CONSTRUCTION OF PANEL DOOR

CONSTRUCTION OF PANEL DOOR

ABSTRACT

Panel door is one of the important construction found or used in a building. It can be found in most building for protection of valuables and to regulate movement in the building. Wooden panel is said to be the best pattern of door because it is easy and low cost of constructing. The project was constructed using a very hard and some other important machines and hand tools and accurate measurement was made to ensure a good and a proper finishing of a panel door.

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THE ROLE OF NATURAL POZZOLANS IN SANDCRETE PERFORMANCE

THE ROLE OF NATURAL POZZOLANS IN SANDCRETE PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY

Various research works have been carried out on the binary blends of ordinary Portland cement with different pozzolans in making cement composites.

The need to reduce the high cost of Ordinary Portland Cement in order to provide accommodation for the populace has intensified research into the use of some locally available materials that could be used as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Supplementary cementitous materials have been proven to be effective in meeting most of the requirements of durable concrete and blended cements are now used in many parts of the world (Bakar 2010).

The cost of building materials nowadays is so high in some parts of the world particularly developing countries like Nigeria, that only the government, industries, business cooperation and few individual can afford it. This high and still rising cost can however be reduced to a minimum by use of alternative building materials that are cheap, locally available and bring about a reduction in the overall dead weight of the building. Some industrial and agricultural products that would otherwise litter the environment as waste or at best be put into only limited use could gainfully be employed as building material (Oluremi 1990).

Rice husk which is an agricultural by–product is abundantly available all over the world. Most of the rice husk, which is obtained by milling paddy, is going as waste materials even though some quantity is used as bedding material, fuel in boilers etc. its ash, which not only occupy large areas causing space problems, but also cause environmental pollution. Thus the concrete industry offers an ideal method to integrate and utilize a number of waste materials, which are socially acceptable, easily available, and economically within the buying powers of an ordinary man. Presence of such materials in cement concrete not only reduces the carbon dioxide emission, but also imparts significant improvement in workability and durability. In the present investigation, a feasibility study is made to use Rice Husk Ash as an admixture to already replaced Cement (Portland Pozzolana Cement) in Concrete.

With increasing industrialization, the industrial by-product (waste) are being accumulated to a large extent leading to environmental and economic concerns related to this disposal. The concerns of our global environment and increasing energy insecurity has led to an increasing demand in renewable energy and their sources among the resources, biomass resources (forestry and agricultural wastes) and power fuelled by them as a promising source of renewable energy with economically low operational cost.

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) which is an agricultural by-product has been reported to be a good pozzolan by numerous researchers. Sandcrete blocks comprise of natural sand, water and binder. Cement, as a binder, is the most expensive input in to the production of sandcrete blocks. This has necessitated producers of sandcrete blocks to produce blocks with low OPC content that will be affordable to people and with much gain. The poverty level amongst West African Countries and particularly Nigerian has made these blocks widely acceptable among the populace so as to minimize the cost of construction works. The improper use of these blocks leads to microcracks on the walls after construction. The use of alternative cheaper local materials as stabilizer will greatly enhance the production of sandcrete blocks with the desired properties at low cost. It will also drastically reduce the cost of production and consequently the cost of construction works (Cordeiro 2009).

A survey by raw materials research and development Council of Nigeria on available local building materials reveals that certain building materials deserve serious consideration as substitute for imported ones. Few of these materials includes: cement / lime stabilized bricks /blocks, sundried (Adobe) soil blocks, burnt clay bricks/ blocks, cast in-situ walls, rice husk ash (RHA), mud and straw, lime and sandcrete blocks.

In the urban and rural areas of Nigeria, local milling is being done mostly by women. They mainly use firewood as heat source and as such one hundred percent of the rice husk from the mill is a waste. It occupies 20 –24% of the rough rice produced, although the ratio differs by variety. About 108 tonnes of rice husks are generated annually in the world.

In Niger State in Nigeria, about 96,660 tonnes of rice grains were produced in year 2000. In developing countries like Nigeria, proper utilization of agricultural waste has not been given due attention. The rice husk thereby constitutes an environmental nuisance as they form refuse heaps in the areas where they are disposed. The use of rice husk ash as a partial replacement to cement will provide an economic use of the by – product and consequently produce cheaper blocks for low cost buildings.

Rice is a major food crop in many regions of the world. Global rice production in 2007 was approximately 638 million tonnes and Malaysia’s contribution was 2.2 million tonnes [Food and Agriculture Organisation for the UN, 2008]. Due to global demand, rice production is expected to grow from year to year. Rice husk (RH) is the outer covering of the rice grain and is obtained during the milling process. Rice Husk constitutes 20% of the total rice produced [G. Giaccio 2007].

As a renewable material, the use of Rice Husk can eliminate waste disposal and support environmental protection. Even though Malaysia is not a prominent rice-producing country, large quantities of Rice Husk are produced every year after the harvest season (November to March). Commercially, other applications of Rice Husk are as silicon carbide whiskers to reinforce ceramic cutting tools and as aggregates and fillers for concrete and board production. However, most of this agricultural by-product is simply disposed, thus representing an environmental problem.

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material (Wikipedia.com).

The phenomenal pace of population growth and urbanization drives the cement requirement to many folds. The quantum jump in production of cement results in alarming level release of CO2 to the atmosphere. One way of addressing this issue is to reduce the CO2 emission from cement manufacturing process by replacing cement with locally available by-products which are pozzolanic in nature.

Pozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which, in itself, possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties (Mehta, 1987).

Also, the high cost of cement used as binder in the production of mortar, sandcrete blocks and concrete has led to a search for alternative. In addition to cost, high energy demand and emission of CO2 this is responsible for global warming. The depletion of limestone deposits are disadvantages associated with cement product.

Research on alternative to cement has so far centred on the partial replacement of cement with different materials.

1.2 Rice Hull (or Husk) Ash as a Pozzolan

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. In addition to protecting rice during the growing season, rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material, or fuel (Wikipedia.com).

1.3 Production

Rice hulls are the coatings of seeds, or grains, of rice. To protect the seed during the growing season, the hull is formed from hard materials. The hull is mostly indigestible to humans.

Winnowing, used to separate the rice from hulls is to put the whole rice into a pan and throw it into the air while the wind blows. The light hulls are blown away while the heavy rice fall back into the pan. Later pestles and a simple machine called a rice pounder were developed to remove hulls. In 1885 the modern rice hulling machine was invented in Brazil. During the milling processes, the hulls are removed from the raw grain to reveal whole brown rice, which may then sometimes be milled further to remove the bran layer, resulting in white rice.

1.4 Uses of Rice Hulls Combustion of rice hulls affords rice husk ash (acronym RHA). This ash is a potential source of amorphous reactive silica, which has a variety of applications in materials science. Most of the ash is used in the production of Portland cement when burnt completely, the ash can have a blaine number of as much as 3,600 compared to the blaine number of cement between 2,800 to 3,000, meaning it is finer than cement. Silica is the basic component of sand, which is used with cement for plastering and concreting. This fine silica will provide a very compact concrete. The ash also is a very good thermal insulation material. The fineness of the ash also makes it a very good candidate for sealing fine cracks in civil structures, where it can penetrate deeper than the conventional cement sand mixture.

A number of possible uses for RHA include absorbents for oils and chemicals, soil ameliorants, a source of silicon, insulation powder in steel mills, as repellents in the form of “vinegar-tar” release agent in the ceramics industry, as an insulation material.

1.5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

The majority of rice husk goes into landfills since the burning in open piles is not acceptable due to environmental constraints.  This makes the research on the potential uses of rice husk and rice husk ashof primary importance in the USA and around the world.  The manufacturing of cement produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a prime contributor to the global warming.  Typically, cement production results in CO2 emissions of about 0.8 – 1.2 tonnes/tonne of cement product depending on the production process and the fuel used.  Also, using RHA in concrete will help to reduce the amount of cement due to the partial substitution of cement by RHA and by making the concrete last longer (Folliard K.J 2002)

1.6 AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to enhance the understanding of the role of natural pozzolans in sandcrete performance and to see how pozzloanic material would replace cement in the near future.

1.7 OBEJECTIVES OF THE STUDY                         

1) To enlighten people on rice husk Ash pozzolan Carryout a cost comparative analysis to ascertain the affordability and sustainability of rice husk ash.

2) To investigate the effectiveness of using naturally occurring pozzolan materials as an additive or substitute for cement in sandcrete mixtures.

3) Carryout an analysis to ascertain the affordability and sustainability of rice husk ash.

1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY

This research work examined the use of Rice Husk Ash as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement in concrete. It involved the determination of workability and compressive strength of the sandcrete at different level of replacement.

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DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSMISSIBILTY AND STORAGE COEFFICIENT OF BOLEHOLES IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSMISSIBILTY AND STORAGE COEFFICIENT OF BOLE HOLES IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the determination of the transmissibility and storage coefficient of boreholes in South-Eastern Nigeria. Drawdown data collected during a pumping test are used to assess hydrologic properties of the aquifer. The application of the Theis and Theis-Jacob non-steady state method are used to determine the coefficient of transmissibility (T) and the coefficient of storage(S). But, due to variation of specific capacity of wells with time during the earliest period of pumping test, the values of T and S not remain constant with the time of pumping. A simple method is proposed in this study using graphical method to estimate the transmissibility and storativity of aquifer. In the projected method which is based on Theis’formula, no assumptions for the hydrologic parameters are required and the values of T and S are determined simultaneously.

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THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH GRANITE TO THAT MADE WITH RIVER ROUND STONE (PEBBLE) AND LOCAL STONE

THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH GRANITE TO THAT MADE WITH RIVER ROUND STONE (PEBBLE) AND LOCAL STONE

Abstract

This project was described as the comparative study of the strength of concrete made with pure granite (chipping) to that made with river round stone (pebbles) and local stone (sandstone) and their durability considered in the design of structures. The general background gives detailed information source of aggregates used and it cited examples on research carried out with various types of coarse aggregate which show their differences in concrete made with this three aggregates. Tests were carried out which include, impact test, Absorption test, slump test and comprehensive strength test, it was discovered that his different types of coarse aggregates (pure granite, river round stone, and local stone) have a satisfactory crushing strength. Granite with 28days of arising had a compressive strength of 45N/mm, river round stone was 36N/mm2 and that of local stone 18N/mm2. And this shows that granite has a greater strength than river round stone and local stone, which was mainly attributed to greater void spaces in river round stone and also in local stone. From the result of the project work, I recommend that good quality concrete could be made with all the aggregate used. But pure granite has superior quality than river round stone and local stone when used in heavy structure in high rising buildings.

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CONSTRUCTION OF WARDROBE KEY STUDY ON WOOD WORK

CONSTRUCTION OF WARDROBE KEY STUDY ON WOOD WORK

Abstract

Wardrobe is a large tall cupboard for hanging clothes. It is divided into two types, self-supported and wall supported wardrobe. It always has a small box at its side or at the base. We seasoned and treat the material (wood) before using it in constructing wardrobe, so that we will be able to contrast a quality wardrobe. Furthermore, we study physical and mechanical properties of wood. Physical properties of wood is the following permeability, density, moisture content e.t.c mechanical properties are as follows elastic strength, thermal conductivity grain orientate e.t.c. Wardrobe as the subject of this project, we should consider the above properties treat the materials very well and apply the right joint, so that we can be able to construct a wardrobe that can last.

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DYNAMIC INVERSION STUDY OF SOIL MECHANICAL PARAMETERS

DYNAMIC INVERSION STUDY OF SOIL MECHANICAL PARAMETERS

ABSTRACT

Based on the deep foundation pit works of Wuhan Metro Line 2 Gold Garden station, orthogonal test method, finite difference method and BP neural network method are synthetically used to do the inverse analysis study of mechanical parameters of foundation pit. The mechanical parameters are substituted in the finite difference process of deep foundation pit to simulate and calculate. The deformation and bearing situation of building enclosure and soil in the construction process of foundation pit is acquired, which is returned to the design and construction management to provide reference for design modification, construction optimization and engineering prediction, to ensure the security and stability of foundation pit and to greatly reduce investment outlay.

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THE USE OF COMPUTER IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The development of powerful and affordable microcomputers and computer software will have an impact in the delivery of instruction in higher education. This is especially true for civil engineering education where the computer has started to be appreciated as a useful tool in civil engineering analysis and design. This work present the use of computers as tools in the classroom and the authors experience of integrating computer usage in some civil engineering courses.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The rapid development of computer technologies which include powerful and affordable micro-computers and liable user –friendly software has started to change the delivery of instruction in higher education. A computer has greatly increased the ability of students to perform calculations and to process large amount of data. As a result, the type and nature of problems and mathematical techniques taught in school may have to be changed or modified so that the usefulness of the computer can be maximized in the teaching-learning process. This is especially time for civil engineering education where the computer has started to be recognized as a useful and important tool in civil engineering analysis and design. In what way can computer usage be introduced in the curriculum? How can we increase the awareness of student on the importance of computers in the solution of the various problems in civil engineering? These and more are some of the question that will be addressed in this project report. [Oreta 2011]

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Civil engineering is the profession that focuses on drawing, design, construction and maintenance of buildings, bridges, transportation system, water and wastewater management, and other infrastructure that is relevant to society’s well being. In almost all the different aspects of civil engineering, it is virtually impossible to escape the application of COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY. This application of computers in civil engineering goes beyond the normal black-box application and requires the engineers to be intelligent and cogent users in order to minimize trial and error approaches when designing physically sound design and analysis.

  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aims of the project is to discuss the various and specific use of computer and provide an avenue for the study of the acquisition of technical skills and knowledge in the use of computer in civil engineering, and also to be able to know how it is being used to solving problem in the preparation of civil engineering works.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this project is concentrated on concept of the use of computer in civil engineering. It involves various ways by which computer application is put in use in order to enhance civil engineering work.

  • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

During the period of this project, some limitation were encountered, it was not easy for us to get information relevant to this research. The project work was a tasking job, which demand enough time and commitment, but the fact that we are combining the write up, it then become a bit easy to meet up on the base on the duration of activities in the project.

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COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN PROPOSAL AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT EXPERTISE FOR THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study:

 A libraryis an organized collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. The term library has itself acquired a secondary meaning; a collection of useful material for common use, and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics, electronics and biology. Generally speaking, a library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services. A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.(Gupta, 2002).

 A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet.(Halsey, et al., 2009).

 Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools. In addition to maintaining collections within library buildings, modern libraries often feature telecommunication links that provide users with access to information at remotes sites. The central mission of a library is to collect, organize, preserve and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve avaluable record of culture that can be passed down to succeeding generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure that the record is preserved and made available for later use. Libraries provide people with access to the information they need to work, play, learn, and govern. Therefore a library building is a structure which houses the various activities as described above. Thompson, James. (Ed.). (1980), (Gupta, 2002).

An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school’s curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown how many academic libraries there are internationally. The support of teaching and learning requires material for class readings and for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. (Halsey, et al., 2009).

Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university. When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries these are often referred to as niche collections. These collections are often the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers, artwork, and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. The academic library today is also no longer conceived as an ivory tower would with a collection of books and non-book materials, but a dynamic instrument of education (Thompson, 1980).

The primary function of academic library is to provide facilities for study, research and teachings. The true nature and efficiency of an institution is judged by the treatment to its library. The library operates within the governing framework of that institution which is characterized by academic, financial and building policies. In line with this realization of purpose is a true measurement of its importance in academics. The academic library should therefore provide fundamental services affecting the whole university without which it ceases to function as a center for teaching, researching and learning.

  1. Statement of the Design problem

Each city has glamorousbuildings which dominatethe urban pattern – a capital or city hall, court house or post office, cathedral, temple, tower or public library. However, a college or university may have but one, and often the library is one to wear the crown of the campus.

Also the beginning of the 20th century saw a gradual change in the philosophy of the library’s place in the university.

 Increased research, new methods of instruction and more publications were instrumental in bringing about a change in the concept of the university library and it also became apparent that the strength of the teaching and research program was dependent upon the strength of the library. The basic function of an academic setting to educate its members is simply an invisible reality without the existence of a modern and well serviced academic library. This project borne out of the need to provide the client – Adeleke University a purpose built library facility that has a befitting structure and depicts the image of a University of international standard taking intoconsideration the incidence of technological advancement in modern libraries.

  1. Aim and Objectives:

The aim of this study is to design a library for a new and fast growing approved private university while taking into consideration technological advancement in the design and use of modern libraries.

       The objectives are to:

  • Study existing university library buildings;
  • Examine the quality, technical, functional and; behavioral aspects of the existing academic library buildings;
  • Examine performance standards and functional requirements in relation to library buildings;
  • Carry out a detailed literature review about libraries (their history, plan form and the necessary requirements for basic library design);
  • Based on the detailed examination of existing library buildings and literaturereview, present a detailed and specific analysis of all activities which are to beaccommodated in the proposed library building;
  • Produce a design that will suit the standards required for the teaching and research

Program me of the university;

  • Effectively use materials and building construction technologies to produce a well-balanced structure and achieve a high level of aesthetic value.
  • Pay particular attention to use of computers, laptops, opac, e-library and order salient, ICT (Information and Communication technology) issues related to library design for this 21st century.
  • Enhance comfortable and eminent study conditions for readers and also cater for the rise in the quality of security of materials.
COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN PROPOSAL AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT EXPERTISE FOR THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY

EFFECT OF CRUSHED CONCRETE AS COARSE AGGREGATES IN PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

ABSTRACT

In the face of a possible scarcity of natural aggregates in the future in line with sustainable construction, this research investigates the feasibility of the use of recycled coarse  aggregates as an alternative to natural coarse aggregates in structural concrete. The recycled coarse aggregate used in the research was processed from waste concrete.The percentage of recycled coarse aggregates by weight of all in aggregates in the test mixes were 0%, 5% 10% 20% and 30 % respectively. The properties of both natural and recycled coarse aggregates and the fresh and hardened properties of both control and trial concrete mixes were investigated. The results showed that therecycled coarse  aggregates had poor mechanical and physical properties.  Aggregate Impact Value, Aggregate Crushing Value, Compressive strength were lowered with an increase in recycle aggregate content. The recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) had little influence on the hardened density of concrete and an increase in recycled aggregate content led to a decrease in capacity.

CHAPTER ONE

INTROUDUCTION

1.0    Background to the study

Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D) is produced during new construction, refurbishment or renovation of buildings. Demolition waste includes materials from complete building removal as well as partial removals when aspects of the buildings are retained. Construction and Demolition waste includes bricks, concrete, masonry, soil, rocks, lumber, paving materials glass, plastics, aluminum, steel, drywall (gypsum), plywood (formwork), plumbing fixtures, electrical, and roofing materials. Construction and Demolition waste will have increased from time to time proportionate with the development of the town and country. Thus, the necessity of finding appropriate solution to construction and Demolition waste destination must be clear. Reducing, reusing and recycling appear to be profitable alternatives that will increase the lifetime of landfills and reduce exploration of natural resources (Ryu, 2002).

Aggregate is a mixture of materials in the concrete mix. It is a mixture of basic material in which the content consists of three fourths of the concrete mix. In addition to the concrete mix materials are composed of water, cement and additives, if necessary. Because the total quantity of aggregate in a concrete mixture is large, the strength and durability of a concrete depends on the characteristics aggregate itself. Among the key features of an aggregate is the strength of compressive and bond strength, size, shape and surface, the permeability and reactions to chemicals. Besides the physical properties of an aggregate such as relative density, density loam, porosity and absorption of moisture, soundness and resistance to acid and alkali attack also affect the strength. Although however, it is known that concrete strength decreases with increasing water ratio and the ratio of the design in terms of a ratio of cement to aggregate. (Athanas, 2011).

Aggregates can be classified into two classes of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate (sand). Classification is based on the aggregate size where the size of the aggregate Gross is more than 5.0 mm while the size of the fine aggregate shall not exceed 5.0 mm. in concrete mixture, the quantity of both is different classes of aggregate based on the desired design strength of concrete.  Normally, the strength of a concrete can be determined through water content and the quality of cement. Besides other conditions that affect the catalyst, temperature, type of mould and more. For the aggregate size, it affects concrete strength indirectly. Up to now be used in aggregate for produce concrete is appropriate use of concrete. Here, the possibility of new aggregates exist and need to be tested to ensure use appropriate or at least have a function similar to the existing aggregate.  In Malaysia, the construction waste has course a significant impact on the environment and also increasing the concern a significant impact on the environment and also increasing the concern of the society (Chetna, 2006).

1.1 Problem Statement

The main problem of this is to determine whether these crushed concrete can be re-used for construction or for production of new concrete.

Construction and Demolition materials can be recovered through reuse and recycling. The choice of what and how construction and demolition materials can be recovered depends on many factors including type of project, working area and space on the site, cost effectiveness of recovery, project timeline and experience of contractor (Limbachiya, 2000). Many building materials from demolition projects and can be reused as part of the materials to construct a new building for a new project, which will then, involve both the construction and demolition activities. In order to ensure that certain building materials from demolition activities may be reusable, the planners or designer should design the new building with the same size and types of materials as in the old construction.

One of the major challenges of our present society is the protection of environment. Some of the important elements in this respect are the reduction of the consumption of energy and natural raw materials and consumption of waste materials. These topics are getting considerable attention under sustainable development nowadays. The use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes is showing prospective application in construction as alternative to primary (natural) aggregates. It conserves natural resources and reduces the space required for the landfill disposal.

EFFECT OF CRUSHED CONCRETE AS COARSE AGGREGATES IN PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

THE EFFECTS OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH AS SUPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL IN PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice. Bagasse ash is obtained by subjecting Bagasse to calcinations using furnace. This work is aimed tat using Bagasse Ash as a replacement in the production of concrete.

The bagassewas collected from dumped in a marketin Kano and thereafter sun-drie to eliminate any trace of moisture. It was then taken to the blast furnace for calcinations(controlled burning) at a temperature of 1250OC for 25minutes.The ash was then weighed and sieved with a 90μm standard sieve and the quantity retained on the sieve (black carbon) was weighed and discarded. The ash collected was investigated and its chemical compositions were obtained. Normal Consistency and Setting time for Cement and bagasse ash were determined. The concrete was batched using mix ratio 1:2:4 and the cement was replaced in varying percentages of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% using Bagasse ash.Thereafter, the concrete was cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28days and its properties both in fresh and harden state were determined.

The result for Normal consistency of cement was achieved at 35% of water cement ratio (140ml of water added) which is equal to 34mm penetration.While Normal consistency for Bagasse ash was achieved at 33% of water Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA )ratio (132mls of water added) which is equal to 35mm penetration. Hence, the cement and bagasse ash are satisfactory for normal consistency of 34 to 35% range of specification.The Slump of the concrete shows a slight reduction as the bagasse ash content increases. Also, the results of the compressive strength of  concrete at 20% replacement has highest compressive strength of 19.94N/mm2 at  28 days.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Titled page                                                                       i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of content                                                                                  vi

List of Table                                                                                        vii

List of Figure                                                                                       viii

CHAPTER ONE: PREAMBLE

  1. Preamble                                                                                   1
    1. Statement of problem                                                                 2
    1. Aims and Objective                                                                     4
    1. Justification                                                                               4
    1. Scope of the study                                                                      5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Concrete                                                                                   6

2.2     Properties of Concrete                                                                7

2.2.1 Fresh properties                                                                         7

2.2.2 Hardened properties                                                                               7

2.3 Components of Concrete                                                                 7

2.3.1 Ordinary Portland Cement                                                            7

2.3.2 Aggregates

2.3.3  Water                                                                                        8

2.3.4  Admixtures                                                                                8

2.4     Cement                                                                                     8

2.4.1 Types of cement                                                                          9

2.4.1.1 Portland cement                                                                       9

2.4.1.2 Portland pozzolana cement                                                        11

2.4.2 Physical Properties of cement                                                        12

2.4.2.1 Fineness                                                                                  13

2.4.2.2 Consistency of cement paste                                                      13

2.4.2.3 Setting time                                                                                       14

2.5     Pozzolans                                                                                  14

2.6     Cementitious Material                                                                 15

2.6.1  Fly ash                                                                                      16

2.6.2  Lime stone                                                                                 18

2.6.3  Condensed Silica Fume                                                                18

2.7     Bagasse                                                                                     19

2.8     Previous Work Done                                                                             20

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1     Material Sourcing                                                                        25

3.1.1  Bagasse Ash                                                                              25

3.1.2  Cement                                                                                     25

3.1.3  Aggregate                                                                                 25

3.1.3.1 Fine Aggregates                                                                        26

3.1.3.2 Coarse aggregate                                                                     26

3.2  Research Procedure                                                                       26

3.2.1 Production of Bagasse Ash                                                            27

3.2.2 Characterization of Bagasse Ash                                                    28

3.2.3 Test on Bagasse ash and cement                                                   28

3.2.3.1 Finesses Test                                                                            28

3.2.3.2 Normal Consistency Test                                                           29

3.2.3.3 Setting time test (Initial and Final)                                             30

3.2.4  Test on aggregate                                                                      31

3.2.4.1 Sieve Analysis                                                                           31

3.2.4.2 Specific gravity and absorption capacity                                      32

3.2.4.3 Moisture content                                                                       33

3.2.5  Preparation of Concrete Specimens and Mixing Procedure               34

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Characterization of Bagasse ash and cement                                  35

4.1.1  Physical properties of cement and Bagasse ash Result                     38

4.1.2  Chemical composition of sugarcane Bagasse Ash                            38

4.2     Result on Sieve Analysis                                                              40

4.2.1  Grain size distribution for Bagasse Ash and OPC Cement                 40

4.2.2  Results for Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate                                  41

4.2.3 Result for Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate                                 42

4.3     Workability Test (Slump Test)                                                      44

4.4     Average compressive strength Result                                            45

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                 47

5.2     Recommendation                                                                        47

          Reference

LIST OF TABLE

Table 2.1 Typical  composition of ordinary Portland cement        10

Table 2.2  Chemical Requirement for pozzolan                                         16

Table 3.2 Mix proportion for the concrete work                                           35

Table 4.1 Physical properties of cement and Bagasse ash                          38

Table 4.2      Chemical composition of cement and SBA                                39

Table 4.3 Grain Size distribution for bagasse ash and OPC Cement       40

Table 4.4 Sieve analysis results for fine aggregate                                   41

Table 4.5 Sieve analysis results for coarse aggregate                                     43

Table 4.6Concrete   Slump Test                                                   40

Table 4.6Average Compressive Strength                                    42                         

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 3.1 Diagram of sugarcane Bagasse ash                                     26

Figure 4.1  Graph for gradation of Bagasse ash and cement                      37

Figure 4.2  Graph for sieve analysis of fine aggregate                               39

Figure  4.3    Graph for sieve analysis of coarse aggregate                        41

Figure  4.4Concrete Slump Test                                                             42

Figure 4.4.1 Average Compressive Strength                                            43

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Preamble

          Concrete is the most commonly used construction material in the world. It is basically composed of two components: paste and aggregates. The paste which acts as binder contains cement, water and occasionally admixtures; the aggregate contains sand and gravel or crushed stone(Naik andMoriconi, 2003). The aggregate are relatively inert filler materials which occupy 70% to 80% of concrete and can therefore be expected to have influence on its properties( Mindess and Young, 2003).The infrastructural needs of developing countries have lead to huge increase in demand for Portland cement. According to BAU scenario, cement consumption will grow at high rate on world level in the year  2000-2030 ,the 1600 Metric tones of cement consumption in 2000 will increase almost two folds to 2880 Metric tons by 2030, implying an annual 2% grow rate (Nurdeen and Shahid, 2010).

          Cement is one of the constituents of concrete and of very high technical benefits, but expensive and environmentally unfriendly material. (Naik  and Moriconi, 2006). Therefore, requirements for economical and more environmental friendly cementing material have extended interest in other cementing materials that can be used as supplement  for Ordinary Portland cement. Ground granulated furnace slag, fly ash etc have been used successfully for this purpose, Ordinary Portland Cement is frequently used as a major construction material in the country and the world at large. It is considered as a durable material of construction. However, the environmental issue is on the increasing side, as Portland cement is responsible for about 5%-8% global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions due to it high demand(Jayminkumar and Raijiwala,2015). Researchers all over the worlds are searching out on ways of utilizing either industrial or agricultural waste as a source of raw material for industries. This waste utilization will not only aid the economy but will also bring about foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control.

Sugarcane is an agricultural product from which Bagasse Ash is obtained after squeezing out the sugary water in the sugarcane and subjecting it to heat by incinerating the residue through control burning to form ash. (Patcharin et al.,2009). Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice (Osinubi and Stephen,2005). The Sugarcane Bagasse creates environmental nuisance due to poor disposal which in turn forms garbage heaps (Oyejobi and Lawal, 2014). According to(Barroso and Bareras, 2000) one ton of sugarcane can generate 280kg of  Bagasse waste. In the Northern part of  Nigeria there is high production of sugarcane due to the soil and weather condition which favorably supports the farming of sugarcane and consequently there is abundant generation of Sugarcane Bagasse/residue waste which cause economic as well as environmental related issue. To solving these issues, enormous effort  have been  towards the Bagasse ash waste management. But there are yet no adequate research about the usefulness of sugarcane residue in the country, very little value is being attached to Bagasse. The residue has been found to be used for primary fuel source and also, for paper production. However, incinerating it to ash and adopting it as a good pozzolan adds to its economic value.The advancement in technology and desire for safer environment has stimulated the sense of economic reuse and proper management of material earlier discarded as waste. According to( Oriola and Moses, 2010), industrial activities often lead to depletion of natural resources, a process that may result in the accumulation of by-product and/or waste material. It is need of time to rise to the use of cement replacement materials in the concrete which can reduce the significant amount of cement consumption due to the hazardous effect of CO2 to the environment. The incinerating of organic waste of sugarcane i.e. Bagasse Ash contains pozzolanic material, Therefore, it is highly recommended to conduct research on Bagasse and their impact on concrete behavior, and also be adopted has a suitable replacement of cement in concrete.

THE EFFECTS OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH AS SUPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL IN PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

ABSTRACT

This report comprises of my practical experience during my six (6) months SIWES, which consist of three chapters.

Chapter One

Outline the introduction, aim and objectives of the SIWES and scope of the report.

Chapter Two

Dealt with Reinforced Concrete Drainage Construction processes.

It also include problem encountered, proffered solutions and experienced gained.

Chapter Three

Focus mainly on conclusion and recommendation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                                v

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Objective of SIWES                                                                 1         
    1. Scope of report                                               2         

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Industrial/Field experience                                   3

2.1       Project Task                                                                             3

2.1.1    Construction Stages                                                              3

2.1.2    Preparing the site                                                  3

2.1.3    Establishing of the points on ground                            4

2.1.4    Drainage excavation                         4

2.1.5    Reinforcement of the Drainage                                      5

2.1.6    Problems Encountered                                                          7

2.1.7    Benefits derived from the training                                    7

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Conclusion and Recommendation                          8

3.1       Conclusion                                                          8

3.2       Recommendation                                                            8

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) slated for 6 months which is a requirement for the completion of my course of study, was undertaken at Kwara State Ministry of Works and Transport, Ilorin.  As a student attaché at Kwara State Ministry of Works and Transport, Ilorin, I was exposed to Engineering Practical activities which really bridged between the theories learnt in the classroom and the real world practical applications. I had the opportunity to make use of machines such as the Concrete mixing machine, the Excavator and reinforcement sizes etc.

1.1OBJECTIVE OF SIWES

  1. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to test their interest in a particular career before permanent commitments are made.
  2. SIWES students will develop skills in the application of theory to practical work situations.
  3. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to test their aptitude for a particular career before permanent commitments are made.
  4. SIWES students will develop skills and techniques directly applicable to their careers.
  5. SIWES will aid students in adjusting from college to full-time employment.
  6. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to develop attitudes conducive to effective interpersonal relationships.
  7. SIWES will increase a student’s sense of responsibility.
  8. SIWES students will be prepared to enter into full-time employment in their area of specialization upon graduation.
  9. SIWES students will acquire good work habits.
  10. SIWES students will develop employment records/references that will enhance employment opportunities.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE REPORT

The scope of work includes the following:

  1. Clearing and removal of topsoil and cuttings
  2. Filling with laterite from approved borrow pits
  3. Provide reinforced concrete drain of 0.75m by 0.6m
  4. Provide reinforced concrete slab (150mm thick)
  5. Provide and shape naturally occurring laterite material to a compacted thickness of 150mm sub-base  and base each

CHAPTERTWO

2.0   INDUSTRIAL/ FIELD EXPERIENCE

2.1   PROJECT

 During the period of six month of Industrial Training, I was involved in the construction unit of civil engineering.

I was posted to OSI-OBBO AYEGUNLE ROAD Construction, where I was involved in Earthwork, Construction of drainage.

2.1.1   construction stages

This is the phase that requires the most planning; this is because if you take your time when designing, the actual construction process will be a lot quicker and smoother. Planning at this stage tends to be more basic, they will be asking questions like; will this actually be feasible, or will it cost more than we have. The initial design for the project will be drawn by the Engineer who will have been given a brief of the client and will then from this brief begin design. After the surveyor investigation has been completed, the structural engineer designs for the reinforcement and grade of concrete to be used for the construction project. The structural engineer designs for the maximum loading envisaged that the pavement would carry and at the same time consider the cost of construction.

TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

REMODELLING OF CONFERENCE ROOM, FLOOR FINISHES, WINDOW AND FURNITURES.

ABSTRACT

          This project is anchored on the design and construction of Tiles, windows and furniture involves in the conference room their method and pattern of construction, it’s advantages value and as well other valuable tool such as; working tools for the construction of tiles; (cement, white cement, fine aggregate e.t.c); tools for the construction of windows; (nails and screws, drills e.t.c) and also tools for the construction of furniture

          Furthermore, the purpose of tiles, it values, it significance from other floor beauty materials, and also the types of tiles and the purposes of other types as differ.

          In addition too, this project covers the construction of different types of windows, even for the differential purpose, the value of different window structures as pertaining to it cost and the shapes as ficatured in the pictures.  

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                             v

Table of content                                                                                 vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                             1

1.1     Aims and Objectives                                                                 2

1.2     Scopes of Study                                                                        3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review                                                                     4-

2.1     Ceramics, Tiles, And Manufacturing process.                             6       

2.2     Methods of Manufacturing Ceramic tiles                                    8-9

2.3     Type Glazed Ceramic tiles                                                         9

2.3.1  Glazed Ceramic tiles                                                                  10

2.3.2  Unglazed ceramic tiles                                                              10

2.4     Ceramic floor tile manufactures                                                 10

2.5     Packing grading and sorting of ceramic floor tiles                       11

2.6     Pattern formation with tiles                                                       12     

2.7     Methods of tiles placement                                                        12

2.8     Precaution that are necessary during tile placement                  15

2.9     Materials used for tiling                                                             16

2.10   Tools necessary for ceramic floor tile.                                        17

2.11   Construction method                                                                18

CHAPTER THREE

 3.0    Introduction to Aluminium Window                                           21

3.1     Important of window                                                                 21     

3.2     Different types of material used for window                               21

3.3     Glass, Aluminium and Burglary Metal Frame glass                      23     

3.3.1 Aluminium                                                                                24     

3.3.2  Metals                                                                                      26

3.4     Scope of project                                                                        27

3.5     Aim and objective                                                                     27

3.6     Material used                                                                            28

3.7     Properties of Metal                                                                    29

3.8     Properties of Aluminium                                                            30     

3.9     Properties of Glass                                                                    30

3.10   Properties of Rubber                                                                 31

3.11  Design and construction of Aluminium window and burglary Frame for office use.                                                                 31

3.12   Finishing                                                                                  32

3.13   Joint and connection                                                                 33

3.14 Safety Precaution                                                                        34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Material used for the Furniture                                                  36

4.1     Tools and equipment                                                                37

4.2     Finishing                                                                                  40

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion                                                                                43

5.1     Recommendation                                                                      44

Reference

LIST OF PLATES

Plate  3.1     –        Laying of Tiles

Plate  3.2     –        Window Casement

Plate  3.3     –        Window Casement

Plate  3.4     –        Conference Table and Chair

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

        A tile is a manufactured pieces of hard wearing materials such as ceramic, stone, metal used as a finishing floor and walls or other object such as table top used as ornamentals that add beauty to the surface applied either in buildings, offices and so on. Another category is the ceiling tile, made from light weight materials such as wood and mineral wool.

       Tiles are used to form wall and floor coverings and can range from single square tiles to complete mosaic. Tiles are most often from ceramics, with a raft glazed finished, and also same other materials which are available such as glass, marble, granites, slates and reformed ceramic slurry which is cost in a mould and fired.

       In the past 20years, the technology surrounding porcelain and glass tiles had become more efficient, allowing for mass production. Similarly the invention automated tile line that used diamond, to cut and finished stone slabs into tiles has made stone tile more available. This is in term as allowed these tiles to move from beings riche items into broader markets.

       The ceramic tile demand index has shown a growth of 55% annually for the year 2000-2005 periods. The OSAN world demand for finished granite index has shown a growth of 14% annually for the year 2000-2005 periods. Hence, OS market for ceramic is about 3billion.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

          The main aim of the project is to remodelling the conference room using tiles as the floor finishing and with the following objectives.

  • To improve the floor surface finishing by laying tile on the floor.
  • To carry out investigation on various type of tiles which are available for used.
  • To know the various methods involved in laying floor tiles.
  • Also to know various materials, equipment and tools used in floor tiles construction.

1.2    SCOPE OF STUDY

    This project entails the production of bill of quantities and construction of offices floor tiles and the processes of construction of floor tiles finishing.

  • To allow for routine maintaining of a floor surface
  • To improve the floor surface damp proofness

CHAPTER TWO

 2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

          Tiles are derived from the French word tuile, which is in turn form the latin word togola, meaning a roof tile composed of backed clay. Clays are hydrated aluminosilicate and are the end product of weathering of feldspathic rock. The most important clay mineral is kalonite which has the composition A3L203-29102-2H20 less precisely, the modern term can refer to any object such as rectangular counters in playing games.

The word ‘CERAMICS’ from the great word ‘KAROMOS’ meaning ‘POTTERY’ pottsclay or a ‘PETTER’. This greek word is related to an old sand skirt root meaning to born that was primarily used to mean burnt stuff.

      The technical definition of ceramics encompasses a much greater variety of products than it’s normally realized. To most people the word ceramics means dinnerware, figurines vases and other objects of ceramics art.

      However, accompanying the growth in the demand has been some stifts in the word ceramic industry. In 1990, Europe accounted for 54% of the world ceramic title product by 2002, world ceramic tile product in the same period was dropped a little. Asia now has state of the art equipment in its ceramic tile plants, which means much lower cost. European still do well with higher priced ceramic tile with sophisticated and fashionable designs and with propellant (high quality porcelain) tiles.

      Beginning in 2004, the stronger Euro made at cheaper to manufacture ceramic tile in the US and distribute them from such as plant.  The US is the world’s largest market for ceramictiles, a number of European (most Italian) ceramic tile manufacture built or expanded their US  plants and brought out domestic ceramic tile firms. The European tile firms not only benefit from lower manufacturing cost but also from distributing at a lower cost and faster rate. Thus less inventory was required.

   Things have been difficult in the dimension stone tile industry. By the beginning of the 1980, automated stone tile plant are busy in Italy since additional innovated many plant with automated stone tiles lines, as does Spain, Turkey, Brazil, and other countries. The three US automated tile that were short tile producers of granted tile from mid 1980, to the mid 1990. Closed one by one. The last one actually closed in mid 2002. Marble tile is still produced to a limited extent but most American marble tiles product plants in carrara, Italy that makes it from rough blocks of vermouth (DANBY) marble. The amount of slate flouring tiles was dwindled a little since 2000.

REMODELLING OF CONFERENCE ROOM, FLOOR FINISHES, WINDOW AND FURNITURES.

INVESTIGATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CORNSTALK ASH BLENDED CEMENT

ABSTRACT

Analysis of investigation on the characteristics of cornstalk blended ash cement was carried out based on the interest of coming out with a good pozzolanic material with all required cement properties. Hence,the supposed competitive demand relationship between cement products in construction works has been majorly wined by cement and this makes people to depend mostly on it despite the increase in price and some with inadequate properties.

          In an attempt to reuse and convert agro wastes into useful materials for the construction industry, this research considered the application of corn stalk ash (CSA) as partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the production of concrete cubes.

The study investigated the oxide composition of CSA to ascertain its suitability as a pozzolanic material. Some properties of cement with CSA as a replacement for OPC were examined.

The results showed that CSA is not a good pozzolana as it does not satisfy the requirement for use as a pozzolana according to ASTM C618(2005). The compressive

strength of the specimens with replacement levels at 10% and 20% cured for periods of 7–28 days was lower at early curing time but improved significantly at later age.10% replacement level did not show increased strength compared to 20% CSA at 28 days curing period. Density decreased withincreasing ash content, water absorption rate increased with increased CSA contents, while abrasionresistance increased with increasing amount of CSA substitutions. The test results revealed that

CSA concrete cubes can attain higher strength than the conventional ones at longer curing periods,due to its pozzolanic reactions.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the study
  2. Problem statement
  3. Aim of the study
  4. Objectives of the study
  5. Justification
  6. Scope

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0.Introduction

2.1.Corn and Corn Cultivation

2.2.Corn and Corn Stalk

2.3.Chemical Composition of Corn Stalk

2.4.Corn Stalk Ash blended Cement and Construction Industry

2.5.Brief description of Cement

2.6.Chemical Properties of Cement

2.7.Lafarge Cement

2.8.The Need for Corn Stalk Ash Blended Cement

2.9.Empirical Study

CHAPTER THREE :METHODOLOGY

3.1.Experiment Site

3.2.Compressive Strength

3.3.Chemical Analysis

3.4.Physical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE:CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  5.0.Conclusion

5.1.Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

Appendix A: Getting Corn Stalk from FieldAppendixB: Corn Stalk blended Ash

AppendixC: Crushing Machine

AppendixD: Concrete Cubes after 28days Curing

AppendixE: Alpan Machine

AppendixF: Surface Area Machine

AppendixG: Burning of Corn Stalk into Ash

                                                LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1      Chemical Composition of Cornstalk Ash

Table 4.2      Results for Surface Area, Residue and Expansion

Table 4.3      Compressive Strength for Ordinary Cement

Table 4.4      Compressive Strength of Cornstalk Blended Ash-10

Table 4.5         Compressive Strength of Cornstalk Blended Ash-20

Table 4.6      Flexural Strength of Ordinary Cement, 10 and 20 Blended Cement

Table 4.7      Compressive Strength of Ordinary Cement, 10 and 20 Blended Cement

                                                LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1:    Properties of Cement

Figure 3.1:    Corn plant

Figure 3.2:    Specimen of Cornstalk

Figure 3.3:    Cornstalk Ash

Figure 4.1:    Flexural Strength Graph of Ordinary Cement

Figure 4.2:    Compressive Strength Graph of Cornstalk Blended Ash

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study

Various blends of cement utilized in construction are portrayed by their physical properties. Some key parameters control the nature and quality of cement. The physical properties of good cement are based on; Fineness of cement, Soundness, Consistency, Strength, Setting  time, Heat of hydration, Loss of ignition, Bulk density, Specific gravity (Relative density). In addition, cement has a very high cost in many developing countries like Nigeria and its usage cannot be sustained. The need for moderate structure materials in giving satisfactory lodging to people of the world has turned into the real worry of researchers.The expense of traditional structure materials keep on expanding as most of the populace keeps on falling beneath the destitution line. This consequently requires the look for elective neighborhood materials as aggregate or fractional swap for concrete (Adesanya and Raheem, 2009; Akinwumi and Aidomojie, 2015; Raheem &Adedokun 2017). The research has led to the discovery of the potentials of using industrial by-products and agricultural wastes as replacement of some cement materials.Agricultural and industrial wastes possess pozzolanic properties used in cement replacement.The  application  of  agro  and  industrial  wastes  in  the  production  of  cement  is  an environmentally friendly  method  of disposal  of large  amounts  of substances that  would have constituted pollution to land, water and air. The agricultural and industrial wastes that possessed pozzolanic characteristics and which had been studied  and applied  as partial  replacements for cement are Rice husk ash [6-9], Corn cob ash [4, 10-12], Waste burnt clay [13-14], Hair fibre [15] and Saw dust ash [16-17]. The saw dust ash (SDA) which has been proven to be a pozzolanic material was used as a partial substitution for OPC in this study. Many researchers have argued that concrete is one of the major materials used for radiation protection in facilities. The radiation protection feature of concrete depends on its components. Cement production is one of the important sources of carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. CO2,which is a greenhouse gas, contributes about 65% of global warming (Vijayakumar, 2013; Raheem &Adedokun 2017). The high energy demand as well as the emission of carbon dioxide, which caused global warming and depletion of limestone deposits are the major challenges associated with cement production.

In the recent years, there is great interest in replacing a long time used materials in concrete structure by new materials to produce cheaper, harder and durable concrete.Abdelrahman& El-Awney (2015).The raw materials for cement production are limestone (calcium), sand or clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum) and iron ore, and may include shells, chalk, marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, slate. Chemical analysis of cement raw materials provides insight into the chemical properties of cement.

Corn, also known as maize, is one of the most successful cereal grasses of all time. It has been under human cultivation for over 10,000 years and has spread itself into every niche of commercial agriculture (Adesanya, & Raheem (2009). Maize crop started as a subsistence crop in Nigeria and has gradually risen to a commercial crop on which many agro-based industries depend on as raw materials (Iken, and Amusa, 2014).Corn stalk is a waste product obtained from maize plant, which is the major cereal crop produced in sub-Saharan Africa.Therefore, this research investigated the use of Corn stalk as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement in the production of concrete cubes. It includes the determination of the oxide,composition of the CSA, evaluation of the compressive strength, density, water absorption,crushing strength of the concrete and the abrasive resistance of the concrete cubes.

INVESTIGATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CORNSTALK ASH BLENDED CEMENT

GIS-BASED ASSESSMENT OF WATER AVAILABILITY AND WATER DEMAND IN ASA CATCHMENT, KWARA STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                Pages

Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                iv

Table of contents                                                                                 v

List of figures                                                                                                xiii

List of tables                                                                                        ix

Abstract                                                                                              x

1.0     CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                            1-6

1.1     Background to the Study                                                             1

1.2     Problem Statement                                                                     4

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the study                                                   5

1.4     Justificationfor the study                                                   5

1.5     Scope of Work                                                                           6       

2.0     CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                   7-24

2.1     Introduction                                                                               7

2.2     Water Resources in Nigeria                                                          8

2.3     Water Management Practices and Policy in Nigeria                         10

2.4     Water Allocation Guidelines and Principles                                     10

2.5     Water Resources Management Models for River Basin Simulation 11

          2.5.1  MODSIM                                                                          12

          2.5.2  MIKE BASIN                                                                     13

2.5.3  RIBASIM                                                                          14

2.5.4  REALM                                                                             15

2.5.5  WEAP21                                                                           16

2.6     Description of the SWAT Modeling and SWAT Components             18

2.7     SWAT Strength and Limitation                                                     20

          2.7.1  Limitation of SWAT Model                                                  21

2.8     Previous Water Supply And Demand Studies                                  21

3.0     CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                         25-36

3.1     Introduction                                                                              25

3.2     Model Selection and Description                                                   25

3.3     Model Data Requirements and Collection                                                27

          3.3.1  Digital Elevation Model (DEM)                                            27

          3.3.2  Land Use and Land Cover (LULC)                                       29

          3.3.3  Soil Data                                                                          31

          3.3.4  Weather Data                                                                   32

3.4     SWAT Model Set-Up and Run                                                       33

          3.4.1  Model Setup                                                                     33

          3.4.2  Watershed Delineation                                                      34

3.5     Water Yield Potential and Estimation of Available Water Resources  35

3.6     Water demand estimation                                                            36

3.7     Population Forecasting                                                                36

4.0     CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION                          37-42

4.1     Prediction of Water Balance Component                                        37

4.2     Prediction of Water Yield Potentials in the Sub-basin of Asa watershed                                                                           40

4.3     Estimation of Available Water Resources                                       41

4.4     Estimation of Water Demand of the River Basin                             41

4.5     Comparison of Water Supply and Demand                                     42

5.0     CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   43-44

5.1     Conclusions                                                                               43

5.2     Recommendations                                                                      44

          REFERENCES                                                                           45-51

ABSTRACT

This study arose from the growing water demand within the Asa River Basin due to population upsurge, the absence of existing water demand management strategies, the possibility of scarcity as a result of climate change, and the need for sustainable water resources management. The aim of the study was to assess water availability and water demand of Asa catchment using GIS-based hydrological model. The methodology involved the input of spatial and temporal data into Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using Geographic Information System (GIS) as interface. After the model was configured, set up and run, the water balance components and water yield potential were predicted. The modelling results showed that evapotranspiration is the highest water balance component while the lowest is lateral soil flow. The spatial distribution of water yield potentials in the sub-basins of the study area showed that sub-basin 9 has the lowest water yield potential while sub-basin 84 has the highest. The total water yield potential of the study area is 1,296,676.5mm while the total area of the river catchment is 5,618.28km2. The available water resources in the catchment were estimated to be 7.2 billion m3. The projected total population of the domiciled local governments in the catchment for 2015 is 1,203,743 persons and the water demand for this population was estimatedas 1.3 billion m3. Comparing the water demand with the available water resources shows that the available water resources outweigh the water demand, which implies that there was no scarcity. However, there may be future scarcity due to the increasing population and climate change.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the study

Water is a vital resource for every human activity. Water makes life possible. Without it, life and civilization cannot develop or survive (Ojekunle, 2011). Water forms the largest part of most living matter and is vital  to  man  just  as  air  and  food  are  (Ayoade,  2003).  The management and maintenance of water is thus very important (Fiorilloa, 2007). The  accelerating  growth  of  human  population,  the  rapid  advances  made  in  industry  and agriculture  have  resulted  in  a  rapidly  increasing  use  of  water  by  man,  to  the  extent  that  the availability of water as well as the control of excessive water has become a critical factor in the development  of  every  regions  of  the  world  (Williams,  2010). 

Over  the  decades,  water  supply management  has  proved  to  be  insufficient  to  deal  with  strong  competition  for  water  with growing  per  capita  water  use,  increasing  population,  urbanization  pollution  and  storages (Wang  Xiao  –  Jun  et  al, 2009).  In addition, the need for domestic, industrial and agricultural water supply is growing, but the absence of demand management strategies means that the increase in demand will likely outstrip the available supply, hence water scarcity (UNESCO, 2006). One-third of the world’s total population of 5.7 billion lives under conditions of relative water scarcity and 450 million people are under severe water stress (UN, 1997). The issue of water scarcity in the world and its implication on development of new political and economic  relations  among  countries  may  result  to  crisis  in  the  future.  Thus, there is need for the implementation of effective water resources management which becomes particularly important towards determining how much  water  is  available  for  human  use  and  economic  activities  that  water  should  be shared between  users.

Population growth is a major contributor to water scarcity.  The global population is expanding by 80 million people annually, increasing the demand for freshwater by about 64 billion m3a year (Population Institute, 2010). Rapid population growth and urbanization could expose more people to water shortages, with negative implications for livelihoods, health, and security. These demographic trends, coupled with increasing per-capita water consumption, will be a huge development challenge (Bates, Kundzewicz, Wu and Palutikof, 2008).  Growthin population implies mounting demand and competition  of  water  for domestic, industrial, and municipal uses (Population Action International, 2011). Population  growth  leads  directly  to  increases  in  overall  water  demand,  while  other demographic factors such as population distribution and age structure modifies the pattern in demand and determines  increases  in  household  water  demand.  Overall, the amount of water each person uses is expected to increase as incomes grow and consumption increases (UN-Water and FAO. 2007).

Evidences are ample that there is an explosion in the population of cities in Nigeria (Eja, Inah, YaroandInyang, 2011; Nwosu, 2013). The effect of the rapid urban population growth is noticeable through the provision of municipal services such as pipe-borne water. Expectations of the populace on the activities of policy makers for the supply of water are quite high. (Sule, 2008). Water can be said to be adequate when an individual is availed a quantity of at least 50 litres per day (World Health Organization, 2003). 

The unavailability of water in required proportion for man’s use has assume global crises dimension. According  to  the  Population  Institute  (2010),  only  20  percent  of  the  global  population  has  access  to running water and over 1 billion people do  not have access to clean water. The Population Institute noted further that with a projected population of the world to expand to 9 billion people by 2050, it is estimated that 90 percent of the additional 3 billion people will be living in developing countriess, many of which are already experiencing water stress or scarcity therefore, it is pertinent to manage water resources sustainably.

Water resources management has a significant impact on the socio-economic development of a catchment. The water demands and availability depends on the economic, ecological, land use, and climatic changes of a region (Droogers,2012).Water resource management is a multifaceted issue that becomes  more  complex  when  considering  multiple  nations’  interdependence  upon  a single shared trans boundary river basin (Teasley and McKenney, 2011). The  management  of  water  resources  as  a  common  resource  would  require  trade-off  among  countries  and  water users (Yang and Zehnder, 2007). The need therefore to devise means by which available water can be consumed and allocated among the various uses is pertinent.

The planning of human activities involving rivers and their floodplains must consider hydrological facts; (…) the flows and storage volumes vary over space and time (Loucks et al, 2005).  The  necessity  of  predicting  the  hydrological  patterns  is  essential  to  the  reservoir management.  The  reservoirs  have  to  insure  not  only  the  water  quality,  but  also  the  human,  the industrial  and  the  agricultural  consumption. Nowadays the environmental concerns such as the aquatic biodiversity and the environmental pressure have an increased influence in the decision-making.

Asa River is one of the major sources of water supply in Kwara state. This study simulates the hydrological process of Asawatershed that allows for the estimation of available water resources, so that sustainable and rational utilization, conservation and management of available water resources will be adopted using Soil and Water Asessment Tool (SWAT) model. The study also proffers alternative strategies for water conservation that will meet water demand within the basin.

GIS-BASED ASSESSMENT OF WATER AVAILABILITY AND WATER DEMAND IN ASA CATCHMENT, KWARA STATE

INFLUENCE OF HYDROLOGIC & SEDIMENT PARAMETERS IN MODELING STREAM FLOW OF OSUN RIVER, OSUN STATE NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

        INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the study

The water is the most important natural resource especially in the arid or semi-arid zones that face high population growth, scarcity of freshwater, irregularity of rain- fall, excessive land use change and increasing vulnerability to risks such of drought, desertification and pollution. Thus, the availability and the sustainable use of this resource become the core of the local and national strategies and politics in these regions.

Hydrology is the main governing backbone of all kinds of water movement and hence of water-related pollutants. Understanding the hydrology of a watershed and modeling different hydrological processes within a watershed are therefore very important for assessing the environmental and economical well-being of the watershed. These models can offer a sound scientific framework for watershed analyses of water movement and provide reliable information on the behavior of the system.

          The degradation of hydrological resources has made it essential to encourage management practices based on knowledge of spatial and temporal changes in the quantity and quality of water, in order to ensure the suitability of water supplied for different uses. This can be assisted by using hydrological and water quality models to simulate a wide range of processes in hydrographic basins, such as the production of water and sediments and the dynamics of point and nonpoint sources of pollution.

Hydrological models are powerful tools to represent water-resource availability and behavior in drainage basins under many applications, such as climate change, flood, drought, runoff and nutrient movement (Abbaspour et al., 2015). They can assist in the planning and decision-making processes for environment protection and the guarantee of water availability for future uses (Da Silva et al., 2015; Fatichi et al., 2016).

The ability of hydrological model to produce satisfactory predictions is necessarily correlated to adequate sensitivity analysis and model calibration (Song et al., 2015). Hydrological models, such as SWAT, incorporate several parameters (climatic, hydrological and others) obtained theoretically and through field data collection. Some of these contribute greatly to model outputs (sensitive parameters), while others have minor relevance (non-sensitive parameters) (Van Griensven et al., 2006).

Osun is a river that flow southward through southern Nigeria into Lagos lagoon and Atlantic Gulf of Guinea. It is one of the several rivers ascribed in local mythology to have been women who turned into flowing waters after some traumatic event frightened or angered them. Osogbo GPS coordinates are 7˚46’15.74’’N and 4˚33’25.13’’E. Due to the potential of Osun river basin as a major source of water supply, this study will develop a plan that will allow for the sustainable management and treatment of the water in the catchment area.

1.2    Problem Statement

Osun River Catchment main source is one of the major sources of water supply, drinking and commercial purposes. It therefore important to know sensitive hydrologic parameters that contribute and hinder the stream flow out and sediment concentration in the catchment area.

1.3   Aims and Objectives

The main aim of this project is to investigate the use of modeling tool for sensitivity analysis of stream flow hydrologic and sediment parameters. Specific objectives achieved are:

  1. Simulation of the hydrological process of the watershed using temporal and spatial data.
  2. Prediction of the stream flow and sediments yield of the watershed.
  3. Determine the influence of the hydrologic and sediment parameters on stream flow and sediment yield prediction.

1.4   Justification

Most rivers are ungauged especially in developing countries and therefore prediction of stream flow for sustainable water management is regarded as an alternative. Prediction of stream flow and sediment yield requires many hydrologic and sediment parameters. Also, calibrating and validating such models are quite cumbersome due to many parameters to deal with.

Therefore, it is very important to carry out sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters to assist modelers in concentrating effort on most sensitive parameters that affect prediction of stream flow and sediment yield.

1.5   Scope of the Study

This research work is to carry out the sensitivity analysis of hydrologic parameters in modelling stream flow of osun river catchment. The analysis will be based on preliminary modelling results obtained from the modelling of the watershed. Parameters of interest are stream flow out and sediments yield with 31years meteorological data for the modeling exercises.

Model calibration and validation were not part of the scope covered in this research work.

INFLUENCE OF HYDROLOGIC & SEDIMENT PARAMETERS IN MODELING STREAM FLOW OF OSUN RIVER, OSUN STATE NIGERIA

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length, or estimation based on other criteria (e.g. “two counties over”). In most cases, “distance from A to B” is interchangeable with “distance from B to A”. In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance. A metric is a function that behaves according to a specific set of rules, and is a way of describing what it means for elements of some space to be “close to” or “far away from” each other. The distance meter, which is the focus of this study, is used for accurately determining the distance of an object without contact using ultrasonic sensor. The distance meter is frequently used in the industrial sector and especially with professions relating to construction, such as architecture, surveying, carpentry, masonry, locksmiths. Distance meter is a popular application for ultrasonic technology. This device measures geometric distances, heights, lengths, levels and positions in a non-contact process. To achieve this, all the components work together in a perfectly coordinated overall system. This system is made up of a ultrasonic sensor, the transmitter and receiver optics and sophisticated electronics and algorithms for time or phase measurement (Spasov, 2014).

On the other hand, distance detector is any device capable of measuring the distance between two points. The origins of distance measurement by means of graduated lengths of material such as chain, tape measure or piece of knotted rope are lost to antiquity. Optical distance measurement also has a long history, and is usually taken to stem from the work of James Watt in 1771. Electro-magnetic measurements make up a third method, where the time of travel of radio or light waves is converted into a distance. Since James Watt, hundreds of different types of instrument have been produced to make indirect distance measurement using light. All kinds of devices or equipment nowadays, begin with the basic design, basic theory and then all the weakness followed by improvement step by step. So this project will also do right the same reason which the improvement will be applied to bring the advantages to the user when measuring the distance depending on several problems that had been identified. The purpose of why this project is being carry out is the ultrasonic technology that is been used for this project because ultrasonic technology is one of the medium on how the distance will be measure and this is one of the ways that the world today widely used especially in some kind of general application such as in warfare applications, engineering applications and also in scientific and medical applications. Basically this ultrasonic technology is based on ultrasound and a common use of ultrasound is in range finding that perfectly related to the objectives of this project. This technology can be used for measuring: wind speed and direction, fullness of a tank, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure the amount of liquid in a tank, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid (Sinclair Ian  and Dunton, 2007).

1.2      OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

Ultrasonic Sensor or Module is used in this work for distance measurement. This article explains you how to measure the distance using 8051 microcontroller. This system measures the distance up to 4 meters with an accuracy of 3 mm. In present work the object position is measured electronically by using seven segment displays by replacing the heavy and bulky circuits with the compact circuits using intelligent Microcontroller. The bulky pressing switch is replaced by the small and one touch tactile switch. It saves electric consumption, saves the no. of man power, through seven segment display and one microcontroller as well as ultrasonic receiver & transmitter sensors.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUCTION

INVESTIGATION OF THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF SEDIMENT YIELD AND SURFACE RUNOFF IN OFFA WATERSHED, KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

In this research, an hydrological modelling tool, soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) used to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of sediment yield in a watershed. The model was run for 31years using spatial data such as Digital Elevation Model, soil map, land use and precipitation, wind and solar radiation. The results showed that the maximum value ofsurface Runoff was estimated as 19100.034mm in the year 2005 while the minimum surface Runoff was 1000.671mm in the year 20017. The maximum value of sediment yield was estimated as 2340.532mm in the 2005 and the minimum value was estimated as 34.769mm in the year 2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                           

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                           iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of content                                                                                  vi

List of Figures                                                                                      ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Introduction                                                                              1

1.2     Problem Statement                                                                     2

1.3     Aims & Objectives                                                                      2

1.4     Justification                                                                               3

1.5     Scope of Study                                                                           3

1.6     Description of Study Area                                                            3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0     Literature Review                                                                       5

2.1     Sediment Source Analytical Techniques                                         5

2.2     Sediment Yield Measurements                                                      6

2.3     Field Measurements of Sediment Yield                                           7

2.4     Sediment Yield Modeling                                                             7

2.5     Brief Description of Selected Hydrology Models                                       8

2.5.1  RIBASIM                                                                                    8

2.5.2  WEAP                                                                                        9

2.5.3  Realm Resource Allocation Model                                                 9

2.5.4  HSPF Model                                                                               10

2.5.5  AGNPS Model                                                                                       10

2.5.6 SWAT Models                                                                             11

2.6     SWAT Model Description                                                             11

2.7     Water Shed Hydrological Modeling.                                              11

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0     Methodology                                                                              13

3.1     Model Selection and Description                                                   13

3.2     Model Input Data                                                                       14

3.3     Digital Elevation Model (DEM)                                                      14

3.4     Soil Map                                                                                    15

3.5     Weather Data                                                                             16     

3.6     SWAT Model Set-up and Run                                                       16

3.7     Water Shed Delineation                                                               16

3.8     Land use map of the watershed                                                    17

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.0 RESULTS                                                                                       19

4.1 Temporal Variation of total means for surface runoff                          19

4.2 Temporal variation  of total means for sediment yield                         20

4.3     Temporal variation of annual means for sediment yield                   21

4.4     Temporal variation of annual means for surface runoff                     21

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 Conclusion                                                                                     23

5.1 Recommendation                                                                            23

References                                                             

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Water is an integral part of life, as human beings derived from the environment several services that are necessary for the survival, Water is one of the basic needs that human beings cannot live without; indeed water is life! Therefore, water-related (hydrological) ecosystem services provided by the environment (e.g provision, regulation and purification of freshwater) are quite valuable and important for human well-being. This underscores the importance of sound watershed management for continued provision of hydrological ecosystem services. From a hydrological point of view, a watershed includes all land contributing water (surface and ground water) to a reference point.     

  It is therefore obvious that land comprising of any watershed would generally be under other uses such as forests, agriculture and urban centers, which might commonly be considered ‘primary’ land uses. This means that watersheds provide other important ecosystem services, beside provision of hydrological ecosystem services. In some cases, enhanced provision of some ecosystem services may also lead to reduced capacity of watersheds to provide other services e.g. intensive cultivation to maximize food production may also lead to increase in soil erosion and consequently degradation of water quality.

Sediment yield is the amount at a point of interest in a particular period of time which occur due to heavy rainfall, are normally as tones per year or kilogram per year.

A large part of failure to achieve reasonable estimates of average annual sediment lies in particles of extrapolating relationship derived from field data with no consideration of appropriateness for future conditions.

Sediment yield is affected by many factors such as climate, soil, relief, vegetation and human influence. Runoff refers to as the part of water cycle that flow over land as surface water.

     Runoff has been used as a variable representing climatic conditions and includes not only the water that travel over the land surface and through channels to reach a stream but also interflow, the water that infiltrates the soil surface and travels by means of gravity toward a stream channel.

      In this study offa water shed is simulated to predict the surface runoff and sediment yield. The spatial and temporal variation obtained can be used as a decision support tool in the management of the water shed.

INVESTIGATION OF THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF SEDIMENT YIELD AND SURFACE RUNOFF IN OFFA WATERSHED, KWARA STATE

ASSESSMENT TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND THEIR MODE OF CONSTRUCTION

ABSTRACT

          This project work is concerned with assessment to different types of foundation and their mode of construction though looks like a literature review but entails full information and chosen.

            Foundation samples were limited to three different locations within Ilorin metropolis. Terzaghi equation was used for determining soil bearing capacity of the three cohesionless soil samples taken.

            The result obtained from the calculation shows that the soil in the three foundation Examined can resist any excessive settlement of super-structure load without excessive settlement of shear and it shows a good indication that the soil is good to be used as a sub grade or sub-base materials for construction.

            In general the soil material in those three foundation posses similar characteristic.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                                                  iii

Certification                                                                                                                iv

Dedication                                                                                                                  v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      vi

Abstract                                                                                                                      vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                       viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Aim and Objective of the Study                                                                    1

1.2       Objectives                                                                                                       1

1.3       Scope of the Study                                                                                         2

1.4       Justification of the Study                                                                               2

1.5       Statement of the Problem                                                                               2

1.6       Methodology                                                                                                  3

CHAPTER TWO

            LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Foundation in General                                                        4

2.1       Design Requirement                                                        4

2.2       Foundation Bearing Capacity Analysis                                                          5

2.2.1    Type of Bearing Capacity                                                      5

2.2.2    Presumed Bearing Value Table (Bs 8004: 1986) for

Preliminary Design                                                                              5

2.3       Choice of Foundation                                                            6

2.4       Factors Affecting the Choice of Foundation                                                 6

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Methodology  & Type of Foundation          8

3.0.1    Pile Foundation                                                                                 8

3.0.2    Pile Categories                                                                          10

3.0.3    Classification of Pile According to their Function                  10

3.1       Classification of Pile According to their Composition or Material of Construction                   11

3.2       Factor Influencing Choice Pile 13

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Result and Discussion                                                                       30

4.1   Foundation Requirement Strength and Stability of Foundation 31        

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion                                                                                              37

5.1       Recommendation                                                                             38

            References                                                                                             39

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

          One of the major needs of human being in life is shelter to protect man and their properties from some nature hazards. Such hazard may include rainfall, wind, snow, sun, e.t.c which may challenge the way of standard living which man propose. One of the most critical agenda that human being proposed about their wellbeing in the olden days is to have houses inform of huts where they can live after which civilization exhausted the mindset of human from staying in hut to a more conducive and mighty buildings.

            The development of bricks and stone for the construction of building necessitate the need for foundation, though the type of foundation most appropriate for a given structure depend greatly on the type of soil, the soil properties, soil condition and the type of building intended to be built on it.

            Foundation can thus be defined as the horizontal members supporting the entire structure and transmitting the load of the structure to the subsoil. Foundation in respect to soil may further be explained as the lowest part of a building which is situated below the ground level and it is satisfactorily design to transfer or permit load on it.

1.1       AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

AIM

          The aim of this study is to determine a compactable foundation type from a yielded soil bearing capacity to avoid settlement or shrinkage.

1.2       OBJECTIVES

  1. To say when and where each type of foundation in needed.

ii.         To broaden the structural engineering knowledge on which type of foundation suits a certain structure so as to have a safe structure.

iii.        To give information on all the types of foundation to allow the building safe from shrinkage or overturning.

1.3   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          For this project it is intended to state the various forms of foundation and how each type of the foundation discussed is being constructed, and determination of bearing capacity for some soil sample. Therefore the samples for testing were limited to three different locations in Ilorin metropolis.

1.4       JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

          The need for Assessment to different types of foundation and their mode of Construction is to provide adequate knowledge and information for the builder, structural engineer, and even the site engineer, as to which type of foundation will suits chosen site and mode of constructing such type of foundation.

            As we all know that every type of structure starts with foundation and proper measure must be taken in order to achieve a firm foundation as it is going to be explained in a project work.

ASSESSMENT TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND THEIR MODE OF CONSTRUCTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRONIC SCROLLING MESSAGE DISPLAY BOARD WITH BACK UP BATTERY

ABSTRACT

This report is aimed at explaining the Design and Construction of electronic message display board. It enumerate why we need electronic scrolling message display which is primarily for passage of information across the staff, students and public. It also includes the aim and objectives, advantages and disadvantages with a well narrated literature review and timeline that relates to digital display and its current trends in digital world.

Adequate coverage was given to mode of operation, result and discussion on the project work including Conclusion, Recommendations for further study, Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) and Reference.             

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………i

Certification…………………………………………………………….ii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………..iv

Acknowledgements……………………………………………..…….v

Table of Content………………………………………………………..vi-ix

List of figures………………………………………………………….x-xi

CHAPTER ONE

  1.  Introduction……………………………………………………….1
    1. Problem Statement ………………………………………….
    1. Motivation………………………………………………………….
    1. Aim……………………………………………………………………..
    1. Objectives……………………………………………………………
    1. Research Methodology…………………………………………….

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review………………………………………………10

2.1 Traditional/Conventional Billboards……………………………….

2.2 Billboard Advertising………………………………………………

 2.3 Digital Signals………………………………………….18-19

2.4 DIGITAL BILLBOARD

2.5     ELECTRONIC LED BILLBOARDS

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   System Design, Methodology and Circuit Analysis

3.1     System Design.

3.2  THE HARDWARE SECTION.

3.2.1  THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT.

3.2.1.1        LM7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR.

3.2.2  THE INPUT UNIT.

3.2.2.1        MAX232.

3.2.2.2        RS-232.

3.2.3  THE CONTROL UNIT

3.2.3.1        THE AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER

3.2.3.2.1     MEMORY ORGANIZATION

3.2.3.2.4     REGISTER BANKS.

3.2.4  DISPLAY UNIT.

3.2.4.1        LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDS).

3.2.4.2        LED-Display-Unit-Module

3.3     DESIGN DATA AND CALCULATION.

3.4     SOFTWARE/FIRWARE DESIGN SECTION.

3.5              HOW THE ENTIRE SYSTEM SEND DATA INPUT INTO   MICROCONTROLLER.

3.6     HOW THE MICRO CONTROLLER WORK WITH THE ENTIRE SYSTEM

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 System Implementation, Testing and Result.

4.1 System Implementation.

4.1.1 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

4.1.2  SOFTWARE/FIRMWARE IMPLEMENTATION

4.2     TESTING

4.3     RESULT (THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS).

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion………………………………………………………….54

5.1 Recommendation………………………………………………….54

5.2 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation(BEME)…………………………………………………56

5.3 Reference………………………………………………………….57

Appendix………………………….. ……………………………………58-59

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1 Street lightning system………………………………………..13

Fig 2.2 Control switch…………………………………………………..14

Fig 2.3.1 Circuit diagram of dark activated relay switch……….15

Fig 2.3.2 Manual switch……………………………………………….16

Fig 2.7.1 Distribution board………………………………………….22

Fig 2.7.2 Circuit breaker………………………………………………22

Fig 3.1.1 (a) 4 Core by 6mm2 cable…………………………………24

                (b) Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)

                (c) Streetlight fittings              

(d) Electric pole……………………………………………24

Fig 3.1.2 (a) Plumb  …………………………………………………..25

(b) Measuring tape  

(c) Shovel……………………………………………………25

Fig 3.1.3 (a) Iron frame and wooden base frame………………..26

                (b) Round pipe

(c) Cement              

(d) Sharp sand & Gravel………………………………..26

Fig 3.3.1  Choke……………………………………………………….29

Fig 3.3.2 Discharge lamp…………………………………………….30

Fig 3.3.3 Ignitor……………………………………………

    CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Communication has become inevitable and vital thing in this present age, it is even believed to be a commodity meant for consumption by any targeted audience. One of the important qualities possessed by all animals is the ability to communicate with each other or one another at a given time.

An information display is a way of providing information and is used as an object for notification. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it universal fit for any form of alerts.

The extent of development in information dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying information using sign posts, placards, notice boards, etc has to be modified by using electronic information board.

In the previous years, the means by which adverts, information are display has been through the use of static mode of sign display such as banners, flyers etc, they are becoming boring and unattractive.

Electronic scrolling message display advertisements are designated to catch a people’s attention and create a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it. They have to be readable in a very short time because, they are usually read while being passed at high speeds.

This piece of digital technology can be found in a number of places and are being used for different purposes.

In banks, it is used to display interest rates as well as exchange rates. In hotels and pubs, it is used to display the menu and prices, in schools it is used to display information related to the school programme and update news

1.2     MOTIVATION

The motivation of this project comes from the change involved with information in respect to time this days now prompt the huge step of constructing a reprogrammable SCROLLING MESSAGED DISPLAYER OR MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAYER to give information about anything at a particular moment to the targeted

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRONIC SCROLLING MESSAGE DISPLAY BOARD WITH BACK UP BATTERY

INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND REMEDIAL MEASURES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE CASE STUDY OF GANMO-AFON ROAD KWRA STATE

ABSTRACT

This project focuses on investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure at Ganmon-Afon road Kwara State.

The measuring of pavement and types of pavement. Types of pavement failures causes of pavement were studied and possible solution were provided. Form the investigation causes of pavement failure were identified as ranging from. Use of substandard materials. Inadequate compaction. Poor material strength due to the presence of refuse particle in the materials used. Poor maintenance improper drainage and improper chamber of the road. Some major are pothole, defects observed on the roads are cracking reveling rutting, blast erosion edge deterioration and drainage blockage. The soil samples were collected from three deferent portion of the road. The photographs of failed section were taken. Those problems can be ratified by not compromising standard of work during construction proper maintenance practices from time to and high quality control measure during construction and rehabilitation.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Declaration                                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                                   iv

Acknowledgement                                                                              v

Abstract                                                                                                       vi

Table of content                                                                                           vii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction                                                                                        1
    1. Aims and objective                                                                    3       
    1. Scope and objective                                                                           3
    1. Justification                                                                                                 4
    1. Research methodology                                                                       5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review                                                                                   6

2.1 Failure Of Pavement and their                                                                 7

2.1.1 Structural failure                                                                                  7

2.1.2 Function failure                                                                                    8

2.2.2 Factor to be considered in the construction of Road                     10

2.2.3 Geological Factor (design)                                                                   10

2.2.2 Geotechnical Factor                                                                             11

2.2.3 Usage factor                                                                                       12

2.3 Common form of pavement                                                                     13

2.3.1 Potholes                                                                                              13

2.3.2 Wheel ruthing                                                                                      14

2.3.3 Cracking                                                                                             15

2.3.4 revealing (pitting)                                                                                16

2.3.5 Blast erosion                                                                                       17

2.3.6 Distortion and wave                                                                    18

2.3.7 Peeling                                                                                                18

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology                                                                                          19

3.1 Reconnance survey of Ganmo- Afon Road                                              20

3.2 Various Types of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Road                    21

3.3 collection of Samples for Laboratory Test                                                26

3.3.1 Laboratory Test and Procedures                                                 26

3.3.2 Compaction Test                                                                                 27

3.4 California Bearing Ration (CBT) Test                                                      33

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results                                                         37

4.1 Types and Causes of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon                         37

Roads

4.2 Subgrade Materials                                                                                38

4.3 Relative Compaction                                                                     38

4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBT)                                                                39

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation                                                  39

5.1 conclusions                                                                                            39

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                    39

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one part or place to another. So road transportation is one of the most efficient means of transportation all over the world.

          The efficiency and convenience of transportation of goods and passengers are determined by function of road pavement our daily activities required the movement from one location to another either by one mode of transportation or by combining at different modes of transportation.

          According to Oguara (2010) roads represent the major areas at investment in transportation and are the most dominant travel mode accounting for over 90% of passengers and goods transport in Nigeria road one of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the state of Nigerian roads Ette (2010) states that there was a road not work study that commissioned in 1998/1999. This study cover all inter-urban road which had a traffic of move than 30 vehicle day and a total length of around 53. 00km

          So the way of placing the pavement on the road networks also contribute to the social economic growth and to the development of the communities. Pavements take an important part in over all towns and countries planning.

Highway engineers have always been trying their best to design construct and maintain high way in Nigeria and beyond but upon all their best and technical know how, the roads are still failing and accommodation series of defect as the days goes by it’s high time to see into the causes and effects these road failures and their result on the uses also the life span at the road so as to fulfill its intending purpose.

Highway maintenance purposely keep pavement in a satisfactory condition so as not to obstruct the traffic flow on the road maintenance of asphalt pavement is referred to as a set of organized activities that carried out in order to keep pavement in its best operational condition with minimum cost required.  

Roads is constructed without any scientific basis will require elaborate maintenance but if they are constructed adopting all the scientific fundamentals even then they require maintenance but to the lesser degree.

This project is to focus on investigation of pavement failure and their remedial measure on Ganmo- Afon road and possible solution would be provided to correct those failure it will also explain what highway pavement will be included. Ganmo  Road designation are classified into four groups which are:   

  • Express Road:  These are international roads linking other neighboring countries and inter-states linking man political and commercial centre will high volume capacity for example Lagos to Ibadan express way.
  • Truck Road: These are roads in the purposely for heavy traffic charring route between political and economic cities example are Ogbomosho to Ilorin road.
  • Principal road: These are major roads in the state link important political and industrial together for example Maraba to Kwara State Polytechnic Road.
  • Non Principal Road: These are collection road in both urban and rural areas which link important town in local Government area together. Therefore road as a matter of fact must be given an adequate attention to both its design and construction stage in order to accord its engineering purposes.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

One of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the Nigeria roads e.g Natural conditions, traffic conditions, and construction materials are the main causes of soft spots on the earth road edge damage of bituminous pavement, culvert slide down slide ditch erosion, side drain deposition e.t.c.

INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND REMEDIAL MEASURES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE CASE STUDY OF GANMO-AFON ROAD KWRA STATE