EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES BY COMMERCIAL BANKS

ABSTRACT
This study investigates the technical support which commercial banks provide for small scale industries in Nigeria (a case study of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc). The contributions of commercial banks range from the granting of loans to the small scale industries and advisory services are examined. Various determinants employed include the use of primary sources (those collected by the researcher) and secondary sources (those collected from relevant published materials). Importantly, the study provides entrepreneurs, small scale businesses, bankers, researchers and government official a clearer view of the problems facing small scale industries, understand how best to tackle these problems and ways of stimulating development of small scale industries.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Prior to the 1970s or thereabout, the view that large firms were the cornerstone of modern economy dominated economic literature (Nnanna, 2001). The theory of economy of scale which is predicated on the advantages of large scale operations was almost doctrine. In this context, small scale industries (SSIs) were seen as belonging to the past, out-model and a sign of technological backwardness. Indeed, their rapid decline became an index of industrial progress (Owualah, 2001). Lately, however, this view has changed, as the importance of small scale industries in promoting industrialization and economic growth has been recognized globally.
Studies have shown that SSIs have in many countries provided the mechanism for stimulating indigenous entrepreneurship, enhancing greater employment opportunities per unit of capital invested and aiding the development of local technology (Sule, 1986; World Bank, 1995). They help to mobilize savings for investment and promote the use of local raw materials. In addition, the SSIs contribute to the strengthening of industrial linkages and the integration of industrial with other sectors of the economy through the production of intermediate products such as raw materials, spare parts and machinery. It is also recognized that small enterprises adapt with greater ease under difficult and changing conditions as their low capital intensity allows product lines and inputs to be changed at relatively low cost.
In view of these advantages, greater attention has been given to the promotion of SSI globally.
According to Economics Dictionary (1960), industry is defined as the leading sectors of the economy, the totality of all factories, works, power house, mines and workshops which produce tools and equipment, which use the materials and produce the logs, timbers and woods and further use the immediate goods produced by industries as well by agriculture. There is no universal definition of small scale industry. Each country tends to derive its own definition based on the role SSIs are expected to play in that economy and the programmes of assistance designed to achieve that goal. Varying definitions among countries may arise from differences in industrial organization at different levels of economic development and difference in economic development in parts of the same country (Sule, 1986). The criteria that have been used in the definition include capital investment (fixed assets), annual turnover, gross output and employment. Prior to 1992, different institutions in Nigeria adopted varying definitions of small enterprises. The institutions included the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industries, Center for Industrial Research and Development and the National Council on Industry (NCI) streamlined the definition of industrial enterprises to bring in uniformity and providing for its review every four years. The definition was revised in 1996 as follows (NCI, 1986): Small Scale Industry is an enterprise with total cost (including working capital but excluding cost of land) above N1 million, but not exceeding N40 million, with a labour size of between 11 and 35 workers.

The classification of small scale industries in a diagram:
Small scale industry

Factories Non-factories

Cottage Industries Crafts Industry

The increasing development of small scale industries in Nigeria can be appreciated by looking at the pride of place it occupied in many National Development plans. For example, in the second National Development Plan, the government stated that it is its policy to give active support to the promotion and development of small scale industries in the country. To this end, a lot of policies and programme have been initiated by government to enable them attain their objectives culminating in the establishment of the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB). In fact, the forth National Development Plan 1980 – 1985 stated that the objective of establishment special assistance programme for the development of small scale industries is for them to serve as a necessary tool for the development of the Nigerian enterprises.
The term small, medium and large are relative. They differ from industry to industry and country to country. In short, there is no unique of universally accepted definition to these terms. What Nigerians considered very large scale in the 1940s may be qualified now as small scale. Also, the optimum size of a ceramic industry is quite dissimilar to that of a fertilizer plant. Some industries are typically small (crafts, gold milling for example).

EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES BY COMMERCIAL BANKS

WORK-FAMILY ROLE CONFLICT AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Work-family role conflict has become an important issue in the determination of organizational commitment. In recent years, there has been an increase in competitive pressures on organizations to increase productivity and an increase in time demands on the workforce, leaving less time available for the employees to be with their families. Moreover, the workforce composition has changed in recent years, with an increase in women in the workplace and there has been an increase in men being involved in family life (Cardson, 2005). Dual income couples and an increase in single parenting are now becoming the norm of today’s society. Work-family role conflict has been defined as “a form of inter-role conflict in which role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect” (Flippo, 2005). The conflict occurs when the employee extends their efforts to satisfy their work demands at the expense of their family demands or vice versa (Cole, 2004). Conflict could arise from work interfering with the family life, such as working overtime to meet demands of the job or from family demands when there is illness with a familymember. A significant amount of researches have concluded that work-family conflict and family work conflict are related but distinct constructs (Ajiboye, 2008). Work-family conflict is primarily caused by excessive work de-mands and predicts negative family outcomes, whereas family-work conflict is primarily determined by family demands and predicts negative work outcomes (Adebola, 2005).

Therefore, if an employee is experiencing high levels of family-work role conflict, their roles and responsibilities in family life are interfering with the work domain. Mean-while, because the employee is more committed to the welfare of the family, this will take priority, reducing or minimizing the resources of time and energy being able to be spending in the work domain. Thus, employees who experience high family role conflict should experience less affective commitment to the organization. However, work-to-family conflict occurs when the domain of work interferes with the family demands and vice versa for work-family conflict (Ajiboye, 2008).
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WORK-FAMILY ROLE CONFLICT AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN NIGERIA

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND WORK PERFORMANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR. A CASE STUDY OF PUBLISHING OUTFITS IN ENUGU

Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

The manufacturing sector in Nigeria has been a focal sub-sector; but little is probably known about the influence of its employee involvement in decision making on firms’ performance.   The manufacturing sector in Nigeria has  been a focal sub-sector; but little is probably known about the influence of its employee involvement in decision making on firms’ performance.    The particular attention in manufacturing emanates from the conviction that the sector is a potential instrument of modernization, a  creator of jobs, and a generator of positive spill-over effects (Tybout, 2000). Moreover, the growth in manufacturing output has been a key element in the successful transformation of most economies that have   seen sustained rises in their per capital  income (Soderbom and Teal, 2002). Focus should therefore be on manufacturing and  those factors that may foster its growth.

A high degree of involvement (deep employee involvement in decision making) means that all categories of employees are involved in the planning process. Conversely, a low degree of involvement (shallow employee involvement in decision making) indicates a fairly exclusive planning process (Barringer&Bleudorn, 1999) which involves the top management only. A deep employee involvement in decision making allows the influence of the frontline employees in the planning process. These are the people who are closest to the customer and who can facilitate new product and service recognition,  a central element in the entrepreneurial process (Li et al., 2006). This   means that employee participation in the planning process surrounding the potential innovations may facilitate opportunity recognition throughout the organization (Kemelgor, 2002; Zivkovic et al., 2009).
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND WORK PERFORMANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR. A CASE STUDY OF PUBLISHING OUTFITS IN ENUGU

RETRENCHMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON THE MORALE OF WORKERS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Background of this study is on the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Enugu state which is made up of students. Academic staff (lectures and non-academic staff. It is aimed at finding the effect on the morale of the still employed workforce, that is of the moral of the workers is still low or if they feel threatened and if they have become more productive. This research work was prompted by the way workers have been retrenched for the past years in institutes of higher learning. Human beings have often been accused of being lazy and having poor attitude to work as shown in McGregor’s assumption theory of X. In this theory, McGregor assumed that the average human being doesn’t like working and would want to avoid it if possible, as a result, he would have to be controlled, threatened with punishment before he can put in effort to achieve some organizational objectives. McGregor want on to say that a human being wished to be directed and controlled in his now ambition and above all he wants security. This research work would want to find out if the above claimed reasons for retrenchment of workers were the true reasons for these actions or is McGregor’s assumption (i.e laziness and poor attitude to work) were the real reasons or a combination of the two sets of behaviour led to the retrenchment of workers in the institute of Management and Technology, Enugu.

The premise of retrenchment is in part to reduce the number of workers employed by the organization. Retrenchment raises a number of other issues besides cost savings. Retrenchment in reality is hitting all levels of employees. One employee today is expected to produce what three employees once did, (Bentley, 1986). Possible reasons for retrenchment in most business organizations include feeling overstaffed, non compliance and changing market place. Retrenchment is therefore a measure for them to survive.
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RETRENCHMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON THE MORALE OF WORKERS

EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFOMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF VITAMALT PLC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial method whereby the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identifies major areas of responsibility, in which they will work. Set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards (Derek 2005:

156).

 Management by objectives is also called managing by objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals, for any organizational unit.

 Odiorne (1981:1) defines MBO as a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly  identify bjectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a “system of management” an overall framework used to guide the organizational unit and outline  its direction. He went further to point out that “the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives”. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the “results” that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organization evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output.

 Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business.
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EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFOMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF VITAMALT PLC)

THE ROLE OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (THE STUDY OF SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Introduction

Apprenticeship training appears to be a perfect educational solution providing a clear way into the labour market. Its heavy emphasis on on-the-job training makes it a potentially attractive option for individuals who are not inclined toward the classroom and lecture hall-based instruction of higher institutions of learning. It is concerned with learning a specific skill under the tutelage of a master that gives no financial reward to the apprentice within the period the training lasts. Apprenticeship training and entrepreneurship development are the focus of this work. This first chapter is divided into the following sections; background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, scope and delimitation of the study, significance of the study, justification of the study, and operational definition of terms.

1.1       Background of the Study

The vast contributions of apprenticeship to jobs and skills have long been appreciated by nations eager to foster growth and make access to work for youths easier from their full-time education. Study shows that France and England have around 5% of youths between 16 and 24 years in apprenticeship and have made concerted efforts to expand the capacity (Cilpepper & Thelen, 2010). However, in recent times, positions offered by employers are inadequate to meet the huge demand from youths or to have much effect on the unemployment levels in these countries – the unemployment rate is presently about 20% for 15-24 year olds in both countries and even more in other European countries without apprenticeship trainings or provision (Steedman, 2011) Although, one can observe a positive relationship existing between apprenticeship and low levels of youth unemployment, it would also be wrong to view apprenticeship majorly as a ‘cure’ for high levels of youth unemployment. Apprenticeship is basically about skill development and trainings to the benefit of companies, their employees and the larger economy.
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THE ROLE OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (THE STUDY OF SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)

ASSESSMENT OF URBAN RETAILING AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN GWARINPA AREA FEDERAL CAPITAL TERITORY, ABUJA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Consumer behaviour is an important aspect of study within the Marketing discipline. Consumer complaint behaviour started generating attention from the researchers since 1970’s. With the increase in globalization, study of consumer complaint behaviour, its antecedents and consequents has also increased. Consumers from different age categories, demographic profile, socio-economic class, income, education level, cultural background etc exhibit different type of consumer complaint behaviour. As the retail firms are expanding globally there is an increasein the amount of studies on consumer complaint behaviour in the retail industry. India, being one of the fastest developing countries with its massive population has become a promising market for Retail business expansion. As a result, study of consumer behaviour in retail and consequently consumer complaint behaviour has started drawing attention from the researchers.

Every business organization`s progress depends on the satisfaction of the customers. Whenever a business is about to start, customers always come “first” and then the profit. Those companies that are succeeding to satisfy the customers fully will remain in the top position in a market. Today’s business company has known that customer satisfaction is the key component for the success of the business and at the same time it plays a vital role to expand the market value. In general, customers are those people who buy goods and services from the market or business that meet their needs and wants. Customers purchase products to meet their expectations in terms of money. Generally it is presumed that shoppers will be influenced by such factors as distance, size of place and range of goods, always trying to gain commodities with the minimum of effort predicted. Therefore, companies should determine their pricing with the quality of the product that attracts the customer and maintains the long-term affiliation. 
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ASSESSMENT OF URBAN RETAILING AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN GWARINPA AREA FEDERAL CAPITAL TERITORY, ABUJA

MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS IN TODAY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study

Management of organizations in today business environment needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial method whereby the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identifies major areas of responsibility, and set some standards for performance and the measurement of results against those standards (Derek 2005). Nwosu (2008) described management by objective (MBO) as a technique of management that attempts to relate organizational goals to individual performances and development through the involvement of all levels of management. MBO is thus a management technique that involves the application of collective objectives, action, vision, insight, and inspiration in organizations in such a way that fundamental changes in direction, development, productivity, perceptions or beliefs occur in both the employees and the organization.

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a theory of management proposed by Drucker (1956). It relies on the defining of objectives for each employee and then comparing and directing employee performance against the objectives that have been set. Greenwood (2001) defined MBO as a broader term that encompasses managerial decisions and actions that help to ensure that an organization formulates and maintains a beneficial fit with its’ environment and consistent with its objectives and goals. Tahir (2008) described MBO as involving the establishment and communication of organizational goals, the setting of individual goals in line with the organizational goals, the periodic and final review of performance in relation to the organizational goals.

Management by objectives is also called managing by objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have management by objectives refers to as a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit. Odiorne (2011) defines MBO as a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.
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MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS IN TODAY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

AN EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS TOWARDS ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Over the years, Multinational corporations (MNCs) have been a source of controversy ever since the East India Company developed the British taste for tea and a Chinese taste for opium (Stopford, 1998). A typical multinational corporation (MNC) normally functions with a headquarters that is based in one country, while other facilities are based in locations in other countries. In some circles, a multinational corporation is referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE) or a transnational corporation (TNC) (Tatum, 2010). They enter host countries in different ways and different strategies. Some enter by exporting their products to test the market and to find whether their existing products can gain sizeable market share.

For such firms, they rely on export agents. These foreign sales branches or assembly operations are established to save transport costs because there is a limit to what foreign exports can achieve for a firm owing mainly to tariff barriers and quotas and also owing to logistics or cost of transportation. Most of the firms are encouraged by the low wage rates and other environmental factors. To meet the growing demands in the foreign countries, the firm considers other options such as licensing or foreign direct investment which are critical steps. Some continue with export even when they have settled for the foreign direct investment option. Every step takes strategic planning and is motivated by profit through sales growth. The idea of multinational corporations has been around for centuries but in the second half of the twentieth century multinational corporations have become very important enterprises.

Tatum (2010) proposes that multinationals operate in different structural models. The first and common model is for the multinational corporation positioning its executive headquarters in one nation, while production facilities are located in one or more other countries. This model often allows the company to take advantage of benefits of incorporating in a given locality, while also being able to produce goods and services in areas where the cost of production is lower (Ozoigbo and Chukuezi, 2011).
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AN EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS TOWARDS ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)

AN APPRAISAL OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 PA can improve motivation and performance, but if used inappropriately, it can have disastrous effects (Fisher et al, 2003). For PA to be effective, it must of necessity be anchored on the performance criteria that have been outlined for the job. Riggio (2003) describes performance criteria as the means for determining successful or unsuccessful job performance. They are one of the products of a detailed job analysis. Performance criteria spell out the specific elements of a job and make it easier to develop the means of assessing levels of successful or unsuccessful job performance. It can thus be inferred that an appraisal system not hinged on this all important criteria, can neither be appropriate nor fair, particularly to the employee, whose performance is being evaluated. In fact, some key points in the arguments of those opposed to performance appraisal is that, most of the time, wrong things are rated and the wrong methods used (Deming, 1986; Gilliland and Langdon, 1998).PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Situations arise whereby only some selected job elements are evaluated or given preference or higher points above other job elements in which the employee was equally engaged during the review period. This calls to

question the fairness of the appraisal system and its ability to effectively produce the desired outcomes. Mickerney (1995) underscored the intricacy of PA by describing it as a difficult and complex activity which is often not performed well by many organizations. The end result of this is that it produces exactly the opposite effect to those intended (Coleman, 1995).

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In Nigeria today, the general state of poverty makes economic reward a very important reason why people go out to work, thereby making money to rank highly as a critical motivator (Muo, 2007).This situation has made it imperative for Nigerian workers to pay particular attention to human resource (HR) practices which have direct bearing on their financial rewards and social status. One of such HR activities is performance appraisal (PA), which is the focus of this study.
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AN APPRAISAL OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

THE PRACTICE OF TRADE UNIONISM AND THE IMPROVEMENT 0F ECONOMIC WORKING CONDITIONS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL UNION OF TEXTILE, GARMENT AND TAILORING WORKERS OF NIGERIA, KADUNA.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The human element in the place of work makes the difference between man and any beast of burden or automation. This informs the emergence of Industrial or Labour Relations as a field of study and area of practice. Labour Relations is a fascinating subject, for it is about people and about people in the world of work. This world covers a vast range of types of production activities carried out in diverse surroundings in every country. The terms and conditions governing people at work, and the way these are arrived at, are the core of Labour Relations, and they are actually of crucial concern to the people involved. It is they who are not just close to the actions but immersed in it.

However, it is not only employees and managers “in a textile mill” who have interest in Labour Relations. The government of the country has an important stake, in part because it is an employer in its own right, also because it is the custodian of the public interest in Labour Relations policies and practices. “We associate Industrial Relations with the spread of industrialism, a process which began in Britain in the eighteenth century, with the first industrial revolution. It is topical, practical, and involves studying the working behaviours of a very large proportion of the people in any country, namely the labour force” (Johnson, 1983).

The issues of Labour Relations tend to shift from the question of the size and share of the proceeds of output to one of decision making:What and how much to produce, who to employ and dismiss, what benefits to institute, and who shall partake thereof. The problem is who shall make these decisions and how? Labour Relations is fundamentally concerned with the complex of power relationships and power sharing, economic and other decisions which affect or emanate from employment, conditions of employment and remuneration – between management, the employees (Trade union) and the state. “The central issue of Labour Relations is how to attain and maintain optimum level of productive efficiency and how to share the economic returns” (Yesufu, 1984).

In most organizations the sharing of the economic returns do not adequately reflect the contributions of the employees, simply because the managements in such organizations are usually obsessed with the development of the organization than that of the employees. This has had adverse economic effect on employees’ standard of living in a typical African country like Nigeria. “Workers throughout the world particularly in Africa, contributed immensely to the attainment of independence in their countries. But today, the greatest struggle is the eradication or alleviation of poverty, which recently became the campaign of halving global poverty level by 2050” (The Textile Worker, May 2005). A good economic working condition will make a good employee and consequently better output. One important way of achieving this is by wage supplements, that is, fringe benefits.

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THE PRACTICE OF TRADE UNIONISM AND THE IMPROVEMENT 0F ECONOMIC WORKING CONDITIONS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL UNION OF TEXTILE, GARMENT AND TAILORING WORKERS OF NIGERIA, KADUNA.

THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF NESTLE AND LEVER BROTHERS PLC.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

In this contemporary economy, it has been noted that the business of most organization is not dependent only on the financial resources available, or the numerical strength of the work force but as a result of the managerial ability, competence and management style adopted in such organization.

This explains why in present times stories are abound of failures, abysmal performance and on some occasion total collapse or winding-up of several business organization. So many reasons have accounted for this, one is globalization and technology and another is Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A).

The paradox is that globalization, technology and M .~ A advances, open Up new opportunities even as they threaten the status quo. ‘1 he history of mergers contains enough tragedy to terrify the most resilient organization. The diversification wave around the world in 1960’s and 1970’s famously ended in tears and break-ups. Yet despite claims that lesson had been learnt, the 1990’s merger wave was as damaging as any before it. Shareholders in acquiring firms typically gain less from mergers than shareholders in acquiring firms. But according to a study, Rene Stulz (2001) of Ohio State University and two fellow economist found out that acquiring shareholders lost $216 billion- over 50 times what they lost in real terms in 1 980’s, although they spent only six times as much. Strikingly, these losses were concentrated in just 87 deals iii 1 998-2001. In total, mergers during that period actually destroyed some $134 billion of shareholders wealth. Many of the most disastrous mergers have been the result of chief

executives excessive ambition. The chairman Daimler (1999), Jorgen Shrimp’s acquired of Chrysler, or Time Warner Gerry Levis Merger deal with America- onLine (AOL).

In the past few years there has been so much hostility on Merger & Acquisition from investors and outside directors that the typical boss would propose anything other that doing a Merger. Today profit ;~ souring, balance sheets strengthened amid corporate governance reforms implemented. Investors amid outside directors are increasingly asking the boss not what lie is doing to get the firm back on track but how lie plans to expand it.

In this environment, Merger proposals are once again, enthusiastically received. These changes are throwing companies into state of confusion, regarding strategy on whether bosses would curb their imperial ambitions enough to proposed only deals that truly make business sense, whether boards and investors have mastered the courage to question a boss’s merger plans thoroughly or equally not to put him under such pressure that lie proposes a merger out of desperation and whether working together, shareholders or chief executive are better abbe to spot the difference between a faddish merger and a useful one. Also to protect profits, companies have primarily responded by cutting their cost, re-engineering their processes, and downsizing their work forces. Yet, even companies that succeed in cutting their costs may fail to increase their revenues if they lack strategic vision and strategic know-how.

In most viable organizations, there is always the record of efficiency, effectiveness, higher productivity and profit maximization. While it is otherwise in some of the operations of their contemporaries. One of the reasons behind the successful performance of business organization is the application of the principles of strategic

management in the operations of their organizations by top level managers, in today’s environment of Mergers amid acquisitions.

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THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF NESTLE AND LEVER BROTHERS PLC.

THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE POLITICAL AWARENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR CITIZENSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

It is often assumed that the school serves as a potential agent of political socialization, which helps in influencing the formation of political norms, values and attitudes in children. On a purely theoretical level, it has been claimed that education is related to politics, because it promotes the creation of a sense of common citizenship. (Roach, 1976)

It is believed that education is an effective instrument for socializing the young children through the promotion of desirable socio-cultural values, creation of political awareness which prepares the youth to perform their functions to the nation effectively as they grow up as adults. DuBey (1972) emphasized that educational institutions in Nigeria are recognized as playing a very important role in socialization of the Nigerian school children. Jaros (1973) too claimed that schools are specifically designed to communicate political values to the children.

It is emphasized that education serves as a potent force in finding solution to social problems and for the development of the potentialities and aspirations of a nation. Briggs (1930:143) in Ukeje (1966) stressed that education is an investment by the society to make itself a better place in which to live and a better place in which to make a living.

Dewey (1916, 1938, 1952) and Conant (1959) in Okam (2004) endorsed that schools in a socio-political system must enable learners develop a

philosophy of life and a social outlook through genuine educative participation. Dewey (1916) in Okam (2004) irrevocably linked democracy and education. He forged the link between democracy, as a social process, and education as a democratic way to prepare citizens to make intelligent decisions about social change. Dewey (1916) saw democracy and education as part of the same process of growth. His reflection was that the new responsibility of education for democracy, particularly in such a social system as the United States of America, fell heavily on the school. He noticed that the basic problem of educators largely impinges on how schools would be geared at providing a distinct curriculum for each individual that would meet both personal and social goals.

He endorsed that subjects should be included in the curriculum only if they had immediate value for the present needs and growth of a student. The need for full participation of students in the national political life of Nigeria, being a democratic nation, is a desirable goal. Social Studies, as a curriculum instrument, is assigned a key role in the successful implementation of the nation’s political goals. Adaralegbe (1980) and Mafuyai (1980) maintained that Social Studies can provide students with the necessary skills for articulate citizenship, preparation for future participation in democracy, political literacy and responsibility. DuBey and Barth (1989) and Okam (1998) contended that the basic goal of Social Studies is the preparation of the pupil for full responsible citizenship. Okam (1998) pointed out that Social Studies has to be seen as a modern attempt at an interdisciplinary study of a topic, a problem, an issue, a concern or an aspiration.

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THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE POLITICAL AWARENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR CITIZENSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LOAN SCHEME TOWARDS THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1)     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In Nigeria, like any other country of the world, the agricultural sector plays a very important role in the economy. The sector provides massive employments; it generates basic raw materials to the economy, it provides food to the populace, it generates foreign exchange and largely provides security and stability in the polity.

However, the main stakeholders in the sector, that is to say the farmers are faced with many problems among them are poor pricing, high cost of fertilizers/ insecticides, low education and the most important being lack of adequate capital that would enable them tackle these problems for their benefits and for the benefit of the society generally. One way to do this is for the farmers to get a window of financial palliative. Many attempts had been put in place to make financing available to the farmers one of which was the establishment of Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (N.A.C.B) in November 24th, 1972, which commenced  operations  March  6th,       1973.  The  Nigeria  Agricultural  and Cooperative   Bank   (N.A.C.B)   has   now   been   transformed   into   Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (N.A.C.R.D) in October 2000.

The aims and objectives of Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank, and its predecessor, Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank seem to be the same. If that is the case what has been its impact in Agricultural financing?

1.2)     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Zaria is a renowned city with long tradition of farming. It was estimated that every family in Zaria and its environs is involved in one aspect of agricultural activity or the other, and since lack of adequate agricultural financing is certain to affect the farmers in Zaria, this explains the reason why the Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank now Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank had to open its Branch in Zaria in the year 2002 to close this financing gap.

The researcher is aware of this fact and wants to find out what has been the impact of the Bank in Zaria. Has the bank been able to assist the Zaria farmers in closing or reducing the multiple financing problems that they face like their other counter parts all over the country? If yes, how were they able to do it? If no, why and where did they fail? What can be done to make them do it more effectively?

Lawan, 2001 p.2 opined however that agricultural financing has “not been a very successful story because of the problems of loan recovery, some view it

as their own national cake”. She further said that “sometimes it is not easy obtaining a loan from the Bank due to undue procedures by the Bankwhich…….the farmers must go through”.

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THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LOAN SCHEME TOWARDS THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH

THE ECOWAS AND THE OF INTEGRATION IN THE WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION : 1985 – 2005.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background:

Fundamental to this study is the issue of integration amongst and between nations and its imperativeness as a force for human development, especially with reference to emerging independent states of Africa. From the framework of the UN [United Nations], regional organizations are viewed as a major feature of contemporary global economic system. One of the basic purposes of such regional bodies is to make use of deliberate governmental and private sector efforts to strengthen south-south trade and economic links more rapidly than would be the case if such links were to be determined only by market forces [UNCTAD, 1986]

In this introductory segment of the study attempts to examine integration and the forces shaping the process amongst and within the disparate and independent nations of a geographical area so described and referred to as “West Africa” would be made. Very importantly too, the researcher’s approach to this study has also been viewed and governed by notable global integrative activities and pursuits well known and acknowledged, and which also culminated into a string of international integration efforts, processes and which in turn created world’s first generation international bodies such as the United Nations [UN], European Union [EU], Organization of African Union [now African Union – AU ], World Bank [WB], International Monetary Fund [IMF], South African Development Cooperation [SADC], Association of South East Asian Nations [ASEAN] etc. It is therefore not surprising that the Economic Community of West African States otherwise known

xix

as ECOWAS and similar such bodies like the Southern African Development Community otherwise referred to as SADC are widely seen as “representing the globalization phenomenon” [CDD W/Paper, June 2002].

The most dramatic evidence of globalization is the increase in trade and movement of capital. From 1950-2001 the quantum of world exports rose over 20 times and by 2001 world trade amounted to a quarter of all the goods and services produced globally. In the early parts of the 1970s, only $10 billion to $20- billion in national currencies were exchanged daily. By the beginning of the 21st. century more than $1.5 trillion worth of Japanese Yen, Euros, Pound Sterling, Dollars and other currencies were effectively traded daily in order to support the expanded levels of global trade and investment [Goldstein: 1992, Robert: 2001, Eichen: 1998].

Globalization denotes a comprehensive term for the emergence of a global society in which economic, political, environmental and cultural actions in one part of the world quickly come to have implication for people in other parts of the world. Globalization is therefore the result of a multifaceted advancement in communication, transportation, and information technologies and it also describes the growing economic, political, technological, and cultural linkages that connect individuals, communities, businesses, and governments around the world. The growth of MNCs [Multinational Corporations] or TNCs [Trans-National Corporations], as organizations with operations or investments in many countries, functioning in a global market place is an integral part of the globalization phenomenon. As citizens of disparate nations we are culturally, materially, and psychologically engaged with the lives of people in other countries as never before, thus distant events often have an immediate and above all significant impact, blurring the boundaries of our personal world [Eichen: 1998, Robert, 2001].

The idea of the West African community, according to history, goes back to the times of late William Tubman of Liberia who initially made the call in 1964. An agreement was signed between Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in 1965, February, but this came to nothing. In April 1972, General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria and Togo’s General Eyadema “re-launched the idea, drew up proposals, and toured 12 countries, soliciting their plan from July to august 1973” [www.ecowas.int]. Like a number of similar bodies, the founding fathers of the ECOWAS were not without a dream. The founding fathers of the ECOWAS body were motivated by global developments that emphasized coming together to boost the capacity of diverse nations for economic development and growth.

The successes and failures of regional organizations such as the ECOWAS need be closely focused, hence it is imperative to look at other integration experiences, as most of them are not showing signs of continued viability. Scholars have equally observed that despite the seeming differences between these categories of Regional Integration Arrangements [RIA] in terms of their motive forces, political settings and development path, an objective assessment of the experiences of the organizations would provide useful insights and perspectives for other organizations in deciding on their respective courses of development.

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THE ECOWAS AND THE OF INTEGRATION IN THE WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION : 1985 – 2005.

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS TO WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A Case Study of National Council of Women Societies, NCWS, Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0      BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

All over the world, non governmental organisations were continually increased and gathering momentum in their activities. As the world continues to emphases the issue of good government and globalised democratic setting, these non governmental organisations were largely seen as an important agent of limiting authoritarian governments, strengthening popular empowerments, reducing political in accountability and improving quality of public government and reducing fluctuation of market prices.

These non governmental organisations are free associations of individuals or group of people who share common interests and ideals or identical objectives; they are mostly independent of the government, but in some cases, they attract government patronage or assistance. The organisation is influenced in some ways by the institutions of government. The government may have an indirect impact on the organisation either through the creation or the enforcement of legislation that regulates their behaviours by supporting and promoting its activities or by offering it a wide range of advisory services. The formation of most the non governmental organisations have been chiefly motivated by man’s concern for others caring, for this need and services of humanity. These motivation might be economical, political, social and cultural issues. The non governmental organisations varies in structures, roles and activities. Their motivations can be religious, cultural gender or political sentiment.

Among the non governmental organisations is the National Council of Women Societies (NCWS), Nigeria. This organisation was founded in 1958 with the aim of bringing into being throughout Nigeria, federation of non political women’s organisation to assist women in towns and villages with important roles as home makers and nation builders. It seeks to create among their members an awareness of being a good citizen. The extent at which the National Council of Women Societies (NCWS) has performed these roles would form the bed-rock of this study.

In the recent, time women all over the world have come into positive focus. This trend was as a result of a realisation of what the world might have been missing by not involving them positively. According to Orucha (2003), the progress and development of any nation is the woman in that societies.” Thus, women represents a tool for positive change, depending on how they are treated and the level of opportunity given to them to actualise their potentials. This declaration in 1978 by the United Nations Organisation at the international year for women as well as the decade for women, are the organisation’s contributions towards the emancipation of women.

However, in Nigeria, in spite of the misconception arising from traditional and religious beliefs in the role and place of women in the society, a study of our history shows a lot of achievements of Nigerian women in the social, economic & political sectors. This was manifested during colonial days, when in 1929, Aba women revolted against the British Colonialists for taxing women, this uprising later brought the evolution of autonomy in local government administration in the country.

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THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS TO WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A Case Study of National Council of Women Societies, NCWS, Nigeria

QUALITY OF RAINWATER HARVESTED IN CISTERNS IN ONICHA UGBO, ANIOCHA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Water is an indispensible substance to man and all life processes; it is the essence of life, without which human beings cannot live for more than a few days (Eletta and Oyeyipo, 2008). It plays a vital role in nearly every function of the body, protecting the immune system, the body’s natural defenses and helping to remove waste matter. It is essential in maintaining and sustaining human, animal and plant life (Patil and Patil, 2010). Undoubtedly, water represents a unique and significant feature in any settlement: for drinking, sanitation, washing, planting, fishing, recreation, industrial process, etc. Succinctly, water is greatly important and is in great demand in all sectors of human endeavour and in every human settlement (Aderogba, 2005).

Water that is easily available and affordable is a prerequisite to good hygiene, sanitation and is central to the general welfare of all living things (UN, 2008). It is a prerequisite for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecological systems. Water is of great importance for domestic, industrial, agricultural, religious and recreational uses (Folorunsho, 2010); hence, it is very critical for the socio-economic survival of the human race without which life as it exists on our planet is impossible (Asthana and Asthana, 2001).

According to Cummingham, Cummingham and Siago (2003) and Duggal (2004), of all the elements essential for the existence, survival and sustenance of human beings and animals, water is rated as the greatest. Water plays a vital role in the development of a stable community, since human beings can exist for days without food but absence of water for a few days may lead to death. Water is an essential pre-requisite for the establishment of a stable community. In the absence of which nomadic lifestyle becomes necessary and communities move from one area to another as demand for water exceed its availability.

Globally, the demand for water for agricultural, industrial, domestic and other purposes will continue to increase with increasing world population as a contributory factor, such that an estimated additional 5,600km3/year of water may be required to cope with population growth and nutrition in 2050 (Rockstrom, 2002). Similarly, the global water situation is so precarious that without immediate action, it is estimated that by 2025, two-thirds of the world population will have difficulty surviving in water stressed areas (Mendidia Exclusive, 2008).

The need for clean water for drinking, cooking, bathing and other household needs had long been recognized. It is estimated that over one billion people still lack safe domestic water supplies, while 2.4 billion lack adequate sanitation (Meinzen-Dick and Rosegrant, 2001). The resulting human toll is roughly 3.3 billion cases of illness and 2 million deaths per year. Moreover, even as the world‟s population grows, the limited easily accessible freshwater resources in rivers, lakes and groundwater aquifers are dwindling as a result of over-exploitation and water quality degradation (IAEA, 2004). This statistics, no doubt holds true mostly in the developing economies of Asia, Latin America and Africa, where poverty has assumed an endemic root. Understanding water risk in developing countries implies coming to terms with issues of unsafe drinking water and scarcity, which varies in time and space, water related threats, as well as quality and quantity issues (Emmanuel and Ekanem, 2009).

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QUALITY OF RAINWATER HARVESTED IN CISTERNS IN ONICHA UGBO, ANIOCHA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTIOONAL TOOL IN MARKETING OF SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF KEFFI COMMUNITY BANK (NIG) LTD.)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTON

1.1         Background of the study

The banking sector in recent years has become very competitive that without the use of good promotional tools, such as public relations, success in business may become uncertain and elusive, if not impossible. Since the major aim of every business is to make profit and continue to stay afloat by having its products and services patronized, consumed and appreciated by its target market, it has become important therefore that the organization must also communicate with its present and potential consumers.

The constant changes being experienced in the business environment have further made marketing of services and business operations harder, more intensive and highly competitive. The dynamic nature of today’s business, resulting from the stiff competition from competitors, necessitate the need for a good promotional tool which can boost the image and goodwill of an organization and position it properly among its publics.

In all facets of social, economic and political interactions and interrelationships, the role and uses of public relations as a promotional tool cannot be undervalued because it is associated with success especially when it comes to establishing and maintaining good image. Public relations is therefore a powerful communication tool which is available to every organization in building up, sustaining good and mutual relationship with its target publics.

Over the years, organizations have come to realize that for them to carry out their businesses effectively and efficiently, a good environment and cooperative publics must be maintained, hence they see public relations as the best tool in achieving their aims.

The importance of public relations was recognized early at the dawn of civilization by the ‘‘Greeks who conceived the idea of the public will’’ (Bittner,

1989:229). From this recognition, public relations has grown to become a part and parcel of every image conscious cooperative organization. For public relations creates good business environment, an understanding, cooperative external public, a dedicated

and hardworking internal public, who serve the external public by utilizing the conducive environment.

In Nigeria, public relations have come a long way. Many organizations have contributed to its practice and growth. With the indigenization decree, several key

positions in private organizations afforded Nigerians the opportunity to pioneer the crusade for public relations practice. For instance, in1949, the United African Company (UAC), established its public relations department, and thus became the pioneer in the private sector (Ajala, V.2001:6). The basic aims of the company then were to inform business and commerce about business activities, as well as to project UAC as a major Nigerian industrial, technical and commercial company involved in the stability of the economic life and progress in Nigeria.

In the post independence era, there was significant development in government public relations, with the formation of Information Departments which handles and manages information-related activities in the different government ministries and parastatals. In the private sector, the UAC example and successes achieved motivated them into establishing public relations department to carry out image laundry, building of goodwill, creating and sustaining patronage for their goods and services. For long, therefore public relations practice in Nigeria has been dynamic, and has been growing with the changing tides of the country’s environment.

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PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTIOONAL TOOL IN MARKETING OF SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF KEFFI COMMUNITY BANK (NIG) LTD.)

ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK PLC

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        INTRODUCTION

1.1        PREAMBLE

The information super highway has turned the world into a global village. Organisations are facing the kind of competition that was not envisaged a few years ago. They have to compete with goods and services from all over the world and satisfy a more educated and sophisticated customer. What is satisfactory to the customers today may not be regarded as such tomorrow as their expectations are continuously changing. In addition, there has been consistent breakthrough in science and technology over the last couple of decades. This has also affected information dissemination and management, as things earlier thought impossible now look ordinary.

Moreover, the fall-outs of a deregulated global competition have offered customers choices among various alternatives. Today, customers demand high quality and low price. Since no one organisation can boast of holding franchise to the development and delivery of quality products/services, many organisations have embraced the Total Quality Management concept as a way of survival.

One tenet of this management philosophy, which many organisations have adopted as a fundamental business strategy, is the concept of continuous improvement. No organisation can afford to be competitive if it does not continuously improve on its products/services, processes and people.

There is therefore, an urgent need for an organisation-wide approach and commitment to quality improvement. In addition, there is the need for quality improvement to be a continuous exercise or phenomenon. Over the years, this realisation has led to the development of the “Total Quality Management Concept”.

The questions bothering a great number of Nigerian Management Scholars and

Practitioners are:

  1. If TQM is all about continuously improving value to customers, why has DBPlc as an organisation shown lukewarm attitude to this management philosophy?
  • Where it has been implemented, why has DB PLC refused to set aglow the initial zeal of commitment to continuous quality improvement beyond the prime years of its implementation?
  • 3.  Why have so little impact been felt from TQM on the success of Nigerian businesses relative to those of foreign counterparts?
  • Are companies in Nigeria aware of the difficulties that lie ahead if they do not meet international quality standards? If they do, are they doing anything about it? It is these questions and many more that this study will seek to address.

1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

New competitive strategies have ruptured established management doctrines and rendered conventional methods of products/services development and delivery obsolete. Competition has become so high in all fronts that the time is now when DBPlc will only survive by making a difference. This is the reason John Young, President of Hewlett-Packard once said: “In order to compete in a global economy, our products, systems and services must be of a higher quality than our competition. Increasing Total Quality is our number one priority here at Hewlett-Packard”. To customers by creating unimagined but specially tailored products and services, to employees by opening every avenue for personal aspiration and contribution, and to managers by creating a new competitive space to build not merely a career but a legacy.

Increased expectation and demands on the part of customers in every area of organisational life have taken the centre stage. The days are gone when banks could rest on their laurels and claim to hold franchise to best quality products and services. The continual wave of technological and environmental change have turned several organisations into bystanders on the road to the future, and have made their structures, processes and skills become progressively less attuned to the ever-changing realities of the demands and expectations of present day customers.

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ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK PLC

MARKETING STRATEGY EMPLOYED BY TOBACCO COMPANY AND THE PROSPECTS FOR GROWTH.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION.

Marketing is a common phenomenon, but it is quite complex and in fact an elusive subject matter. Marketing means different things to different people just as it affect everyone and is highly controversial. The activities of Marketing are so diverse that its sometimes difficult to say exactly what the term means. But however, the general consensus on marketing is that it is the performance of business activities which involves identifying, anticipating customs wants and satisfy them.

The economic health of any nation depends largely on the healthy marketing system, especially where a huge mass production system and its attendant mass distributions are involved.

The importance and relevance of marketing business, whether in private or public organization cannot be overemphasized. It is against this background that many scholars and practitioners alike began to research extensively on Marketing as a business of exchange transactions.

Strategy is define as “a unified comprehensive, and integrated plan relating the strategic advantages of the firm to the challenges of the environment” (W.F. Gluck 1980). From the definition above, one can

Marketing Strategy Employed by Tobacco Company and the Prospects for Growth.                      12

infer that strategy is a behaviour whose purpose is to achieve success for organizational goals in a competitive environment, chiefly rivals, market competitors, suppliers, customers, employees and even governmental unit.

The focus of this research work is on the marketing strategies employed by British American Tobacco Zaria and the prosperity for its growth. Marketing itself is a response to society needs. As society changes, so does marketing; as a society becomes complex so do the needs of its people.

Therefore, desired marketing strategies are required to cope with the dynamism of the society and their needs. For example, a marketer mush have a good knowledge of the behavioural sciences that deals with relationship among people which involves sociology, psychology and cultural anthropology. The way people responds as individuals and groups changes over time. More importantly the product under this research study is highly controversial world wide. In the civilized world, political and ethical actions sets legal boundaries for business like the marketing of tabacco products. All over the world, old laws are changed concerning the production, marketing and consumption of Cigarette, new laws are added and new interpretation are given to the existing laws.

Marketing Strategy Employed by Tobacco Company and the Prospects for Growth.                    

However, decisions about what is acceptable behaviour form the ethical environment. Very often, a law is passed because a collective group thinking leads to the conclusion that a certain business practice is not ethical. For example several laws/decrees have either been passed or promulgated to ban or control Cigarette smoking all over the world.

British American Tobacco took over Nigerian Tobacco Company Zaria in the year 2000 B.A.T, ironically was the Parent Company if N.T.C Zaria up till the time the former took over N.T.C. unfortunately NTC’s operations including Marketing had been at its best epileptic for the past one decade now; due probably to some factors that could be traced to poor quality of Nigerian made products, poor and inadequate marketing strategies and practices and alarming scale of smuggler’s activities including high costs of production.

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MARKETING STRATEGY EMPLOYED BY TOBACCO COMPANY AND THE PROSPECTS FOR GROWTH.