ENTREPRENEURSHIP EFFECTIVENESS IN SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

ABSTRACT

          The role of small-scale industries to any economy is indispensable recently; the emphasis has been on measures to accelerate their expansion and growth. To give this effort proper directim, it is identifiable that the key ingredient in translating this dream into reality is effective entrepreneurship.

          The research is able to reveal the characteristics nature of small-scale industries, how small scale industries are financed and some of them are from personal savings and from relatives, the causes of failure of small-scale industries, covered also the importance and the needed factors to be considered before setting the industries.

          In this regard, the study laid much emphasis on the whole idea of entrepreneurship effectiveness in small-scale industries. The solutions and recommendations are subsequently based on the observation and research findings for effective entrepreneurship on small-scale industries.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          The roles played by small-scale industries in the growth of any economy cannot be over emphasized. This has been the singular reason why both government groups and individual in business always place greater emphasis on the unique human activity. This also accounts for its dominating prominence in government policy statements. Much multinational or even supranational business today stated as small-scale businesses, this therefore implies that small scale is the beginning of every big business.

          The present day America is the richest country in the world judging by their economy the history o industrialization in this ‘’ God’s own country” has show the absolute importance of small scale industries in the economy and scheme of things, careful study and investigation has released that in America, only 1/10 of 10% of the total number of firms in the economy employ more than 2,500 workers. It is also further show that 89% of the total firms in the economy employ less than 100 employees, and 65% having less than 20 employees in their payroll.

          As a standard of judgment. Using number of employees, this has at least proved that in spite of here economic glory, America is not land of giant corporations. Many countries of today like, South Korea, Taiwan, Honkong and Singapore are making enormous successes in the world export industrial market as a result of emphasis on small-scale industries.

          As a way out, the efforts of every segment of the Nigerian government for small scale industries enhancement cannot therefore be surprising thus, our part administrators, national planners and development project imitators cannot excuse their lack of careful planning in this regard, therefore, following the result of these falterers in our national development economy and planning strategy, the continue ineffectiveness of our small scale industries have promote the reason for this work. The research work therefore is an attempt to look into a key and embodying factor in small-scale industrial effectiveness.

          “ Entrepreneurship effectiveness in small scale industries” the scope of the project would be limited to a case study of Macon’s Bakery industry in Enugu state capital. The general opinion revealed that in spite of its key roles and functions in the success of any ventures or business adequate entrepreneurial impact has neither been felt nor matched the search for small scale industries enhancement and growth. Investors have not shown commendable interest to accept entrepreneurial role, and this has led to a low venturing rate in spite of all this, there are still multifarious prospective areas in the manufacturing, merchandising and service sectors of the economy that exist, this was actualized through the various efforts made by the government, private individuals, industrial and financial institutions and others commercial agencies towards including small scale enterprise. For effectiveness, there is need to make adequate appraisal of entrepreneurial role towards funding of the enterprises to actual managing. These measures will ensure that the entrepreneurs achieve the rewarded profits.

          As we said earlier, small is the beginning of large scale, the effort on small-scale enterprises were stepping-stones to large-scale corporation.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EFFECTIVENESS IN SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

MOTIVATION A SUCCESS FACTOR IN ORGANIZATION

ABSTRACT

          This research study “Motivation a Success Factor in an Organization” (A Case Study of ANAMMCO Nigerian Limited, Nigerian Port Authority Plc) was conducted to further enlighten management that the attainment of success in an organization has a direct bearing to motivation. This research revealed that rewarding employees for their contributions to the success of their organizations serves as the motivation factors inducement in them, that helps bring out the best in them.

PREFACE

          The study is arranged into five chapters, commencing with the introductory chapter which comprises of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study through the significance of the study.

          Chapter two took a sweep on literature review, being a summary of past research finding on Motivation success, various form of motivation carried out by notable authors.

          Chapter three deals with methodology which entails the administration of questionnaires processing and analyzing procedure for the data collected.

          Finally, the fifty chapter is all about the conclusion of the study with the summary of major findings, recommendations and areas of further research.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          Most organization ignore this drive that motivation is the success factor that we send employees thinking more of organization interest and less of individual interest. Countries like Japan, America, Russia, China, Europe are known for their technological advancement.  The secret behind the success of these developed countries is that they have developed a culture of motivating their labour force. It is worthy to mention that a motivated worker is the most productive workers.  The worker who sometimes equals or excel in any standard his boss sets or contemplates setting for him.  Herzberge defined motivation in a book jointly written by Williams F. Dawling and Leonard R. Sayle titled “How motivates” (1971) as: “An inner desire to make an effort.

          This definition implies that there is a reagent that acts as a catalyst that gears or gingers up the effort that make an employee go the extra mile to achieve what he/she would ordinarily not achieve under normal circumstances, the term “motivation” derives from the Latin movere “to move” it is virtually impossible to determine a person’s motivation until that person behaves or literally move. Robert Kreitner in the fifth edition of his book titled “management” (1990) defined motivation as “the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction.

          By applying this process, managers attempt to get individuals to willingly pursue organizational objectives.  The individual workers behave in a certain manner or toward a certain direction informed by a drive within them and this give them the urge to aspire to satisfy that objective.

          The resultant effect of motivation is the attainment of higher productivity by organization (both private and public)

          In essence motivation is a function of performance, which eventually leads to sustain the success of organization.  A working definition (Cole 1995) of motivation is as follows: “Motivation is the term used to describe those process, both instructive and rations by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals which trigger human behaviour”.

          It becomes pertinent for all organization to know that motivation is a success factor in order to achieve higher performance.

MOTIVATION A SUCCESS FACTOR IN ORGANIZATION

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT-AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study was to look, at international business management and assess the role of Multinational Corporation operating in Nigeria, in terms of their contribution to the socio-economic and technological development of the nation. The study was carried out in some selected multinational and it covered staff (respondent), 120 in number with at least secondary education. Data were collected mainly through structured questionnaires interviews and other secondary sources. The MNC are contributing to the economics and technological development of the nation. The economic contribution is moderate while the technological contribution is in adequate. The MNC are socially responsible that is to say, they are contributing to the social development of Nigeria. But this contribution was found to be inadequate. Finally, the work was concluded with a recommendation on further research and conclusion of the

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1   INTRODUCTION

National or domestic business not withstanding there is a literally a whole world out there for business to deal with. Just imagine, Coke (Coca-Cola product) is sold all over the world.

American motors is building its jeeps in Japan, Scores of Boeings Jetliners fly for various countries airlines. Peugeot is assembled in Nigeria, you may carry a sony portable radio, drive a Toyota car, wear Italian shoes here in Nigeria and any other part of the world. They are all prove or evidence of international business.

During the past three to four decades, the world has experienced the growth of an economic phenomenon the multinational corporation (MNC). Hicks and Gullet (1981), maintain that MNC are involved in the international business, through one exporting, licensing, franchising, joint venture, foreign branch or wholly owned subsidiaries.

Whole the MNC is not new, its importance, power and consequences have come to be appreciated fully only recently.

For instances, consider the significant role that large Multinational Oil Companies are playing in the economic systems of the World in General and Nigeria in particular. To press home point, hear what a former Managing Director (MD) of NNPC L.A. Amu, said about Nigeria economy.

“The Nigeria economy can largely be described as one with a strong petroleum industry superimposed over an undeveloped industrial base”. This is a kind of testimony of the positive role of Multinational Oil Company in Nigeria Economy. For without the oil companies, there would not have been an oil or petroleum industry in the initial place.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT-AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION IN NIGERIA

AN ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTERISED SYSTEM AS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR FRAUD MINIMISATION IN NIGERIAN BANKS (A CASE OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC)

ABSTRACT

 Banks play a very significant role and are a key infrastructure of the financial sector of any economy. The efficiency of the banking sector in a way determines the reliability of the economy.

The banking business is replete with lots of risks. Of all the risks faced by banks, fraud risks are the most pervasive and most destabilizing to banks. Fraud results in the largest source of losses to banks in Nigeria and also the largest single cause of bank failures.

Because of the magnitude of these losses and the level of their impact on banking operations is the only main reason for this research study. Recently, the incidence of frauds has got the attention of all and sundry and has been the focus of the government’s attention. Therefore, the study aimed at examining how computers can be used for detecting fraud in the banks operations especially towards enhancing fraud minimization in Nigeria using UBA Plc. as a case study.

Together, the data for this study, both interviews and questionnaire methods were used. And the data collected was analyzed using simple statistic techniques of percentages, averages, etc. the information generated was used in formulating recommendations that are intended to help banks appreciate the use of computers in their banking operations as deliberate effective measures towards minimizing or preventing fraud in bank operations in the banking industry in Nigeria.

It is hope that when such measures are implemented will

enhance banks stability survival and more profitability in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY

Fraud can be described as a conscious premeditated action of a person or a group of persons with the intention of altering the truth and or fact for selfish personal monetary gain. It involves the use of deceit and trick and sometimes highly intelligent cunning and known-how. The action usually takes the form of forgery, falsification of documents and authorizing signatures of employees’ as well as customers engaging in fraudulent practices in the banking sector. The existence of frauds in our banks is not uncommon or unexpected phenomenon, because of all the problems confronting the Nigerian banking industry.

The level of frauds in the banking industry of the Nigerian economy has assumed epidemic dimensions causing devastating effects. Which leads to loss of assets and denting of image.

Thus losses resulting from frauds will reduce the resources of the bank thereby reduce level of resources crippling the operations of the bank affected and in some cases the bank may be forced to close down its banking operation for lack of adequate funds. When such a situation arises, it will led to loss of confidence in the affected and also reduced customers patronage.

Therefore, if banks are to be well protected, they must build basic defense, pattern into their everyday operations, through the computerization of its activities or operations.

Also, banking distress occurs when a bank or some banks in the system experience ililiquidility or insolvency resulting in a situation where depositors fear the loss of their deposits and a consequent break down of contractual obligations. While a bank is said to be illiquid when it could no longer meet its liabilities as they mature for payment, it is said to be insolvent when the value of its realizable assets is less than the total value of its liabilities (a case of “Negative net worth”). These could lead to bank runs as depositors lose confidence in the system and seek to avoid capital loss. The uncertainty generated as a result of distress in banking institutions, if left unchecked, often raises real interest rates, creates higher costs of transactions and disrupts the payment mechanism with the attendant economic consequence.

Those factors examined here lead some banks into financial distress character by poor asset quality, uliquidity, under capitalization and insolvency. For example on July 6th 2004 the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Governor Professor Charles Soludo announced the re-capitalization reforms that included among other provisions that existing banks must have N25 billion capital asset by December 31, 2005. this reform will make some banks either to be acquired by bigger and stronger banks or fold up its activities.

In summary, computerization as an effective strategy can be used for minimization of fraudulent activities in the Nigerian Banking Sector.

AN ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTERISED SYSTEM AS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR FRAUD MINIMISATION IN NIGERIAN BANKS (A CASE OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC)

THE EFFECT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF SCHINDLER LIMITED)

ABSTRACT

 The general objective of the study was to determine the effect of performance management practices on employee productivity with a focus on Schindler Limited. The study was guided by the following research objectives: To investigate the influence of performance appraisals on employee productivity, to determine the influence of reward systems on employee productivity and to examine the influence of performance feedback on employee productivity.

This study used the descriptive research design. The study adopted a quantitative approach on the effects of performance management practices on employee productivity. The dependent variables included performance appraisals, reward systems and performance feedback, and the implications on employee productivity as the independent variable. The target population comprised of 108 Schindler employees in Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa branches in Kenya. Stratified sampling was used to divide the population into two strata. Descriptive statistics was utilized as a data analysis tool. The demographic profiles of the respondents were analyzed using percentages and frequencies. Inferential statistics such as correlation and regression analysis established the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

In regards to the influence of performance appraisals on employee productivity, the findings suggested that the appraisal leads to enhanced employee performance in organization. An effective appraisal model can enhance the interest and performance of the employees leading to the completion of specific targets geared towards attainment of corporate goals.

In regards to the influence of reward systems on employee productivity the findings suggested that employees can be rewarded to meet target productivity levels. The opportunity by the manager to formally recognize good employee performance leads to work motivation. When good performance is observed and then rewarded, the chances of it being repeated are increased, while poor performance is discouraged or even punished to decrease the chance of it happening again.

In regards to the influence of performance feedback on employee productivity, the findings indicated that effective feedback is essential for any organization to meet its target. Feedback enables the employees to be made aware of what exactly is expected from them. Effective performance feedback between employees and supervisors is the key to successful empowernment and productivity. Adequate feedback builds accountability, since employees and supervisors participate in developing goals, identifying competencies, discussing career development and employee motivation.

The study concluded that effective performance management practices gives employees opportunity to express their ideas and expectations for meeting the strategic goals of the company. Performance management practices could be an effective source of management information and renewal. The use of reward system has been an essential factor in any company’s ability to meet its goals. Effective feedback on performance measurement may translate to improved employee productivity. Feedback enables the employees to be made aware of what exactly is expected from them.

The study recommends that the performance management practices should be optimized to improve employee performance. Performance reviews should be focused on the contributions of the individual employees to meet the organizational objectives. For every opportunity possible, the manager should formally recognize good employee efforts for enhanced work performance. Effective performance management practices that edify appraisal, reward and feedback should be used to achieve organization goals and enhance employee productivity.

THE EFFECT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF SCHINDLER LIMITED)

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTOR

ABSTRACT

 This project is a review “Human Resource Management and Productivity in Nigeria Public Sector”.The problem identified was Work motivation and compensationEthics and Values, Work Attitude and Recruitment and Selection Process. This write up showed the relevant literature concerning the project topic. It goes further to explain HRM and Productivity in Nigeria Public Sector, Using a study of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu Branch, Enugu State. The descriptive survey method was used and the research tool was questionnaire. 250 staffs answered the questionnaire. Frequency percentages and criterion mean score of 2.5 were used in data analysis using Chi-square formula and presentation was done by the use of tables. The findings from the study showed that the factors of HRM and Productivity in Nigeria Public Sector. Finally, solutions and recommendations were proffered, in which emphasis was made on the remedies. The write up is duly summarized.

CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

 The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

 Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.

 HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.

 Civil servants have a reputation for being lazy. However, people’s personal experiences with civil servants frequently run counter to this stereotype. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants. Effort is invariable, lazy workers and working in the public sector highly attractive and may crowd out dedicated workers. When effort is variable, the government optimally attracts dedicated workers as well as the economy’s laziest workers by offering separating contracts, which are both distorted. Even though contract distortions reduce aggregate welfare, a majority of society may be better off as public goods come at a lower cost. Where we depart from several of the existing surveys in the field is to put HRM more broadly in the context of the economics of management. To do this we also look in detail at the literature on productivity dispersion.

 Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.

 Within the public sector, many of the most visible and interesting controversies, such as affirmative action , employee ethics, sexual harassment, drug testing, and labour-management relations, are part of human resource management. Human resources also account for the largest percentage of the operating budget for most public agencies, and public administrators must have both an appreciation for the costs of personnel decisions and the ability to project those costs. In addition, constitutional, statutory and regulatory requirements often constrain personnel decisions and actions in the public sector, and public administrators must have a working knowledge of these legal guidelines. Public administrators must recognize the political aspect of human resource management. Human resource management policies and techniques are developed, implemented and evaluated in a public context. Public sector HRM practices effect the selection and experiences of government employees which, in turn, affects public policy. In order to make and implement effective human resource management policies, administrators need an appreciation of the political and historical context in which the policies have developed to date.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTOR

COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES ON SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Business in Nigeria has been classified as small, medium or large. In both the developing and developed countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries as a means of solving problems. It is also a seed bed of innovations, inventions and employment generation/creation. Hence all the levels of government at different times have policies which promote the existence of small scale businesses in Nigeria. Small scale orientation is part of Nigerian history.  Historical fact shows that small and medium scale industries control the economy today. Findings by economists over the years shows that small firms and entrepreneurs plays a much important role in economic growth and development of our country in which our rural areas have participated from. Effect of cooperatives in development of small scale industries in Udi local government area of Enugu state cannot be overemphasized. Udi local government is one of the local governments that made up Enugu state which came into existence as a result of metamorphosis of the eastern region. Cooperative movement in Enugu state dates as far back as early 1960`s under the eastern regional council.

The study area is highly populated with different calibers of people with different social background, different languages, predominantly Igbo language. Cooperatives have immensely contributed to the development of small scale industries due to its positive contributions, many types of cooperative societies which includes all types of auxiliary cooperative societies were established which includes transport cooperatives, cooperative insurance productive cooperatives, agricultural cooperative and multipurpose cooperative societies.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Cooperative societies exist in many states, communities and nations as a whole. Cooperatives have really contributed to the development of small scale business in Nigeria though there are some problems which they encounter which have really impeded their speed and contributions. Some of these problems include lack of skilled and trained labour force, inadequate infrastructures, the impact of vicious circle of poverty etc. therefore government is turning to small and medium scale industries as a means of economic development and a sure means of solving the problem.

  In this research work, the researcher aims at identifying the factors that affects smooth running of small scale industries in udi local government area. It has been observed that despite government effort to see the unemployment problems solved in the country, their various programs to help citizens to be self reliance have failed. Cooperative now is the available and most appropriate option to solving this problem.

COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES ON SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

ABSTRACT

This study gives a suitable detail on The Role Of Non-Governmental Organization On The Development Of Rural Areas (A Case Study Of Owerri West Local government Area). In handling our topic, we have framed it into five chapters.  Chapter one bordered on introduction, which contains background of the study, research questions, statement of problems, statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation and definition of terms.  Chapter two concentrated on literature review which is made up of introduction.  Chapter three dealt on research design and methodology which contains introduction, research design, sources/methods of data collection, population and sample size, sample techniques, validity and reliability of measuring instrument and method of data analysis.  Chapter four centered on presentation and analysis of data which contains introduction, presentation of data, analysis of data, test of hypothesis and interpretation of result, and lastly, chapter five is summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       It is no exaggeration to state from the beginning that our rural arrears have been deliberately milked to impoverishment and to the advantages of the urban areas.  This ugly condition of the rural area dates back to the colonial era of Nigeria under the British government.  This imbalance in development was inherited at independence and carried along successive government during the abundant natural resources in the rural areas were explored.  Any attempts to develop such areas, the political and administrative institution were public decision making.  Power in reality was more concentrated and centralized that dispersed especially at the federal level of power as a result of this type of political structure,

This was a clear demarcation between the urban and rural areas development. The urban areas being the seats of government were developed at the expense of the rural areas.  In recent times, the issue of rural development has become crucial in the political, social and economic life of nation.  This is as a result of the realization of fact that the rural areas and their inhabitants constitute about 70 percentage of the nation population.  In order to bring about real development in the rural areas, there must exist active collaboration between government, non-governmental organization and communication with the rural people. 

The rural people need to be recognized and helped by the government to enable them form cooperation and productive organization.  They should be encouraged to participate actively in the decision making process for the determination of societal goals.

Since the past few decades, various non-governmental organization have shown interest in the development of rural areas.  Various communities that have not benefited from the limited financial resource of the government have embarked on development project.  It has stimulated and galvanized individuals into activities participation in social economic activities of the nation and has also brought development to the grassroots.

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

       Developments of the rural areas have been a constant issue in Nigeria’s recent economic and political history.  In order to bring this into reality, there is need to evolve a system that would activate the participation and support of the rural people.

       Having this in mind, the non-governmental organization has been making a move to support government in the bid to develop rural areas.  Nevertheless, some problems have been consistent that necessitated the writing of this project work which are:

  1. Inadequate government presence in the rural areas.
  2. Lack of basic amenities in the rural areas.
  3. The absence of good medical services in the rural areas.
THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

THE ROLE OF CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE SERVICE DELIVERY OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ABA)

ABSTRACT

The business organization operates in an environment and through is the essence of business.  The business organization is expected to continually to satisfy it customer hence this work gets to investigate the role of customer service in the operation of multinational fir with particular reference to Unilever Plc Aba.  The method applied in this study is a combination of content analysis and survey research, the data were sourced through both primary and secondary sources and the instrument used availed the researcher the opportunity to have a first hand information.  The unit of analysis Unilever of Nigeria Plc  Aba branch social artifacts, and the data collected from the units are presented in tables and analyzed using chi-square (x2) method.  Among the major finding of this research work, including that the dissatisfaction experience by customers is due to the inefficiency of the multinational company staff, there is a relationship between improved service delivery and multinational company efficiency and multinational company profitability.  But owing to the limitations encountered, further studies should be carried out  to service between two multinational company operating within the country.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Services outcome, we all know the necessary prerequisites for any meaningful economic development of any nation.  This is so because the entire world economy today revolves round finance.  Therefore, the significance is the overall development of our economy.  It is on this premise that we appreciate the important role played by service delivery most especially the commercial multinational companies whose major functions is to organize, mobilize and making funds available for investment purposes by way of granting credit facilities to individual companies and government.

       According to Ronald (2000), multinational companies can be defined as giants private business companies with global organizational characteristics flowing from parent countries to subsidiaries in host countries.

       This multinational company marketing has been defined by a Media (1983) as the creation and delivery of service that will satisfy the need of customers at a profit  to the multinational companies.  From this point definition, it is seen that the customers who is the ultimate target of multinational company marketing must be satisfied.

       Multinational companies must learn what satisfaction their customers seek.  The work creation and delivery recognizes that marketing is an active creation process involving all the multinational companies staff.

       Today, the emergence of commercial multinational firms as well as the role they play has been instrument to the rapid growth and progressive development of the economy.  Multinational company as a service delivery industry, must adopt to the changing environment and requirement of the economy and it can be done t hrough effective marketing of its services.

       The multinational companying image in the country is considered bad because of the deterioration in the multinational companying service over t he years and the very poor bend in multinational customer relationship which is largely due to poor marketing.  The major problem is that existing services are not  being provided efficiently.  There is a commonly held believe that service rendered to customer is a bestorial of favour and privileges.

       Garliand Gilbert (1976) still maintains that the public impression of multinational companies and struggle for the customers to get served.  It can take an hour or more to reach the counter and sometimes get the impression that the counter staff is proud of the long lines of people queuing their favours.

       Gadzania M. W. (1989) in his chairman’s statement of allied multinational company annual report statted that customers are treated with lack of seriousness by the multi national company staffs.  They believe it is right to deliberately delay customers as a result  of their non-challant attitude to work.  It is always a daily occurrence to hear abuses flowing from customers to multinational companies st aff over the protected delay in competing multinational company’s transactions.

       Today, with Nigerians attitude towards  the idea of putting their money in the multinational companies as opposed to keeping them at home, multinational company institutes faces:

  1. Poor quality
  2. Poor quality of goods
  3. Poor response to customers complaint
  4. Unusual marketing challenges.  The level of competition between multinational companies needs the demand for multinational company service experienced an explosion that posed a challenge t o the resources of the multinational companying community.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

       This research work is aimed at addressing the problems associated with multinational companies which include:

  1. To find out if staff training and motivation affect the ratio of services by the staff.
  2. To ascertain whether customer dissatisfaction is a function of the inefficiency of the multinational company staff.
  3. To determine if there is any relationship between improvement in service delivery of the multinational company and the efficiency of the multinational company and its profitability.

1.3  OBJECTIVES  OF THE STUDY

       The purposes of the study among other things are stated below:

  1. To determine the extent of staff and customer relationship.
  2. To determine the extent of  customer complaint of non-satisfactory service.
  3. To determine the adequacy of available resources both human and material in the multinational company.
  4. To ascertain the material in the multinational company.
  5. To ascertain the staff customer ratio.
  6. To ascertain the courses of long queues on multinational companies.
  7. To identify the effect of inefficient service on the multinational companies image and profitability.
THE ROLE OF CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE SERVICE DELIVERY OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ABA)

TRADE FAIR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF INCREASING SALES IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF EMILY MILLIONAIRE INDUSTRY LIMITED IN ENUGU

ABSTRACT

Trade fair as an instrument of increasing sales in business organization, a case study of Emily Millionaire industry Limited in Enugu.  The overview of the unit topic will further strengthen and enhance the business administration and management practice in many cooperate organization in Nigeria.  It will help the top management in the issue of the management of trade fair assets and channel the assets to its appropriate areas.  This study will bring out areas of shortfalls in management of trade fair asset.  Basically, the research is to find out or appraise the cooperate trade fair management practice using Emily Millionaire Industry Limited Enugu.  It also discusses the introduction of cooperate trade fair management practice in particular.  It would identify the immense significance of trade fair management.  It also lay emphasis on the important terms used in the course of the study and highlights it’s would give clear defined ways in trade fair management that will be needful to organization.  Furthermore, the study will trace related literatures of other authors especially the previous review work on this literature.  The review would in no doubt bring about vibrant and adequate avenue in managing trade fair assistance.  There will also be relevant data used in analyzing.  In acquisition data of one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were distributed out of which hundred (100) were retrieved and discussed in the analysis of data.  This is to certify that data used in analyzing the result is based on the level confidence which is 0.05%.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTIONS

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Trade fair from my own point of view is marketing tool used for increasing sales in business organization.  It is also a form of promotion device or sales promotion strategy whereby producers or agents showcase and demonstrated their product(s) to both middlemen and the ultimate consumer.

       Trade fair are time test method of getting buyers and sellers together under mutually legal beneficial condition and are being directed primary of potential customers, while services and goods are featured at trade fair, which are designed to attract immediate prospect and to create awareness.

       Visitors participating in these fairs have privilege to physically examine, make movement comparison and learn about new product, market movement, completion and new source.  The forums (show) are usually designed for special groups in a particular geographical area (as made in Nigeria trade fair).

       Individual who participate in this fairs are always interested probably may want to know whether there is any slight change in product.  Then when the exhibition are well publicized, managed and staff, the result can increase sales volume for exhibitors.  Exhibit staffing is considered to be the most essential factors, as these shows are merely conventions.  This is because it is this staffs who attends to the customers by informing, calculating persuading them to try or use the newly introduced product.  Trade fair helps in attending to companies and enterprises by getting in touch with their customers and getting many inquiries from serious minded enterprises and Company executive that end up placing orders.  Trade fair is a good venue for sales.

       Trade fair is a tool that is used to increase marketing performance.  It creates a forum for physical intervention between manufacturers and their medium to know how much interest the buyers show in their product that have been existing in the market and how customer reach t o various features and terms, how many express purchase intention or place order, since the participating vendors expected several benefactor which include generating new sales lead, maintaining new customers contact through the public relation officer at company’s price, meeting new customers, introducing new product and educating customers with publications, motion pictures and aided visual materials.  It is organized at regular interval mostly at the same location and period of the year and it usually last from seven days to ten days (7-10 days).  There are basically two kind of trade fair that are organized in Nigeria. 

       Trade fair are zones into three zones in Nigeria, which are Lagos, Kaduna and Enugu.  Lagos serves as a venue for any international trade in Nigeria, while Kaduna and Enugu are used to organize trade fair for Northern and Eastern zone respectively.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Enugu Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture since inception has conducted about thirteen trade fair in Enugu State along Abakiliki road.

       The organization of these trade fair up to this year has helped many companies e.g. Emily Millionaire Industry products and introducing new products.  But there are some problems affecting the company to reach a standard.  These problems are enumerated below:

  • Packaging:  For any product to be highly demanded in the market, producers must make quality packaging which will attract the customers by giving them impression that the product is good because eyes have covenant with good things.  Most customers of Emily Millionaire products do complain about the poor packaging given to their products and they contend that the product itself is of good quality in the market.
  • Identifying Strategies Used by Other Companies:  Since there are many cosmetic participating in trade fair with different strategies, Emily Millionaire should tray as much as possible to know necessary implementation and adjustment of any, in order to gain more customers over their competitors in trade fair.
  • Building of Attractive Standards:  Most customers make purchase of some product because of the attractive of the standard customers always complain about how poor the standard of Emily Millionaire products.
TRADE FAIR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF INCREASING SALES IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF EMILY MILLIONAIRE INDUSTRY LIMITED IN ENUGU

LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS AND ITS EFFECT ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF THE SUBSIDY REMOVAL STRIKE ACTION IN JANUARY 2012)

ABSTRACT

Labour management relations connote a relationship between workers as individuals in their collective entity with their employer.  In this study, a number of factors seems to be responsible for job dissatisfaction among workers.  These include, poor salary, poor condition of service, lack of promotion etc.  This study revealed that when the relationship that exists between labour and management is not cordial, it will affect productivity and this could be in form of poor communication.  This study is designed to find out the effect on workers productivity in subsidy removal strike action in January, 2012 through the relationship that exist between the labour and management, and among staff.  The study will be of benefit to the labour, workers, management and the entire masses.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Basically, there are two categories of groups that exists in an organization namely; labour and management.  These groups formed the pilot upon which major actions or activities revolve.  It is obvious that labour is made up of groups of individuals that come from different backgrounds. They have different ideologies.  The management on the other hand form the policy making body of the organization.   This conflict may affect the worker as an individual or as a member of a group in the organization.   The organizational goal therefore becomes a great task for the management. 

       Their ability to manage the situation creates a good atmosphere for growth both for the individual and the organization. If on the contrary the relationship is strained, the efficiency of the workers is seriously jeopardized.  The above assertion necessitates the study of the effect of labour management on workers’ productivity.       

According to Ugbo (2003:2), management is the process of integrating resources and task towards the achievement of stated organizational goals.  Management could be summarized from two perspectives namely, management as a process of organization.

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       The Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc formerly known as National Electric Authority (NEPA) was established on the 24th April, 1974 with the emigration of Electric Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and Niger Dams maintained and efficient supply to the entire nation.  It start ed with four major stations namely; Ijora, Delta, Kainji and Afa power station.

       Afam Power station is located in the out sketch of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.  It is one of the earliest power stations built and managed by the Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc.  It was built in 1963 and it uses natural dry g as and oil to run the machine and that is why Afam Station was chosen as one of the power station because of the relatively cheap and available natural gas in the region.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

       Besides, certain factors can make workers to perform effectively and efficiently in their places of work.  A number of factors seem to be responsible for job dissatisfaction.  This includes:

  1. Poor salary
  2. Lack of promotion opportunity,
  3. Poor communication
  4. Unattractive fringe benefits and
  5. Late payment of salary

It is understandable that when the relationship that exists between labour and management is not cordial, it will affect productivity.  Moreover, this study is designed to find out the effect of labour relations on workers productivity in Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc Afam via the relationship that exists between the labour management and staff.

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

       The purpose of this study is:

  1. To determine the effect of employee relationship with the management.
  2. To ascertain effect of management labour relation on productivity.
  3. To recognize and evaluate workers performance.
  4. To recommend to the management on how to improve workers productivity based on the findings of the study.

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

       This work was carried out to find out solutions to the under listed questions:

  1. What are the effects of employee relationship with the management?
  2. To what extent does management labour relation affect productivity?
  3. To what extent does the labour enjoy good working relationship with the management of Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc?

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research was carried out in order to examine the relationship among staff and its effect on workers productivity.  This study will be of benefit to:

  1. The workers
  2. The management
  3. Government and the entire masses.

In view of this, the study is designed to analyze factors that can influence the productivity of workers using Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Afam as a case study.  It is believed that at the end of this study, the course of good labour would have been chartered.  When good management relation is observed the management will allow the labour some opportunity to influence decision and to apply their initiatives as this will yield high productivity for the organization.

LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS AND ITS EFFECT ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF THE SUBSIDY REMOVAL STRIKE ACTION IN JANUARY 2012)

GENDER DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN CAREER CHOICE AMONG SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study, was to determine the career preference of male and female in secretaryship in order to identify the gender difference and similarities in career choice among secretarial administrations student.     Secretarial Administration is not for any particular gender although there are some aspects of the secretarial work that are outside the competence of the female secretaries.

Secretaryship is a difficult and challenging profession. It is entails rigorous for both sexes. All those who go into secretary ship are exposed to rigorous training which spans from National Diploma (ND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) first Degree.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background Of The Study

 For the past few years, there has been an on-going argument on the career choice among secretarial administration students.

Career is the totality of work which a person perform in his life time. it is a way of earning a living  as well as a meaningful progression on a person’s working life. It involves not only systematic education for initial occupation, but also a systematic occupational experience in which each occupation is considered as technical and social preparations for the individuals.

The preparation of a person on the acquisition of secretarial skill is in the right step towards employer ability. The executive secretary ship is an important aspect of office organization at it relates to division of duties and responsibilities. It has various names depending on the establishment employing the secretary such as, personal secretaryship, confidential secretaryship, company secretaryship, administrative secretaryship etc. Secretarial profession refers to professional area, which provides the services of communication and record with focus on the office functions giving, receiving, recording, analyzing and storing information. The professional is the secretary who is functionally described as the executive assistant, the personal assistant, the managers manager [The manager of the executive] or the private secretary.                                                               Ohakwe, Idih and Chukwumezie (2000) states that a secretary is an assistant to the executive in performing secretarial duties such as taking dictation from the executive in important matters in shorthand and transcribing the dictated notes on the typewriter, handling personal and important mails most of which are confidential. The executive secretaryship is an administration officer who is responsible to the chief executive in the daily running of affairs of an organization. The secretary is equally in charge of all administrative matters, which include supervision of both senior and junior officers of the organization, all the managing directors function and full responsibilities for the secretarial and administrative duties required of a personal assistant. Therefore, secretaries are not managers as such, but they are indispensable to the management as no manager can function without secretarial services.

In many organization, the secretary is provided with a position in the establishment even through he / she is normally attached to the top, middle to lower level management. In such establishments, close the secretary have a command a clearly defined responsibility which often includes supervision of clerical and secretarial staff under him in other establishments. The secretary may be merely attached to a superior officer but without an establishment of her own, she sits outside of her executive officer receiving his visitor taking notes and transcribing them.

The on-going argument on the career choice as to whether confidential secretaryship is better suited for men or women. Those who favour the woman claim that there are aspects of the secretarial work that are perceived to be outside the competence of male, while those who favour males claims, as well that there are aspects of the secretarial work that are outside the competence of females . The employers of labour are found to show their preferences to either male or female secretarial students depending their demand of work.

Secretaryship is a difficult and challenging profession. It is also entails rigorous training for both sexes. It can be more challenging profession for the women who combines secretary go into secretaryship are expected to rigorous training which spans from National Diploma (ND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) and first degree.

The job of the secretary whether male or female is similar and would include receiving and giving management communication, storing management communication, safeguarding management communication and analyzing management communication etc.

Career abound in secretaryship in other  words, those who train as secretaries, whatever the sex are faced with many careers on graduation such careers include the executive secretaryship earlier talked about, but many feels that executive secretaryship is better suited for the females. Other secretaries careers include Bilingual Secretaryship, Medical Secretaryship, Legal Secretaryship, Hausard Secretaryship, Court Reporting etc including careers in education is better suited for the male.

There have been some related studies, Emeribe (1999) conducted a study on employers preference of male and female secretaries and found among that the preference of employers for male secretaries. However, it does mot appear to have been any study that focused on the career choice of male and female in secretaryship, hence this study.

1.2  Statement Of The Problem

 Secretaryship offers many options to the men or woman going into it. In other words once a person has qualified by obtaining the Higher National Diploma (HND) she can select any career within the professions. Job prospects, job satisfaction, job prestige, job involvement are some of the factors that determine choice of career.

Given the opportunity which of the options available in secretarial career will appeal more to both males and females. The problem of the study therefore, is to generate empirical data on the career preferences of make and females in secretaryship.

GENDER DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN CAREER CHOICE AMONG SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS

IMPACT OF REWARDS ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of study.

Reward is one of the most important elements in motivating employees for contributing their best efforts to generate innovation ideas that lead to better business functionality and further improvise company performance both financially and non-financially(Dewhurst et al., 2010).The current financial crisis the world is experiencing has made the reward system, with focus on bonuses and viable remuneration, a highly debated topic in media.  The mantra that is always heard is that the organization expects employees to follow the rules, regulations and also to work according to the standards set for them whereas the employees expect good working conditions, fair play, fair treatment, a secure career, power and involvement in decision making.

Rewards systems are often used as a management tool for achieving desirable objectives. One of the most common purposes of reward is to motivate employees to perform better (Armstrong, 2006).

In today’s business culture, employees will give their maximum when they have a feeling or trust that their efforts will be rewarded by management (Baron, 1983).  Motivation is the key that gets people to do what they do. Motivation is an accumulation of different processes which influence and direct the behaviour of employees to achieve some specific goal (Baron, 1983).  One of the key issues that concern every worker in an organization has to do with the reward or compensation for their effort.

Employees not only want good pay and benefits, they also want to be valued and appreciated for their work, treated fairly, do work that is important, have advancement opportunities, and opportunities to be involved in the agency (Frey, 1997).Rewards play an important role in work unit and agency programs to attract and retain their employees. (Perry et al 2006). It is the day-to-day interactions that make employees feel that their contributions are appreciated and that they are recognized for their own unique qualities. Getting results from your reward programs means having the right reward strategy, smart design and effective execution(Srivastava, 2001).It is important to note that after recruitment, most employees subsequently expect or demand for other benefits as compensation for their time and effort towards achievement of organizational goals apart from the standard wage or salary (Miles, 2004). If the above benefits are not offered, it usually leads to various forms of dissatisfaction which may include; high absenteeism, constant grievances, high labour turnovers, strikes and as a result low performance of their due duties(Ax et al, 2006).

Effective employee reward systems can significantly increase work performance. In other words we can say that good rewards are most important way to engage the employees with their work and with their organization. They can motivate employees to increase their work quality and quantity and to align their performance with organizational objectives. They can therefore be a very powerful influence on employee behaviour, motivation and performance and should be an integral component in any company strategy.

  1. Statement of the problem

Reward Management is one of the strategies used in organizations to improve organizational performance.  Researchers, practitioners and scholars have established that there is a positive link between reward management and desired performance (Lotta, 2002 and Srivastava, 2001)Modern Auto Services Ltd (MAS) is an organization that sell and service various range of vehicles.   The management has established rewards in the organization.These include cash bonuses in pursuit of increasing employee performance so as to ensure prompt and quality service.  However, the extent to which cash bonuses influence employee performance is not established.  The study evaluated the reward systems of organisations as a whole by focusing on MAS and established whether their current reward systems have any bearing on the performance of the employees.  This study therefore aimed at determining the impact of reward on employee performance at MAS.

1.3 Objectives of the study

  1. Identify the basic components of rewards package in MAS
  2. Assess the relative strengths and weaknesses in the current reward systems of the company
  3. Ascertain the extent and impact of relationship between the various reward systems and corporate performance
  1. Identify ways of improving the various reward systems to enhance corporate efficiency and effectiveness at MAS
IMPACT OF REWARDS ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

MOTIVATION AS THE KEY FACTOR FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF ECOBANK PLC OWERRI IMO STATE)

ABSTRACT

This topic treated in this project is “The impacts of motivation a key factor for higher productivity: a case study of Ecobank Owerri, Imo State”.  This topic is very vast and one cannot claim to have treated all the aspects of the literature covered the topic within this skeletal outfit.  It attempts to identify the various census of low workers performance in Nigeria.  It also attempt to identify the various measures adopted by the company in motivating their workers and to established the relevance or otherwise of the measures.  The aim is to ensure that only measures relevant to workers performance in Nigeria are adopted.  This is to ensure cost impact.

Methodology:  The method adopted in this case study is the c case study method.  Consequently, a typical workers territory (Ecobank) was selected for the study.   The research instrument used include self administered questionnaire and oral interviews.   Analytical techniques comprising of simple tables, percentages and chi-square were also used.  The target population management and relevant staffs, customers and distributors in the selected company.

Findings and Conclusion:  The study found that workers were encounter varying problems, which range from ordinary workers related problems in such areas as prospecting, presentation, objection handing and so on, to management problem such as arbitrary increase in prices.  From other department which render vital complementary and ancillary service to the workers department such as delivery and maintenance services.  It was also observed that low educational qualification of most workers adversely on performance.  It was also observed that training, incentive pay schemes and management assistance in solving workers related problems act as motivators to workers people. 

MOTIVATION AS THE KEY FACTOR FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF ECOBANK PLC OWERRI IMO STATE)

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF STAR PAPER MILL LTD. ABA)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to find out the work of performance evaluation to productivity and the relationship between productivity and performance evaluation in the star paper Mill Nigeria ltd. Aba. The population of the study consists of 100 workers. The sample for the study was 80, which were drawn using Yaro Yamen’s formular. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. 16 item structured questions was developed, validated and tested for its reliability. The use of the percentage was used to analyze the data collected from respondents. While chi-square method was used to test the hypothesis. This work is grouped into five chapters. Chapter one has to do with the introduction. While chapter two deals with related literature. Subsequently, chapter three deals with the method of data collected which involves primary and secondary data. Chapter four is where data was analyzed and test of hypothesis which leads to conclusion in chapter five.

Summarily, from the findings of the study through questionnaire suggested that to improve in productivity, the workers have to be appraised for good performance. Also, management has to improve especially in the area of feedback because it is a way of motivating employee and subsequently organizational effectiveness.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In any organization, numbers of the workforce conscious and unconsciously form opinions about each other. Supervisors or superior officers continually judge the contributions and abilities of their subordinates for the purpose of evaluations, subordinates also form opinions of the bosses colleagues, jobs and even their organizations, many judgments relates to the quality of work performance as well as the relationship between superior and subordinates. Supervising officers take decision on employees, remuneration, transfer, promotion, discipline, training and development. Due to the importance of these personnel matters, organizations attach great significance to the official evaluation which supervisors make their subordinates.

Indeed, the livelihood and career progress of employees rest largely on such assessments to generate confidence in decisions made on the basis of performance assessment, objective and fair. Very clear policies and well designed procedures are therefore necessary to achieve these objectives. It is very important for managers to always evaluate the performance of his subordinates. James black (1961) said. “However difficult it may be for a manager to conduct a frank appraisal interview, it is absolutely essential to the development of an employee”.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF STAR PAPER MILL LTD. ABA)

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING CONCERN (A CASE STUDY OF DEM-MAG NIGERIA LIMITED OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This research was designed to find out how production planning and control in a manufacturing concern can be improved to achieve the organizational aims and objectives.

This therefore draws the attention of establishment/ organization that practice it to realize the beat way for effective proper production planning and control needed for the operations.

This led to the purpose of the study, which include the production function which deals with determination what product or service to produce. How the new material and equipment are to be obtained and maintained.

To draw the attention of the organizations on what proportion production actually starts.

Questionnaires and interviews were the main research instrument contained (13) questions, which were analyzed. Random samplings were the sampling techniques used in drawing the sample from the population.

CHAPTER ONE

 1.1      BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The production function deals with determining what product or service to produce, how the raw material and equipment are to be obtained, acquiring layout and maintaining the physical facilities needed for the operation. It involves changing input getting output at a very reasonable cost at the right quality price and time 

Before an entrepreneur get into business one of the things he must consider before getting into business is to develop a production plan. The entrepreneur has to think of the products colors, shape, models, and kind of raw materials to be used and in what proportion. What is the most appropriate technology required, machines to be purchased leased or borrowed and what infrastructure facilities must be available before production actually starts. Any mistake that the entrepreneur makes at this point of planning stage count to be too costly.

  1. STATEMENT OF STUDY 

With the increasing growth and expansion of many manufacturing concerns in the economy. It is clear that adverse effect will be much if good attempt is not made to adequately and effectively specify what plan of production process is to be taken and the necessary measures to put in place so a s to ensure the highest level of productivity in the organization which is faced with economic depression.

If production is not adequately planned and controlled. They obviously will affect the  output level on the work place and as such most of or majority of the orders made by customer. Will not be met and the company will lose its goodwill and customers and all these represent various form of cost to the form.

  1. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

 The study intends to examine the production planning and control function and how they are carried out in the present day Nigeria.

It is also essential to know to know the processes involved and when the problems are incurred.

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING CONCERN (A CASE STUDY OF DEM-MAG NIGERIA LIMITED OWERRI)

A SUGGESTED POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING BUREAUCRATIC EFFECTIVENESS IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

Every local government in Nigeria functions on a framework of bureaucracy. This enables them to function optimally and with shared layers of responsibilities. The essence of this research to suggest a policy framework for improving bureaucratic effectiveness using Egor local government of Edo State as the study. The theories adopted in the study were Max Weber’s Rational Theory, Alvin Gouldner’s  Bureaucratic Theory and Donnellon’s Post-Bureaucratic Theory.The study adopted the survey research design and population of the study consisted of the staff of Egor local government of Edo state which is summed up to two hundred and seventy nine. Sample size of the study was one hundred and sixty four (164) which was derived using Taro Yamane statistical formula. The instrument for data collection was the structured questionnaires. Frequency tables and simple percentages were used to analyze the data. The results of the analysis show that the bureaucratic system in Egor local government has been harsh, adversely affected by bottlenecks, and therefore, needs thorough improvement and political independence. Flexibility and fairness have been suggested as various frameworks for improving bureaucratic effectiveness in Egor local government. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that corrupt officials should be sacked and the bureaucratic system in Egor local government should be restructured and independent of political influence. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Basically, bureaucracy involves a hierarchical positioning of jobs and responsibilities in such a planned and rational manner and guided by such internal rules and regulations as to obviate the intermixture of personal interests with official functions/roles (Ozor, 2004). The rules and regulations also define the duties of members and the procedures for carrying out official duties based on formal structures and authority. In simple terms, bureaucracy is a formal administrative structure with distinct operational features that include division of labour, hierarchy of authority, impersonality, rationality, neutrality and system of rules among others (Ezeani, 2006).

Bureaucracy is often heard and used in connection with the conduct of public affairs and the activities of public officials; who are usually known as civil servants in charge of government agencies. To these set of workers bureaucracies glaringly appear inevitable because of related work activities that is broad, hierarchical structures involved in work management, divided work responsibilities and complex paperwork associated with modern organizations (Adebayo, 2007)

A SUGGESTED POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING BUREAUCRATIC EFFECTIVENESS IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

APPRAISAL OF QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF JUHEL PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY, EMENE, ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

The study “an Appraisal of quality control procedures in a manufacturing organization” a study of Juhel Pharmaceutical Company Enugu, sees quality as the totality of features of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy the customers perceived or stated needs(Khanna, 2012). This study made use of the following objectives; to identify the possible poor quality of the organizational products, to examine the processes of quality control in the manufacturing organization, to determine the various ways of mitigating quality defects in the manufacturing organizations. The study tries to find out the procedures through the following research question; what are the causes of poor quality products in the organization? What are the processes of quality control in the manufacturing organization? What are the various ways of mitigating quality defects in the manufacturing organizations? The study also test it’s significant through the help of some hypotheses. The researcher adopted some theories that helped in elaborating more on the topic. A question was use as a form of collecting the data used for the study. Frequency table were used to analyze the bio-data of the respondent, a descriptive table were used to check the importance of the adopted research question and a Z-Test were used to test the significant of the study. The study found out that there are some possible causes of poor quality product, some processes used for quality control were identified and there are effective ways of mitigating quality defect of some product in Juhel Pharmaceutical Company Enugu. The researcher then recommend that the organization should continually investigate its manufacturing procedures so as to identify possible causes of poor quality, the organization should also regularly check to ensure that the processes of quality control used by them is up to standard and they should have safer and better ways of mitigating quality defects in its products. Finally, the study suggest that further research should be done on the influence of quality on the buying behavior of consumers, the effect of quality on organizational profitability and the relationship between quality control and organizational productivity.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Backgroundof the Study

Quality is one of the competing priorities that many organizations adopt. Khanna (2012) defines quality as the totality of features of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy the customers perceived or stated needs. Quality of a product or service satisfy both actual and perceived needs of the people for which the products are designed and produced for.Banjoko (2009) defines quality as a measure of the degree to which a particular product satisfies the expectations of customers with respect to certain tangible and intangible attributes inherent in the design of the product or service and its performance under normal use.

High levels of quality are essential to achieve Company business objectives. Quality, a source of competitive advantage, should remain a hallmark of Company products and services. High quality is not an added value; it is an essential basic requirement. Quality does not only relate solely to the end products and services a Company provides but also relates to the way the Company employees do their job and the work processes they follow to produce quality products or services. The work processes should be as efficient as possible and continually improving. Company employees constitute the most important resource for improving quality. Each employee in all organizational units is responsible for ensuring that his/her work processes are efficient and continually improving.

APPRAISAL OF QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF JUHEL PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY, EMENE, ENUGU)

CONSTRAINTS ON EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT POLICY-MAKING IN NIGERIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE)

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the Constraints of Effective Development Policy-Making in Nigeria Local Governments (A Study of Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State).The pace at which development in the local government can be realized is hinged essentially on the ability of the government to formulate appropriate and effective development policies. Determining the reasons why development policies are hardly achieved in the local government formed the main objective of the study. The literature review was anchored on the Hybrid theory. In carrying out this study, the descriptive research design was adopted. The population of the study was 562 (five hundred and sixty two) as at April, 2018 out of which the sample size of 233(two hundred and thirty three) was derived using the Yamane’s formula. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in determining the number of questionnaire administered to respondents. Both the primary and secondary sources of data were used for data collection. Data were gathered for the study with a well structured 5 point Likert scale questionnaire. The tool used for data analysis was simple percentage. The basic finding is that there exists, indeed, some factors that constitute serious obstacles to effective development policy making in Nigeria local governments, one of which is the varying levels of interference from politicians and state government. The study concluded that interference from the state government influences effective development-policy making in the local government. The study recommended that the local government should be allowed to function more independently with little or no interference to ensure effective development policy-making.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

The local government has most often been described by many authors and scholars as the government at the grass root because it is the closest to the people in comparison to the state and Federal government. The existence of this tier of government  in Nigeria dates back to the activities of the British colonialist and their quest to bring down government closer to the local people in other to maintain law and order as it where in those days.  As Olasupo and Fayomi (2012) pointed that “prior to independence and the prolonged civil war, Nigerian local government system was essentially de-concentrative but in 1976, it became devolved and “should do precisely what the word government implies i.e., governing at the grassroots or local level” Today, the local government have metamorphosed in to a more sophisticated administrative institution charged with the responsibility to perform not only administrative duties, but also engage in the development of the local area in which it is mapped out to serve. The importance of local government is a function of its ability to generate sense of belongingness, safety and satisfaction among its populace.  All forms of government, regimes or political systems have so far ensured the attainment of this goal. Such strategy for ensuring national development and political efficacy is found in the concept and Practice of local government. Whatever is the mode of government; local government has been essentially regarded as the path to, and guarantor of, national integration, administration and development (Omatsola, 2011). To achieve the speedy development of the local government, a well articulated action plan in the form of developmental public policies/ programs must be enthroned. Public policy guides and determines present and future public decisions as well as private individual or private business institutional actions, decisions or behavior.  In essence, a public policy determines the activities of government and given private institutions in relation to providing services designed to solve a given problem (Ugwuanyi and Chukwuemeka, 2013). Being an administrative/ governing institution,  the local government through the policy making process, articulates the developmental needs of the people and then try to use the resources available to them to accomplish these policies. Over time, it has become glaring to administrators and scholars that the challenge of policies in most developing nations of the world and Nigeria as well has remained the divergence between policy intent and policy outcome. This is as a result of the gap in implementation. In the words of Dialoke,Ukah  and Maduagwuna (2017) Implementation gap manifests in the widening of the distance between stated policy goals and the realization of such planned goals. The implementation gap from policy formulation in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized as successive governments make policies that are not realizable throughout their tenure.

 It is very clear from records that Nigeria over the years has initiated well articulated developmental, economic and social policies, intended to launch the nation on the path of meaningful development.

CONSTRAINTS ON EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT POLICY-MAKING IN NIGERIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE)

PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION IN OBUDU LOCAL OVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the planning theory propounded by Fainstein (2000). This research adopted the survey method given the nature of data. The population of the study consists of the staff of Obudu local government of Cross River state which is one hundred and eight seven (187) respondents. The sample technique adopted in the study is the simple random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using tables and frequencies to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents and Chi-Square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study reveal that there are problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state namely; there is lack of platform for periodic interaction between political actors and citizens in the local council to ascertain the needs of the citizenry, Bureaucratic ineffectiveness and lack of development planning, second; development policy making and its implementation is of paramount importance in the Obudu local government area, third, there are significant ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that Obudu local government officials should engage rural development experts to assist them with problems of development-policy making. This will go a long way in facilitating growth and development in the area.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Every local government desires growth and development. The elected officials and career administrators of any given local government in Nigeria crave to be credited with carrying out projects that is geared towards the development of the local government area within their jurisdiction. This has led them into engaging in projects, investments and policies to achieve optimum growth and development. However, no community or nation can achieve development without generating development oriented policies and backing them up with effective policy implementation or action.

Policy implementation as perceived by Adamolekun (1983) refers to the activities that are carried out in the light of executing policies. It is the act of converting inputs into outputs. Edwards (1980) further asserts that policy implementation is a stage of policy making between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. It also involves a wide variety of actions such as issuing and enforcing directives, disbursing funds, making loans, assigning and hiring personnel, to mention a few. 

However, it has been observed that development policy implementation at the local/grassroot level is one of the major problems confronting local governments in Nigeria. The focus of this study will be on Obudu local government area of Cross River state, Nigeria.

Without proper and effective development policy making and implementation in any local government area, the attainment of development in such a local government jurisdiction remains a mirage. However, many local government administrators may have outstanding development policies but the problem is always one of effective implementation. Development policy implementation problem occurs when the desired and projected outcome is not achieved. Wherever and whenever the basic critical factors that are very crucial to implementing public policy are missing, there is bound to be implementation problem.

In the light of the foregoing, this study is aimed at identifying the problems of development-policy making in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of development policy making and implementation to achieve development in the local level cannot be overemphasized. However, it is empirically proven that most local governments in Nigeria face problems in the area of development policy making. Most of the major problems faced by them include; lack of visionary political leadership at the local level, ineffective local councils which is not interested in community needs assessment, lack of development culture, lack of executive capacity to undertake policy research in the local government’s Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, community apathy and citizens indifference to interest articulation and aggregation at the local level capable of raising issues into the institutional agenda of the local government (Onyinye, 2015). This state of affairs calls for an empirical study into the problems of development policy-making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this research is to empirically identify the problems of development-policy making in the Obudu local government of Cross River state. Specifically, the study seeks:

  1. To identify the specific problems affecting development policy making and implementation in Obudu local government area of Cross River state.
  2. To evaluate from the standpoint of stakeholders and actors the importance of development policy making and its implementation in the Obudu local government area.
  3. To empirically elicit ideas from the grassroots that could help the local government bureaucracy in Obudu to formulate policies for development.
  4. To make recommendations based on our findings to help officials at the management levels develop policies for the development of the Obudu local government area.
PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION IN OBUDU LOCAL OVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE