EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZES ON THE CONCRETE STRENGTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZES ON THE CONCRETE STRENGTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The relevance of road to life and its activities cannot be over emphasized.

Road is as old as the origin of man and plays a vital role in the life of the people in communities, states, countries. It is quite obvious that life would have been very difficult without the existence of roads. Nigeria for instance acknowledged the importance of road such that the local, state and federal government are all involved in the development and maintenance of road network.

History has shown that provision of roadway is a necessary tool for civilization. It advances prosperity increase and this bring about demand for better and faster communication facilities especially roads.

The continuing increase in Nigeria’s population has made the daily movement of passengers and goods an increasing complex problem.

1.2  RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

This is a quick type of survey or a rapid examination of the ground and its adjacent natural features usually made without survey instruments to limit the alternative routes in terms of cost to one or two.

The following factors are normally considered in reconnaissance survey.

v  Overall cartage of goods

v  Nearness to road materials quarries

v  Traffic conditions

v Soil conditions

v  Right of way or road land

v  Ruling gradient

v Type of road surface

v  Number of major and minor bridges

v  Approximate length and cost

v  Curvative along the alignment

The road under consideration (A by pass from IMT/ Federal Secretariat road to Industrial center and Mass Communication Department) has been graded and motor drivers and pedestrians use it. On the sides of the proposed road are existing buildings and farm lands.

The traffic capacity of the road is low because of the poor grading of the road.

Because the road has not been properly paved, less pedestrians use the road and motorist prefer going through the longer way by passing through mass communication department when going to industrial center.

When the road is properly improved, all these problems will be eliminated and a lot of benefit will be accrued, benefit to the intending business center as a result of more people using the road and reduction in travel time.

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EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZES ON THE CONCRETE STRENGTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF TWO STOREY BUILDING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF TWO STOREY BUILDING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

PREFACE

The whole information conveyed in this book has been planned and written for proper understanding of structural detailing of a building.

The approach in this book is to provide the readers sound and basic knowledge in structural detailing in a building. Consequently, I have given more details than is normally given in a book concerning detailing of structural members, which include slabs, beam, stairway and column.

This book will also provide some bases as a prerequisite in detailing worth of a small residential building.

All the works t o be carried out, as regard to this field are mostly, the work of a structural engineer throughout the end of the project.

STRUCTURAL SYMBOLS AND NOTATION

 

The abbreviation recommended for structural detailing works are as follow:

a.

R.C.                 =          Reinforced concerts

Drg                  =          Drawing

Hor                  =          Horizontal

Vert                 =          Vertical

Pia                   =          Diameter

Fdn                  =          Foundation

Conc                =          Concrete

C.B                  =          Column Base

b.                  TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

R                     =          Mild steel

T or Y  =          High yield steel

b.                  COMMENTS RELATING TO REINFORCEMENT

C         =          Centre line

B         =          Bottom

T          =          Top

C/c       =          Centre to centre

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In other to provide information to contractors in a construction industry for works to be carried out on sites, drawings are produce, which serves as means of communication are used by designers in every engineering specters.

For those reason, the works are mostly work of a structural engineer to design a construction of structure for sheltering to be completed, such as road, bridges, railways, dams, buildings and other relevant construction work. Sketches of these works are prepared by free hand, then these sketches are  put together into a clear and well presented working drawing used by the builders and contractors for implementation after taken of the particular drawing to the specified authorities for approval.

All detailing works developed by the structural engineer (the detailer) serves as a good prerequisite of standing the risk of sudden collapse of building or structural failure of a building members. It also helps to avoid unnecessary delay of works which may come up doubt, and frequent clarification.

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STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF TWO STOREY BUILDING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE ALONG HILLVIEW OFF ESBS ROAD ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE ALONG HILLVIEW OFF ESBS ROAD ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

One of the major problems facing the country is pavement failure. It is the concern of the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) authorities to carryout a case study of pavement failure along Hillview off ESBS Road Enugu.

The investigation show that the pavement failed both structural and functionally taking into consideration.

The possible cause cure:-

(a)                Poor sub-grade & sub-base

(b)               Lack of maintenance culture

(c)                Poor drainage system

(d)               Poor workmanship

(e)                Inaccurate

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1              INTRODUCTION

The site under investigation is Hillview of ESBS Road Enugu.

Along the site failures are observed especially depress on pavement and lost of pavement totally which are caused by excessive moisture in the sub – grade.

The aim of the investigation is to know  the extent of the failure on the flexible pavement and the nature of the failure.

The aim is also to give recommendation on how to improve the pavement which has occurred at the site under investigation.

1.2              LITERATURE REVIEW

The uses and application of modern technologies and new concepts have been deviced to tackle problem of pavement failure by many organized bodies.

1.3              DEFINITION OF PAVEMENT

a pavement can be defined as the hard crust of the road structure placed above the soil formation or sub-grade.

1.4              FUNCTIONS

The function of pavement is to transmit acceptable pressure to the bearing subgrade through sub base soil which must be less than the bearing capacity of the soil sub-grade.

1.5              TYPES OF ROAD PAVEMENT

There are two main types of pavement

(i)                 Flexible Pavement

(ii)               Rigid Pavement

1.6              FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

This consist of various lagers of high way building materials compacted so as to be void free and finished with elastic surface such as bitumen as asphalt maintain intimate constant and distributes inter lock, particle reaction and cohesiol per stability.

 

1.7              ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

If good services are to be received from bituminous pavement it must be for its full life, retain the following qualities.

(i)                 Smooth riding or in skid surface

(ii)               Tight, impermeable surface or porous surface

(iii)             No cracking or fatigue failure

(iv)             Resistance of weather

(v)               Resistance of moisture

1.8              DISADVANTAGE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

If not properly constructed — will be

(i)                 Poor weather resistance

(ii)               Presence of cracking

(iii)             High cost is incurred during construction

(iv)             Fatigue failure will occur

1.9              RIGID PAVEMENT

This type of pavement is made up of reinforcement or non – reinforcement concrete slab. It consist of two layers the cement slab and the snobs of granular material or stabilized soil.

These two large are sprees I n separate construction operation.

1.10           ADVANTAGE OF RIGID PAVEMENT

This types of pavement has long life, when properly design constructed.

It has low maintenance cost

The reinforcement made it not flexible

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INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE ALONG HILLVIEW OFF ESBS ROAD ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE RELEVANCE OF ROAD TO LIFE AND ITS ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE RELEVANCE OF ROAD TO LIFE AND ITS ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

This project involves the route survey which includes: reconnaissance survey, theodolite traversing and leveling operations as well as soil tests which includes; plastic limit test, liquid limit tests and moisture content determination, compaction tests and California bearing ratio tests.

This project also involves the design of the pavement and the geometric design of the roadway.

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1       GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The relevance of road to life and its activities cannot be over emphasized.

Road is as old as the origin of man and plays a vital role in the life of the people in communities, states, countries. It is quite obvious that life would have been very difficult without the existence of roads. Nigeria for instance acknowledged the importance of road such that the local, state and federal government are all involved in the development and maintenance of road network.

History has shown that provision of roadway is a necessary tool for civilization. It advances prosperity increase and this bring about demand for better and faster communication facilities especially roads.

The continuing increase in Nigeria’s population has made the daily movement of passengers and goods an increasing complex problem.

1.2       RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

This is a quick type of survey or a rapid examination of the ground and its adjacent natural features usually made without survey instruments to limit the alternative routes in terms of cost to one or two.

The following factors are normally considered in reconnaissance survey.

v  Overall cartage of goods

 Nearness to road materials quarries

v  Traffic conditions

v  Soil conditions

v  Right of way or road land

v  Ruling gradient

v  Type of road surface

v  Number of major and minor bridges

v  Approximate length and cost

v  Curvative along the alignment

The road under consideration (A by pass from IMT/ Federal Secretariat road to Industrial center and Mass Communication Department) has been graded and motor drivers and pedestrians use it. On the sides of the proposed road are existing buildings and farm lands.

 

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THE RELEVANCE OF ROAD TO LIFE AND ITS ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL DETAILING IN REINFORCED CONCRETE OF A THREE BEDROOM DETACH DUPLEX, IN AZUIYIOKWU ABAKALIKI  EBONYI STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL DETAILING IN REINFORCED CONCRETE OF A THREE BEDROOM DETACH DUPLEX, IN AZUIYIOKWU ABAKALIKI  EBONYI STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

PREFACE

In structural detailing, the project is initiated by the structural engineer. The architectural drawings are prepared by the architect to the required scale and specification given to him by the client.

The structural engineer designs the structural frame work of the building and specification required such as slab, beam, column and foundation.

For proper clearification and understanding, the structure is broken down into its component parts and detailed keeping in mind the design consideration.

Structural detailing is the transformation of the works of the structural Engineer into working drawing for the builders to use without any cumbersome.

The methods, symbols and notations used are standardized for uniformity despite the multi-diversity natures of the construction industry. The standard method of measurement and notations ofdetailing a building should be understood before carying the exercise.

The purpose of their written account is to present a straight forward introduction to the basic standard method in detailing reinforced concrete structure and their component parts. Here a structural detailing of three bedroom duplex has been chosen as the project.

Both the architectural work and the civil engineering work have been completed. The subject matter has been arranged so that chapter 1-4 covers the description of basic material and engineering design specification while the last chapter covers the actual detailing of the components, all details are shown in plan elevation and section.

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

For detailing of reinforced concrete, the abbreviation recommended for this project are enlisted as follows:

TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT

Y – high yield

R = round mild steel bars

 

COMMENTS RELATING TO REINFORCEMENTS

T – top placed

B  – bottom placed

@ – centres

c/c – centre to centre

 

GENERAL ABBREVIATION

Rc – reinforced concrete

Drw – drawings

Fdn – foundation

Conc – concrete

Dia – diameter

Bs – British standard

Cp – code of practice

Nos – numbers

Hf – thickness of flange

Fy – characteristic strenght of reinforcement

Fyy – characteristic strenght of link reinforcement

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The work in the construction industry involves the client, the Architect, the Engineer, the quantity surveyor and the builders. A structural project is initiated by the Engineer (civil Engineer).

 

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STRUCTURAL DETAILING IN REINFORCED CONCRETE OF A THREE BEDROOM DETACH DUPLEX, IN AZUIYIOKWU ABAKALIKI  EBONYI STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL/REINFORCEMENT DETAILING OF A SINGLE STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL.. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

STRUCTURAL/REINFORCEMENT DETAILING OF A SINGLE STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL.. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

PREFACE

            This is the presentation of an information on the structural reinforcement detailing of concrete members.  Structural detailing is a branch of structural work that transposes the idea or works of a structural engineer into working drawing or easy utilization in the building construction works.  Working drawing are produced an engineer for easy use by the contractors.

The processes detailing put in place was in conjunction with the recommendations of the concrete society and the institute of structural engineers.  In building construction a good interaction and contractors are required.  The methods, scates, symbols and notations must be standardized and understood by all parties in a project to minimize risks and communication hindrances.

A structure is broken down into identifiable elements for detailing work like bean column, slab etc which enables the different detailing  aspects to be fully addressed and understood.

STRUCTURAL SYMBOLS

            The abbreviations recommended for structural detailing work are a s follows.

a.         R.C.     –           Reinforced concrete

drg       –           drawing

hor       –           horizontal

vest      –           vertical

dia       –           diameter

fdn      –           fordation

conc     –           concrete

col       –           column

b.         Type of reinforcement

R         –           Mild steel bars

Y         –           High yield bars

c.         Comments relating to reinforcement

C         –           center line

B         –           Bottom

T          –           Top

c/c        –           center to centre

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            Before a designer can relate his requirements dearly in a construction industry, a drawing is to be prepared; this is because the drawing serves as a general means of communication.  Thus, the drawing is adopted mostly, then other means of communication in engineering sectors.

A structured engineer mostly engages himself in designs on construction of structures.  Like roads, bridges, railways, dams, buildings and other public works.

The structural engineer makes initial designs, which are usually free – hand sketches of the work.  These sketches are used to make clear and neat working drawing, which will b e used by the builder of contractor after approval for construction by the authorities involved.

The contributions of a detailer is highly significant to the construction process, for a well detailed drawing is a good medium of reducing the risks of building collapses and to avoid delays arising from doubts and too frequent clarifications.

 

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STRUCTURAL/REINFORCEMENT DETAILING OF A SINGLE STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL.. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ROUTE SURETY AND DESIGN OF PAVEMENT OF ROAD LINKING FEDERAL SECRETARIAT, INDUSTRIAL CENTEN AND MASS COMMUNICATION I.M.T. CAMPUS III ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ROUTE SURETY AND DESIGN OF PAVEMENT OF ROAD LINKING FEDERAL SECRETARIAT, INDUSTRIAL CENTEN AND MASS COMMUNICATION I.M.T. CAMPUS III ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The project covers a view and detailed explanation of the route survey which in chider reconnaissance surrey, theologize traversing and levelling operation as well as soil tests which includes compaction test, mechanical analysis, plastic and liquid limits and CBR test.

The project also covers the design of pavement   and the geometric design of the road way

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The importance of road to a community and its activities cannot be over emphasized. Road is as ole as man and plays a vital role in the movement of people and goods from one state to another. Good road network is one of the basic requirement that enhances the social, political and economic growth of a nation. It is obvious that life would have been very difficult without the existence of roads.

Nigeria for instance acknowledged the importance of good road network such that the local, state and federal government are all involved in the provision, development and maintance of roads in the country in other to boost economic aquaculture and commercial activities in the nation

History has shown that provision of grod road network is an important tool for civilization. Roads are of optinman benefit to the people in the sense that it brings about industrialization, commercialization in a community and also ease traffic cevgestion and facilitates the movement of agicultural products from the nrel areas to urban centers.

            AIM OF THE PROJECT

The aim of the project is to pwide the student with the practical knowledge in the design of a road way with a bid to help the student execute such related project in real practice in tntive

    It is also aimed at marrying they with practice and also at during information on the nature and effectiveness of the subgrade material and suggort what should done with the aid of test results to alleriate parement failine

         

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ROUTE SURETY AND DESIGN OF PAVEMENT OF ROAD LINKING FEDERAL SECRETARIAT, INDUSTRIAL CENTEN AND MASS COMMUNICATION I.M.T. CAMPUS III ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

BASIC SOIL TEST ON SUB-GRADE SOIL MATERIAL & FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN ON ROAD LINKING – UGWUAJI AND CAMPUS M, IMT; ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

BASIC SOIL TEST ON SUB-GRADE SOIL MATERIAL & FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN ON ROAD LINKING – UGWUAJI AND CAMPUS M, IMT; ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

PREFACE

This case study is an existing pathway or fort path linking Ugwuji and Campus 111 (IMT) for a proposed road construction by the government of Enugu State.

This project encloses the following

–                      The condition of the existing sub-grade and its suitability for use as a good sub-grade soil material by processes of different lab test.

–                      Using the group index method and CBR method to design a flexible pavement on the pathway under consideration.

–                      The optimum moisture content (OMC) and the maximum Dry Density (MDD) which are obtained by various laboratory test with a view of applying corresponding values in the field.

 

CHAPTER ONE

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES AND LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAM

The test carried out in this project was on distributed soil sample.

This implies collecting soil samples that are disfigured their natural shape.

Soil samples were collected on three (3) trial pit along Ugwuaji and Campus 111 IMT Enugu. A total of three (3) samples were collected from the trial pits (one from each pit) using pick are and spade. The samples were taken at 1.0m depth in each pit. The samples were put in polythene bags and labelled A, B, C. The samples were spread on the floor of the soil laboratory and stones removed for seven (7) days to allow for air drying.

The laboratory testing program comprises mechanical analysis, compaction test and atterberg limit tests, and the California bearing ratio (CBR) test.

The objectives of the laboratory testing program were

1.                  To obtain a general information regarding the nature of the soil and their variation with depth throughout the length of the road under consideration.

2.                  To obtain information regarding the strength characteristics of the soil.

3.                  To obtain information which will enable engineers to group soils according to their appearances of the purposes of complying different soils.

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BASIC SOIL TEST ON SUB-GRADE SOIL MATERIAL & FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN ON ROAD LINKING – UGWUAJI AND CAMPUS M, IMT; ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT FOR PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT FOR PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

ABSTRAT

  Groundwater hydrology may be defined as the science of the occurrence distribution, and movement of water below the surface of the earth.  Geochydrology has an identical connotation, and hydrogeology differs only by its greater emphasis on geology.  Utilization of groundwater dates from ancient times, although an understanding of the occurrence and movement of subsurface water as part of the hydrologic cycle has come only relatively recently.

SCOPE:         Groundwater referred to without specification is commonly understood to mean water occupying all the voids within geologic stratum.  This saturated zone should be distinguished from an unsaturated, or earation zone where voids are filled with water and air.  Water contained in saturated zone is important for engineering work, geologic studies and water supply development consequently, the occurrence of water in this zones will be emphasized here.  Unsaturated zone a re usually found above saturated zones and extend uquad to the ground surface.  Because this water includes soil masture within the root zone, it is a major concern for agriculture, binary, and soil science.  No rigid demarcation of water between the two zones is possible, for they possess an interdependent boundary and water can move from owe zone to the other in either direction.  The interrelationships are described more in some higher hydrogeology texts.

 

CHAPTER ONE

HISTORICAL BACK GROUND AND GROUND WATER THEORIES

Groundwater development dates from ancient times the Old Testament contains numerous references to groundwater, springs, and wells, other that dug wells, groundwater in ancient times we supplied from horizontal wells known as QAUNATS. These persist to the present day and can be found in a band across the regions of the South Western Asia and North Africa extending from Aghanistan to Morocco.  A cross section a long a qanat ie shown in fig 1.1 typically, a gently sloping tunnel dug through alluvial material leads water by gravity flow beneath the water table at its upper end to a ground.

 

FIG 1.1

 

A vertical cross section along a qanat surface outlet and irrigation canal at its lower end.  Vertical shafts dug at closely s paced intervals provide access  to the tunnel.  Qanats are laboriously hand constructed by skilld workers employing techniques that date back 3000 years.

Iran possesses the greatest concentration of qanats; here some 22,000 qanats supply 75 percent of all water used in the country.  Lengths of qanats extend up to 30km, but most are less than 5km.  The depth of the qanat mother well (see fig 1.1) ie normally less than 50m, but instances of depth exceeding 250m have been reported.  Discharge of Qantas varies.  Seasonally with water table fluctuations and seldom exceed 100m3/hr.

 

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GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT FOR PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING

IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

ABSTRACT

The focus of this study is “the impact of management communication for effective organizational performance” with particular reference to ANAMMCO, Enugu.
The core concern of the study was to find out the communication techniques and system that will help in determining the effectiveness of such techniques and system for effective organizational performance.
To achieve this aims, the researcher used questionnaires method to obtained data from all the six (6) department of the company.
The study reveals that ANAMMCO is a company that gives enough attention to communication because they believe that communication helps for effective organizational performance and this enables the company achieve it’s aims and objectives.
Finally, it is hoped that the work will provide an adequate guide to readers and users either to agree or disagree with the writer.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Communication is the act of transferring information from one person to another, creature and point to point. It could also be means of transmitting and conveying of ideas, attitudes, views and opinions from person to person, generation to generation, communication to a very large audience and vice versa.
Social organization cannot survive without communication. You can imagine what the situation will be like if you gather people together and cannot communicate to them, the situation will be quite uncontrollable. Irrespective of how poor or rich and organization is there exist some spectrum of communication in all without it, no organization. It is so vital that without it, no organization can succeed. Infact, communication is indispensable to human existence because one must need to communicate with people around him, to share ideas, experience and feelings.
An organization without channels of communication or where it is not working well, should need it or have the already existing ones re-in-forced. The employers would like the feelings of the employees, customers, and the general public communication to help streamline action and activities in the organization.
The employees, more especially would like to know the objective of the organization in which they are working for. They will like to know when changes mainly those that will affect them are about to be effected. They will also like to know what is expected of tem in the organization, to abide by the rules and regulations and to make known to the organization their feeling, decisive aspiration and efforts. They will also like to be recogn by other members of the organization especially management. An organization is deemed a good one when it’s objectives are derived from those of it’s member and this can only be achieve by establishing an effective downward, upward and lateral communication system. Hence he is well informed of the organizational plans and given at same time the chance to make his own contributions to the advantage of the management and its entirely.

 

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IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

THE COMPRESSIBILITY PROPERTIES OF SOIL

THE COMPRESSIBILITY PROPERTIES OF SOIL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Maryland is located in Enugu South in Enugu State. The subsoil of this region consists of fine grained soils with a considerable part of soft soil deposit which extends to a considerable depth.

When a compressive load is applied to a soil mass, the volume of the soil mass tends to reduce, due to reduction in its voids. This reduction in volume of a soil mass on application of a compressive stress can rather be placed either normally (laterally), or vertically or in both directions depending on how the soil mass is allowed to deform. When a vertical compression deformation is non-uniform it poses serious danger to the safety of structures and other civil engineering facilities, therefore there is need to study the compressibility properties of soil in Maryland.

1.1.1 COMPRESSIBILITY

This is the degree to which a soil mass decreases in volume when supporting a load.  Compressibility is reduced in a situation where there are more coarse-grained soils in contact with each other. It increases as the proportion of small particles increases and becomes highest in fine-grained soils which contain organic matter.

Compressibility is approximately proportional to the plastic index. The greater the plastic index (PI), the greater the compressibility of the soil. (Adeyemi 2014).

1.1.2      PLASTICITY INDEX

This can be defined as the numerical difference between the liquid limit and plastic limit. The plasticity index is expressed in percentage of the dry weight of the soil sample and also it shows the size of range of the moisture contents at which the soil remains plastic.

The plasticity index also gives a good indication of compressibility. The greater the plastic limit the greater the soil compressibility (Ashworth 1966).

1.2  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of this project includes

i.            To study compressibility

ii.           To obtain the compressibility properties of soil in Maryland area.

iii.         To obtain data that may be used in predicting the rate and the amount of settlement of structures in the area.

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this project is limited to obtaining the compressibility properties of soil in Maryland area.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

i.        This project will help to understand the compressibility properties of soil in Maryland area which will reduce the problems that geotechnical engineers face in designing economic foundation for the required infrastructure in Maryland area.

ii.        The compressibility properties of the soil in the area obtained from labouratory test might be used to estimate the magnitude and the rate of settlement of a structure or an earth fill in Maryland area.

1.5 COMPRESSIBILITY PARAMETERS:

To obtain the compressibility properties of soil in Maryland, labouratory test will be carried out to obtain.

i.            Coefficient of compression/compression index (CC).

ii.           Swell index (CS)

iii.         Coefficient of compressibility (AV)

iv.         Coefficient of volume compressibility (MV)

 

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THE COMPRESSIBILITY PROPERTIES OF SOIL

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROPERTIES OF STABILIZED LATERITE BLOCKS

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROPERTIES OF STABILIZED LATE-RITE BLOCKS

ABSTRACT

Sustaining housing development especially to the medium/low-income group of the society has become a huge challenge particularly because of the huge capital outlay required to do so. Thus, acquisition of indigenous building materials by way of Compressed Stabilized Laterite Blocks (CSLBs) has been suggested as a way out. The aim of this research is to investigate the properties of stabilized laterite blocks at 5%, 15%, and 25% stabilization.

The specific objectives are; to determine the compressive strengths of the stabilized laterite block samples at 5%, 15% and 25% cement stabilization; to investigate the water absorption capacity of the stabilized laterite block samples at 5%, 15%, and 25% cement stabilization, and; to assess the resistance to abrasion of the stabilized laterite block samples at 5%, 15% and 25% cement stabilization. Laterite samples were collected from the Otta area in Ogun State, Nigeria; based on previous work which stated that the samples obtained from this place produced good interlocking blocks that met minimum standards. These samples were stabilized with ordinary Portland cement using 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of the binder; 0% stabilization being the control. The stabilized samples were then used to produce stabilized blocks which were tested for strength and durability.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The importance of housing in human history cannot be overemphasized. Housing is seen as one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and of his or her place in society (UNCHS, 1993). Furthermore, Venkatarama (2004) is of the view that housing and building conditions also reflect the living standards of a society. Thus, the importance of access to adequate and affordable housing took the front burner in the mid 20th century. The low-income group whose population is on the increase due to rapid urbanization and population growth evidently became the most vulnerable in terms of lack of access to decent and affordable housing in developing countries. This has led to various researches into development of locally available building materials and construction techniques to enhance access to housing for all.

In 1976, the Human Settlements conference in Vancouver gave new impetus to this approach, condemning the transposition of Western building techniques for low-cost housing and recommending the design of technologies suited to climatic, social and cultural contexts (Rigassi, 1985 cited in Alagbe, 2008). The conference also recommended the gradual reduction of imports of products and services linked to construction, and the drawing up of norms and regulations which covered the basic needs of end-users whilst taking account of their economic possibilities.

The acquisition of local building materials and techniques to guarantee access to decent and durable housing for all by the year 2000 was adopted in December 1988 by the General Assembly of the United Nations with the slogan “Global Strategy for Housing to the year 2000”. The Assembly proposed relying on a vast formal and informal private sector participation in housing provision. This strategy was aimed at removing the dependence on the public sector for housing provision by exploring the erstwhile ignored wealth of existing human resources and their building cultures and social dynamics (UNCHS, 1993).

 

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROPERTIES OF STABILIZED LATE-RITE BLOCKS

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STORY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STORY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL

ABSTRACT
This project is mainly concerned with the presentation of information basically on the structural detailing of reinforced concrete members of a story building, in a sloppy land with a retaining wall.  Structural detailing is a branch of structural work that transposes the idea of works of a structural engineer into working drawings for easier utilization in the building construction.  Working drawings are drawings produced by engineers for easy execution of a plan by builders.
The drawing also shows the interrelationship between the architectural and the engineering design, it shows all the construction detail properly as they relate to the other with no attempt of separation of diverse materials.

STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF A SINGLE STORY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH RETAINING WALL

CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DAMP ON BUILDING

CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DAMP ON BUILDING

ABSTRACT

It has been clearly identified that one of the agent that easily deteriorate building structure, weaken the strength of the component of building and shorten the life-span of building is “DAMP”, which may occur in different dimension therefore, this project is centred on causes of damp, prevention of damp and the necessary treatment needed for the structure that has been severely affected with damp in makoko, yaba area of Lagos state. This research connotes that the main causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp, condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage. To achieve the objective of this study, four research questions were raised. The survey research design was adopted using observation technique. A checklist was used for data collection. Based on the findings it was concluded that there is need to prevent and treat damp in building in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state so as to have an healthy environment and also to prolong life of structures. Recommendations were made for prevention and treatment of damp in this area based on the reviewed literature.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Damp is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.

According to Don Prowler (2011) moisture in buildings is a major contributor to mold growth, unhealthy buildings, and poor indoor air quality. A high proportion of damp problems in buildings are caused by condensation, rain penetration and rising damp.

Dampness tends to caused secondary damage to a building. The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi in wood, causing rots or mold health issues and may eventually lead to a sick building syndrome. Plaster and wallpaper loosens: stains from the water, salts and from mold mar surfaces.

In makoko metropolis of Yaba local government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration of building. This project will help the people of makoko and its environs to know the causes of this damp, means of preventing the damp from occurring and the major problem or treatment needed for the buildings that has been affected with damp.

Statement of the Problem

Damp problems in buildings causes poor indoor air qualities, respiratory illness in occupants, falling of mortar from the affected walls, failure of building components and at times serious health effects in humans. Hence there is need to find out the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building.

Purpose of the Study

The essence of this study is to:

1. Identify the causes of damp in buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.

2. Identify the effects of damp on buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.

3. Measures for preventing the damp in order to improve the life span of the buildings in makoko.

4. Proffer the proper treatment to the buildings that are affected by damp in makoko.

Research Question

1. What are the causes of damp in buildings?

2. What are the effects of damp on buildings?

3. What are the means of preventing damp in building?

4. What are the necessary treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?

Significance of the Study

At the end of this research project the following people will be the beneficiary of the proffer solution to the problem: the landlords and landladies, the building occupants, the maintenance technicians, the builder.

Specifically this study will help the landlord and landladies (building owners) to know that damp that can deteriorates their buildings and they will be able to know and make the right choice of materials to demand for when their house is under construction or renovation. They will also appreciate the needs to employ professionals when constructing.

This study will help occupants to be aware of damp which can damage their properties, and be injurious to their health. It will also guide them in the choice of accommodation.

This study will serve as a guideline to the maintenance technicians who are required to carry out renovation/repairs in a building, to prevent the effects of this damp on such building and the right treatment needed for the houses that are affected.

 

CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DAMP ON BUILDING

IMPROVEMENT OF BEARING CAPACITY OF SANDY SOIL BY GROUTING

IMPROVEMENT OF BEARING CAPACITY OF SANDY SOIL BY GROUTING

CHAPTER ONE   
1.0  INTRODUCTION
The construction of structure on weak ground often requires the soil to be improved in order to ensure the safety and the stability of surrounding buildings. The ground improvement in granular soils can be achieved by different methods such as vibro-floatation, compaction piles, and compaction with explosives, excavation and replacement, grouting e.t.c. The selective of the most suitable method depend on a variety of factors, such as: soil conditions, required degree of compaction, types of structure to be supported, as well as site specific considerations available time for completion of the project, availability of equipment and materials e.t.c. Soil compaction can offer effective solutions for many foundation problems and his especially useful for reducing total settlement in sand. Sandy soil means most of the soil particles are bigger than 2mm in diameter. It gives good water drainage and has a low capacity to hold nutrients. Sandy soil does not hold moisture very well. It is granular and consists of rock and mineral particle that are very small. Therefore, the texture is gritty and is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, quartz and shale. Is also easier to cultivate it if it is rich in organic materials but then it allows drainage more than needed. This results in over drainage and dehydration of the plant in summer. It warms very fast in the spring season. Grouting on the other hand is a process whereby stabilizes either in the form of suspension or solution is injected into sub surface soil. Sandy soil is the largest particle in the soil when you rub it, if feels rough. This is because it has sharp edges and it does not hold many nutrients.

1.1    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF GROUTING 
The development and history of compaction grouting over the last 30-40 years as been established by many distinguished researcher, design engineer and design contractor. Many technical papers are been published dealing physically with the issues surround compaction grouting design such as: “compaction grouting, 1973”, “planning and performing compaction grouting” 1974. These and other important reference are the main stream basis of knowledge for the highly specialize engineering and construction technique know as compaction grouting. The compaction grout method as some unique features which allow distinct advantages over other remedial method of geo-technical construction. In many distances growth is the only viable solution. Some of the advantages include: Economic: Many time compaction grouting is the only feasible solution to foundation settlement problems, other than demolishing the structure and re-building with expensive deep foundation technique. Minimal disturbance: During the grouting operation, destructure may remain occupied and in service. Minimal risk: Compaction grouting offers minimal risk of catastrophic structural failure while re-leveling structure. Other are: Minimal geotechnical exploration, provide greater support for structures, cost factor e.t.c.

 

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IMPROVEMENT OF BEARING CAPACITY OF SANDY SOIL BY GROUTING

EFFECT OF GROUNDNUT SHELL ASH ON SOIL STABILIZATION

EFFECT OF GROUNDNUT SHELL ASH ON SOIL STABILIZATION

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The search for alternative binder or pozzolanic material has become a challenge to national development. Potential of laterite soil as a reliable and durable construction material is highly locally available and has been one of the major building materials for a long time. One of the various soil types that occur in the tropic and sub-tropic laterite is one of the commonest types and is of special interest in building and road constructions. Laterite soils are highly weathered soil which contains large but extremely variable proportion of iron and aluminum oxides well as quartz and other minerals. AASHTO classified soils into seven groups. A – 1 to A – 7. According to the AASHTO subgrade classification system, residual soils are typically classified in the A – 2 category (AASHTO Designation: M 145 – 87). The glacial soil found in the northern states can be classified as either gravel (A – 1) sand (A – 2), Silts (A – 5) or silty clays (A – 6). The coaster soils along the eastern seaboard and in the gulf area are largely sands and gravel. Note, however, that within this region are extensive area of highly plastic clay (A – 7). According to Ola (1978) most lateritic soil for road fall within the A – 2, A – 6 and A – 7 group and lateritic soil have been found in the A – 3 and A – 5 group. Laterite is defined in Osula (1984) is a highly weathered tropical soil, rich in secondary oxide of any or a combination of iron, aluminum and manganese, manganese having been reported as a predominant element with combination with iron is some varieties of laterites notable those in India, Nigeria laterite soil are derived from basic igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock and can be found in the sedimentary basin and over the basement complex area of the country (Durotoye 1983). Laterite soil has been successfully used in various aspect of civil engineering construction project. Laterite materials are employed in the construction of airports, runways, highways, earth fill dam, low cost building etc. Osinubi and Kate (1997) have described laterite soil as the most common pavement materials in the tropics and sub-tropics. Some laterite soil, like laterite clays required improvement on the engineering properties before they can be used in any form of construction due to the fact that these soil have high swelling potentials which caused problem in construction thereby making them not favourable when used for construction materials in their natural states.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A lot of research activities have been carried out on lateritic sills but little emphasis have been laid on the relationship between plasticity (consistency limit) and compressibility characteristics. Negligence on the part of construction engineers have led to uncountable road and structure failure within the Sub-Sahara Africa. According to Ashworth (1996), it was revealed that lateritic soils are graded with deficiency in sand and silt size particles. Ola (1974), investigated stabilization problems associated with laterite and the modified result is used in production of blocks. Balogun (1982), investigated some physical and geotechnical properties of laterite soil in Shagamu, Southwestern Nigeria, this found to have significant difference in some index properties and crushing strength of three Southwestern Nigeria lateritic clay deposits with the aim of seeing how the materials could be used for bricks. The result of the findings showed that firing increase the strength tremendously. A problem laterite soil is those that do not yield reproducible result using standard laboratory testing procedures. The soils are difficult to evaluate as engineering construction materials. The peculiar problem of this soil have been identified as thermal and mechanical instabilities i.e the susceptibility to significant change on the addition of small levels of the thermal or mechanical energy.

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EFFECT OF GROUNDNUT SHELL ASH ON SOIL STABILIZATION

EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER

EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background of the Study
Fluoride is one of the very few chemicals that have been shown to cause significant effects in people through drinking-water. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentrations in drinking-water, but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects. These range from mild dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis as the level and period of exposure increases. Crippling skeletal fluorosis is a significant cause of morbidity in a number of regions of the world (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006).      Fluoride is known to occur at elevated concentrations in a number of parts of the world and in such circumstances can have, and often has, a significant adverse impact on public health and well-being (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006).     There is now a continuing process of updating the (GDWQ) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, through which it was concluded that there was a need for a monograph on fluoride in drinking-water that would be useful to a wide range of individuals, including health workers and sanitary engineers who may require a broad introduction to the subject, but would still provide more detailed guidance in some specific areas. Such a monograph could provide an appropriate introduction and background information, and indicate where other more detailed information could be obtained. The primary focus of the monograph is  the prevention of adverse effects from excessive levels of fluoride in drinking-water.   Fluoride is found in all natural waters at some concentration. Seawater typically contains about 1mg l–1 while rivers and lakes generally exhibit concentrations of less than 0.5 mg l–1. In groundwater, however, low or high concentrations of fluoride can occur, depending on the nature of the rocks and the occurrence of fluoride-bearing minerals. Concentrations in water are limited by fluorite solubility, so that in the presence of 40 mg l–1 calcium it should be limited to 3.1 mg l–1(Hem, 1989). It is the absence of calcium in solution which allows higher concentrations to be stable (Edmunds and Smedley, 1996). Iree town which is the focus of this project work has a very high tendency for the presence of fluoride in its ground water because of the geological nature of the area. Iree is a town surrounded by different rocks and the presence of this rock naturally leads to the presence of fluoride in all the well water in Iree metropolis. The problem that necessitated this project include dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation in some people living in Iree metropolis.           This project is to determine the effect and implication of fluoride on drinking well water in some areas in Iree community of Osun state, Nigeria.

1.2   Statement Of The Problem      
The problem of the study is the health hazard noticeable among the inhabitants of the study areas such as dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation which may be traceable to the amount of fluoride in well water.
1.3   Aims And Objectives Of The Study
1.  To know the required dosage of fluoride needed in drinking well water. 
2.  To know the health implications of the amount of fluoride in drinking well water in Iree metropolis.

 

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EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CONSTRUCTION SKILLED WORKERS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CONSTRUCTION SKILLED WORKERS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY 
Productivity has become the buzzword of the time as it is generally agreed that the more productivity the better.  However, productivity in construction industry is discouragingly low. The effect of this cannot be overemphasized. Aboyade (1966) believed a country’s development process depends on the capacity of the country’s construction industry, which accounts for half of the country’s fixed capital accumulation. Horneir (1987) confirmed the importance of construction industry by asserting that 10% increase in construction labour productivity will represent an enormous annual saving. Productivity reflects a variety of factors acting together to increase the value of output faster than the cost of input. Mc Beath (1974), Nwaroh (1987) and Kendrick (1977) found Mali’s (1978) definition of productivity acceptable. Mali (1978) defines productivity as “the measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of results” that is productivity is reaching the highest level of performance with least expenditure of resources. Riggs and Felix (1983) and Bain (1982) said as much when they stated that productivity Is not a measure of output produced; rather it is a measure of how well resources are combined and utilized to accomplish desirable results. It is, therefore, apparent that construction industry in Nigeria is a major contributor to the gross national product (GNP) Nwachukwu (2002) classified this industry under four main segments
(i)   The building segment
(ii)   The civil segment
(iii)   The mechanical/electrical segment
(iv)   Industrial/heavy
Engineering segment According to him, Nwachukwu (2002), the building industry segment in Nigeria constitute about 67% of the total construction activities in the country. Unfortunately, building construction site in Nigeria are currently passing through gloomy and difficult time as oppose to what used to be the boom situation in the early seventies, many factors such as high dependant of foreign building material and technology, lack of adequate finance, unfavorable government policies etc, have been identify as some of the problem of lack of productivity in construction work environment which has resulted to project abandonment, project failure, project delay. Another major problem that has recently attracted the attention of building stakeholders in the industry is the issue of “UNSKILLED” in the construction environment which has resulted to low productivity on building environment. This state of affairs does not represent a good image for the industry, hence the need to ask question “What can be done” it is against this background that this research an assessment of the impact of work environment on the productivity of construction skilled worker. A case study of Imo state Nigeria was conserved.

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CONSTRUCTION SKILLED WORKERS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF THE STRENGTH OF SANDCRETE CEMENT BLOCK

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF THE STRENGTH OF SANDCRETE CEMENT BLOCK

Abstract

Sandcrete blocks are prismatic units manufactured from lean (sand-cement) mortar mixes and are the predominant walling materials used in buildings in Nigeria and other countries. Although the blocks are preferred to other similar walling material such as bricks and concrete blocks due to the availability of the dominant material (sand) in the country and the ease of manufacture, the material is known to have several drawbacks: it has a low compressive strength which could be a factor for structural failure in buildings. Apart from the compressive strength, little is known about the other strength and permeation properties of the material. Thirdly, little research has been conducted into the influence of water-cement ratio which is known to wield a strong influence on the strength and permeation properties of cementitious materials. On the basis of a thorough review of the literature, a detailed experimental programme was designed and carried out in Nigeria on the factors that influence the strength and permeation properties of the material using over 10 destructive test methods. Over 1500 sandcrete blocks were moulded and tested. The literature review also indicated that lack of quality control in the Nigeria sandcrete blocks manufacturing industry which accounts for the poor quality of the material in the country. The results of the experimental programme indicate that with the right constituent materials,   manufacturing   and   curing   processes,   it   is   possible   to   improve   the compressive strength of sandcrete blocks to over 7.0N/mm2 (the minimum specfied by the British Standards) with a lean mix of 1:12 cement/sand ratio. The compressive strength of the material was found to have a strong relationship with other strength properties of the material and could therefore be used as the main criterion for determining its quality. The inclusion of quarry dust and coarse aggregate (sharp sand) significantly improved the strength and permeation properties of the blocks. Compared with normal concrete, sandcrete; was found to have a relatively high permeability. Through this study, a data base on several strength and permeation properties has been developed which can assist engineers to estimate these properties. Finally recommendations were made on ways of improving the quality of sandcrete blocks in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.            Research Background

Sandcrete blocks are produced from a lean mix of Portland cement, natural sand and water and are the main masonry unit used in the urban and peri-urban areas of Nigeria, West Africa and many parts of the developing world. Unlike other masonry units such as concrete blocks and burn bricks which are used in other civil engineering infrastructure, they are predominantly used as walling units in the construction of shelter: both as external cladding and for partitions. They have an appeal to the construction industry due mainly to its ease of manufacture and the widespread availability of the main constituent material (sand).

 

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A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF THE STRENGTH OF SANDCRETE CEMENT BLOCK

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELLING PARAMETERS: TOWARDS THE EVOLVEMENT OF RE-AERATION COEFFICIENT FOR RIVERS IN THE NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENT

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELING PARAMETERS: TOWARDS THE INVOLVEMENT OF RE-AERATION COEFFICIENT FOR RIVERS IN THE NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT 
This study was carried out on River Atuwara in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria with the aim of developing a coefficient of re-aeration model applicable to River Atuwara and other rivers in the Nigerian environment. This was achieved by sourcing for data once every month from 22 sampling locations of interest within a pre-selected segment of the river over a period covering the dry and wet seasons. The data collected include hydraulic data (depth, width, velocity and time of travel) and water quality data such as Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Excel Spreadsheet and MATLAB were used for data processing. Regression analysis was carried out where stream velocity and depth were the regressors and the re-aeration constant k2 (as a function of BOD, DO and Temperature) was the dependent variable.  A coefficient of re-aeration, k2, (Atuwara re-aeration model) was developed and validated statistically. Its performance was also verified by comparing the model with 10 other internationally recognized models. It was  found that even though Atuwara model performed better than Agunwamba model and most of the other well cited models, both Atuwara model and Agunwamba model could be safely adopted for future water quality modelling researches in the Nigerian environment.  Results of detailed water analysis of samples from River Atuwara shows high level of pollution hence it is unfit for human consumption without adequate treatment. It is recommended that River Atuwara and similar rivers in the country should be regularly monitored for quality control.

LIST OF FIGURES                                           PAGE 
Figure 1.1 – Nigerian Household distribution by source of water supply  2
Figure 1.2 – Nigerian Household distribution by Toilet Facilities   3
Figure 1.3 ” General Layout of the Study area     5
Figure 3.1″ Field Sampling Stations       28
Figure 3.2 ” Linear representation of Sampling Points    29 
Figure 3.3 – Sampling Cross-section       33
Figure 4.1 ” An 8-month mean stream velocity record    59
Figure 4.2 ” An 8-month mean ambient temperature record    60
Figure 4.3 ” An 8-month mean water temperature record    61
Figure 4.4 ” An 8-month mean stream depth record      61
Figure 4.5 ” DO Fluctuations over an 8-month period    62
Figure 4.6 – Flowchart showing the progression of the statistical analysis            86
Figure 4.7 ” Plot of 11 models using January data                93
Figure 4.8 ” Plot of measured k2 against computed k2 using January data            94 
Figure 4.9 ” Plot of 11 models using March data                96
Figure 4.10 – Plot of measured k2 against computed k2 using March data            97
Figure 4.11 ” Plot of 11 models using July data                99
Figure 4.12 – Plot of measured k2 against computed k2 using July data            100

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EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELING PARAMETERS: TOWARDS THE INVOLVEMENT OF RE-AERATION COEFFICIENT FOR RIVERS IN THE NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENT