industry council in 2006, acknowledge and provides the guidance on continuing professional Development (CPD) for individual professionals. Their employers, and the professional Institutions in the construction industry, hence the need for retraining of building professionals in the Nigerian construction industry.

RETRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HOUSING ALLOCATION SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN)

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

  1. INTRODUCTION

Housing generally refers to the social problem of ensuring that members of a society have a home to live in, whether it is a house, or some other kind of dwelling, lodging or shelter. Many government sector have a department that deals with housing, such as the United State Department of Housing and Urban Department.

Public Housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social Housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned or managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing, social housing can also be seen as a potential remedy to housing inequity.

Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin as a case study was established by his Excellency, the then Military Governor of Kwara State, Col. David Bamigboye. The decision to establish the Polytechnic was announced during the launching of the four Year Development plan in 1971.

The College eventually came into existence following the promulgation of Kwara State Edict no. 4 of 1972 (now overtaken by the edict no. 21 of 1984, edict no. 13 of 1987 and edict no, 7 of 1994) as a body empowered by statute “to provide for studies, training research and development of techniques in art and language, applied science, engineering, management and commerce, education as well as in other spheres of learning”.

The Kwara State Polytechnic formally commenced operation in January 1973 with an administrative machinery patterned closely after the existing universities in the country. The polytechnic has as its motto: TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND SERVICE

At its inception in 1973, the Polytechnic had 110 students, 11 members of academic staff and 3 senior administrative staff. The institution has now grown into having over 500 teaching and non-teaching staffs and 5,000 students.

And since Housing to man ranks next to food and clothing; and is very important to man and the lacks of it can have diverse effect on him, it can psychologically affect him and can sometimes even reflect on his work.

It is in view of this, that the polytechnic developed and maintained staff quarters all over the Ilorin metropolis. As a matter of policy, the polytechnic allocates these staff quarters to the staffs. Staff Residential Quarters could be identified as housing Estates or based on where they are located.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There are a lot of problems associated with the existing system

Some of these problems are:

1. Time consuming: The existing system based on the fact that it operates manually consumes too much time of both the applicants and the administrators.

2. Energy consuming: The workers expand much energy when searching for files or information pertaining to an apartment or staff that applied or have already been allocated an apartment.

3. Record gets missing or damaged: Since the records are kept in manual files when all the files don’t hold the records anywhere and as such records get misplaced or missing.

4. Allocation of already allocated apartments: If some records are no longer assessable, apartments that have long been allocated might be allocated again to another person causing problems.

5. General statistics is difficult to get: To get statistics such as total number of senior staff that have been allocated apartments, total number of apartments etc.

6. Poor data security: The files can be stolen or accessed by unauthorized persons as it is not secured by passwords etc.

1.3    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this project is to develop an authorized system that will effectively and efficiently handle all the problems listed above.

This is very important as the importance of housing cannot be over emphasized.

1.4    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to analyze the housing allocation procedure of Kwara State Polytechnic with the view to computerize the process of housing allocation. To achieve this, the study has the following objectives:

  1. To look at the existing process of housing allocation;
  2. To look at the problems in the documentation of housing allocation data
  3. To make a comprehensive solution at solving the problems         (computer based system).

1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The proposed system is not a universally versatile system. It is limited to the project of the Department of Works and Housing, and this project does not cover the whole activities of the works department, it only covers Estates Management Section which deal with the keeping of records of staff that are in Kwara State Polytechnic Housing Estates.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HOUSING ALLOCATION SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN)

CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

          Urban area are agricultural on remaining undeveloped land and is likely to expand to new area, putting pressure on land resources (Jiang et al, 2013). Furthermore, urban areas change precipitation patterns at scale of hundred of square kilometers. (Kaufman et al. 2007)

          However, distinction must be made between factors bringing about a general growth in urban population and urban are throughout a nation and their which affect the growth of a particular urban area. Thus, these are those residential and social factors going by the nature existing resident activities in upper part of Gaa-Akanbi i.e bungalow, duplex and tenement.

          Which about a drastic change in the area, because the seeds of urban growth are very much contained in the urbanization itself and also with increase in society of well being and urbanization in Gaa-Akanbi in relation to its residential activities, especially as additional people from different place immigrate to settle down there. With this increase in population, it was brought there is need to bring additional techniques, skills, ideas for creating a better environment for settlement in particular area.

1.1     Statement of the problem

          According to   Merriam- Idebster (2017), urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban area and the ways in which society adapt to the change.

          According to the National Urbanization Policy. Jawahaval. (2005) and the national mission on sustainable habitual stated that urban policy seeks to create fully sanitize cities through awareness generation, integrated city sanitation plans etc.

          However, this is not so in Gaa- Akanbi because of the alarming increase in the population and poor sanitation standard of the people living there.

  1.      Aim and Objectives of the study

          The topic aims to investigate the causes of urban growth on residential property and also suggest the solution to the problem in the study area. The following objective are to be considered:

  • To examine the various types of residential properties in the study area.
  • To examine the rate of urban growth in upper part of Gaa- Akanbi in Ilorin South L.G.A of  Kwara State.
  • To investigate the impact of urban growth of residential property development.
  • To suggest possible solutions to the problems identified.
  •  
    •      Significance of the study
  • To create more reliable and easy way of solving the problem of urban growth in Gaa- Akanbi.
  •  To create a better way of improving urban development in the study area..
    •      Scope of the study

The scope of the study is to investigate the impact of the urban growth on residential property development in upper part of Gaa- Akanbi.

  1.      Limitation of study

          The difficulties encountered during this research were basically on data collection. Thus, this have been described as the most frustration period. Also, inability to obtain data at the actual time contributed to the research problem. In addition, there are difficulties in tracking down the corners in upper part of Gaa- Akanbi in Ilorin Kwara State.

By tracking down all the necessary place in Gaa- Akanbi in Ilorin kwara state.

CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BUILDING FAILURE IN NIGERIA IN LAGOS STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                iii

Acknowledgement                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                    v

Table of content                                                                       vii – viii

CHAPTER ONE 

  1. Introduction
    1. Historical Background of the study
    1. Aim and Objective of the study
    1. Research Question
    1. Scope / Limitation of the study
    1. Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO 

2.0     Preamble

2.1     Causes of Building Failure in Nigeria

2.1.1  Poor Workmanship

2.1.2  Engagement of quack professional / cowboys

2.1.3  Poor Soil Investigation

2.1.4  High Cost of Building Materials

2.1.5  Lack of Proper Monitoring & Supervision

2.1.6  Bad design

2.1.7  Bad Foundation

2.1.8  Extra ordinary Load

2.1.9  Unexpected failure mode

2.1.10  Cases of Building Failure with their causes

2.2     Building Code / Registration

2.3     Challenges to professional Builders in Averting Building Failure  

2.3.1  Studying Production Information

2.3.2  Construction Planning

2.3.3  Managing Construction Process    

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Nature of Data

3.3     Research Design

3.4     Population Study   

3.5     Sample Technique

3.6     Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Introduction
    • Data Presentation
    • Data Analysis

4.4     Inspection of Collapsed Building  

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Introduction

5.2     Summary Finding

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Recommendation   

          REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Buildings are structure, which serve as shelter for man, properties and activities. They must be properly planned, designed and created to obtain desired satisfaction from the environment.  The factors to be observed in building construction include durability, adequate stability to prevent its failure of discomfort to the users, resistance to weather, fire outbreak and other forms of accidents.

The styles of building construction are constantly changing with introduction of new materials and techniques of construction consequently; the work involved in the design and construction stages of buildings are largely that will meet the expected building standards and aesthetic economy basis.

Several codes of practice universally accepted are available for the design and construction of building and these codes, through foreign, should be followed as a guide to building construction by the building team.  A high level of skill is needed in designing and constructing buildings, competence and construction and craftsmanship from buildings, competence and craftsmanship from  the team, which include the architect, the Engineers or contractor (Structural, Mechanical and Electrical) and the Local Authority.

  1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

However, failure is an unacceptable difference between expected and observed performance.  A failure can be considered as occurring in a component when that component can no longer be relied upon to fulfill its principal functions.  Limited deflection in a floor which cause a certain level of cracking distortion in partition could be reasonably be considered as defect but not a failure, where as excessive defection resulting in serious damage to partition, ceilings and floor is a failure (RODD is 1993). Those who investigate and report on failures of engineers facilities are in good position to identify trends lending to identify trends leading to structural safety problem and to suggest topics for critical research to militate against this trend (CHAPMAN, 2000).

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BUILDING FAILURE IN NIGERIA IN LAGOS STATE