Category: CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
Civil Engineering project topics and materials for undergraduate and post graduate students. Research project paper, seminar topics, proposals, titles, ideas and materials are available for dissertation, thesis and essay in Civil Engineering department. Find below the list of research project topics for Bsc, Msc and Phd Civil Engineering students.
Panel door is one of the important construction found or used in a building. It can be found in most building for protection of valuables and to regulate movement in the building. Wooden panel is said to be the best pattern of door because it is easy and low cost of constructing. The project was constructed using a very hard and some other important machines and hand tools and accurate measurement was made to ensure a good and a proper finishing of a panel door.
THE ROLE OF NATURAL POZZOLANS IN SANDCRETE PERFORMANCE
1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
Various research works have been carried out on the binary blends of ordinary Portland cement with different pozzolans in making cement composites.
The need to reduce the high cost of Ordinary Portland Cement in order to provide accommodation for the populace has intensified research into the use of some locally available materials that could be used as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Supplementary cementitous materials have been proven to be effective in meeting most of the requirements of durable concrete and blended cements are now used in many parts of the world (Bakar 2010).
The cost of building materials nowadays is so high in some parts of the world particularly developing countries like Nigeria, that only the government, industries, business cooperation and few individual can afford it. This high and still rising cost can however be reduced to a minimum by use of alternative building materials that are cheap, locally available and bring about a reduction in the overall dead weight of the building. Some industrial and agricultural products that would otherwise litter the environment as waste or at best be put into only limited use could gainfully be employed as building material (Oluremi 1990).
Rice husk which is an agricultural by–product is abundantly available all over the world. Most of the rice husk, which is obtained by milling paddy, is going as waste materials even though some quantity is used as bedding material, fuel in boilers etc. its ash, which not only occupy large areas causing space problems, but also cause environmental pollution. Thus the concrete industry offers an ideal method to integrate and utilize a number of waste materials, which are socially acceptable, easily available, and economically within the buying powers of an ordinary man. Presence of such materials in cement concrete not only reduces the carbon dioxide emission, but also imparts significant improvement in workability and durability. In the present investigation, a feasibility study is made to use Rice Husk Ash as an admixture to already replaced Cement (Portland Pozzolana Cement) in Concrete.
With increasing industrialization, the industrial by-product (waste) are being accumulated to a large extent leading to environmental and economic concerns related to this disposal. The concerns of our global environment and increasing energy insecurity has led to an increasing demand in renewable energy and their sources among the resources, biomass resources (forestry and agricultural wastes) and power fuelled by them as a promising source of renewable energy with economically low operational cost.
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) which is an agricultural by-product has been reported to be a good pozzolan by numerous researchers. Sandcrete blocks comprise of natural sand, water and binder. Cement, as a binder, is the most expensive input in to the production of sandcrete blocks. This has necessitated producers of sandcrete blocks to produce blocks with low OPC content that will be affordable to people and with much gain. The poverty level amongst West African Countries and particularly Nigerian has made these blocks widely acceptable among the populace so as to minimize the cost of construction works. The improper use of these blocks leads to microcracks on the walls after construction. The use of alternative cheaper local materials as stabilizer will greatly enhance the production of sandcrete blocks with the desired properties at low cost. It will also drastically reduce the cost of production and consequently the cost of construction works (Cordeiro 2009).
A survey by raw materials research and development Council of Nigeria on available local building materials reveals that certain building materials deserve serious consideration as substitute for imported ones. Few of these materials includes: cement / lime stabilized bricks /blocks, sundried (Adobe) soil blocks, burnt clay bricks/ blocks, cast in-situ walls, rice husk ash (RHA), mud and straw, lime and sandcrete blocks.
In the urban and rural areas of Nigeria, local milling is being done mostly by women. They mainly use firewood as heat source and as such one hundred percent of the rice husk from the mill is a waste. It occupies 20 –24% of the rough rice produced, although the ratio differs by variety. About 108 tonnes of rice husks are generated annually in the world.
In Niger State in Nigeria, about 96,660 tonnes of rice grains were produced in year 2000. In developing countries like Nigeria, proper utilization of agricultural waste has not been given due attention. The rice husk thereby constitutes an environmental nuisance as they form refuse heaps in the areas where they are disposed. The use of rice husk ash as a partial replacement to cement will provide an economic use of the by – product and consequently produce cheaper blocks for low cost buildings.
Rice is a major food crop in many regions of the world. Global rice production in 2007 was approximately 638 million tonnes and Malaysia’s contribution was 2.2 million tonnes [Food and Agriculture Organisation for the UN, 2008]. Due to global demand, rice production is expected to grow from year to year. Rice husk (RH) is the outer covering of the rice grain and is obtained during the milling process. Rice Husk constitutes 20% of the total rice produced [G. Giaccio 2007].
As a renewable material, the use of Rice Husk can eliminate waste disposal and support environmental protection. Even though Malaysia is not a prominent rice-producing country, large quantities of Rice Husk are produced every year after the harvest season (November to March). Commercially, other applications of Rice Husk are as silicon carbide whiskers to reinforce ceramic cutting tools and as aggregates and fillers for concrete and board production. However, most of this agricultural by-product is simply disposed, thus representing an environmental problem.
Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material (Wikipedia.com).
The phenomenal pace of population growth and urbanization drives the cement requirement to many folds. The quantum jump in production of cement results in alarming level release of CO2 to the atmosphere. One way of addressing this issue is to reduce the CO2 emission from cement manufacturing process by replacing cement with locally available by-products which are pozzolanic in nature.
Pozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which, in itself, possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties (Mehta, 1987).
Also, the high cost of cement used as binder in the production of mortar, sandcrete blocks and concrete has led to a search for alternative. In addition to cost, high energy demand and emission of CO2 this is responsible for global warming. The depletion of limestone deposits are disadvantages associated with cement product.
Research on alternative to cement has so far centred on the partial replacement of cement with different materials.
1.2 Rice Hull (or Husk) Ash as a Pozzolan
Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material, or fuel (Wikipedia.com).
Rice hulls are the coatings of seeds, or grains, of rice. To protect the seed during the growing season, the hull is formed from hard materials. The hull is mostly indigestible to humans.
Winnowing, used to separate the rice from hulls is to put the whole rice into a pan and throw it into the air while the wind blows. The light hulls are blown away while the heavy rice fall back into the pan. Later pestles and a simple machine called a rice pounder were developed to remove hulls. In 1885 the modern rice hulling machine was invented in Brazil. During the milling processes, the hulls are removed from the raw grain to reveal whole brown rice, which may then sometimes be milled further to remove the bran layer, resulting in white rice.
1.4 Uses of Rice Hulls Combustion of rice hulls affords rice husk ash (acronym RHA). This ash is a potential source of amorphous reactive silica, which has a variety of applications in materials science. Most of the ash is used in the production of Portland cement when burnt completely, the ash can have a blaine number of as much as 3,600 compared to the blaine number of cement between 2,800 to 3,000, meaning it is finer than cement. Silica is the basic component of sand, which is used with cement for plastering and concreting. This fine silica will provide a very compact concrete. The ash also is a very good thermal insulation material. The fineness of the ash also makes it a very good candidate for sealing fine cracks in civil structures, where it can penetrate deeper than the conventional cement sand mixture.
A number of possible uses for RHA include absorbents for oils and chemicals, soil ameliorants, a source of silicon, insulation powder in steel mills, as repellents in the form of “vinegar-tar” release agent in the ceramics industry, as an insulation material.
1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
The majority of rice husk goes into landfills since the burning in open piles is not acceptable due to environmental constraints. This makes the research on the potential uses of rice husk and rice husk ashof primary importance in the USA and around the world. The manufacturing of cement produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a prime contributor to the global warming. Typically, cement production results in CO2 emissions of about 0.8 – 1.2 tonnes/tonne of cement product depending on the production process and the fuel used. Also, using RHA in concrete will help to reduce the amount of cement due to the partial substitution of cement by RHA and by making the concrete last longer (Folliard K.J 2002)
1.6 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research is to enhance the understanding of the role of natural pozzolans in sandcrete performance and to see how pozzloanic material would replace cement in the near future.
1.7 OBEJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1) To enlighten people on rice husk Ash pozzolan Carryout a cost comparative analysis to ascertain the affordability and sustainability of rice husk ash.
2) To investigate the effectiveness of using naturally occurring pozzolan materials as an additive or substitute for cement in sandcrete mixtures.
3) Carryout an analysis to ascertain the affordability and sustainability of rice husk ash.
1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work examined the use of Rice Husk Ash as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement in concrete. It involved the determination of workability and compressive strength of the sandcrete at different level of replacement.
DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSMISSIBILTY AND STORAGE COEFFICIENT OF BOLE HOLES IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA
This study was carried out to investigate the determination of the transmissibility and storage coefficient of boreholes in South-Eastern Nigeria. Drawdown data collected during a pumping test are used to assess hydrologic properties of the aquifer. The application of the Theis and Theis-Jacob non-steady state method are used to determine the coefficient of transmissibility (T) and the coefficient of storage(S). But, due to variation of specific capacity of wells with time during the earliest period of pumping test, the values of T and S not remain constant with the time of pumping. A simple method is proposed in this study using graphical method to estimate the transmissibility and storativity of aquifer. In the projected method which is based on Theis’formula, no assumptions for the hydrologic parameters are required and the values of T and S are determined simultaneously.
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH GRANITE TO THAT MADE WITH RIVER ROUND STONE (PEBBLE) AND LOCAL STONE
This project was described as the comparative study of the strength of concrete made with pure granite (chipping) to that made with river round stone (pebbles) and local stone (sandstone) and their durability considered in the design of structures. The general background gives detailed information source of aggregates used and it cited examples on research carried out with various types of coarse aggregate which show their differences in concrete made with this three aggregates. Tests were carried out which include, impact test, Absorption test, slump test and comprehensive strength test, it was discovered that his different types of coarse aggregates (pure granite, river round stone, and local stone) have a satisfactory crushing strength. Granite with 28days of arising had a compressive strength of 45N/mm, river round stone was 36N/mm2 and that of local stone 18N/mm2. And this shows that granite has a greater strength than river round stone and local stone, which was mainly attributed to greater void spaces in river round stone and also in local stone. From the result of the project work, I recommend that good quality concrete could be made with all the aggregate used. But pure granite has superior quality than river round stone and local stone when used in heavy structure in high rising buildings.
Wardrobe is a large tall cupboard for hanging clothes. It is divided into two types, self-supported and wall supported wardrobe. It always has a small box at its side or at the base. We seasoned and treat the material (wood) before using it in constructing wardrobe, so that we will be able to contrast a quality wardrobe. Furthermore, we study physical and mechanical properties of wood. Physical properties of wood is the following permeability, density, moisture content e.t.c mechanical properties are as follows elastic strength, thermal conductivity grain orientate e.t.c. Wardrobe as the subject of this project, we should consider the above properties treat the materials very well and apply the right joint, so that we can be able to construct a wardrobe that can last.
DYNAMIC INVERSION STUDY OF SOIL MECHANICAL PARAMETERS
Based on the deep foundation pit works of Wuhan Metro Line 2 Gold Garden station, orthogonal test method, finite difference method and BP neural network method are synthetically used to do the inverse analysis study of mechanical parameters of foundation pit. The mechanical parameters are substituted in the finite difference process of deep foundation pit to simulate and calculate. The deformation and bearing situation of building enclosure and soil in the construction process of foundation pit is acquired, which is returned to the design and construction management to provide reference for design modification, construction optimization and engineering prediction, to ensure the security and stability of foundation pit and to greatly reduce investment outlay.
The development of powerful and affordable microcomputers and computer software will have an impact in the delivery of instruction in higher education. This is especially true for civil engineering education where the computer has started to be appreciated as a useful tool in civil engineering analysis and design. This work present the use of computers as tools in the classroom and the authors experience of integrating computer usage in some civil engineering courses.
The rapid development of computer technologies which include powerful and affordable micro-computers and liable user –friendly software has started to change the delivery of instruction in higher education. A computer has greatly increased the ability of students to perform calculations and to process large amount of data. As a result, the type and nature of problems and mathematical techniques taught in school may have to be changed or modified so that the usefulness of the computer can be maximized in the teaching-learning process. This is especially time for civil engineering education where the computer has started to be recognized as a useful and important tool in civil engineering analysis and design. In what way can computer usage be introduced in the curriculum? How can we increase the awareness of student on the importance of computers in the solution of the various problems in civil engineering? These and more are some of the question that will be addressed in this project report. [Oreta 2011]
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Civil engineering is the profession that focuses on drawing, design, construction and maintenance of buildings, bridges, transportation system, water and wastewater management, and other infrastructure that is relevant to society’s well being. In almost all the different aspects of civil engineering, it is virtually impossible to escape the application of COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. This application of computers in civil engineering goes beyond the normal black-box application and requires the engineers to be intelligent and cogent users in order to minimize trial and error approaches when designing physically sound design and analysis.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aims of the project is to discuss the various and specific use of computer and provide an avenue for the study of the acquisition of technical skills and knowledge in the use of computer in civil engineering, and also to be able to know how it is being used to solving problem in the preparation of civil engineering works.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is concentrated on concept of the use of computer in civil engineering. It involves various ways by which computer application is put in use in order to enhance civil engineering work.
LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
During the period of this project, some limitation were encountered, it was not easy for us to get information relevant to this research. The project work was a tasking job, which demand enough time and commitment, but the fact that we are combining the write up, it then become a bit easy to meet up on the base on the duration of activities in the project.
an organized collection of sources of information and similar resources, made
accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides
physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room,
or a virtual space, or both. The term library has itself acquired a secondary
meaning; a collection of useful material for common use, and in this sense is
used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics,
electronics and biology. Generally speaking, a library is a collection of
information, sources, resources, and services. A library’s collection can
include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints,
documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books,
audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few
shelves of books to several million items.(Gupta, 2002).
A library is organized for use and maintained
by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual.
Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by
people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection
themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have,
or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to
providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are
experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information
needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often
offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often
provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the
Internet.(Halsey, et al., 2009).
Modern libraries are increasingly being
redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats
and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of
a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by
providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large
amounts of information with a variety of digital tools. In addition to
maintaining collections within library buildings, modern libraries often
feature telecommunication links that provide users with access to information
at remotes sites. The central mission of a library is to collect, organize,
preserve and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this
mission, libraries preserve avaluable record of culture that can be passed down
to succeeding generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication
the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in
books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure that the record is preserved
and made available for later use. Libraries provide people with access to the
information they need to work, play, learn, and govern. Therefore a library
building is a structure which houses the various activities as described above.
Thompson, James. (Ed.). (1980), (Gupta, 2002).
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school’s curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown how many academic libraries there are internationally. The support of teaching and learning requires material for class readings and for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. (Halsey, et al., 2009).
Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university. When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries these are often referred to as niche collections. These collections are often the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers, artwork, and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. The academic library today is also no longer conceived as an ivory tower would with a collection of books and non-book materials, but a dynamic instrument of education (Thompson, 1980).
primary function of academic library is to provide facilities for study,
research and teachings. The true nature and efficiency of an institution is
judged by the treatment to its library. The library operates within the
governing framework of that institution which is characterized by academic,
financial and building policies. In line with this realization of purpose is a
true measurement of its importance in academics. The academic library should
therefore provide fundamental services affecting the whole university without
which it ceases to function as a center for teaching, researching and learning.
of the Design problem
city has glamorousbuildings which dominatethe urban pattern – a capital or city
hall, court house or post office, cathedral, temple, tower or public library.
However, a college or university may have but one, and often the library is one
to wear the crown of the campus.
the beginning of the 20th century saw a gradual change in the
philosophy of the library’s place in the university.
Increased research, new methods of instruction and more publications were instrumental in bringing about a change in the concept of the university library and it also became apparent that the strength of the teaching and research program was dependent upon the strength of the library. The basic function of an academic setting to educate its members is simply an invisible reality without the existence of a modern and well serviced academic library. This project borne out of the need to provide the client – Adeleke University a purpose built library facility that has a befitting structure and depicts the image of a University of international standard taking intoconsideration the incidence of technological advancement in modern libraries.
aim of this study is to design a library for a new and fast growing approved
private university while taking into consideration technological advancement in
the design and use of modern libraries.
The objectives are to:
existing university library buildings;
the quality, technical, functional and; behavioral aspects of the existing
academic library buildings;
performance standards and functional requirements in relation to library
out a detailed literature review about libraries (their history, plan form and
the necessary requirements for basic library design);
on the detailed examination of existing library buildings and literaturereview,
present a detailed and specific analysis of all activities which are to
beaccommodated in the proposed library building;
a design that will suit the standards required for the teaching and research
me of the university;
Effectively use materials and building construction technologies to produce a well-balanced structure and achieve a high level of aesthetic value.
Pay particular attention to use of computers, laptops, opac, e-library and order salient, ICT (Information and Communication technology) issues related to library design for this 21st century.
Enhance comfortable and eminent study conditions for readers and also cater for the rise in the quality of security of materials.
In the face of a possible scarcity of natural aggregates in the future in line with sustainable construction, this research investigates the feasibility of the use of recycled coarse aggregates as an alternative to natural coarse aggregates in structural concrete. The recycled coarse aggregate used in the research was processed from waste concrete.The percentage of recycled coarse aggregates by weight of all in aggregates in the test mixes were 0%, 5% 10% 20% and 30 % respectively. The properties of both natural and recycled coarse aggregates and the fresh and hardened properties of both control and trial concrete mixes were investigated. The results showed that therecycled coarse aggregates had poor mechanical and physical properties. Aggregate Impact Value, Aggregate Crushing Value, Compressive strength were lowered with an increase in recycle aggregate content. The recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) had little influence on the hardened density of concrete and an increase in recycled aggregate content led to a decrease in capacity.
1.0 Background to the
Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D) is produced during new construction, refurbishment or renovation of buildings. Demolition waste includes materials from complete building removal as well as partial removals when aspects of the buildings are retained. Construction and Demolition waste includes bricks, concrete, masonry, soil, rocks, lumber, paving materials glass, plastics, aluminum, steel, drywall (gypsum), plywood (formwork), plumbing fixtures, electrical, and roofing materials. Construction and Demolition waste will have increased from time to time proportionate with the development of the town and country. Thus, the necessity of finding appropriate solution to construction and Demolition waste destination must be clear. Reducing, reusing and recycling appear to be profitable alternatives that will increase the lifetime of landfills and reduce exploration of natural resources (Ryu, 2002).
Aggregate is a mixture of materials in the
concrete mix. It is a mixture of basic material in which the content consists
of three fourths of the concrete mix. In addition to the concrete mix materials
are composed of water, cement and additives, if necessary. Because the total
quantity of aggregate in a concrete mixture is large, the strength and
durability of a concrete depends on the characteristics aggregate itself. Among
the key features of an aggregate is the strength of compressive and bond
strength, size, shape and surface, the permeability and reactions to chemicals.
Besides the physical properties of an aggregate such as relative density, density
loam, porosity and absorption of moisture, soundness and resistance to acid and
alkali attack also affect the strength. Although however, it is known that
concrete strength decreases with increasing water ratio and the ratio of the
design in terms of a ratio of cement to aggregate. (Athanas,
Aggregates can be classified into two classes of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate (sand). Classification is based on the aggregate size where the size of the aggregate Gross is more than 5.0 mm while the size of the fine aggregate shall not exceed 5.0 mm. in concrete mixture, the quantity of both is different classes of aggregate based on the desired design strength of concrete. Normally, the strength of a concrete can be determined through water content and the quality of cement. Besides other conditions that affect the catalyst, temperature, type of mould and more. For the aggregate size, it affects concrete strength indirectly. Up to now be used in aggregate for produce concrete is appropriate use of concrete. Here, the possibility of new aggregates exist and need to be tested to ensure use appropriate or at least have a function similar to the existing aggregate. In Malaysia, the construction waste has course a significant impact on the environment and also increasing the concern a significant impact on the environment and also increasing the concern of the society (Chetna, 2006).
1.1 Problem Statement
main problem of this is to determine whether these crushed concrete can be
re-used for construction or for production of new concrete.
Construction and Demolition materials can be recovered through reuse and recycling. The choice of what and how construction and demolition materials can be recovered depends on many factors including type of project, working area and space on the site, cost effectiveness of recovery, project timeline and experience of contractor (Limbachiya, 2000). Many building materials from demolition projects and can be reused as part of the materials to construct a new building for a new project, which will then, involve both the construction and demolition activities. In order to ensure that certain building materials from demolition activities may be reusable, the planners or designer should design the new building with the same size and types of materials as in the old construction.
One of the major challenges of our present society is the protection of environment. Some of the important elements in this respect are the reduction of the consumption of energy and natural raw materials and consumption of waste materials. These topics are getting considerable attention under sustainable development nowadays. The use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes is showing prospective application in construction as alternative to primary (natural) aggregates. It conserves natural resources and reduces the space required for the landfill disposal.
Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its
juice. Bagasse ash is obtained by subjecting Bagasse to calcinations using
furnace. This work is aimed tat using Bagasse Ash as a replacement in the
production of concrete.
bagassewas collected from dumped in a marketin Kano and thereafter sun-drie to
eliminate any trace of moisture. It was then taken to the blast furnace for
calcinations(controlled burning) at a temperature of 1250OC for 25minutes.The ash was then weighed and sieved with a
90μm standard sieve and the quantity retained on the sieve (black carbon) was
weighed and discarded. The ash collected was investigated and its
chemical compositions were obtained. Normal Consistency and Setting time for Cement
and bagasse ash were determined. The concrete was batched using mix ratio 1:2:4
and the cement was replaced in varying percentages of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%
using Bagasse ash.Thereafter, the concrete was cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28days
and its properties both in fresh and harden state were determined.
result for Normal consistency of cement was achieved at 35% of water cement
ratio (140ml of water added) which is equal to 34mm penetration.While Normal
consistency for Bagasse ash was achieved at 33% of water Sugarcane Bagasse Ash
(SCBA )ratio (132mls of water added) which is equal to 35mm penetration. Hence,
the cement and bagasse ash are satisfactory for normal consistency of 34 to 35%
range of specification.The Slump of the
concrete shows a slight reduction as the bagasse ash content increases.
Also, the results of the compressive strength of concrete at 20% replacement has highest compressive
strength of 19.94N/mm2 at 28 days.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Titled page i
Table of content vi
List of Table vii
List of Figure viii
Aims and Objective
Scope of the study
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Properties of Concrete 7
2.2.1 Fresh properties 7
Hardened properties 7
Components of Concrete 7
Ordinary Portland Cement 7
2.3.3 Water 8
2.3.4 Admixtures 8
2.4 Cement 8
2.4.1 Types of cement 9
184.108.40.206 Portland cement 9
220.127.116.11 Portland pozzolana cement 11
2.4.2 Physical Properties of cement 12
18.104.22.168 Fineness 13
22.214.171.124 Consistency of cement paste 13
126.96.36.199 Setting time 14
Silica Fume 18
2.7 Bagasse 19
Work Done 20
3.1.2 Cement 25
3.1.3 Aggregate 25
188.8.131.52 Fine Aggregates 26
184.108.40.206 Coarse aggregate 26
Research Procedure 26
3.2.1 Production of Bagasse Ash 27
3.2.2 Characterization of Bagasse Ash
3.2.3 Test on Bagasse ash and cement 28
220.127.116.11 Finesses Test 28
18.104.22.168 Normal Consistency Test 29
22.214.171.124 Setting time test (Initial
and Final) 30
Test on aggregate 31
126.96.36.199 Sieve Analysis 31
188.8.131.52 Specific gravity and absorption
184.108.40.206 Moisture content 33
of Concrete Specimens and Mixing Procedure 34
FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
of Bagasse ash and cement 35
properties of cement and Bagasse ash Result 38
composition of sugarcane Bagasse Ash 38
on Sieve Analysis 40
size distribution for Bagasse Ash and OPC Cement 40
Results for Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate 41
4.2.3 Result for Sieve Analysis of
Coarse Aggregate 42
Test (Slump Test) 44
compressive strength Result 45
FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.2 Recommendation 47
LIST OF TABLE
Table 2.1 Typical composition of ordinary Portland cement 10
Chemical Requirement for pozzolan 16
Table 3.2 Mix proportion for the concrete work 35
Table 4.1 Physical properties of cement and Bagasse
Table 4.2 Chemical
composition of cement and SBA 39
Table 4.3 Grain Size distribution for bagasse ash and OPC Cement 40
Table 4.4 Sieve analysis results for fine aggregate 41
Table 4.5 Sieve analysis results for coarse aggregate
Table 4.6Concrete Slump
Table 4.6Average Compressive Strength 42
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 3.1 Diagram
of sugarcane Bagasse ash 26
Graph for gradation of Bagasse ash and cement 37
Figure 4.2 Graph
for sieve analysis of fine aggregate 39
Figure 4.3 Graph for sieve analysis of coarse aggregate
4.4Concrete Slump Test 42
Figure 4.4.1 Average Compressive Strength 43
Concrete is the most commonly used
construction material in the world. It is basically composed of two components:
paste and aggregates. The paste which acts as binder contains cement, water and
occasionally admixtures; the aggregate contains sand and gravel or crushed
stone(Naik andMoriconi, 2003). The aggregate are relatively inert filler
materials which occupy 70% to 80% of concrete and can therefore be expected to
have influence on its properties( Mindess and Young, 2003).The infrastructural needs of developing countries have
lead to huge increase in demand for Portland cement. According to BAU scenario,
cement consumption will grow at high rate on world level in the year 2000-2030 ,the 1600 Metric tones of cement
consumption in 2000 will increase almost two folds to 2880 Metric tons by 2030,
implying an annual 2% grow rate (Nurdeen and Shahid, 2010).
Cement is one of the constituents of
concrete and of very high technical benefits, but expensive and environmentally
unfriendly material. (Naik and Moriconi,
2006). Therefore, requirements for economical and more environmental friendly
cementing material have extended interest in other cementing materials that can
be used as supplement for Ordinary
Portland cement. Ground granulated furnace slag, fly ash etc have been used
successfully for this purpose, Ordinary Portland Cement is frequently used as a
major construction material in the country and the world at large. It is considered as a durable material
of construction. However, the environmental issue is on the increasing side, as
Portland cement is responsible for about 5%-8% global carbon dioxide (CO2)
emissions due to it high demand(Jayminkumar and Raijiwala,2015). Researchers all over the worlds are
searching out on ways of utilizing either industrial or agricultural waste as a
source of raw material for industries. This waste utilization will not only aid
the economy but will also bring about foreign exchange earnings and
environmental pollution control.
Sugarcane is an agricultural product from which Bagasse Ash is obtained after squeezing out the sugary water in the sugarcane and subjecting it to heat by incinerating the residue through control burning to form ash. (Patcharin et al.,2009). Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice (Osinubi and Stephen,2005). The Sugarcane Bagasse creates environmental nuisance due to poor disposal which in turn forms garbage heaps (Oyejobi and Lawal, 2014). According to(Barroso and Bareras, 2000) one ton of sugarcane can generate 280kg of Bagasse waste. In the Northern part of Nigeria there is high production of sugarcane due to the soil and weather condition which favorably supports the farming of sugarcane and consequently there is abundant generation of Sugarcane Bagasse/residue waste which cause economic as well as environmental related issue. To solving these issues, enormous effort have been towards the Bagasse ash waste management. But there are yet no adequate research about the usefulness of sugarcane residue in the country, very little value is being attached to Bagasse. The residue has been found to be used for primary fuel source and also, for paper production. However, incinerating it to ash and adopting it as a good pozzolan adds to its economic value.The advancement in technology and desire for safer environment has stimulated the sense of economic reuse and proper management of material earlier discarded as waste. According to( Oriola and Moses, 2010), industrial activities often lead to depletion of natural resources, a process that may result in the accumulation of by-product and/or waste material. It is need of time to rise to the use of cement replacement materials in the concrete which can reduce the significant amount of cement consumption due to the hazardous effect of CO2 to the environment. The incinerating of organic waste of sugarcane i.e. Bagasse Ash contains pozzolanic material, Therefore, it is highly recommended to conduct research on Bagasse and their impact on concrete behavior, and also be adopted has a suitable replacement of cement in concrete.
This report comprises of my practical
experience during my six (6) months SIWES, which consist of three chapters.
Outline the introduction, aim and objectives of the SIWES and scope of the report.
Dealt with Reinforced Concrete Drainage Construction processes.
It also include problem encountered,
proffered solutions and experienced gained.
Focus mainly on conclusion and recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Objective of SIWES 1
Scope of report 2
2.0 Industrial/Field experience 3
2.1 Project Task 3
2.1.1 Construction Stages 3
2.1.2 Preparing the site 3
2.1.3 Establishing of the points on ground 4
2.1.4 Drainage excavation 4
2.1.5 Reinforcement of the Drainage 5
2.1.6 Problems Encountered 7
2.1.7 Benefits derived from the training 7
3.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 8
3.1 Conclusion 8
3.2 Recommendation 8
The Students Industrial Work Experience
Scheme (SIWES) slated for 6 months which is a requirement for the completion of
my course of study, was undertaken at Kwara
State Ministry of Works and Transport, Ilorin. As a student attaché
at Kwara State Ministry of Works and Transport, Ilorin,
I was exposed to Engineering Practical activities which really bridged between
the theories learnt in the classroom and the real world practical applications.
I had the opportunity to make use of machines such as the Concrete mixing
machine, the Excavator and reinforcement sizes etc.
1.1OBJECTIVE OF SIWES
SIWES will provide students the
opportunity to test their interest in a particular career before permanent
commitments are made.
SIWES students will develop skills in the
application of theory to practical work situations.
SIWES will provide students the
opportunity to test their aptitude for a particular career before permanent
commitments are made.
SIWES students will develop skills and
techniques directly applicable to their careers.
SIWES will aid students in adjusting from
college to full-time employment.
SIWES will provide students the
opportunity to develop attitudes conducive to effective interpersonal
SIWES will increase a student’s sense of
SIWES students will be prepared to enter
into full-time employment in their area of specialization upon graduation.
SIWES students will acquire good work
students will develop employment records/references that will enhance
1.2 SCOPE OF THE REPORT
scope of work includes the following:
and removal of topsoil and cuttings
with laterite from approved borrow pits
reinforced concrete drain of 0.75m by 0.6m
reinforced concrete slab (150mm thick)
and shape naturally occurring laterite material to a compacted thickness of
150mm sub-base and base each
INDUSTRIAL/ FIELD EXPERIENCE
During the period of six month of Industrial
Training, I was involved in the construction unit of civil engineering.
I was posted to OSI-OBBO
Construction, where I was involved in Earthwork, Construction of drainage.
This is the phase that requires the most planning; this is because if you take your time when designing, the actual construction process will be a lot quicker and smoother. Planning at this stage tends to be more basic, they will be asking questions like; will this actually be feasible, or will it cost more than we have. The initial design for the project will be drawn by the Engineer who will have been given a brief of the client and will then from this brief begin design. After the surveyor investigation has been completed, the structural engineer designs for the reinforcement and grade of concrete to be used for the construction project. The structural engineer designs for the maximum loading envisaged that the pavement would carry and at the same time consider the cost of construction.
This project is anchored on the design
and construction of Tiles, windows and furniture involves in the conference
room their method and pattern of construction, it’s advantages value and as
well other valuable tool such as; working tools for the construction of tiles; (cement,
white cement, fine aggregate e.t.c); tools for the construction of windows; (nails
and screws, drills e.t.c) and also tools for the construction of furniture
Furthermore, the purpose of tiles, it
values, it significance from other floor beauty materials, and also the types
of tiles and the purposes of other types as differ.
In addition too, this project covers
the construction of different types of windows, even for the differential
purpose, the value of different window structures as pertaining to it cost and
the shapes as ficatured in the pictures.
TABLE OF CONTENT
of content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aims and Objectives 2
1.2 Scopes of Study 3
2.0 Literature Review 4-
2.1 Ceramics, Tiles, And Manufacturing process.
2.2 Methods of Manufacturing Ceramic tiles 8-9
2.3 Type Glazed Ceramic tiles 9
2.3.1 Glazed Ceramic tiles 10
2.3.2 Unglazed ceramic tiles 10
2.4 Ceramic floor tile manufactures 10
2.5 Packing grading and sorting of ceramic
floor tiles 11
2.6 Pattern formation with tiles 12
2.7 Methods of tiles placement 12
2.8 Precaution that are necessary during tile
2.9 Materials used for tiling 16
2.10 Tools necessary for ceramic floor tile. 17
2.11 Construction method 18
to Aluminium Window 21
3.1 Important of window 21
3.2 Different types of material used for window 21
3.3 Glass, Aluminium and Burglary Metal Frame
3.3.2 Metals 26
3.4 Scope of project 27
3.5 Aim and objective 27
3.6 Material used 28
3.7 Properties of Metal 29
3.8 Properties of Aluminium 30
3.9 Properties of Glass 30
3.10 Properties of Rubber 31
3.11 Design and construction of Aluminium window
and burglary Frame for office use. 31
3.12 Finishing 32
3.13 Joint and connection 33
Safety Precaution 34
4.0 Material used for the Furniture 36
4.1 Tools and equipment 37
4.2 Finishing 40
5.0 Conclusion 43
5.1 Recommendation 44
LIST OF PLATES
3.1 – Laying of Tiles
3.2 – Window Casement
3.3 – Window Casement
3.4 – Conference Table and Chair
A tile is a manufactured pieces of hard
wearing materials such as ceramic, stone, metal used as a finishing floor and
walls or other object such as table top used as ornamentals that add beauty to
the surface applied either in buildings, offices and so on. Another category is
the ceiling tile, made from light weight materials such as wood and mineral
Tiles are used to form wall and floor
coverings and can range from single square tiles to complete mosaic. Tiles are
most often from ceramics, with a raft glazed finished, and also same other
materials which are available such as glass, marble, granites, slates and
reformed ceramic slurry which is cost in a mould and fired.
In the past 20years, the technology
surrounding porcelain and glass tiles had become more efficient, allowing for
mass production. Similarly the invention automated tile line that used diamond,
to cut and finished stone slabs into tiles has made stone tile more available.
This is in term as allowed these tiles to move from beings riche items into
The ceramic tile demand index has shown
a growth of 55% annually for the year 2000-2005 periods. The OSAN world demand
for finished granite index has shown a growth of 14% annually for the year
2000-2005 periods. Hence, OS market for ceramic is about 3billion.
1.1AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
main aim of the project is to remodelling the conference room using tiles as
the floor finishing and with the following objectives.
To improve the floor
surface finishing by laying tile on the floor.
To carry out investigation
on various type of tiles which are available for used.
To know the various methods
involved in laying floor tiles.
Also to know various
materials, equipment and tools used in floor tiles construction.
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY
This project entails the production of bill
of quantities and construction of offices floor tiles and the processes of
construction of floor tiles finishing.
To allow for routine
maintaining of a floor surface
To improve the floor
surface damp proofness
Tiles are derived from the French
word tuile, which is in turn form the latin word togola, meaning a roof tile
composed of backed clay. Clays are hydrated aluminosilicate and are the end
product of weathering of feldspathic rock. The most important clay mineral is
kalonite which has the composition A3L203-29102-2H20 less precisely, the modern
term can refer to any object such as rectangular counters in playing games.
word ‘CERAMICS’ from the great word ‘KAROMOS’ meaning ‘POTTERY’ pottsclay or a
‘PETTER’. This greek word is related to an old sand skirt root meaning to born
that was primarily used to mean burnt stuff.
The technical definition of ceramics
encompasses a much greater variety of products than it’s normally realized. To
most people the word ceramics means dinnerware, figurines vases and other
objects of ceramics art.
However, accompanying the growth in the
demand has been some stifts in the word ceramic industry. In 1990, Europe
accounted for 54% of the world ceramic title product by 2002, world ceramic
tile product in the same period was dropped a little. Asia now has state of the
art equipment in its ceramic tile plants, which means much lower cost. European
still do well with higher priced ceramic tile with sophisticated and
fashionable designs and with propellant (high quality porcelain) tiles.
Beginning in 2004, the stronger Euro made
at cheaper to manufacture ceramic tile in the US and distribute them from such
as plant. The US is the world’s largest
market for ceramictiles, a number of European (most Italian) ceramic tile
manufacture built or expanded their US
plants and brought out domestic ceramic tile firms. The European tile
firms not only benefit from lower manufacturing cost but also from distributing
at a lower cost and faster rate. Thus less inventory was required.
Things have been difficult in the dimension stone tile industry. By the beginning of the 1980, automated stone tile plant are busy in Italy since additional innovated many plant with automated stone tiles lines, as does Spain, Turkey, Brazil, and other countries. The three US automated tile that were short tile producers of granted tile from mid 1980, to the mid 1990. Closed one by one. The last one actually closed in mid 2002. Marble tile is still produced to a limited extent but most American marble tiles product plants in carrara, Italy that makes it from rough blocks of vermouth (DANBY) marble. The amount of slate flouring tiles was dwindled a little since 2000.
of investigation on the characteristics of cornstalk blended ash cement was
carried out based on the interest of coming out with a good pozzolanic material
with all required cement properties. Hence,the supposed competitive demand relationship between cement products in
construction works has been majorly wined by cement and this makes people to
depend mostly on it despite the increase in price and some with inadequate
In an attempt to reuse
and convert agro wastes into useful materials for the construction industry,
this research considered the application of corn stalk ash (CSA) as partial
replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the production of concrete
The study investigated the oxide composition of CSA to
ascertain its suitability as a pozzolanic material. Some properties of cement
with CSA as a replacement for OPC were examined.
The results showed that CSA is not a good pozzolana as
it does not satisfy the requirement for use as a pozzolana
according to ASTM C618(2005). The
strength of the specimens with replacement levels at 10% and 20% cured
for periods of 7–28 days was lower at early curing time but improved
significantly at later age.10% replacement level did not show increased
strength compared to 20% CSA at 28 days curing period. Density decreased withincreasing
ash content, water absorption rate increased with increased CSA contents, while
abrasionresistance increased with increasing amount of CSA substitutions. The
test results revealed that
CSA concrete cubes can attain higher strength than the conventional ones
at longer curing periods,due to its pozzolanic reactions.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Aim of the study
Objectives of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.Corn and Corn
2.2.Corn and Corn
Composition of Corn Stalk
Stalk Ash blended Cement and Construction Industry
4.2 Results for Surface Area, Residue
4.3 Compressive Strength for Ordinary
4.4 Compressive Strength of Cornstalk
4.5 Compressive Strength of
Cornstalk Blended Ash-20
4.6 Flexural Strength of Ordinary Cement,
10 and 20 Blended Cement
Table 4.7 Compressive Strength of Ordinary Cement, 10
and 20 Blended Cement
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1: Properties of Cement
3.1: Corn plant
3.2: Specimen of Cornstalk
3.3: Cornstalk Ash
4.1: Flexural Strength Graph of
4.2: Compressive Strength Graph of
Cornstalk Blended Ash
to the study
Various blends of cement utilized in
construction are portrayed by their physical properties. Some key parameters
control the nature and quality of cement. The physical properties of good
cement are based on; Fineness of cement, Soundness, Consistency, Strength,
Setting time, Heat of hydration, Loss of
ignition, Bulk density, Specific gravity (Relative density). In addition, cement has a very high cost in many
developing countries like Nigeria and its usage cannot be sustained.
The need for moderate structure materials in giving satisfactory lodging to
people of the world has turned into the real worry of researchers.The expense
of traditional structure materials keep on expanding as most of the populace
keeps on falling beneath the destitution line. This consequently requires the
look for elective neighborhood materials as aggregate or fractional swap for
concrete (Adesanya and Raheem, 2009; Akinwumi and Aidomojie, 2015; Raheem
&Adedokun 2017). The research has led to the
discovery of the potentials of using industrial by-products and agricultural
wastes as replacement of some cement materials.Agricultural and industrial
wastes possess pozzolanic properties used in cement replacement.The
application of agro
and industrial wastes
in the production
of cement is an
environmentally friendly method of disposal
of large amounts of substances that would have constituted pollution to land,
water and air. The agricultural and industrial wastes that possessed pozzolanic
characteristics and which had been studied
and applied as partial replacements for cement are Rice husk ash
[6-9], Corn cob ash [4, 10-12], Waste burnt clay [13-14], Hair fibre  and
Saw dust ash [16-17]. The saw dust ash (SDA) which has been proven to be a
pozzolanic material was used as a partial substitution for OPC in this study.
Many researchers have argued that concrete is one of the major materials used
for radiation protection in facilities. The radiation protection feature of
concrete depends on its components. Cement production is one of the important
sources of carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. CO2,which is a greenhouse
gas, contributes about 65% of global warming (Vijayakumar, 2013; Raheem
&Adedokun 2017). The high energy demand as well as the emission of carbon
dioxide, which caused global warming and depletion of limestone deposits are
the major challenges associated with cement production.
In the recent years, there is great interest in
replacing a long time used materials in concrete structure by new materials to
produce cheaper, harder and durable concrete.Abdelrahman& El-Awney (2015).The
raw materials for cement production are limestone (calcium), sand or
clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum) and iron ore, and may include shells, chalk,
marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, slate. Chemical analysis of cement raw
materials provides insight into the chemical properties of cement.
Corn, also known as maize, is one of the most successful cereal grasses of all time. It has been under human cultivation for over 10,000 years and has spread itself into every niche of commercial agriculture (Adesanya, & Raheem (2009). Maize crop started as a subsistence crop in Nigeria and has gradually risen to a commercial crop on which many agro-based industries depend on as raw materials (Iken, and Amusa, 2014).Corn stalk is a waste product obtained from maize plant, which is the major cereal crop produced in sub-Saharan Africa.Therefore, this research investigated the use of Corn stalk as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement in the production of concrete cubes. It includes the determination of the oxide,composition of the CSA, evaluation of the compressive strength, density, water absorption,crushing strength of the concrete and the abrasive resistance of the concrete cubes.
2.3 Water Management Practices and Policy in
2.4 Water Allocation Guidelines and Principles 10
2.5 Water Resources Management Models for River Basin Simulation 11
2.5.1 MODSIM 12
2.5.3 RIBASIM 14
2.5.4 REALM 15
2.5.5 WEAP21 16
2.6 Description of the SWAT Modeling and SWAT Components 18
2.7 SWAT Strength and Limitation 20
of SWAT Model 21
2.8 Previous Water Supply And Demand Studies 21
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 25-36
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Model Selection and Description 25
3.3 Model Data Requirements and Collection 27
Elevation Model (DEM) 27
Use and Land Cover (LULC) 29
3.4 SWAT Model Set-Up and Run 33
3.5 Water Yield Potential and Estimation of Available Water Resources 35
3.6 Water demand estimation 36
3.7 Population Forecasting 36
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION 37-42
4.1 Prediction of Water Balance Component 37
4.2 Prediction of Water Yield Potentials in the
Sub-basin of Asa
4.3 Estimation of Available Water Resources 41
4.4 Estimation of Water Demand of the River
4.5 Comparison of Water Supply and Demand 42
5.0 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND
5.1 Conclusions 43
5.2 Recommendations 44
This study arose from the growing water demand within the Asa River Basin due to population upsurge, the absence of existing water demand management strategies, the possibility of scarcity as a result of climate change, and the need for sustainable water resources management. The aim of the study was to assess water availability and water demand of Asa catchment using GIS-based hydrological model. The methodology involved the input of spatial and temporal data into Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using Geographic Information System (GIS) as interface. After the model was configured, set up and run, the water balance components and water yield potential were predicted. The modelling results showed that evapotranspiration is the highest water balance component while the lowest is lateral soil flow. The spatial distribution of water yield potentials in the sub-basins of the study area showed that sub-basin 9 has the lowest water yield potential while sub-basin 84 has the highest. The total water yield potential of the study area is 1,296,676.5mm while the total area of the river catchment is 5,618.28km2. The available water resources in the catchment were estimated to be 7.2 billion m3. The projected total population of the domiciled local governments in the catchment for 2015 is 1,203,743 persons and the water demand for this population was estimatedas 1.3 billion m3. Comparing the water demand with the available water resources shows that the available water resources outweigh the water demand, which implies that there was no scarcity. However, there may be future scarcity due to the increasing population and climate change.
Background to the study
Water is a vital
resource for every human activity. Water makes life possible. Without it, life
and civilization cannot develop or survive (Ojekunle, 2011). Water forms the
largest part of most living matter and is vital
to man just
as air and
food are (Ayoade,
2003). The management and
maintenance of water is thus very important (Fiorilloa, 2007). The accelerating
growth of human
population, the rapid
advances made in
industry and agriculture have
resulted in a
rapidly increasing use
of water by
man, to the
extent that the availability of water as well as the
control of excessive water has become a critical factor in the development of
every regions of
the world (Williams,
decades, water supply management has
proved to be
insufficient to deal
with strong competition
for water with growing
per capita water
use, increasing population,
urbanization pollution and
storages (Wang Xiao – Jun et al,
2009). In addition, the need for
domestic, industrial and agricultural water supply is growing, but the absence
of demand management strategies means that the increase in demand will likely
outstrip the available supply, hence water scarcity (UNESCO, 2006). One-third
of the world’s total population of 5.7 billion lives under conditions of
relative water scarcity and 450 million people are under severe water stress
(UN, 1997). The issue of water scarcity in the world and its implication on
development of new political and economic
relations among countries
may result to
crisis in the
future. Thus, there is need for
the implementation of effective water resources management which becomes
particularly important towards determining how much water
is available for
human use and
economic activities that
water should be shared between users.
Population growth is
a major contributor to water scarcity. The
global population is expanding by 80 million people annually, increasing the demand
for freshwater by about 64 billion m3a year (Population Institute,
2010). Rapid population growth and urbanization could expose more people to
water shortages, with negative implications for livelihoods, health, and
security. These demographic trends, coupled with increasing per-capita water
consumption, will be a huge development challenge (Bates, Kundzewicz, Wu and
Palutikof, 2008). Growthin population
implies mounting demand and competition
of water for domestic, industrial, and municipal uses
(Population Action International, 2011). Population growth
leads directly to
increases in overall
water demand, while
other demographic factors such as population distribution and age
structure modifies the pattern in demand and determines increases
in household water
demand. Overall, the amount of
water each person uses is expected to increase as incomes grow and consumption
increases (UN-Water and FAO. 2007).
Evidences are ample
that there is an explosion in the population of cities in Nigeria (Eja, Inah,
YaroandInyang, 2011; Nwosu, 2013). The effect of the rapid urban population
growth is noticeable through the provision of municipal services such as
pipe-borne water. Expectations of the populace on the activities of policy
makers for the supply of water are quite high. (Sule, 2008). Water can be said
to be adequate when an individual is availed a quantity of at least 50 litres
per day (World Health Organization, 2003).
The unavailability of
water in required proportion for man’s use has assume global crises dimension. According to
the Population Institute
(2010), only 20
percent of the
global population has
access to running water and over
1 billion people do not have access to
clean water. The Population Institute noted further that with a projected population
of the world to expand to 9 billion people by 2050, it is estimated that 90
percent of the additional 3 billion people will be living in developing countriess,
many of which are already experiencing water stress or scarcity therefore, it
is pertinent to manage water resources sustainably.
management has a significant impact on the socio-economic development of a
catchment. The water demands and availability depends on the economic,
ecological, land use, and climatic changes of a region (Droogers,2012).Water
resource management is a multifaceted issue that becomes more
complex when considering
multiple nations’ interdependence upon a
single shared trans boundary river basin (Teasley and McKenney, 2011). The management
of water resources
as a common
resource would require
trade-off among countries
and water users (Yang and
Zehnder, 2007). The need therefore to devise means by which available water can
be consumed and allocated among the various uses is pertinent.
The planning of
human activities involving rivers and their floodplains must consider
hydrological facts; (…) the flows and storage volumes vary over space and time
(Loucks et al, 2005). The necessity
of predicting the
hydrological patterns is essential to
the reservoir management. The
reservoirs have to
insure not only
the water quality,
but also the
human, the industrial and
the agricultural consumption. Nowadays the environmental
concerns such as the aquatic biodiversity and the environmental pressure have
an increased influence in the decision-making.
Asa River is one of the major sources of water supply in Kwara state. This study simulates the hydrological process of Asawatershed that allows for the estimation of available water resources, so that sustainable and rational utilization, conservation and management of available water resources will be adopted using Soil and Water Asessment Tool (SWAT) model. The study also proffers alternative strategies for water conservation that will meet water demand within the basin.
water is the most important natural resource especially in the arid or
semi-arid zones that face high population growth, scarcity of freshwater,
irregularity of rain- fall, excessive land use change and increasing
vulnerability to risks such of drought, desertification and pollution. Thus,
the availability and the sustainable use of this resource become the core of
the local and national strategies and politics in these regions.
is the main governing backbone of all kinds of water movement and hence of
water-related pollutants. Understanding the hydrology of a watershed and
modeling different hydrological processes within a watershed are therefore very
important for assessing the environmental and economical well-being of the
watershed. These models can offer a sound scientific framework for watershed
analyses of water movement and provide reliable information on the behavior of
The degradation of hydrological
resources has made it essential to encourage management practices based on
knowledge of spatial and temporal changes in the quantity and quality of water,
in order to ensure the suitability of water supplied for different uses. This
can be assisted by using hydrological and water quality models to simulate a
wide range of processes in hydrographic basins, such as the production of water
and sediments and the dynamics of point and nonpoint sources of pollution.
models are powerful tools to represent water-resource availability and behavior
in drainage basins under many applications, such as climate change, flood,
drought, runoff and nutrient movement (Abbaspour et al., 2015). They can assist
in the planning and decision-making processes for environment protection and
the guarantee of water availability for future uses (Da Silva et al., 2015;
Fatichi et al., 2016).
ability of hydrological model to produce satisfactory predictions is
necessarily correlated to adequate sensitivity analysis and model calibration
(Song et al., 2015). Hydrological models, such as SWAT, incorporate several
parameters (climatic, hydrological and others) obtained theoretically and
through field data collection. Some of these contribute greatly to model
outputs (sensitive parameters), while others have minor relevance
(non-sensitive parameters) (Van Griensven et al., 2006).
is a river that flow southward through southern Nigeria into Lagos lagoon and
Atlantic Gulf of Guinea. It is one of the several rivers ascribed in local
mythology to have been women who turned into flowing waters after some
traumatic event frightened or angered them. Osogbo GPS coordinates are
7˚46’15.74’’N and 4˚33’25.13’’E. Due to the potential of Osun river basin as a
major source of water supply, this study will develop a plan that will allow
for the sustainable management and treatment of the
water in the catchment area.
1.2 Problem Statement
River Catchment main source is one of the major sources of water supply,
drinking and commercial purposes. It therefore important to know sensitive
hydrologic parameters that contribute and hinder the stream flow out and
sediment concentration in the catchment area.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The main aim of this project is to
investigate the use of modeling tool for sensitivity analysis of stream flow
hydrologic and sediment parameters. Specific objectives achieved are:
Simulation of the hydrological process of
the watershed using temporal and spatial data.
Prediction of the stream flow and sediments
yield of the watershed.
Determine the influence of the hydrologic
and sediment parameters on stream flow and sediment yield prediction.
Most rivers are ungauged especially in
developing countries and therefore prediction of stream flow for sustainable
water management is regarded as an alternative. Prediction of stream flow and
sediment yield requires many hydrologic and sediment parameters. Also,
calibrating and validating such models are quite cumbersome due to many
parameters to deal with.
Therefore, it is very important to
carry out sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters to assist modelers in
concentrating effort on most sensitive parameters that affect prediction of
stream flow and sediment yield.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work is to carry out the sensitivity analysis of hydrologic parameters in
modelling stream flow of osun river catchment. The analysis will be based on preliminary
modelling results obtained from the modelling of the watershed. Parameters of
interest are stream flow out and sediments yield with
31years meteorological data for the modeling exercises.
Model calibration and validation were not part of the scope covered in this research work.
is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday
usage, distance may refer to a physical length, or estimation based on other
criteria (e.g. “two counties over”). In most cases, “distance
from A to B” is interchangeable with “distance from B to A”. In
mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept
of physical distance. A metric is a function that behaves according to a
specific set of rules, and is a way of describing what it means for elements of
some space to be “close to” or “far away from” each other.
The distance meter, which is the focus of this study, is used for accurately
determining the distance of an object without contact using ultrasonic sensor.
The distance meter is frequently used in the industrial sector and especially
with professions relating to construction, such as architecture, surveying,
carpentry, masonry, locksmiths. Distance meter is a popular application for
ultrasonic technology. This device measures geometric distances, heights,
lengths, levels and positions in a non-contact process. To achieve this, all
the components work together in a perfectly coordinated overall system. This
system is made up of a ultrasonic sensor, the transmitter and receiver optics
and sophisticated electronics and algorithms for time or phase measurement (Spasov, 2014).
On the other hand, distance detector is any device capable of measuring the distance between two points. The origins of distance measurement by means of graduated lengths of material such as chain, tape measure or piece of knotted rope are lost to antiquity. Optical distance measurement also has a long history, and is usually taken to stem from the work of James Watt in 1771. Electro-magnetic measurements make up a third method, where the time of travel of radio or light waves is converted into a distance. Since James Watt, hundreds of different types of instrument have been produced to make indirect distance measurement using light. All kinds of devices or equipment nowadays, begin with the basic design, basic theory and then all the weakness followed by improvement step by step. So this project will also do right the same reason which the improvement will be applied to bring the advantages to the user when measuring the distance depending on several problems that had been identified. The purpose of why this project is being carry out is the ultrasonic technology that is been used for this project because ultrasonic technology is one of the medium on how the distance will be measure and this is one of the ways that the world today widely used especially in some kind of general application such as in warfare applications, engineering applications and also in scientific and medical applications. Basically this ultrasonic technology is based on ultrasound and a common use of ultrasound is in range finding that perfectly related to the objectives of this project. This technology can be used for measuring: wind speed and direction, fullness of a tank, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure the amount of liquid in a tank, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid (Sinclair Ian and Dunton, 2007).
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
Ultrasonic Sensor or Module is used in this work for distance measurement. This article explains you how to measure the distance using 8051 microcontroller. This system measures the distance up to 4 meters with an accuracy of 3 mm. In present work the object position is measured electronically by using seven segment displays by replacing the heavy and bulky circuits with the compact circuits using intelligent Microcontroller. The bulky pressing switch is replaced by the small and one touch tactile switch. It saves electric consumption, saves the no. of man power, through seven segment display and one microcontroller as well as ultrasonic receiver & transmitter sensors.
this research, an hydrological modelling tool, soil and water assessment tool
(SWAT) used to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of sediment yield
in a watershed. The model was run for 31years using spatial data such as
Digital Elevation Model, soil map, land use and precipitation, wind and solar
radiation. The results showed that the maximum value ofsurface Runoff was estimated
as 19100.034mm in the year 2005 while the minimum surface Runoff was 1000.671mm
in the year 20017. The maximum value of sediment yield was estimated as
2340.532mm in the 2005 and the minimum value was estimated as 34.769mm in the
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content vi
List of Figures ix
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Aims & Objectives 2
1.4 Justification 3
1.5 Scope of Study 3
1.6 Description of Study Area 3
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Literature Review 5
2.1 Sediment Source Analytical Techniques 5
2.2 Sediment Yield Measurements 6
2.3 Field Measurements of Sediment Yield 7
2.4 Sediment Yield Modeling 7
2.5 Brief Description of Selected Hydrology Models 8
2.5.1 RIBASIM 8
2.5.2 WEAP 9
2.5.3 Realm Resource Allocation Model 9
2.5.4 HSPF Model 10
2.5.5 AGNPS Model 10
2.5.6 SWAT Models 11
2.6 SWAT Model Description 11
2.7 Water Shed Hydrological Modeling. 11
3.0 Methodology 13
3.1 Model Selection and Description 13
3.2 Model Input Data 14
3.3 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 14
3.4 Soil Map 15
3.5 Weather Data 16
3.6 SWAT Model Set-up and Run 16
3.7 Water Shed Delineation 16
3.8 Land use map of the watershed 17
FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 RESULTS 19
4.1 Temporal Variation of
total means for surface runoff 19
4.2 Temporal variation of total means for sediment yield 20
4.3 Temporal variation of annual means for sediment yield 21
4.4 Temporal variation of annual means for surface runoff 21
FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Conclusion 23
5.1 Recommendation 23
is an integral part of life, as human beings derived from the environment
several services that are necessary for the survival, Water is one of the basic
needs that human beings cannot live without; indeed water is life! Therefore,
water-related (hydrological) ecosystem services provided by the environment
(e.g provision, regulation and purification of freshwater) are quite valuable
and important for human well-being. This underscores the importance of sound
watershed management for continued provision of hydrological ecosystem
services. From a hydrological point of view, a watershed includes all land
contributing water (surface and ground water) to a reference point.
is therefore obvious that land comprising of any watershed would generally be
under other uses such as forests, agriculture and urban centers, which might
commonly be considered ‘primary’ land uses. This means that watersheds provide
other important ecosystem services, beside provision of hydrological ecosystem
services. In some cases, enhanced provision of some ecosystem services may also
lead to reduced capacity of watersheds to provide other services e.g. intensive
cultivation to maximize food production may also lead to increase in soil
erosion and consequently degradation of water quality.
yield is the amount at a point of interest in a particular period of time which
occur due to heavy rainfall, are normally as tones per year or kilogram per
large part of failure to achieve reasonable estimates of average annual
sediment lies in particles of extrapolating relationship derived from field
data with no consideration of appropriateness for future conditions.
yield is affected by many factors such as climate, soil, relief, vegetation and
human influence. Runoff refers to as the part of water cycle that flow over
land as surface water.
Runoff has been used as a variable
representing climatic conditions and includes not only the water that travel over
the land surface and through channels to reach a stream but also interflow, the
water that infiltrates the soil surface and travels by means of gravity toward
a stream channel.
In this study offa water shed is simulated to predict the surface runoff and sediment yield. The spatial and temporal variation obtained can be used as a decision support tool in the management of the water shed.
This project work is concerned with assessment to
different types of foundation and their mode of construction though looks like
a literature review but entails full information and chosen.
Foundation samples were limited to three different
locations within Ilorin metropolis. Terzaghi equation was used for determining
soil bearing capacity of the three cohesionless soil samples taken.
The result obtained from the calculation shows that the
soil in the three foundation Examined can resist any excessive settlement of
super-structure load without excessive settlement of shear and it shows a good
indication that the soil is good to be used as a sub grade or sub-base
materials for construction.
In general the soil material in those three foundation
posses similar characteristic.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ii
Table of Contents viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Aim and Objective of the Study 1
1.2 Objectives 1
1.3 Scope of the Study 2
1.4 Justification of the Study 2
1.5 Statement of the Problem 2
1.6 Methodology 3
2.0 Foundation in General 4
2.1 Design Requirement 4
2.2 Foundation Bearing Capacity Analysis 5
2.2.1 Type of Bearing Capacity 5
2.2.2 Presumed Bearing Value Table (Bs 8004: 1986)
Preliminary Design 5
2.3 Choice of Foundation 6
2.4 Factors Affecting the Choice of
3.0 Methodology & Type of Foundation 8
3.0.1 Pile Foundation 8
3.0.2 Pile Categories 10
3.0.3 Classification of Pile According to their Function 10
3.1 Classification of Pile According to their Composition or Material of Construction 11
3.2 Factor Influencing Choice Pile 13
4.0 Result and Discussion 30
4.1 Foundation Requirement Strength and Stability of Foundation 31
5.0 Conclusion 37
5.1 Recommendation 38
One of the major needs of human being in life is
shelter to protect man and their properties from some nature hazards. Such
hazard may include rainfall, wind, snow, sun, e.t.c which may challenge the way
of standard living which man propose. One of the most critical agenda that
human being proposed about their wellbeing in the olden days is to have houses
inform of huts where they can live after which civilization exhausted the mindset
of human from staying in hut to a more conducive and mighty buildings.
The development of bricks and stone for the construction
of building necessitate the need for foundation, though the type of foundation
most appropriate for a given structure depend greatly on the type of soil, the
soil properties, soil condition and the type of building intended to be built
Foundation can thus be defined as the horizontal members
supporting the entire structure and transmitting the load of the structure to
the subsoil. Foundation in respect to soil may further be explained as the
lowest part of a building which is situated below the ground level and it is
satisfactorily design to transfer or permit load on it.
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to determine a compactable
foundation type from a yielded soil bearing capacity to avoid settlement or
To say when and
where each type of foundation in needed.
broaden the structural engineering knowledge on which type of foundation suits
a certain structure so as to have a safe structure.
give information on all the types of foundation to allow the building safe from
shrinkage or overturning.
1.3SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For this project it is intended to state the various
forms of foundation and how each type of the foundation discussed is being
constructed, and determination of bearing capacity for some soil sample.
Therefore the samples for testing were limited to three different locations in
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The need for Assessment to different types of
foundation and their mode of Construction is to provide adequate knowledge and
information for the builder, structural engineer, and even the site engineer,
as to which type of foundation will suits chosen site and mode of constructing
such type of foundation.
As we all know that every type of structure starts with foundation and proper measure must be taken in order to achieve a firm foundation as it is going to be explained in a project work.
report is aimed at explaining the Design and Construction of electronic message
display board. It enumerate why we need electronic scrolling message display
which is primarily for passage of information across the staff, students and
public. It also includes the aim and objectives, advantages and disadvantages
with a well narrated literature review and timeline that relates to digital
display and its current trends in digital world.
coverage was given to mode of operation, result and discussion on the project
work including Conclusion, Recommendations for further study, Bill of
Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) and Reference.
3.0 System Design,
Methodology and Circuit Analysis
3.1 System Design.
THE HARDWARE SECTION.
3.2.1 THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT.
220.127.116.11 LM7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR.
3.2.2 THE INPUT UNIT.
3.2.3 THE CONTROL UNIT
18.104.22.168 THE AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER
22.214.171.124.1 MEMORY ORGANIZATION
126.96.36.199.4 REGISTER BANKS.
3.2.4 DISPLAY UNIT.
188.8.131.52 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDS).
3.3 DESIGN DATA AND CALCULATION.
3.4 SOFTWARE/FIRWARE DESIGN SECTION.
3.5 HOW THE ENTIRE SYSTEM SEND DATA
INPUT INTO MICROCONTROLLER.
3.6 HOW THE MICRO CONTROLLER WORK WITH THE
Implementation, Testing and Result.
4.1.1 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
4.1.2 SOFTWARE/FIRMWARE IMPLEMENTATION
(THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS).
Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation(BEME)…………………………………………………56
Fig 2.1 Street lightning system………………………………………..13
Fig 2.2 Control switch…………………………………………………..14
Fig 2.3.1 Circuit
diagram of dark activated relay switch……….15
Fig 2.3.2 Manual
Fig 2.7.2 Circuit
Fig 3.1.1 (a) 4 Core
by 6mm2 cable…………………………………24
(b) Earth Leakage Circuit
(c) Streetlight fittings
3.1.2 (a) Plumb …………………………………………………..25
3.1.3 (a) Iron frame and wooden base frame………………..26
(b) Round pipe
Sharp sand & Gravel………………………………..26
3.3.2 Discharge lamp…………………………………………….30
become inevitable and vital thing in this present age, it is even believed to
be a commodity meant for consumption by any targeted audience. One of the
important qualities possessed by all animals is the ability to communicate with
each other or one another at a given time.
information display is a way of providing information and is used as an object
for notification. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it
universal fit for any form of alerts.
The extent of development in information
dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying
information using sign posts, placards, notice boards, etc has to be modified
by using electronic information board.
In the previous years, the means by
which adverts, information are display has been through the use of static mode
of sign display such as banners, flyers etc, they are becoming boring and
Electronic scrolling message display
advertisements are designated to catch a people’s attention and create a
memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the
advertisement after they have driven past it. They have to be readable in a
very short time because, they are usually read while being passed at high
This piece of digital technology can be
found in a number of places and are being used for different purposes.
banks, it is used to display interest rates as well as exchange rates. In
hotels and pubs, it is used to display the menu and prices, in schools it is
used to display information related to the school programme and update news
The motivation of this project comes from the change involved with information in respect to time this days now prompt the huge step of constructing a reprogrammable SCROLLING MESSAGED DISPLAYER OR MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAYER to give information about anything at a particular moment to the targeted
This project focuses on investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure at Ganmon-Afon road Kwara State.
The measuring of pavement and types of pavement. Types of pavement failures causes of pavement were studied and possible solution were provided. Form the investigation causes of pavement failure were identified as ranging from. Use of substandard materials. Inadequate compaction. Poor material strength due to the presence of refuse particle in the materials used. Poor maintenance improper drainage and improper chamber of the road. Some major are pothole, defects observed on the roads are cracking reveling rutting, blast erosion edge deterioration and drainage blockage. The soil samples were collected from three deferent portion of the road. The photographs of failed section were taken. Those problems can be ratified by not compromising standard of work during construction proper maintenance practices from time to and high quality control measure during construction and rehabilitation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vii
Aims and objective 3
Scope and objective 3
Research methodology 5
2.0 Literature Review 6
2.1 Failure Of Pavement and
2.1.1 Structural failure 7
2.1.2 Function failure 8
2.2.2 Factor to be considered in the construction of Road 10
2.2.3 Geological Factor (design) 10
2.2.2 Geotechnical Factor 11
2.2.3 Usage factor 12
2.3 Common form of pavement 13
2.3.1 Potholes 13
2.3.2 Wheel ruthing 14
2.3.3 Cracking 15
2.3.4 revealing (pitting) 16
2.3.5 Blast erosion 17
2.3.6 Distortion and wave 18
2.3.7 Peeling 18
3.0 Methodology 19
3.1 Reconnance survey of Ganmo- Afon Road 20
3.2 Various Types of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Road 21
3.3 collection of Samples for Laboratory Test 26
3.3.1 Laboratory Test and Procedures 26
3.3.2 Compaction Test 27
3.4 California Bearing Ration (CBT) Test 33
4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results 37
4.1 Types and Causes of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon 37
4.2 Subgrade Materials 38
4.3 Relative Compaction 38
4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBT) 39
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 39
5.1 conclusions 39
5.2 Recommendation 39
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
is the movement of people and goods from one part or place to another. So road
transportation is one of the most efficient means of transportation all over
The efficiency and convenience of transportation of goods
and passengers are determined by function of road pavement our daily activities
required the movement from one location to another either by one mode of
transportation or by combining at different modes of transportation.
According to Oguara (2010) roads represent the major areas
at investment in transportation and are the most dominant travel mode
accounting for over 90% of passengers and goods transport in Nigeria road one
of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate
information data on the state of Nigerian roads Ette (2010) states that there
was a road not work study that commissioned in 1998/1999. This study cover all
inter-urban road which had a traffic of move than 30 vehicle day and a total
length of around 53. 00km
So the way of placing the pavement on the road networks
also contribute to the social economic growth and to the development of the
communities. Pavements take an important part in over all towns and countries
Highway engineers have always
been trying their best to design construct and maintain high way in Nigeria and
beyond but upon all their best and technical know how, the roads are still
failing and accommodation series of defect as the days goes by it’s high time
to see into the causes and effects these road failures and their result on the
uses also the life span at the road so as to fulfill its intending purpose.
maintenance purposely keep pavement in a satisfactory condition so as not to
obstruct the traffic flow on the road maintenance of asphalt pavement is
referred to as a set of organized activities that carried out in order to keep
pavement in its best operational condition with minimum cost required.
constructed without any scientific basis will require elaborate maintenance but
if they are constructed adopting all the scientific fundamentals even then they
require maintenance but to the lesser degree.
project is to focus on investigation of pavement failure and their remedial
measure on Ganmo- Afon road and possible solution would be provided to correct
those failure it will also explain what highway pavement will be included.
Ganmo Road designation are classified
into four groups which are:
Express Road: These are international roads linking other
neighboring countries and inter-states linking man political and commercial
centre will high volume capacity for example Lagos to Ibadan express way.
Truck Road: These are roads in the
purposely for heavy traffic charring route between political and economic
cities example are Ogbomosho to Ilorin road.
Principal road: These
are major roads in the state link important political and industrial together
for example Maraba to Kwara State Polytechnic Road.
Non Principal Road: These
are collection road in both urban and rural areas which link important town in
local Government area together. Therefore road as a matter of fact must be
given an adequate attention to both its design and construction stage in order
to accord its engineering purposes.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
One of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the Nigeria roads e.g Natural conditions, traffic conditions, and construction materials are the main causes of soft spots on the earth road edge damage of bituminous pavement, culvert slide down slide ditch erosion, side drain deposition e.t.c.