ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL SOURCES FOR CEMENT PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
It is generally known that cement id produced from limestone, mar/clay and gypsum by the following three basic process- wet semi- wet aid dry process.
The cost of exploiting the limestone: the major raw material constitute about 50% of the production cost which results in the high cost of cement. It therefore becomes imperative to bring down the cost of cement by investigating into alternative source of raw material for cement production and hence this project.
From literature, rice husk ash, Ukpo day,& Nsu day contain the basic mineral constituents which limestone has. Rice husk was burnt temperatures of 5000c, 6000c, 7000c, and 8000c. The best ash was obtained at a temperature of 7000c,. the above material were also analyzed to determine their mineral constituents. The result shown that rice husk contains little aluminum (Al203) and no lime (Ca0). To make up for these mineral constituents, Upo day which is rich in aluming was blended with lime(Ca0)-a bye product from gas plant and the three minerals were blended using the method of lime saturation factor. A blending ratio of 70% lime 20% PHA and 10% Alumina mixture (Ukpo day) was used. The mixture was mixed dry by dry process and burnt in a furnace at a temperature of 12000c. the resulting mass known as dinker was ground with 5% gypsum. The cement obtained gave a comprehensive strength of 2N/mr2.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cement is a complete mixture of mineral substances that gradually harden when mixed with water. It is the product of the reaction of lime with the oxides of silica alumina and iron. It is used in the construction of industry as a blending material. Some builders regard it as the key engineering material for construction purposes. many allied construction materials such as asbestos, culverts concrete seals, concrete poles, cement blocks etc are derived from cement and they also play very important roles in the construction industry.
For the average Nigeria, a major life ambition is to own a living house cement, a key raw material has ruined to ‘Gold’ as has become a topical issue. Just like iron, steel and petrochemical, cement is equally a major spring board for industrialization. This quest for industrialization has resulted to increase in demand with the consequent increase in the cost of cement.
One of the reasons adduced for the exorbitant cost of cement is the scarcity of raw material. This situation arises as a result of its fast depletion which is not replaced.