EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED (‘OZAKI’)

ABSTRACT

This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean (i.e. ‘Ozaki’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction / leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1.      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy, 1994).

According to Rajagopal   et al.   (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of  engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu   is found  mainly  in  the  South-East  of  Nigeria  and  is  not  an  exception.  This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable.Fossil  fuels are not  only costly in terms  of price but are also  costly to  the  environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result.   Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth inspecific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.

Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand. Demand, however, by the food industry alone is not secure for many developing countries like Ghana that depend on imports of vegetable oil and fossil fuels. In order to meet the required amounts needed by all industries, these fats and oils must be available in large quantities locally with an effective extraction process at an affordable cost. The ability of a particular oilseed to fit into the growing industries depends on its utilization potential, rate of production, availability and ease of the processing technology. Thus while some oilseeds are being largely
utilized in the oil processing industries, quite a number of oilseeds are under-exploited.

Generally, oils and fats from seeds and nuts constitute an essential part of man’s diet. Fats and oils, together with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, are the main nutrients required by the human body. Fats and oils are rich sources of energy, containing two and a half times the calories of carbohydrates (per unit weight). In addition to being a source of vitamins A, D, E and K, fats and oils also contain essential fatty acids. These essential fatty acids are not manufactured by the body and must be obtained from diets, with linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids as examples of unsaturated fatty acids (NRI, 1995).

Modern  processing  of  vegetable  oils  yields  valuable  products  such  as  oleo chemicals. Oleo chemicals are now largely being used in the manufacture of many industrial products, namely building auxiliaries, candles, detergents and cleaning agents, cosmetics, fire-extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food emulsifiers, insecticides, lubricants, paints, paper, medicine and chemicals. The meal or cake is used in the formulation and preparation of livestock feeds and food additives.

The production of oil plants takes third place in the world production in terms of value, after starchy plants and fruits, and ahead of beverages and stimulants. Edible seeds and nuts noted for their oil contents include palm nut, coconut, soya bean, olive, groundnut, sunflower seed, and cottonseed, while non-edible seeds and nuts include  jatropha  seed,  neem  seed,  and  castor  bean.  Moreover,  bean  oil  has strengthened its dominant role among fats and oils produced based on its quality and nutritional grade.   Bean oil contains linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids that are found  in  many  plant  oils.  Shortage  of  these  fatty  acids  leads  to  deficiency symptoms especially in growing children and animals. Bean oil has the highest
content of lecithin  (1.1-3.2%) which is a surface-active compound used as an emulsifier in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and other industries (Sigmund and Gustav, 1991).

Among the industries that use oils and fats from oilseeds, apart from the food industry,   are   the   beauty,   pharmaceuticals,   aromatherapies,  building   and construction, and the petroleum industry.

1.2. Problem Statement

Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.

Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to meet  the  demands  of  our  local  consumer  industries;  therefore,  it  becomes necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to

a.  Find the percentage composition of oil in the bean seed

b. To determine the effect of particle size on the yield of the oil.

1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Exploitation of fruits and seeds as a source of oil can help to reduce oil costs by diversifying the sources for this commodity. Data generated from this study will benefit industries for production of oils for various purposes.

In addition the content and composition of fatty acids of plant seed oils can serve as plants taxonomic markers.

1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH

Some factors and benefits of bean (“Ozaki, Ijiliji or Azamu”) oil make the research worthwhile;

1      The bean is readily available.

2       Oil from this particular bean is medicinal and applicable in pharmaceutical

industries.

3        Small scale industries coming up as a result of oil extraction can reduce

unemployment.

4      It can attract foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria.

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED (‘OZAKI’)

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS IN SOME SELECTED CEREALS

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and proximate composition of different cereals (maize, millet and rice).Two different samples each sold in two different markets (Ogbete and Gariki) in Enugu, were used for this work, using atomic, absorption spectrophotometer. The heavy metal screening of the cereal samples showed the presence of arsenic in the range of 0.456ppm-0.955ppm but was not detected in sample E and f which are the two different rice I purchased from Ogbete market, then mercury in the range of 0.024ppm-0.124ppm, lead in the range of  0.554ppm-1.083ppm, cadmium in the range of 0.087ppm-0.565ppm, copper in the range of 0.050ppm-0.245ppm and zinc in the range of 1.448ppm-66.954ppm which is the highest and is discussed. The result of proximate composition analysis indicated ash: 1.0%-19.0%, moisture: 8.6%-12.6%, fat: 0.2%-20.0%.

                CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0          BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cereals are enriched with niacin, iron, riboflavin and thiamine, and most cereals have abundant fiber content, especially barley, oat, and wheat. Cereals also have soluble bran that aid in lowering blood cholesterol level and keeping heart diseases at bay. Cereals consumption also means an intake of high amounts of protein; breakfast cereals are often eaten with milk that makes for a protein-rich meal. For infants, iron-fortified cereals are said to be the premium solid food.

A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crop.

In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing nations, grains in form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily substance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The growth of civilizations, or development in the human diet patterns, the cultivation of cereal grains has played a significant role. The word ‘cereal’ is derived from ‘ceres’- the name of the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest. It is said that almost 12,000 years ago, ancient farming communities dwelling in the Fertile Crescent area of southwest Asia cultivated the first cereal grains. The first Neolithic founder crops that actually initiated the development of Agriculture include einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barley. Cereals are the important sources of many essential or beneficial components to the human diet. For example, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK showed that cereal products contributed 29/30% of the total daily energy intake of adult males/females, 22/21% of the intake of protein  and 39/37% of the intake of non starch polysaccharides (the major components of dietary fiber, DF) (NDNS, 2011).

Cereals are probably the greatest source of energy for humans. Providing almost 30% of total calories in a regular diet, cereals are probably the most widely consumed caloric food in America. This percentage rises in places like rural Africa, Asia and India where cereals are reported to supply almost 70 to 80% of energy requirements (since people in these regions cannot afford to eat other food product like fruits, vegetables, meat, or milk products. Cereals are inexpensive and a widely available source of energy; this is probably the prime reason why people from all budgets prefer cereals as the major energy provider in their diet. Cereal intake tends to be quite high almost poor income families as they attain good amount of energy through mineral expenditure.

In cereal, around 95% of minerals are the sulphates and phosphates of magnesium, potassium and calcium. A good amount of phosphorous in cereals is present, called phytin. The phylates present in the cereals considerably reduce the activity of iron absorption. The unrefined cereals have more phytates as compared to refined cereals.  After the cereals germinate, phytates diminish due to the breakdown of enzymes, and then the iron content is enhanced. This is the reason why molted flours of cereals are said to have more nutritional value than raw flour. Zinc, copper and manganese are also present in cereals in very small quantities. Cereals hardly have and calcium and iron, but ragi is an exception to this. Amongst cereals, rice is the poorest source of calcium and iron. Ragi, millets, jowar and bajra have high amounts of minerals and fiber.

Whole wheat products reduce the chances of breast cancer. Cereals are rich in phytosterols or plant based steroids plant estrogen that stimulates hormone estrogen. Phytosterols binds to estrogen receptors present in the tissues of the breast and blocks human oestrogen that promotes the growth of breast cancer. many studies have shown that colon cancers can be avoided by consuming whole wheat products or any fiber-rich cereals. Phytosterols increase the stool movement through the intestines, thereby constricting the re-absorption time of the estrogen into the blood through the colon wall.

Cereals have both soluble and insoluble fibers like cellulose, pectin, and hemicellulose. These fibers are present in the bran and pericarp, which often gets demolished while processing, thus it is advisable to consume whole cereals to cure extreme constipation troubles. Cereals also effectively improve peristalsis in the intestine and increase the bulk of the stools, thus keeping your internal system clean. Ragi is high in cellulose and has excellent laxative properties that relieve constipation. Brown rice is also helpful for treating this disorder.

The fiber content in cereals decreases the speed of glucose secretion from food, thereby maintaining sugar levels in the blood.

Proteins are present in every tissue of the cereal grain. the concentrated protein-rich areas are scutellum, embryo and alleurone layer and moderate amount can be found in the endosperm, pericarp and testa. The concentration of proteins becomes denser in the endosperm from the center to the borderline. The cereal protein are of different types; like albumins, prolamines gliadins, globulins and glutelins. These type of proteins are called ‘’gluten’’ protein. This gluten has extraordinary elasticity and mobile properties mainly present in wheat grain, but also in some other types of cereals. Cereals usually have 6-12% protein but lack in lysine. The protein content varies in each type of cereals. For instance, rice contains less protein in comparison to other cereals. In fact, the protein percentage even varieties with different varieties of the same cereals. Although less in amount, the quality of rice protein is better than the protein of other cereals. When you consume cereals with pulses, the protein quality automatically improves, owing to the mutual supplementation. Pulses have high lysine content and are deficient in methionine; on the other hand cereals have an abundance of methionine.

Recent research suggests that greater consumption of vegetable, whole grain products and fruits may lower the risk of multimorbidity. If you are suffering from a deficiency in the vitamin B complex, add whole grain cereal to your diet. Most of the vitamins of cereals are present in the outer bran, but the refining process usually reduces the vitamin B content, and thus it is advisable to consume whole grain cereals. Cereals are usually devoid of either vitamin A or vitamin C; only maize has small amounts of carotene. The cereal grains are processed to extract oils that are rich in vitamin E. Rice bran oil has more concentrated amounts of vitamin E than other oils available on the market. Cereals grains are rich in enzymes, particularly protease, amylase, lipases and oxido-reductases. After the seed germinates, amylase actively increases. The germ encloses the protease enzymes. Cereals are undoubtedly full of nutrition, but unfortunately, the refining process degrades their quality. The degree of milling, polishing and refining to some extent decides the nutrition content of cereals. Some nutrients are lost during food preparation, especially vigorous washing, soaking and cooking methods, which results in the depletion of the nutrients on the skin of the grains. Heavy metal of cereals cannot be underestimated as these foodstuffs are important component of human diet. However, heavy metal contamination of food items is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance (Marsshall, 2004; Radwan and Salama 2006; and Khan et al., 2008).

Though heavy metals are naturally present in soil, geology and anthropogenic activities increase the concentration to a harmful mount (chibuike and obiora, 2014). In many ways living plants can be compared to solar driven pumps which can extract and concentrate several elements from their environment. From the soil, all plants have the ability to accumulate heavy metals which are essential for their growth and development like magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum and nickel (Langille and Maclean, 1976) certain plant also have the ability to accumulate heavy metals which have no biological function. These include cadmium, chromium, silver, selenium, and mercury (Hanna and Grant, 1962: Baker and Brooks, 1989). it is also well known that the growth and economic yield of plants is significantly depressed when they are raised on soils contaminated with heavy metals (Foy et al., 1978; Lepp, 1981; Woolhouse,1983).

The prolonged consumption of unsafe concentrations of heavy metals through foodstuffs may lead to the chronic accumulation of heavy metals in the kidney and liver of humans causing disruption of numerous biochemical processes, leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases (WHO,1992 and Jarup, 2003).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Metals have important and wide ranging role in biochemistry, being both essential and toxic (Guengerich 2009). Deficiency of micronutrient in soils and plant is a global nutritional problem as the major food staples are highly susceptible to such deficits (Imtiaz et al. 2010) for example, essentiality of Zn in the diet and its deficiency in humans was recognized in 1963 (Prasad 2012). However among all the environmental stresses, the effect of the metal accumulation has been considered one of the most disturbing factors arising in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies (Azevedo et al. 2012) in addition to their essentiality for plant growth and human nutrition, some micronutrients may also be toxic to animals, including humans, at high concentrations (Wang et al 2008). For example, Cu or Zn. An important component of seed quality is its chemical composition, including the concentration of micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, and Cu (Waters and Sankaran 2011). Clearly, plants are the first step of a metal’s pathway from the soil to heterotrophic organisms such as animals and humans, so the micronutrient content in their edible parts makes a major contribution to human intake. Zhao and McGrath (2009) suggested that micronutrient in humans and environmental contamination with heavy metals or metalloids are both global and challenging problems that require concerted efforts from researchers in multiple disciplines, including plant biology, plant breeding as well as biotechnology, nutrition and environmental sciences, such as soil fertility and chemistry.

In this review, can we continue with the intake of cereals? Or is it still possible to provide an overview of data regarding micronutrients concentration in the grain of some important cereals published in the last two decades, as well as the prevailing opinions on their plant-driven entry into the food chain.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

The aim of this study is to characterize some cereals for their level of some extracted heavy metal contamination.

 The specific objectives:

  • To check for the level of extracted heavy metals in the selected cereals
  • To determine the proximate composition of the cereals
  • To compare the levels of heavy metals in different selected cereals
  • LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The study is limited to availability of very dried cereals in the market due to rain because is rainy season at the time of the research

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS IN SOME SELECTED CEREALS

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE STEM BARK EXTRACT(S) OFINDIGOFERA ARRECTAHOCHST EX A. RICH(FABACEAE) NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The Pulverized stem bark of Indigofera arrecta was exhaustively extracted with methanol and concentrated in vacuo using rotary evaporator at 40 0C.The extract was later subjected to solvent partitioning to yield soluble extracts of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol. Genernal phytochemical screening of the fractions revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as cardiac glycoside,steroid, terpenes flavonoids and tannins. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus,S. pyogenes,S.feacalis, S.typhii, E.coli C. ulcerans,P. vulgaris and C.albicans was tested using the tube dilution and agar diffusion methods as outlined by the NCCLS. The results of the antimicrobial activity as indicated by the zonesof inhibition of growth of microorganism ranged from 20mm to 40mm for the n-hexane extract, 16mm to 21mm for ethyl acetate extract and 20mm to 27mm for the methanol extract. The MIC result for the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts ranged from 7.5mg/ml to 15mg/ml. The MIC of 15mg/ml exhibited by the n-hexane extract against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria indicates broad spectrum activity of Indigofera arrect. The n-hexane fractions was subjected to Column Chromatography using silica gel to yield 87 fractions, which were combined based on their thin layer chromatography analysis and recrystallized in methanol to give a pure white crystalline powder, which melts at 144oC. The structure of the isolated compound was established by spectroscopic analysis and by direct comparison of the data obtained with those reported in literature to be Stigmasterol (3?,22E-Sigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol).

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE STEM BARK EXTRACT(S) OFINDIGOFERA ARRECTAHOCHST EX A. RICH(FABACEAE) NIGERIA

THE STEAM BOILER

CHAPTER ONE

THE STEAM BOILER

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat water or produce steam which can then be used to provide space heating and/ or service water heating to a building. In most commercial heating applications, the heating source in the boiler is a natural gas fired burner. Oil fired burners and electric resistance heaters can be used as well. Steam is preferred over hot water in some applications, including absorption cooling, kitchen, laundries, sterilizers and steam driven equipment. Capehart, B. (2006).

Boiler is multipurpose equipment in all manufacturing industries. Industries like: Nigeria bottling company, textile mail, laundries, breweries, matches company e.t.c. A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion and transfer heat to water until it becomes hot water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then useable for transferring the heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam, it’s volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gun powder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment and should be treated carefully. When liquid is heated up to the gaseous state, it evaporates, this process is known as evaporation.

Any part of the boiler metal that actually contributes to making steam is known as heat surface. Heating surface is any part of the boiler; hot gases for combustion are on one side and water on the other side. Albert Oladele. (2017).

The burner is meant for the combustion generated, while the boiler is meant for building steam. The combination of the boiler and the burner and vertical boilers can be easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers and vertical boilers can be so easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers are bottom supported while the vertical boilers are top supported.  ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL.CODE (BPVC) 2010

Since boiler is a closed metallic vessel, heating water above the atmospheric pressure, steam could be generated at the desired pressure and temperature. To heat the water fuels like: coal, diesel oil, gas etc may be use. The function of a boiler is to evaporate water into steam at constant pressure and to supply the required type of steam.

1.1 Aim

To study the operation, maintenance, and repair of steam boiler. To operate the steam boiler in a low cost avoid any explosion during operation.

1.2 Objectives 

  • To indentify the terms associated with  steam boilers
  • To Indentify the components of a steam system
  • To describe the role and application the steam system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Indentify the components of a feed water system
  • To describe the role and application the feed water system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Indentify the components of the fuel and air system
  • To describe the roles and application the fuel and air system plays in the function of a boiler system.
  • To Analyze conservation of heat energy by various component to maximize efficiency and minimize cost.
  • To Steam production.
  • To get acquitted with the operation of steam boiler.
  • To Steam boiler regulations.

The steam boiler, aim and objective of studying was due to a very serious boiler explosion occurred in Calcutta in the year 1863 which caused the loss of several lives.

THE STEAM BOILER

ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL SOURCES FOR CEMENT PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL SOURCES FOR CEMENT PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

It is generally known that cement id produced from limestone, mar/clay and gypsum by the following three basic process- wet semi- wet aid dry process.

The cost of exploiting the limestone: the major raw material constitute about 50% of the production cost which results in the high cost of cement.  It therefore becomes imperative to bring down the cost of cement by investigating into alternative source of raw material for cement production and hence this project.

From literature, rice husk ash, Ukpo day,& Nsu day contain the basic mineral constituents which limestone has.  Rice husk was burnt temperatures of 5000c,   6000c,   7000c, and 8000c.  The best ash was obtained at a temperature of 7000c,.  the above material were also analyzed to determine their mineral constituents.  The result shown that rice husk contains little aluminum (Al203) and no lime (Ca0).  To make up for these mineral constituents, Upo day which is rich in aluming was blended with lime(Ca0)-a bye product from gas plant and the three minerals were blended using the method of lime saturation factor.  A blending ratio of 70% lime 20% PHA and 10% Alumina mixture (Ukpo day)  was used.  The mixture was mixed dry by dry process and burnt in a furnace at a temperature of 12000c.  the resulting mass known as dinker  was ground  with 5% gypsum.  The cement obtained gave a comprehensive strength of 2N/mr2.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cement is a complete mixture of mineral substances that gradually harden when mixed with water.  It is the product of the reaction of lime with the oxides of silica alumina and iron.  It is used in the construction of industry as a blending material.  Some builders regard it as the key engineering material for construction purposes.  many allied construction materials such as asbestos, culverts concrete seals, concrete poles, cement blocks etc are derived from cement and they also play very important roles in the construction industry.

For the average Nigeria, a major life ambition is to own a living house cement, a key raw material has ruined to ‘Gold’ as has become a topical issue.  Just like iron, steel and petrochemical, cement is equally a major spring board for industrialization.  This quest for industrialization has resulted to increase in demand with the consequent increase in the cost of cement.

One of the reasons adduced for the exorbitant cost of cement is the scarcity of raw material.  This situation arises as  a result of its fast depletion which is not replaced.

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ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL SOURCES FOR CEMENT PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL-DRILLING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL-DRILLING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The tremendous (large) demand of some petroleum fractions in our modern world today has drive some professionals (experts) in oil sectors into exploration and drilling operation which is aimed at locating the mineral oil deposit and extracting it from beneath the earth surface with aid of some vital exploration techniques and drilling machine (ng) on which drill string consisting of drill pipe, drill rods, drill stem and drill bit are attached on it.

During drilling operations, a drill bit that is attached to along pieces of hollow pipes called the drill string is used to drill the wells into the occan floor. As the drill bit spirals its way down through the ground, crushing rocks and stones as it goes, additional lengths of drill pipe are continuously added. First, from the starter hole, they drill a surface hole down to a pre-set depth, which is somewhere above where they think the oil trap is located.

There are five basic steps to drilling the surface hole.

1.                  place the drill bit, collar and drill pipe in the hole.

2.                  attach the Kelly and turntable and begin drilling

3.                  as drilling progresses, circulate mud through the pipe and out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole.

4.                  add new sections (joints) of drill pipe as the hole gets deeper and finally, remove (tripout) the drill pipe collar and bit when the preset depth is reached.

Once they reach the pre-set depth, they must run and cement the casing by placing casing pipe section into the hole to prevent it from collapsing on itself. The casing pipe has spacers around the outside to keep it centered in the hole.

Drilling continues in stages; they drill, then run and cement new casings, then drill again. When the rock cuttings from the mud reveal the oil sand from the reservoir rock, this implies the final depth reached.

At this point, they remove the drilling apparatus from the hole and perform several test to conform this finding.

 

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PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL-DRILLING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM A LOCAL SEED (GROUNDNUT SEED) AND CHARACTERIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM A LOCAL SEED (GROUNDNUT SEED) AND CHARACTERIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This project “Extraction of oil from a local seed (groundnut oil) and Characterization” was carried out using ten cups of groundnut seeds that was purchased from a local market in Enugu metropolis.  The oil these seeds were in Enugu using solvent extraction method.  Two different solvents were used in the extraction namely: Ethane and order to compare their yield, physical and chemical properties.

The extraction was carried out using 32og of size-reduced groundnut with 100ml of 17-hexane while 1.5litres a 15ooml of ethanol was used on 480g of size reduced groundnut seeds.  Ta the end of the extraction operation, the amount of oil-extracted using17-hexane was observed to be far more greater than the amount of oil extracted using ethanol.

The chemical and physical properties of the oil were determined by analysis of the oil.  The physical appearance of 17- hexane extract is light yellow in colour this; true colour of groundnut oil while that the ethanol extract has a light bown colour.  The colour of ethanol on pigments in the size-reduced groundnut seed.

From  the result obtained, it was deduced that 17-hexane remains the best solvent for oil extraction while ethanol is not a good solvent for oil extraction.

The physical and chemical constants/ properties determined were:

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

a)                  Solidification point.

b)                  Melting point

c)                  Specific gravity

d)                 Moisture content.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

a)                  Acid value

b)                  Saponification value

c)                  Peroxide value

d)                 Iodine value

Form  the analysis camied out on the extracted oil, the results obtained shows that the extracted oil is a pure groundnut oil because  the iodine value which shows the purity of an oil is close to literature value.  The iodine value of he oil extracted is 79.95 while the literature value (standard value) rangers from 94-102.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Extraction other-wise called leaching is the preferential solution of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent.  This unit operation, one of the oldest in the chemical industries, here been given many names, depending to some extent upon the technique used for carrying it out extraction of oil form groundnut seeds can be carried out using any of the two solid-liquid extraction methods namely: mechanical extraction method or the used of solvent other- wise called mass-transfer method. The yield of the second method is higher but contains more impurities than the first method and it requires another unit operation (distillation) in purity it better.

The success of an extraction and the technique to be used will vary frequently depending upon any prior treatment which may be given to he solid.  In some instance small particles of the soluble material are completely surrounded by a matrix of insoluble matter.  The solvent must then diffuse into the mass, and the resulting solution must diffuse out before a separation can result.  Crushing and grinding of such solids will greatly alliterate the leaching action, since then the soluble portions are made more accessible to the solvent.

Seeds like groundnut seeds and other vegetable seeds are cellular in structure, and the natural products to be leached form these material are usually found inside the cells. if the cell walls remain intact upon exposure to a suitable solvent, the leaching involves osmotic passage of the solute through the cell walls.  This may be slow, but in is impractical and sometime undesirable to grind the material small enough to release the contents of individual cells.

 

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EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM A LOCAL SEED (GROUNDNUT SEED) AND CHARACTERIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR USING TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHOD AND MODERN PROCESSING METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR USING TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHOD AND MODERN PROCESSING METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The production of cassava flour by the method of traditional processing method (sun drying) and modern processing method (oven drying) was carried out using cassava sliced cubes or peeled cassava.

Indeed, the traditional Nigeria techniques of cassava flour production was studied with a view of achieving same product mechanically. Result of this studies show that the processing time can  be much reduced if mechanized.

The effects of variations in the processing parameters on the productions were discussed. It was also observed that the percentage of moisture was highest in the sun drying at 18% followed by oven drying at 9%, this was due to the fact that the higher the moisture content, the longer the drying time. Also, while the optimum drying temperature varied for sun drying but it was 800c for oven drying process used respectively.

Based on the work, the colour of sun dried sample was brighter compared with mechanized sample. It is therefore recommended that for good production of cassava flour with good flour mixture, appearance and taste, the flour should be enriched with protein and vitamin additive to increase the nutritional values, thus improving the health of millions of Nigerians whose consumption of cassava flour are high in the areas of bread baking.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0              Cassava flour is the finer fraction obtained from a whole series of processing operations such as drying operation, milling operation, (sieving) operation.

The purest flour selected from the purest flour stream, released in the mill is often called patent flour, it ha slow mineral )or ash) content and is remarkably free from traces of impurities.

Cassava flour are of various types, namely, bread making flour, biscuit four, self raising flour.

Drying operation which is usually the final stage in most chemical manufacturing processes. It largely involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, fluid flow, material handling. The significance of drying operations in chemical allied industries cannot be over-emphasized. Some of these include: to increase the shelf life of the material, to lesson the transport cost, space and weight requirement for easy packaging etc.

1.1       AIMS AMD OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK

Since traditional Nigerian techniques of cassava flour production have been studied with a view to mechanizing the processes. The results of the this research work show that the processing, time can be much reduced if mechanized.

 

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PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA FLOUR USING TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHOD AND MODERN PROCESSING METHOD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF EMULSION POINT WITH THE AVAILABLE MATERIAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF EMULSION POINT WITH THE AVAILABLE MATERIAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This project is on the production of paint from the available materials.  The first process involved was the sourcing of the available material which include calcium carbonate (dotonute) water etc.  the next step is the proper production procedure.  The  same product patterns was employed while the production was valued with a view to obtain a high quality paint.

From the result obtained, it was observed that high quality paint was produced in production category C(3), consisting of 10kg water, 0.1kg titanium  dioxide (TiO2), 0.3kg teranol, 0-3 ethylene glycol 0.3kg welting agent, 0.1kg defrayer, 0.2kg thickness 10kg CaCO3, 4kg PVA, 2kg NH3 and 0.5kg white spirit.

The above fact was ascertained by subjecting the various paint produced from different production procedure to quality control test.  The quality of this paint in production category C(3) was, opacity 2 coat, PH 8, drying time 1 hour, chalking 190 cycle scrubs, PVA 20%, viscosity 3.8 poises and binder gravity 1.17 and its quality marched with the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) approved quality.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Until recently, paint production was regarded as art, and use was made of it principally for decorative purposes.  The production then was by trial and error with no standard principle and little or no regard to the quality of the final product.  With the application of science in the production of paint, product of high quality is now possible.  This time, not only to give appearance but more importantly for surface protection.  Thus, modern paint industry firm a small but important part of the chemical industry.  It is closely related to the plastics, and petroleum industries and like then is based on modern knowledge of chemistry, physical and engineering.

THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT RESEARCH WORK

The purpose of this work is to make use of available source materials in the production of Emulsion Paint, test the properties of the paint and its performance against weather, and thus set a standard for future works.

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PRODUCTION OF EMULSION POINT WITH THE AVAILABLE MATERIAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND VAPORIZED PERFUME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND VAPORIZED PERFUME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This research project was carried out principally for the production of liquid and vapourized perfumes from local raw materials.  The local raw material were subjected to various processing conditions in order to obtain purified perfume.  The methods generally used in this work include expression steam distillation and solvent extraction.

During the production of vapourized and liquid perfume the modern solvent for blending and holding perfume materials is highly refined ethanol mixed with more or less water according to the solubilities of the oils employed.  This solvent with its volatile nature helps to project the scent it carries, and it is fairly inert to the solute and is not too irritating to the human skin.

The slight natural odour of the alcohol   is remove by deodorizing of the alcohol.  This is accomplished by adding a small amount of gum benzoic or other resinous fixatives to the alcohol and allowing it to mature for a week or two.  The result is an almost odorless alcohol, the natural rawness having been neutralized by the resins.  Other vehicles added to this includes benzene which is a solubilizer and methanol in their required proportions.

For vaporized perfumes , it has light quantity benzene while the liquid perfume has little   or no of benzene and it contains more of the fragrance than the vapourized perfume.

However, it can be concluded that liquid and vapourized perfumes can be produced using local raw materials.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The word perfumes take its name form the latin word perfumery (to fill with smoke) since in its original form, it was incense burner in Egyptian temple early it was found in a mixture of finely ground spices help together by Mgrrh or storax.

It occur in certain spices and flowers were steeped in fat or oil, the fat or oil would retain a portion of the odoriferous principle which can be blended  by a constitutes like vehicle a solvent and fixture.

It also occur in some leaves, seals fruits and grasses.  It first production data back to the 6th century BC when God gave Moses an instruction to make an acter of twin incense and Aaron shall burn there on sweet morning (ref  Exodus 30:23)

 

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PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND VAPORIZED PERFUME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

Adhesive is a substance that holds materials together by surface attachment, while wood adhesive is a substance that is used to hold plywood for furniture works. This substance is essential and has universal applications. Thus the aim of this research work is to produce it using cassava starch as a base binder. Starch is also used in industries to produce ethanol and glucose for textile industries, laundry and paper adhesive industries.

 

It is of great importance to paper, wood and furniture industries and the need to produce a more stable adhesive locally to minimize cost remains the investigating factor for embarking on this research work.

 

The method of wood adhesive production used in this work was the questionnaire work was the geletinization method. In the production, the optimum geletinization temperature was found to be 800c while the optimum temperature of dextrin formation is 1400c. The production involves the souring of the starch from cassava, determination of the various additives employed in the production. The materials used in the production works were sourced in line with the objectives of the research. The following components were used: starch extracted from cassava which is responsible for the adhesion force that holds two bodies together, calcium carbonate (CaCo3) for viscosity improvement, formaddehyde as preservative, natrosol cellulose as a thicker and water as solvent.

Experimental analysis was based on all the factors that influence the stability of an adhesive example pH values, viscosity, tack time, boarding strength etc. the values obtained were compared with the standard brands and were found to compare favourably with other standard adhesives.

 

Formulation B showed the most desirable characteristics and hence is the optimum sample.

An adequate cost analysis was also carried out to determine the feasibility of the project on a commercial venture. Thus, a locally sourced product (wood adhesive) that can complete with similar product in terms of properties but at a much reduced cost was produced. The shelf life and teak time of the product were determined and found to be good. The wood adhesive was established to be water resistant.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.5              HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (PREAMBLE)

Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into the market.

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PRODUCTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF 2,000 LITRES CAPACITY WATER RE-SERVOIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF 2,000 LITRES CAPACITY WATER RE-SERVOIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

In the construct of 2,000 litres capacity water reservoir galvanized  steel  sheet forms the tank and an angle iron rod forms the stand.  Two full length galvanized sheet were marked out and cut out to the required sizes.  The work stated by cutting the it gauges galvanized steel sheets of full length into geometrical dimensions of the cylindrical shape

After cutting, the different of the sized were assembled and joined together by using 12- guage  electrode on are holding machine.  The complete  holding of the parts with the exist piping were ensured.

The top of the tank has a circular shape opening for the entering of water which is covered with the constructed over.  in order to provide rigid foundation two angled iron was cast and assembled together which is the constructed support base.

The 2,00 litres capacity water reservoir is designed for effective storage  and transfer of water through the tap control which allow the easy flow of water through the tank

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Reservoir are ponds or lakes built for the storage of water usually by the construction of a dam across river.  The size of reservoir needed is a function the water demands, the natural flows of the rive impounded and the extent of droughts to be removed

In areas of moderate rainfall storage may be required during only few days or weeks in a year.  In and or semi and areas, storage capacity may be needed to supplement low stream flow over period of many months even years.  In some instance water can be divided by gravity flow or by pumping from one river to a reservoir on another stream.  Water supplies can be taken be from the reservoir directly or water may be released from the reservoir to augment river flows past a water supply intake downstream.

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CONSTRUCTION OF 2,000 LITRES CAPACITY WATER RE-SERVOIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

After detailed study on machines and levers, the construction work started as follows:-

Making out, pattern development, cutting filling, drilling, machining, assembling, welding and finishing.  Detailed procedures carried out are located at the sequence of operation in subsequent pages.

The machine has scale of 1:5 in all parts of its dimensions.  However, brief dimensions are given below:-

Upper surface of bowl                        –                       850mm

Inner surface of bowl              –                       335mm

Stand height                                        –                       325mm

Diameter of wheel                              –                       250mm

Diameter of shaft seating and the shaft          4mm

Thickness of type                                –                       75mm

 

The drawing of the project was done and enclosed at the end page of this booklet.  At last, a 150kg capacity of conveying machine was constructed.  

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Few centuries ago, the task of conveying loads around was so cumbersome.  Very minor loads could be carried from one point of the other.  The distances covered during the period of weak was less whereas the time expended on the short covered distance was much.  Also, there were no appreciable accomplishment of words, there were continually loss of man-power as much effort and energy was spent on conveying loads.

Loads were carried on human heads which was generally unsafe.

Consequent upon these limitations, man started devising means on how loads could be carried from one point to another with ease.  Before 13trh century, wheel-barrow was first constructed in china.  The type of wheel-barrow then had its wheel under the cargo box.  This conveyor helped the Chinese then to execute most of their works.  But, yet, smaller quantity barrow due to the weak mechanical strength of material for continuation.

In 13th century proper an improvement on the type of wheel-barrow that were in China was constructed and used in Europe.  This type had its wheel at the front of the machine on like that of the Chinese which had its wheel at the back of the cargo.  These conveyors in those days could only convey less loads and could withstand less stress due to the deficiencies in the strength of the materials used for construction.

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CONSTRUCTION OF PORTABLE WHEEL-BARROW. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DEVELOPMENT OF AEROSOL INSECTICIDE USING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DEVELOPMENT OF AEROSOL INSECTICIDE USING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out on the development of aerosol insecticide using local raw material. This was made possible through careful and through review of some organic substances to obtain their various properties and characteristic under various conditions. The following promised to be active in the formulation of a biodegradable aerosol insecticide which is non toxic and capable of blocking the respiratory ‘mechanics’ of target insects, especially, the mouth sucking insects. The chemical substances are classified according to their sources. They are as follows:-

(A)         The nature local organic compounds;’ they are refenone (an extract from lonchoearpus  nunits or annun) citronellal (an extract from lemon grass) piperinal (a synergist) and solvents for extraction.

(B)         The synthetic local organic compounds; they are DDVP (Dichloro- dimetty , vinyl phosphate, allethrich. Piperinal, simple paraffin, benzaldehyde and perfume.

In the formulation and production of these insecticides, some chemical process were involved such as pulverization (grind), folteration, extraction heating, stiring etc for the purpose of formulation different standard ratios were used. For instance, for natural local organic compound insecticide, the formulation was 60% by volume of rotenone, 30% by volume of citronellal and 10% by volume of the synergist (ie piperinal) and annyl alcohol. For the synthhetic one, the formulation was 0.5% by volume of DDVP, 0.45% by volume of allethrin, 0.35% by volume, 95% by volume of simple paraffin and 3.7% by volume of mixture of  benzaldehyde and perfume.

In both products, they were found to be effective when tested. But it was found that the  insecticide from synthetic raw materials had better efficiency than the one from natural raw materials.

From further test and observation, it was found that the insecticides has little or no effect on the environment.

Finally, the products were stored in a pressurized spray cans for use. Recommendation were made on the proper management of the insects and also conclusions were drawn to that effect.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

          Insecticides are agents, or preparation for destroying insects and related animals by disruption of vital processes through chemical action. To be more precise, insecticides are materials used for the metigation, control or elimination of insects or animals that are detrimental to human health and economy.

Recent discoveries of new synthetic insecticides led to major advances in insecticide technology. Coupled with development in aerosol biophysics, highly active chemicals can now be effectively applied to target species to give maximum control of insect peste. Armed with these techniques man is able to subdue and control pest of agricultural, veterinary and public health importance.

 

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DEVELOPMENT OF AEROSOL INSECTICIDE USING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING ITS PROPERTIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING ITS PROPERTIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction:

A soap is a salt of a compound, known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group on one end, which has ionic bond with metal ion, usually sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is non polar which is highly soluble in non polar substances and the ionic end is soluble in water. The structure of the soap molecule is represented below:

The cleaning action of soapsbecause of their ability to emulsify or disperse water-insoluble materials and hold them in the suspension of water. This ability is seen from the molecular structure of soaps. When soap is added to water that contains oil or other water-insoluble materials, the soap or detergent molecules surround the oil droplets. The oil is, dissolved in the alkyl groups of the soap molecules while the ionic end allows it to be dissolved in water. As a result, the oil droplets are to be dispersed throughout the water and can be washed away.

A number of things affect the soap-making process and the quality of this soap produced. The characteristics of this soap depend on the quality of oil, and the amounts of the caustic soda and water used to make it. The speed of the reaction between the oil and the caustic soda is influenced by free fatty acid content of the oil, the heat of the components before mixing, and how vigorously the mixing is to be done. Free fatty acid contents, vigorous mixing, and heat, speed up the given soap-making process.

 

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PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING ITS PROPERTIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF A READING TABLE AND A CHAIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF A READING TABLE AND A CHAIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The table constructed has a horizontal top with vertical support or legs to raise it from the ground. The aim of the table constructed is for the preservation and storage of useful materials like books, files, computers, result booklets, electronics, office equipments and some vital home equipment etc.

However, before the construction of the table, selection of wooden materials were carried out for long and lasting durability of the table. Mahogamy wood was selected for the construction. Marking out sawing and dimensioning operation was also carried out in order to obtain the required standard shape and size of the table (48” X 24” X 30”) for length, width and hight respectively.

The divided parts was fixed together appropriately and nailed. Then sand papering was carried out in other to make it surface smooth. Spraying and painting was the next operation which carried out to achieve a polished surface. The result obtained after construction was ninety-five percent (95%) compared to the result from literature review and further investigation. The wood use for construction has good workability, durability and can withstand any attacks from fungi harmful insects and bacterial infections

Finally, the table constructed is fitable and convenient for every home, office, industrial, hospital and further utilizations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The need for table comes only second to the need for seats in out door furniture. They will vary from permanent structures attached to the ground and of sufficient size for many people to enjoy meals, to smaller tables that can be moved to others, which may be folded and stowed away.

 

Folding tables are described as one of the type of table. Within the other categories exist a vest number of designs, the primary need is a flat top at a suitable height from the floor. It is in the means of support that designs vary.

 

Table tops for use indoors are always without gaps. If boards have to make-up a width, they are joined tightly edge-to-edge. Sometimes such a closed top is needed out doors, but in many cases the top is made of many boards with gaps between. One advantage of this is in shedding rain water more easily, the gaps should no be too wide or there will be difficulty when a cloth is spread over and cutlery and other small items process the cloth into gaps.

For normal use, the gaps should not exceed ½ inch (although there are many table in use with wider spaces).  A table should stand firmly, the ideal arrangement for stability is three legs that will not wobble, no matter how uneven the ground.  For most tables, it is preferable to have four legs to give support near each corner.

 

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CONSTRUCTION OF A READING TABLE AND A CHAIR. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

SAFETY CONCERN IN LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAB ENVIRONMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

SAFETY CONCERN IN LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAB ENVIRONMENTA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This research work which is based on safety principles and practice in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) environment. LPG which is a petroleum fraction produced by distillation of crude oil. It is a hugely versatile gas found over many million of years beneath the ground and it is obtaining from processing of natural gas and refining of crude oil LPG is either prepare and  instance which is transported from the gas field or refinery installations to storage terminals by tanker or pipeline and is stored in gas cylinders. It is used in domestic, industrial, auto gas, commercial and agricultural purposes. Because of its non-polluted nature, LPG is considered as environmental friendly gas.

Safety  policies and principles in LPG plant and environment is carried out in order to create a safe working conditions for workers and as well protects lives and properties of workers, consumers and industries. Due to its high flammable nature, safety should be enhanced in production process, handling, transportation and storage.

Incase of leakage, emergency procedure should be carried out. Small leakages which can be detached by small or detergent/water mixture bubbles. Significant leaks detached by missing sound or king in areas of leakage and should never be used.

Also proper LPG plant layout should be enhanced to ensure hazard free production process  and the indecent safety must be stately adhered to during plant design.

Safety is everyone’s responsibility, environment for its workers and consumers and environment. People working tools and equipment should be sued in the LPG production. Work procedures must be used. Staff training must be regular. Fire extinguishers must be provided at strategic point for use. Job description minimum standard for equipment, building, products, processes must be set. In short a good production and managing practice must be in place to guarantee safety for all.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This project which is on safety concern (principles and practices) in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) environment. It intends to provide an overall guide to safe practice in storage and handling liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) at fixed storage installations.

It also provides a guide to safe practice both for personnel storing LPG and those enforcing safety requirement. The recommendation are intended to minimize the risks of fire and explosion from escaping LPG and from external sources of fire.

WHAT IS LPG

   LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is either propane (c3H8), butane (c4H10) or mixture of those two light hydrocarbon fuel (2)

In a gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, LPG becomes a liquid at 150c when the pressure is lowered to between 1.7 and 7.5 bars. This facilitates both storage and transportation.

1 litre liquid propand=270 litres gaseous propane at 150c.

propane starts vapourising above –450c and butane above –20c (excluding its used in cold environment.

PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORTATION

LPG has two different origins LPG comes from the processing of natural gas (60%) and also from the refining of crude oil (40%). 200 million tones of LPG a2 were produced in 2000, accounting for approximately 2-3% of primary energy consumption worldwide among other energy sources such as natural gas electricity oil, coal etc.

 

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SAFETY CONCERN IN LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAB ENVIRONMENTA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

THE REFURBISHMENT OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPARATUS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

THE REFURBISHMENT OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPARATUSA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

A temperature control apparatus an “Armfield model was refurbished.  The methodology employed were to detect the pulty parts of the equipment especially in the sump where leakages were observed.  In the repair, the water in the sump was drained off, corrosion and rusting in the tank were scraped off, the sump was washed and allowed to dry.  A homogenous mixture of crown filler and hardener mixed in the ratio of 5.1 was used to coat the inner surface of the tank.

Antirust protection was applied all over the inner surface of the tank in order to avoid further corrosion and rusting.   Metallic parts of the apparatus including the sump were painted with carlux 842 paint so as to avoid the development of pricklings, pittings, roughness or cracks which promote corrosion when in contact with air, water or chemical attack.  Pipes, air-hoses, dips, nuts and values of the temperature control apparatus were also serviced.

After refurbishment, the equipment functioned effectively when operated and it is recommended that it be used for further practical in the pilot plant laboratory.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

Armfield temperature control appara [tus is a pilot plant scale apparatus for the study of heat transfer, process control fluid mechanism and thermodynamics by chemical Engineering students in various institutions of higher learning.

 

The apparatus consists of two heaters, with voltage between 220-240 and 6kw of power.  The heaters has thermostatic range from 380C-82C0, heat transfer area (A) of the heat exchanger is 0.64m2(0.059fts2) ALFA-LAVAL. Four thermo walls, each fitted at the inlet and outlet points on the heat exchanger for insertion of thermometers for temperature measurement.  It has a sump tank of capacity of 70 litres, three flow meters (Rotameters), two of variable area type, a pump of power 0.23kw and capacity of 55litres/min at 1.5m and 9 litres/min at 6m. a control valve (air regulator) of ½ inch, PID (Honey well) controller, two pen chart recorder, temperature sensor, electronic controller etc.  as the name applies it is used to control or measure temperature.

In industries in order to avoid wastes during production of goods, even in pilot plant where production of good are in small scale, there is need for control system which gives more stable (Uniform) process and higher quality products.

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THE REFURBISHMENT OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPARATUSA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF VENTURIMETER. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION OF VENTURIMETERA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The project was on the construction of a venturimeter. Venturimeter being a measuring instruction was used in determining the flow rate of fluid down a pipe or the rate of discharge in a pipeline and is often fixed permanently at different sections of the piple line to know the discharge there.

The research was made possible by the consultation of the internet, textbooks, and relevant information from friends.  The construction was based on these dimensions.

Throat diameter –       2.5cm

Thickness of metal sheet – 0.2cm

Length of diverging – 28.6m

Length of converging 24.cm.

The main purpose of this study was to respond to both the reality and preciption of venturimeter, also the scope and the uses are reviewed such as, how it works, it important and uses.

During the construction of these venturimeter machines like the drilling machines, smothering machines, were used in carrying out major operations of how drilling and smoothing enhanced the work with less time spent in operation like this.

Also manual tools and equipment such as the hack, saw, hand file, meter rule and maters was found to consume more time and back precious to the job.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

A venturi meter or venturi flow meter is a device used to measure the velocity, or flow rate, of fluid flowing through a pipeline. The venturi meter constricts the flow using a Herschel venturi tube. As the liquid flows through the pipeline, the device measures the pressure of liquid before it enters the venturi tube and as it exist the constricted area. These measurements are then compared to figure the volumetric flow rate of the fluid. The flow meter is commonly used in plumbing applications to determine the flow of fluids such as water, liquid propane, and oil.

For this procedure the venturi tube is typically a long pipe with conically shaped entry and exist points. The entry point is usually a thirty degree cone which constricts to five degree cone at the exit. The venturi meter result is less degradation of the head pressure due to the tube’s design.

  The venturi mater can accurately measure flow rate using Bernoulli’s principle. bernoulli stated that the velocity of liquid increases in direct proportion to a decrease in pressure. When the liquid is forced through a constricted pipeline, it begins to make at a higher rate of speed because the majority of the pressure is held behind the constriction.

 

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CONSTRUCTION OF VENTURIMETERA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

WATER PURIFICATION UNIT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

WATER PURIFICATION UNITA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

Water Purification Unit or filtration unit is designed in way that it will give a nice result. Like in our filtration, we have sand and carbon filter that were responded to separate the suspended solid particles, odour  and taste of the water, which will give a very nice filtered water at the end of the filtration. This unit has no chemical engineering operation, but a physical separation process that will separate the dead micro organisms and the task, colour odor of the water.   The chlorine content or amount of chlorine that should be close to water that full our bucket should be 4mgll and if it is hard water it will be

reduced to 3mgll.   The sand was suspended on a net, where it was arranged in layers, gravel or coast sand, semi coast, and fine sand, while in carbon, also suspended on a net, where coast sand was first layer before the polished and graded carbon.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO WATER PURIFICATION UNIT.

Technologies for water treatment are now well established and are capable of producing almost any degree of purity.   The main issue surrounding the selection of any given process lies in deciding which is the most appropriate and applicable technology for the particular social, political and economic environment.   Hence this report concentrate on the construction of a filtration unit or purification unit to be used in filtering water suspended particle.

Water is an oxide of hydrogen, when dry hydrogen is ignited in air, it burns with a faint blue flame to give steam, which will condonse on any cold surface to form water.

 

2H2(g)          + O2(g)                         2H2O(g)

Hydrogen          Oxygen                   Hydrogen oxide (water)

Water is one of the most common substance known.   It constitutes bont 70% by mass of the earth surface.

Fundamentally, water is essential for life to exist.   Man drinks between 700 and 1000liters of water every year.   If one lose more than 20% water there is a sever risk of damage to one’s health.   Water has a wide range of applications both domestic and industrial wise.   The quality standards of water suitable for some purpose can be defined in fairly definite terms whereas the quality of water required for other uses is quite variable.

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WATER PURIFICATION UNITA RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING