CONSTRUCTION OF VOLTAGE DOUBLER

CONSTRUCTION OF VOLTAGE DOUBLER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

In electronics, majority of the electronics equipments if not all, requires a steady D.C. power source. Even portable low power systems that make use of battery, are not exempted in this regard. But most frequently, electronic equipments are energized by PHCN. This power comes in A.C. form which is not useful to the electronic equipments while still in its A.C. form but becomes useful after it has been converted to D.C power source. This therefore suggests that a means must be derived to satisfy the need of these equipments which now entails a satisfactory, conversion of A.C to D.C of the supply.

It is also necessary to have multipliers of certain voltage. The voltage multipliers circuits are simply diode rectifier circuits that deliver direct current (D.C.) output voltages that are several times the peak amplitude of the applied alternating voltage. By multiplying the alternating current supply voltage to the desired D.C level, it will help to omit the expensive step up power transformers required in conventional rectifiers. For example, in colour television sets, the voltage at the tubes final anode is in the region of 26kv or more and this can be achieved by using a component (the Tripler) that triples the voltage at its input. This eliminates the need for heavy and costly power transformers.

Specifically, a voltage doubler is an electronic circuit with an alternating current input and a direct current output of roughly twice the peak input voltage. The term is usually applied to circuits consisting of rectifying diodes and capacitors only. Other means of doubling voltages are not included.

The voltage doubling circuits consist of diodes, which is for the rectification by converting alternating current to direct in the output. And capacitors, which are to store charges and to filter-out the ripple component, to give a much steady direct current for use by the electronic equipment.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

 

1.3     Objectives of the Project

The objective of this project is to produce the highest possible voltage which would be unpractical to obtain from transformers due to the bulk of the insulations required. By using only capacitors and diodes. This voltage doubler circuit should be able to step-up relatively low voltage to higher values, while at the same time being far lighter and cheaper than transformers.

1.4     Significance of the Project

In electronics, a voltage doubler is necessary for many applications, as it is being used in most electronic appliances.

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CONSTRUCTION OF 1KVA AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

CONSTRUCTION OF 1KVA AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

A voltage regulator is an electrical device designs to automatically to maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electro mechanical system, or passive and active electronic components depending on the design. It is use to regulate fluctuating AC or DC voltage from one level of voltage to another with exception of passive short regulators.

1.2     Objectives of the study

The aims and objectives of this project “automatic voltage regulator” is to provide protection to electronic/electrical appliances.

1.3     Scope of the study

          This research work covers the entire aspect of voltage regulator contributing towards the prevention of recurring damage due to voltage fluctuation in order to maintain constant voltage supply to electrical electronics appliances. It is used to prevent electrical/electronic appliances from damage, if the voltage is below 170 vac the relay will not trigger to produce any output. This type of regulator used a continuous auto-transformer to maintain AC output that is close to the standard or normal main voltage as possible under condition of fluctuation.

1.4     Limitation of the study

A study of this nature would be influences by other limitations such as time constraint, financial factor and inadequate record keeping to enable the power examination of the research work. Most importantly, automatic voltage regulators are design for electrical/electronic appliance as such it is not an AVR used in by generating sets to give out steady power supply.

1.5     Definition of terms

A circuit provides an output which is proportional to the rate of the change of the input voltage and is obtained by interchanging the resistor and capacitor of the integrator circuit.

Resistors

Resistor is component that is specifically designed to have a certain amount of resistance. The principle applications of resistor here are to limit current, to divide voltage and, in certain cases, to generate heat.

Capacitor

A capacitor stores electrical energy in the form of an electro static field. Capacitors are widely used to filter AC signal from a variety of circuits. A capacitor stored energy in form of capacitance measured in farad.

 

Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

Relay

A relay is an electronically operated switch, many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. A simple electromagnetic relay consist of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provide a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a hinged to the yoke, and a set or sets of contacts; the armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact (s).

The Transformer

The transformer changes the magnitude of an A-C voltage. It consist simply of two insulated coils P an S, called primary and secondary coils, wound round a soft-iron core (figure 2.9 the core is made of laminae or sheets of soft iron, insulated by varnish from each other.

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CONSTRUCTION OF 1KVA AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

CONSTRUCTION OF 1KVA AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

A voltage regulator is an electrical device designs to automatically to maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electro mechanical system, or passive and active electronic components depending on the design. It is use to regulate fluctuating AC or DC voltage from one level of voltage to another with exception of passive short regulators.

1.2     Objectives of the study

The aims and objectives of this project “automatic voltage regulator” is to provide protection to electronic/electrical appliances.

1.3     Scope of the study

          This research work covers the entire aspect of voltage regulator contributing towards the prevention of recurring damage due to voltage fluctuation in order to maintain constant voltage supply to electrical electronics appliances. It is used to prevent electrical/electronic appliances from damage, if the voltage is below 170 vac the relay will not trigger to produce any output. This type of regulator used a continuous auto-transformer to maintain AC output that is close to the standard or normal main voltage as possible under condition of fluctuation.

1.4     Limitation of the study

A study of this nature would be influences by other limitations such as time constraint, financial factor and inadequate record keeping to enable the power examination of the research work. Most importantly, automatic voltage regulators are design for electrical/electronic appliance as such it is not an AVR used in by generating sets to give out steady power supply.

1.5     Definition of terms

A circuit provides an output which is proportional to the rate of the change of the input voltage and is obtained by interchanging the resistor and capacitor of the integrator circuit.

Resistors

Resistor is component that is specifically designed to have a certain amount of resistance. The principle applications of resistor here are to limit current, to divide voltage and, in certain cases, to generate heat.

Capacitor

A capacitor stores electrical energy in the form of an electro static field. Capacitors are widely used to filter AC signal from a variety of circuits. A capacitor stored energy in form of capacitance measured in farad.

 

Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

Relay

A relay is an electronically operated switch, many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. A simple electromagnetic relay consist of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provide a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a hinged to the yoke, and a set or sets of contacts; the armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact (s).

The Transformer

The transformer changes the magnitude of an A-C voltage. It consist simply of two insulated coils P an S, called primary and secondary coils, wound round a soft-iron core (figure 2.9 the core is made of laminae or sheets of soft iron, insulated by varnish from each other.

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THE ELEMENT OF PARA-GOTHICISM IN CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S JANE EYRE AND EMILY BRONTE’S WITHERING HEIGHTS

THE ELEMENT OF PARA-GOTHICISM IN CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S JANE EYRE AND EMILY BRONTE’S WITHERING HEIGHTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

This research study will be dealing with the subject matter of the para-gothicism in the novels of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre and Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights. It will be very necessary to give the basics of the subject matter, before the broader look will be given the subject matter in the review of literature.

It will be very necessary to first of all make an absolute definition of what a gothic novel is. Gothic fiction, sometimes referred to as Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Gothicism’s origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled “A Gothic Story”. The effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole’s novel. Melodrama and parody (including self-parody) were other long-standing features of the Gothic initiated by Walpole.

Generally, the tone and mood of gothic novels are brooding and somber. Often, female protagonists find themselves in the midst of conspiracies, in the clutches of mysterious or sinister people (usually men), and people tend to harbour (dark!) secrets. The male protagonist, who may be the romantic interest, is often brooding and charismatic. The landscape and/or climate are often inhospitable, and the author may use pathetic fallacy to good effect. Buildings, dwellings, and architecture are often scary or mysterious–there may be secret rooms, or rooms with special significance.

Narratives revolve around the macabre, the supernatural, and death quite a bit. People are sometimes ‘haunted’ by memories of dead loved ones. Other times, the supernatural element is explained away, though. i.e., the main characters think there’s a ghost, but a rational explanation for seemingly supernatural events is revealed. Protagonists’ psychology is important too: a lot of the times, these stories are rooted in some deep fears of death, sex, etc., and so a lot of the terror may be in their imagination–which does not necessarily make it less terrifying.

Para-Gothicism is not a rediscovery of the gothic, but rather a rebirth of that style; it is also a modern name for Gothicism. According to The Merriam Webster Dictionary, it is defined as relating and constituting the revival or adaptation of the Gothic, especially in literature or architecture.

The Gothic motifs and forms are imitated. This genre could be said to be broad and hybrid in nature. It covers three genres:

  1. The Gothic novels – This utilizes the mysterious, the supernatural, the horrific, and romantic.
  2. The romance novel – This lays emphasis on love and passion and represents the notion of two lovers destined for each other.
  3. The Bildungsroman – It is a narration of a character’s internal development as he/she undergoes a succession of encounters with the external world

In architectural terms parallel to the ascendancy of the neo-Gothic styles in the 19th century in England, interest spread rapidly to the continent of Europe, Australia, South Africa, and America. The number of Gothic revival and structures built in the 19th and 20th centuries has exceeded the numbers of authentic Gothic structures that had been built previously. Today for instance, the Gothic style of architecture has been imitated in churches, military academies and university buildings.

Also, Jane Eyre is a novel by English writer Charlotte Brontë. It was published in London, England, in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. with the title Jane Eyre. An Autobiography under the pen name “Currer Bell.” The first American edition was released the following year by Harper & Brothers of New York. The Penguin edition describes it as an “influential feminist text” because of its in-depth exploration of a strong female character’s feelings.

The novel merges elements of three distinct genres. It has the form of a Bildungsroman, a story about a child’s maturation, focusing on the emotions and experiences that accompany growth to adulthood. The novel also contains much social criticism, with a strong sense of morality at its core, and finally has the brooding and moody quality and Byronic character typical of Gothic fiction.

It is a novel often considered ahead of its time due to its portrayal of the development of a thinking and passionate young woman who is both individualistic, desiring for a full life, while also highly moral. Jane evolves from her beginnings as a poor and plain woman without captivating charm to her mature stage as a compassionate and confident whole woman. As she matures, she comments much on the complexities of the human condition. Jane also has a deeply pious personal trust in God, but is also highly self-reliant. Although Jane suffers much, she is never portrayed as a damsel in distress who needs rescuing. For this reason, it is sometimes regarded as an important early feminist (or proto-feminist) novel.

Also taking a look at Wuthering Heights, it is a novel by Emily Brontë published in 1847. It was her only novel and written between December 1845 and July 1846. It remained unpublished until July 1847 and was not printed until December after the success of her sister Charlotte Brontë’s novel Jane Eyre. It was finally printed under the pseudonym Ellis Bell; a posthumous second edition was edited by Charlotte.

The title of the novel comes from the Yorkshire manor on the moors of the story. The narrative centres on the all-encompassing, passionate but doomed love between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys them and many around them.

Today considered a classic of English literature, Wuthering Heights was met with mixed reviews when it first appeared, mainly because of the narrative’s stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty. Although Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyrewas generally considered the best of the Brontë sisters’ works during most of the nineteenth century, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that it was a superior achievement. Wuthering Heights has also given rise to many adaptations and inspired works, including films, radio, television dramatisations, a musical by Bernard J. Taylor, a ballet, three operas (respectively by Bernard Herrmann, Carlisle Floyd, and Frédéric Chaslin), a role-playing game, and a song by Kate Bush.

However, in the proceeding chapter, a broader look will be given to the subject matter and also we will be looking at what other writers have got to evaluate on Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre and Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights.

Statement of the Problem

There was a time in the last decades of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century, reflected dimly in the prints, paintings and surviving relics of that era, which effectively symbolises our deep-rooted yearning to escape from the mindlessness of modern existence through its portal where glimpses of a  beautiful, unpolluted world with clean, graceful architecture starkly contrasts with the smoke-discoloured edifices of concrete in today’s wilderness of ugly buildings set in a wasteland of dying forests. Such vistas, such colour and the pleasure they produce are of different orders to anything we now experience. So much so, that were we to glimpse, feel, smell and taste how life once was (against the natural background sound of birds, brooks and horses’ hooves instead of the cacophony of airplanes, industry and motor vehicles) we would probably think and indeed dream differently.

However, the problem of this research study is to unfold the Gothic genre and the romanticism, the demonstration of the finite and tragically self-consuming nature of passion in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre and Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights.

Research Question

The following questions will help guide the research study to achieving its objectives.

  1. What is Gothicism?
  2. What is para-gothicism?
  3. What are the para-Gothic element in Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre?
  4. What are the interrelationship between in Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the following:

  1. To understand the nature of Gothicism in its various context.
  2. The Gothic element in Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre.
  3. And to also explore into interrelationship between in Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre.

Significance of the Study

The importance of this research study cannot be overemphasized, by virtue of the fact that it is going to elucidate into an area that has long existed and has remained in diversified sense.

This study is highly significant in the sense that it will help the readers of this work especially students in the field of languages to further understand the diversifying nature of Gothicism.

Also, the novels whose Gothic nature is been poised into will be better understood and easily comprehended by the readers of this research study.

And to crown it all, this research study is also significant taking cognisance of the fact that it will also explore into the themes of the Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, and will elucidate on the relationships that does exist between these two Gothic novels.

Scope of the Study

This research study will be limited in scope only to the works of Charlotte Bronte and Emily Bronte novels, that is, Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights respectively and to the review of related literature.

Operational Definition of Terms

Gothicism: is a genre or mode of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance.

Para-Gothicism: The combination of three genres (that is, Gothic, Romance, and the Bildungsroman).

Supernatural: is that which is not subject to the laws of nature, or more figuratively, that which is said to existing above and beyond nature.

Protagonist: Protagonist means the main character of a story.

Proto-feminist: Proto-feminist is a term used to define women in a philosophical tradition that anticipated modern feminist concepts.

Romance: Romance is a style of heroic prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

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THE LANGUAGE OF FEMINISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY

THE LANGUAGE OF FEMINISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

The struggle for women’ right began in the 18th century during the period of intense intellectual activity known as the Age of Enlightenment.

In traditional Africa the woman is an object of constant scorn, degradation and physical torture. In the past, women did not exist as individuals with personalities to defend. They rather existed as mere docile and exotic accompaniments to the males. Throughout that period, women lacked a voice to articulate their dilemma and their points of view. They, thus, accepted their fate without resistance. Such passive stance results from societal conditioning through questionable cultural practices. From birth, through childhood and adolescence, to adulthood, Africans receive from society and others around the messages and feedbacks which launch them into roles and behaviors considered appropriate for males and females respectively. Most often, female are accorded inferior roles and such long years of cultural suppression and intimidation, unfortunately, misled the women into an underestimation of their capabilities and self worth. Encased in such a cultural mystique, the African women were particularly driven by a community sense since culture obviates individualism. In those days, these women, in addition to experiencing the same oppressive social condition as their male counterparts in a developing world, were subjected to extra repressive burdens arising from the socio-cultural structures of patriarchy and gender hierarchy. These years of subjugation have, however, produced in today’s women relentless questioning of the status quo. They protest against dehumanization, political enslavement and social oppression. They rationalize that the running of the Africa world is not the preserve for males and thus there should be absolute equality of both sexes in all spheres of life. Such a reaction is termed feminism, which is an ideology that urges, in simple terms, recognition of the claims of women for equal rights with men.

According to Cora Kaplan (162) Literary text are constructed from within ideology, and the reality they articulate is dependent on the historical culture which surrounds them; so too are the literary critical claims about their truthfulness or authenticity determined by the culture from which they arise. Helen Chukwuma (xiv) specifically contends that African feminism is dedicated and informed from within, from social realities that obtain. One of such realities is the persistence of sexist socio-psychological paradigm despite the efforts to overcome “the androcentricism which informs social life”. (Uko, 33)

The persistent sexism in Africa is, however, matched with women’s continued aggressive demand for equal places in men’s former citadel of power and privilege. The chorus African women say to men “whatever the case maybe, you will never again hear us pronounce the words of the Virgin Mary, ‘thy will be done’ while smiling at your despotic power”. (Josephine Felicite in Moses, C.G. and Rabine, L. 308-309). They argue that it is better for men to desire from them those noble and generous feelings which must exist between equals than those mercenary feelings which a slave has for his master. Consequent upon this quest and argument, there is a recent definition of womanhood in the context of the African cosmic order: “A human being endowed with all the capabilities and talents required to effectively function and make impact on all levels of life within society” (Adeife Osemeikhiam, 21).

Notwithstanding the above stance, there still abounds in Africa, evidence of gender stereotypes which simply means a collection of commonly held beliefs or opinions about what are “appropriate” behaviors and activities for males and those that are “appropriate” for females. As a result of this, even though men support women’s condemnation of their (women) societal deprivations, men’s language still betrays subtle inclination to sexist socialization.

The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, Sexism is exemplified firstly as attitudes and institutions, often unconscious that judge human worth on the grounds of gender or sex.

It is explained as prejudice or discrimination usually against women, based on their gender. Sexist socialization, therefore, refers to the process by which infants and children are brought up to imbibe attitudes and practices that discriminate against women on the grounds of their gender.

This work examines So Long a Letter with a view to highlight its characteristic language usage and as well as the psychological disposition that informs such use of language. Research findings by anthropologists, educationists and sociolinguistics show that traditionally, males use non-standard language; females use the language of rapport while males use the language of report; discursive language style is meant for women while men are given to the language of theories and abstractions; females use polite language meant to maintain harmony and strong relationship as well as to keep conversations open whereas males use the language of assertiveness and insistence. Women use the language of solidarity but men use the language of the expert.

Statement of the Problem

Men in Africa make women understand that they, the men, are the head of the  family that is, they are superior to women. They see women as being weak and as a result, women have no say in the activities of the community. They have no rights and are subjugated to do whatever he the men want them to do especially in Africa. Women are made to feel inferior and this breeds some sort of ill feelings in women.

Objective of the study

The aim of this is to identify how Mariama Ba uses language to portray feminism – the reaction of females against the oppressive and discriminatory culture experienced by them – in her novel So Long a Letter.

 

Significance of the Study

          The topic Language in Feminist Literature: a study of Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter, will serve as a good research material to students and other researchers.

          This work will throw more light on the language of feminism and its impact to society.

Scope of the Study

This project is restricted primarily to the study of the Language in Feminist Literature in Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter.

Research Methodology

The primary material of this work is Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter while the secondary materials include the various works from the library.

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EXPLORING THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEUR AMONG GRADUATES IN NIGERIA

EXPLORING THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEUR AMONG GRADUATES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research work examined exploring the determinants of entrepreneurship among graduate’s students in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data for this study. A total number of 65 students in both management and Agricultural sciences in Delta State University Asaba Campus were sampled using a structure questionnaire. The test for multiple means and the T-test for independent means. We observed that back ground variable has no significant impact on exploring the determination, desire and need for achievement, Attitude, National pride and start up experience are positively related to entrepreneurial intentions. We recommend that future research should consider entrepreneurial intentions for graduate students in Nigeria and should also consider what factors are related to and may impact individual behaviors. They should also focus more than large population sizes to impact on background variables which will help stimulate economic growth in Nigeria. Taking up a carrier as entrepreneur and setting up a personal business can be an excitingly rewarding experiencing for young persons. The present high rate of unemployment in Nigeria’s economy should entrepreneurship an appropriate and attractive option. It is widely accepted that the educational system of universities. It as to provide as academic environment that many serve as a catalyst for high technology start up. The factor that surrounds decision making frame of a young Nigeria graduates who intends to pick up a carrier in entrepreneur in this study set out to among others, determine the attitudes of young Nigeria graduates towards becoming entrepreneurs, determine what control beliefs influence their intentions.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          In recent years, entrepreneurship education has been developing steadily but unevenly in most countries. In the United State for example, which has been a trailblazer and leader in the field, the last decade has been described as an important era, with a significant increase in student interest (Fiet 2001a) the figure tend to support this statement.

In 1971, only 16 colleges and universities in U.S. offered entrepreneurship education program, while today, there are more than 800.

Entrepreneurship is an under search topic in the social sciences and especially in economics. It was not always so, Schumpeter discusses the role of the entrepreneurship in the process of economic development at length. He imagine the entrepreneur as a creative driven individual who find new combination of factors of production” to discover and develop a new product, to apply strategy for a   new market or design a new technology.

The United States have a comparatively long tradition of fostering entrepreneurs at universities and business schools. While the first entrepreneurship courses were taught at Harvard Business School as early as the 1930s, this field has seen increasing attention since the 1970s. By 1990, 400 universities in America were already estimates exceed 700 (Vesper and Macmillan 1988: Hills and Morris 1988, Fiet 2001) progress in this field has thus been extremely impressive.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

          Throughout the world, student in entrepreneurship as a career choice is growing Brenneret 1991, Hart et Harrison, 1992, while interest in traditional professional employment in big business is gradually declining (Kovereld 1996), the orientation and behaviours of student and young graduates are influenced by a number of personal and environmental factors.

Under uncertainly, out came may be characterized by an expected value which summarizes the potential out comes of the probability of their occurring. Business profits are typically an uncertain function of the work effort extended by the entrepreneur, with an expected profit level for each effort level surrounded by a variance of profit outcomes due to the impact of unexpected changed in consumer preferences competition price and product offerings, macro-economic variables and so on.

This profit variance introduces the role that additional remuneration for that effort profit variance is considered by potential entrepreneurs who asses stability (certainty of ensuring a pay check every month avoiding rise, maintaining current life  style) before making a decision to set up a new venture (Amit, et al 1996) given the myriad of factors that surrounds the decision making frame of a young Nigeria graduate who intends to put a career in entrepreneur, it is imperative that answers be found to the following questions. What are the attitudes influences, their intention toward becoming entrepreneurs? What are the subjective norms underlying their intention of becoming entrepreneur? What control beliefs influence their intentions?

 

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To determine and stimulate the need for achievement on entrepreneurial intentions.
  2. To encourage and determine the attitude of young Nigeria graduates towards self employment.
  3. To determine entrepreneurial intention towards Nigeria’s graduates
  4. To determine what control belief influence their intention.

 

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          Economic theories of entrepreneurship usually assume, not surprisingly, that entrepreneurs have economic aspirations principally those of profit maximization. However, a few early theories recognized that entrepreneurs may have non-economic aspirations as well, such as the desire to innovation. The venture into areas untouched by others, the desire to develop markets triumph over others in the market and dynastic aspirations.

The notion that entrepreneurs are embedded in a social framework is central to much work by sociologists (Gramoveter, 1985). Furthermore, as Dyer and Handler (1994) observe, entrepreneurial aspiration focus on entrepreneurial theories tend to focus on entrepreneur at business entry rather than in the business cycle.

In general, the implication and application of the theory of planned behaviour in the field of entrepreneurship and numerous and extremely promising. Some of the theory’s implication are related to education and training. Since the early 1980’s researchers have been able to identify the role played by education and teaching variables in the development of perceptions about the desirability and feasibility of entrepreneurial behaviour.

In recognition of the owning a  business can change one’s life, this paper guaranteed and inventory of economic  psychological factors then can be used to develop a model of the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions.

 

1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          For the purpose of the proper analysis of the subject matter the scope of the study is given in two parts, the spatial and temporal scope. Spatially the study is limited to young graduates in Nigeria. Temporally, it was conducted over a three week period.

 

1.6    DEFINITION OF TERMS

Entrepreneur: an entrepreneur is a person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profits and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them Zimmerer and Scarborough (2002).

Proactive: a person controlling a situation by making things happens rather than waiting for things to happen and reacting to them.

Autonomy: this is the ability to act and make decisions without being controlled by anyone else.

Entrepreneurial Behaviour:  this factor corresponds to the attitudes towards the behaviour, and is dependent on beliefs relating to the behaviours positive or negative impacts.

Attitude: the way you think and feel about some body or something, the way that you behave towards somebody or something that show how you feel.

Spatial: this is relating to space or position, size, shape etc. of things.

Temporal: this is a particular quality in one’s personality. This is a strong desire to have or do some thing.

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THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION

THE LANGUAGE OF CHRISTIAN   RELIGION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The major objective of language is communication but the manner in which language communicates appears to be interlinked with individual experiences in terms of linguistic attitude, cultural influences and personal perception. Register is a term that is used to describe variations in language according to use. For instance, Thorne says that lawyers use a legal register, doctors a medical register and the priests a religious register ( 95).

The language of Christian religion will be examined by analysing the spoken and written forms of the language of Roman Catholic Church and the selected Pentecostal denominations. Christian religion is the most widely distributed of the world religions. In the 1990s its total membership exceeded up to 1.9 billion people (Probert Microsoft Encarta).There are other systems of beliefs and values such as Platonism, Marxism, Freudianism or Democracy. Christianity is in many ways comprehensible only to those who share its benefits and strive to live by its values.

Wilken points out that Jerusalem is the center of Christian religion, at least until its destruction by the Roman armies in A.D 70. From it Christianity radiated to other cities and towns in Palestine and beyond. At first, its approval was large although it was not completely confined to the adherents of Judaism to which it was presented as new but not a brand new religion (820).

Leith states that in its very beginning, Christian religion manifested a dual relation to the Jewish faith, a relation of continuity and yet of fulfillment of antithesis and of affirmation. The forced conversion of the Jews in the Middles ages and the history of anti-Semites  condemnations of both by church leaders are the evidence that the antithesis could easily overshadow affirmation. The fateful loss of continuity with Judaism has however never been total (450).

Above all, the presence of so many elements of Judaism in the Christian Bible has acted to remind Christians that He who they worshiped as their Lord was Himself a Jew and that the New Testament does not stand on its own but it is appended to the Old Testament. An important source of the alienation of Christianity from  its Jewish root was the change in membership. And at the same  point ,Christians with Gentile backgrounds began to outnumber the Jewish Christians. Clearly, the work of Apostle Paul was influential. Born a Jew, he was deeply involved in the destiny of Judaism, but as a result of his conversion, he believed that he was a “chosen instrument” to bring the message of Christ to Gentiles. He was the one who formulated his epistle to several early Christian congregations and many of his ideas constitute the core of Christian religion (453).

Manners says that the Christian religion is easier to describe historically than define logically. Such a description does yield some insights into continuing practices and essential characteristics of the Christian religion. One of such element is the centrality of the person of Jesus Christ. This is in one way or another, a feature of all historical varieties of the Christian belief and practice. Jesus Christ died so that his followers might share in the life of the Father in heaven and  become the children of God.  His cruxfiction, death and resurrection, to which the early Christians referred when they spoke about him as the one who had reconciled humanity to God, made the cross the chief focus of Christian faith and devotion .It is also the principal symbol of the saving love of God the father (520).

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Greek word Ka0aЛukoc (katholikos) from which catholic is derived means “universal”. It was first used to describe the Christian church in the early second century. Since the East-West schism of 1054, Norman states that the western church has generally been known as ‘Catholic’ and the Eastern Church as ‘Orthodox’. Following the reformation in the 16th century, the church in communion with the Bishop of Rome used the term Catholic to distinguish itself from the various Protestant churches (15).

According to Phayer, Roman Catholic  Church is the world’s largest Christian church with more than a billion members. Its leader is the Pope who holds a supreme authority in concert with the collage of Bishops. The church defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity. It operates social programme and institutions throughout the world including schools, universities, hospitals, missions and shelters (930).

Having played a prominent role since the forth century, it teaches that it is “one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church’ founded by Jesus Christ. Its Bishops are consecrated successors of his Apostles and the Pope, as the successor of Saint Peter, possesses a universal primacy of jurisdiction through twenty-one ecumenical councils. The church maintains that it is guided by the Holy Spirit from falling into doctrinal error. The belief of the Roman Catholic is based on the Holy Bible and Sacred traditions interpreted by the church’s teachings and they are detailed in the catechism of the Catholic Church. Catholic worship is called the  liturgy, the central component is the Eucharist (938).

 

Doctrine   of the Roman   Catholic   Church

According to the Encyclopedia of Catholicism, the Catholic Church holds that there is one external God, who exists as a mutual indwelling of three persons, God the Father, God the son and God the Holy Spirit which makes up the Trinity. To Catholics, the term “church” refers to the people of God who abide in Christ and who are nourished with the body of Christ. The Catholics also believe that the fullness of the means of salvation exists only in Catholic Church. It also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separate from itself to bring people to salvation.

This doctrine teaches that anyone who is saved is saved even  if the person has invincible ignorance of the church and its teaching. According to the council of Trent, Christ instituted the seven sacraments; they are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance), Anointing of the sick, (formally extreme unction), Holy orders and Holy matrimony. Sacraments are important visible rituals that Catholics see as God’s presence and effective channel of God’s grace (353).

In an event known as the incarnation, the church teaches that through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human  nature when Christ was conceived in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Christ therefore, is believed to be fully divine and fully human. Prayers to the Virgin Mary is also part of Catholic piety but are distinct from the worship of God. The church holds Mary, as a perpetual virgin and Mother of God, in special regard. Catholics beliefs concerning Mary include her immaculate conception without the stain of original sin and bodily assumption into heaven at the end of her life. This is infallibly defined as dogma by Pope Pius ix .Devotions such as the Rosary, the Hail Mary, the slave Regina and the memorare are common Catholic prayers (56).

After baptism, Catholics may obtain forgiveness for subsequent sins through the sacrament of reconciliation (confession). In this sacrament, an individual confesses to a priest who then offers advice and imposes a particular penance to be performed. The priest is forbidden under penalty of excommunication to reveal any sin or disclosure heard under the seal of confession. Immediately after death, the soul of each person will receive a particular judgment from God based on the deeds of that individual’s earthly life (383).

Pentecostal   Denominations

Probert, Walter Microsoft Encarta states that Pentecostal denominations dates from April 4 1906, when members of the congregation of Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles Californian experienced the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. This denomination emphasized the teaching of the ‘full gospel ‘or foursquare. This term refers to the four fundamental believes of Pentecostalism : Jesus saves according to John 3:16, baptizes with the Holy spirit according to Acts 2:4, heals bodily according to James 5:15 and is coming again to receive those who are saved according to Thessalonians 4:16-17.

Pentecostals greatly adhere to the doctrine of biblical teachings,

believe that the Bible has divine authority in matters of faith and adopt a literalist approach to its interpretation. However, they differ from other evangelicals by rejecting Colossian’s teaching. They belief that spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and prophecy did not cease after New Testament times and that they are still in still in operation today. This is the fundamental requirement of Pentecostalism. The Pentecostal belief and practice centers on the understanding of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. To them  salvation is received by grace through faith in Jesus Christ and cannot be earned through good deeds alone unlike the Catholic belief.

 

Ordinances and Practices of Pentecostal Denominations.

Like other Christian churches Pentecostals believe that certain rituals or ceremonies were instituted as a pattern and command by Jesus in the New Testament. Some Pentecostals commonly call these ordinances, while the Roman Catholics in particular, call it sacraments. However, the ordinance of communion is seen as a direct command given by Jesus at the last supper. Some Pentecostals reject the use of wine for the communion; they use grape instead. These Pentecostal denominations are also seen in Africa and Nigeria.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The problem of this research study arises from the need to know if actually there is any difference in the language of Christian religion considering its multifarious denominations.

 

1.3 THE AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to identify the language of Christian religion with particular reference to that of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pentecostal denominations in order to bring out the differences and similarities in their use of language.

This research achieves this purpose through the examination and analysis of their spoken but written and written forms of language.

 

1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This work is unique in the sense that it explores and brings out the language of Christian religion .This is a branch of register that people have been neglecting or putting little or no effort in researching. It will also be a stimulant and reference point to future researchers in the area of language and Christian religion.

This work, will in addition, serve as a means of enlightenment of how language is manipulated or used, especially during worship services, in the two Christian denominations.

Finally, it will further help to situate the fact that there can be slight differences even within the language or register of Christian religion.

 

 

1.5 THE SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

For ease of exposition, the work is limited to the literatures used in both Catholic and Pentecostal denominations. The language is found in many contexts: religious newspapers and bulletins, radio tapes, audio and video compound disc, local publicity materials that promote church events, sermons preached in both denominations and in their sacred text the Holy Bible.

 

1.6   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The observation method was used during the service. The observation was carried out in three Catholic and Pentecostal churches respectively in the Enugu metropolis .These churches are:

  1. Saint Mary’s Catholic Church ,Uwani, Enugu.
  2. Christ the King Catholic Church, G.R.A, Enugu.
  3. Caritas University Chaplaincy, Amorji Nike, Enugu.
  4. Apostolic Faith Church ,Nkponkiti Road, Enugu.
  5. Assemblies of God, Isiagu Street, Uwani Enugu.
  6. Living Faith Church, Winners Avenue ,off Presidential Road,

Enugu.

Other sources used include: textbooks, journals, Christian newspapers, Holy Bible, written sermon and internet facilities.

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A SURVEY OF THE LANGUAGE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

A SURVEY OF THE LANGUAGE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

ABSTRACT

Newspapers are veritable tools for promoting literacy through reading, writing and dialogues (among readers and critics), which are the hallmarks of effective and efficient use of language. Newspapers have a built-in capacity to motivate readers. As a result, it is the common practice in most parts of the country to have people congregate around newspapers stands and vendors every morning reading and discussing the contents of the newspapers, especially adverts. As such, the use of advert language cannot be over-emphasized as the number of readers who come across it cannot be measured. However, this research seeks to have a survey of the language of newspaper advertisement, and to know how to construct adverts to attract readers or viewers, to be able to distinguish the terminology to use in different advert, to be able to determine the right choice of language use in newspapers advertisement, and understand the need for short and long adverts. This study concludes that the language of advertising in Nigerian newspapers especially, the vanguard newspaper which happened to be the case study, has more to do with the aesthetics of language than with commerce. Alliterations, rhetorical questions, pun, morphological adjustment and clichés among others are the advertiser’s favourite devices, and these are very instrumental to the general success of advertising in Vanguard Newspaper.

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the Study

Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade on audience (viewer, reader or listeners) to continue to take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to influence consumers’ behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although, political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media: including mass media such as: newspaper, magazines, television commercials, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail, or new media such as websites and text-messages.

Advertising has been defined as “a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool helping to sell goods and services, images and ideas”…. (Wright, 2003:8). Similarly, Roderick (1980:4) defines advertising as “a message specified by its originator, carried by a communication system and intended to influence and/or inform an unknown audience.” Advertising may also be seen as “a group of activities aiming at and including dissemination of information in any paid product or service to compel actions in accordance with the intent of an identifiable sponsor” (Doughuge, 1985:8).

Advertising has a long history, with some options tracing its origin to the story of Adam, Eve and the serpent in the Bible (Okigbo, 1985:10 and Weffer, 1985:6). Wright (2000:4) however, opines that advertising started in ancient Babylon at about 3000BC when inscription for an ointment dealer, a scribe and a shoe maker were made on clay tablets. Sandage and Fryburger (1963) argue that Egyptians first wrote runaway-slave announcements on papyrus at about 3200BC. In Africa, town crying and hawking were the earliest forms of advertising. These have survived in many Nigerian villages till date. With respect to media advertising, which is the focus of this paper Sandage and Fryburger (cited in Okeke, 2006:24) suggest that the first media advertising was done in London in 1477 when a prayer book was announced for sale, while the first newspaper advertising appeared in the Boston Newsletter in 1704

The print media came into Nigeria in 1859 with the appearance of a Yoruba language newspaper “Iwe Iroyin” published by Reverend Henry Townsend at Abeokuta. The publication carried an advert in form of an announcement for the Anglican Church.

It is noteworthy that the earliest forms of newspaper advertising were crude and unsophisticated. But they not only help the local merchants to sell of his goods, or services, but also set a pace for the modern methods of advertising, which have over a long period of time undergone tremendous changes such that today, a lot can be written on the language of advertising in Nigeria. This is possible because advertising has become more professional, involving copywriters who exploit all the available linguistic devices to make their adverts not only persuasive, but also aesthetically appealing. This paper therefore, attempts a linguistic analysis of the language of newspaper advertising in Nigeria, highlighting the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic features that make them attractive and persuasive.

Statement of the Purpose

The structure of language in advertising has a peculiar form. Many factors predispose the copywriter (i.e. one who writes advertisements) to choose his vocabulary this in some sense implies that copywriter does not have a free flow of lexical items.

It is worthy to note that some important points about newspapers is that they are businesses, and businesses need to make a profit. They can only do that if they have readers. So newspapers have to provide us with the most up-to-date information: news, features and also movie listings, the weather, sports scores, and so on. The greater the circulation, the more advertising a paper can sell which means more profits, but less space stones. Newspapers need to balance these needs

It is however clear that the copywriter is restrained to the use of language in advertisement, and the owner of the advert has a primary motive of making profit out of the adverts. It is obvious that in good adverts language matters in this context; therefore, purpose of this study is to critically analyze the most suitable language for newspaper advertisement.

Research Question

The following will help guide the research study in achieving its objectives:

  1. What makes you stop and look at the adverts?
  2. What kind of adverts do you place on newspapers?
  3. What kind of caption should be given to adverts?
  4. What kind of message should be driven out through advertisement?
  5. Should adverts be short or lengthy?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the following:

  1. To know how to construct adverts to attract readers or viewers.
  2. To be able to distinguish the terminology to use in different adverts.
  3. To be able to determine the right choice of language used in newspaper advertisement.
  4. Understand the need for long or short newspaper adverts.

 

Significance of the Study

This study will be able to unveil some of those hidden facts about the use and choice of languages used in newspaper advertisements, and also bring about a more refined advert outputs.

This research study will highly relevant to the readers, and especially to the world of journalism in the way and manner in which adverts are to be constructed and be placed on newspapers for public consumption.

The study will also help to ensure that the choices of languages of newspaper adverts are properly selected so that those who pay for the adverts will be satisfied with the publications, and that the readers’ attention will be captured at the sight of such adverts.

Scope of the Study

This study is basically limited in space to the Vanguard Newspaper of Nigeria, and also to the world of publication and journalism.

Definition of Terms

  1. Advertisement: A public notice or announcement
  2. Newspaper: A printed publication containing news, advertisement and correspondence
  3. Announcement: To make publicly known

 

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A SURVEY OF THE LANGUAGE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

A SURVEY OF THE LANGUAGE OF NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

ABSTRACT

Newspapers are veritable tools for promoting literacy through reading, writing and dialogues (among readers and critics), which are the hallmarks of effective and efficient use of language. Newspapers have a built-in capacity to motivate readers. As a result, it is the common practice in most parts of the country to have people congregate around newspapers stands and vendors every morning reading and discussing the contents of the newspapers, especially adverts. As such, the use of advert language cannot be over-emphasized as the number of readers who come across it cannot be measured. However, this research seeks to have a survey of the language of newspaper advertisement, and to know how to construct adverts to attract readers or viewers, to be able to distinguish the terminology to use in different advert, to be able to determine the right choice of language use in newspapers advertisement, and understand the need for short and long adverts. This study concludes that the language of advertising in Nigerian newspapers especially, the vanguard newspaper which happened to be the case study, has more to do with the aesthetics of language than with commerce. Alliterations, rhetorical questions, pun, morphological adjustment and clichés among others are the advertiser’s favourite devices, and these are very instrumental to the general success of advertising in Vanguard Newspaper.

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the Study

Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade on audience (viewer, reader or listeners) to continue to take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to influence consumers’ behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although, political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media: including mass media such as: newspaper, magazines, television commercials, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail, or new media such as websites and text-messages.

Advertising has been defined as “a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool helping to sell goods and services, images and ideas”…. (Wright, 2003:8). Similarly, Roderick (1980:4) defines advertising as “a message specified by its originator, carried by a communication system and intended to influence and/or inform an unknown audience.” Advertising may also be seen as “a group of activities aiming at and including dissemination of information in any paid product or service to compel actions in accordance with the intent of an identifiable sponsor” (Doughuge, 1985:8).

Advertising has a long history, with some options tracing its origin to the story of Adam, Eve and the serpent in the Bible (Okigbo, 1985:10 and Weffer, 1985:6). Wright (2000:4) however, opines that advertising started in ancient Babylon at about 3000BC when inscription for an ointment dealer, a scribe and a shoe maker were made on clay tablets. Sandage and Fryburger (1963) argue that Egyptians first wrote runaway-slave announcements on papyrus at about 3200BC. In Africa, town crying and hawking were the earliest forms of advertising. These have survived in many Nigerian villages till date. With respect to media advertising, which is the focus of this paper Sandage and Fryburger (cited in Okeke, 2006:24) suggest that the first media advertising was done in London in 1477 when a prayer book was announced for sale, while the first newspaper advertising appeared in the Boston Newsletter in 1704

The print media came into Nigeria in 1859 with the appearance of a Yoruba language newspaper “Iwe Iroyin” published by Reverend Henry Townsend at Abeokuta. The publication carried an advert in form of an announcement for the Anglican Church.

It is noteworthy that the earliest forms of newspaper advertising were crude and unsophisticated. But they not only help the local merchants to sell of his goods, or services, but also set a pace for the modern methods of advertising, which have over a long period of time undergone tremendous changes such that today, a lot can be written on the language of advertising in Nigeria. This is possible because advertising has become more professional, involving copywriters who exploit all the available linguistic devices to make their adverts not only persuasive, but also aesthetically appealing. This paper therefore, attempts a linguistic analysis of the language of newspaper advertising in Nigeria, highlighting the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic features that make them attractive and persuasive.

Statement of the Purpose

The structure of language in advertising has a peculiar form. Many factors predispose the copywriter (i.e. one who writes advertisements) to choose his vocabulary this in some sense implies that copywriter does not have a free flow of lexical items.

It is worthy to note that some important points about newspapers is that they are businesses, and businesses need to make a profit. They can only do that if they have readers. So newspapers have to provide us with the most up-to-date information: news, features and also movie listings, the weather, sports scores, and so on. The greater the circulation, the more advertising a paper can sell which means more profits, but less space stones. Newspapers need to balance these needs

It is however clear that the copywriter is restrained to the use of language in advertisement, and the owner of the advert has a primary motive of making profit out of the adverts. It is obvious that in good adverts language matters in this context; therefore, purpose of this study is to critically analyze the most suitable language for newspaper advertisement.

Research Question

The following will help guide the research study in achieving its objectives:

  1. What makes you stop and look at the adverts?
  2. What kind of adverts do you place on newspapers?
  3. What kind of caption should be given to adverts?
  4. What kind of message should be driven out through advertisement?
  5. Should adverts be short or lengthy?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the following:

  1. To know how to construct adverts to attract readers or viewers.
  2. To be able to distinguish the terminology to use in different adverts.
  3. To be able to determine the right choice of language used in newspaper advertisement.
  4. Understand the need for long or short newspaper adverts.

 

Significance of the Study

This study will be able to unveil some of those hidden facts about the use and choice of languages used in newspaper advertisements, and also bring about a more refined advert outputs.

This research study will highly relevant to the readers, and especially to the world of journalism in the way and manner in which adverts are to be constructed and be placed on newspapers for public consumption.

The study will also help to ensure that the choices of languages of newspaper adverts are properly selected so that those who pay for the adverts will be satisfied with the publications, and that the readers’ attention will be captured at the sight of such adverts.

Scope of the Study

This study is basically limited in space to the Vanguard Newspaper of Nigeria, and also to the world of publication and journalism.

Definition of Terms

  1. Advertisement: A public notice or announcement
  2. Newspaper: A printed publication containing news, advertisement and correspondence
  3. Announcement: To make publicly known

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CONSTRUCTION OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY

 CONSTRUCTION OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY

CHAPTER ONE

1.10 INTRODUCTION

As blackouts roll through power-starved communities, the threat to you and your computer is not the lack of electricity, but the change in power. When the lights are off and you are about to start any industrial or computer-based projects,  all your efforts will be wasted. Even when your system acts as a server, a sudden shutdown could disrupt the processing of many others. You can make your work immune to the intransigence of rolling blackouts and protect against many other types of unexpected power disturbances. Your secret weapon is the uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source. Commonly called the UPS, this devices is a cleaver threefold package-a set of battery, an inverter that transforms the low-voltage direct current of the batteries into the standard alternating current equivalent to your wall outlet, and a battery changer that assures that reserve power storage system (the batteries) with interfaces to mach it to utility power and your computer system. A UPS differs from an auxiliary emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities. The UPS is designed to project against changes, specifically a temporary loss of electrical supply.

This project focuses on conversion of AC to DC and from DC to AC power inverters, which aim to efficiently transform a DC power source to a high voltage AC source, similar to power that would be available at an electrical wall outlet. Inverters are used for many applications, as in situations where low voltage DC sources such as batteries, solar panels or fuel cell must be converting electrical power from a car battery to run a laptop, TV or cell phone.

 

 

 

DC and AC Current

In the world today there are currently two forms of electrical transmission, Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. DC power is simply the application of a steady constant voltage across a circuit resulting in a constant current. A battery is the most common source of DC transmission as current flows from one end of a circuit to the other. Most digital circuitry today is run off of DC power as it carries the ability to provide either a constant high or constant low voltage, enabling digital logic to process code executions. Historically, electricity was first commecially transmitted by Thomas Edison, and was a DC power line. However, this electricity was low voltage, due to the inability to step up DC voltage at the time, and thus it was not capable of transmitting power over long distances.

V =IR

P=IV = I2R

 

As can be seen in the equations above, power loss can be derived from the electrical current squared and the resistance of a transmission line. When the voltage is increased, the current decreases and concurrently the power loss decreases exponentially; therefore high voltage transmission reduces power loss. For this reasoning electricity was generated at power stations and delivered to homes and businesses through AC power. Alternating current, unlike DC, oscillates between two voltage values at a specified frequency, and it’s ever changing current and voltage makes it easy to step up or down the voltage. For high voltage and long distance transmission situations, all that is needed to step up or down the voltage of the transformer. Developed in 1886 by William Stanley Jr., the transformer made long distance electrical transmission using AC power possible.

Electrical transmission has therefore been mainly based upon AC power, supplying most Nigerian homes with a 220 volt AC source. It should be noted that since 1954 there have been many high voltage DC transmission systems implemented around the globe with the advent of DC/DC converters, allowing the easy stepping up and down of DC voltages. Like DC power, there exist many devices such as power tools, radios and TV’s that run off of AC power.

It is therefore crucial that both forms of electricity transmission exist; the world cannot be powered with one simple form. It then becomes a vital matter for there to exist easy ways to transform DC to AC power and vice versa in an efficient manner. Without this ability people will be restricted to what electronic devices they use depending on the electricity source available. Electrical AC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters allow people this freedom in transferring electrical power between the two.

Offline / standby

 

Inverters and Applications

Power inverters are devices which can convert electrical energy of DC form into that of AC. They come in all shapes and sizes, from low power functions such as powering a car radio to that of backing up a building in case of power outage. Inverters can come in many different varieties, differing in price, power, efficiency and purpose. The purpose of a DC/AC power inverter is typically to take DC power

supplied by a battery, such as a 12 volt car battery, and transform it into a 220 volt AC power source operating at 50Hz, emulating the power available at an ordinary household electrical outlet. Power inverters are used today for many tasks like powering appliances in a car such as cell phones, radios and televisions. They also come in handy for consumers who own camping vehicles, boats and at construction sites where an electric grid may not be as accessible to hook into. Inverters allow the user to provide AC power in areas where only batteries can be made available, allowing portability and freeing the user of long power cords. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems like:

  1. Power failure: defined as a total loss of input voltage.
  2. Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.
  3. Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage.
  4. Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion.
  5. Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.
  6. Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.
  7. Harmonic sinusoidal waveform distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal expected on the line

Factors to consider when designing an inverter is

  • The input voltage
  • The output voltage
  • The frequency of the oscillators
  • The rating of the load to be powered by the inverter
  • The ampere range of the charging unit
  • The cost of the construction
  • The relative importance of the inverter
  • The ampere ranger of the charging unit
  • The cost of the construction
  • The relative importance of the inverter at that time specification
  • C input voltage (12V-24V)
  • C output voltage (220v-240v)
  • Output frequency (50Hz-60Hz)
  • Output power (450-550)
  • Maximum power (550)
  • Continuous output power (500)
  • Overload shutdown
  • Low voltage shutdown

 

1.11 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

 

The objective of this project may be summarized as listed below

 

  • To give a brief introduction on what UPS.
  • To highlight the basic components used in the construction of a UPS and their functions .
  • To describe the way in which there are designed and
  • Finally to highlight its application and relevance in the society

 

 

1.12  SCOPE OF THIS PROJECT

 

This project research encompasses the features of the variety of the components used in the construction of a UPS, their limitations and favourable working conditions, and the application of inverter in different field.

 

1.13  AVAILABILITY OF DESIGN MATERIALS

 

Materials used in the construction of this UPS are readily available in electronic stores across the country and are also very affordable depending on the rating of the UPS to be constructed.

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CONSTRUCTION OF MICROCONTROLLER BASED VEHICLE SPEED ALARM

CONSTRUCTION OF MICROCONTROLLER BASED VEHICLE SPEED ALARM

ABSTRACT

The project is based on Construction of microcontroller vehicle speed alarm system which automatically warns the driver by activating a panic alarm which is triggered on when the driver exceeds the speed limit set in the system which also stops the alarm when the speed is reduced below the set speed limit. A speedometer system is used to monitor the speed of the car. The voltage output of the speedometer system is used to set the time the alarm comes on. The other component parts of the system are power unit which comprises of 5volts regulator and diode for reverse voltage prevention, micro controller, analog to digital converter (ADC), LED, resistors, transistors, wires and potentiometer. By proper steps, time and knowledge, one was able to couple the components together to achieve the desired functions which are stated in the various chapters of this report. This system can be used for road safety and measures taken to prevent accident caused by over speeding.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The dashboard instrument cluster in a car organizes a variety of sensors and gauges, including the oil pressure gauge, coolant temperature gauge, fuel level gauge, tachometer and more. But the most prominent gauge and perhaps the most important, at least in terms of how many times you look at it while driving is the speedometer. The job of the speedometer is to indicate the speed of a car in miles per hour, kilometers per hour or both. Even in late-model cars, it’s an analog device that uses a needle to point to a specific speed, which the driver reads as a number printed on a dial. As with any emerging technology, the first speedometers were expensive and available only as options. It wasn’t until 1910 that automobile manufacturers began to include the speedometer as standard equipment. One of the first speedometer suppliers was Otto Schulze Auto meter (OSA), a legacy company of Siemens VDO Automotive AG, one of the leading developers of modern instrument clusters. The first OSA speedometer was built in 1923 and its basic design didn’t change significantly for 60 years. In this project report, high lights will be on the history of speedometers, how they work and digitalization of speedometer, add-on speed checker, and what the future may hold for speedometer design, below is a pictorial overview of a speedometer.

Fig1.1: A modern speedometer.

1.2 THE AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
 To design a digital speedometer.
 Incorporate a speed monitor with respect to set threshold.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
 Actualization of speed using analog to digital conversion technique;
 Displaying the analog value in a digital format using an alphanumeric LCD display;
 Entering the speed limit using keyboard built around to push to make switches (mode and adjustment keys)
 Implementing hall -effect technique.

1.4 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The chapter one is the introductory chapter of the project, chapter two highlights on the literature review of the project, chapter three highlights on the system operation chapter four circuit design and implementation, chapter five testing and results of the project, chapter six summary, recommendation and conclusion of the project non-chapter pages are: the reference page and app

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PATIENT HEARTBEAT AND TEMPERATURE MONITOR

PATIENT HEARTBEAT AND TEMPERATURE MONITOR

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Heart beat rate means the number of heartbeats per unit time, usually expressed as beats per minute (bpm). The human heart pounds to pump oxygen rich blood to the muscles and carry cell waste products away from the tissues. Heartbeat rate can vary according to the demand of the muscles to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide changes such as during exercise or sleep. It also varies significantly between individuals based on age, fitness and genetics. This means that the heart must beat faster to deliver more oxygen rich blood. During exercise routines, the heartbeat rate gives a strong indication of how effective the exercise is to the body.
The patient monitoring systems is one of the major improvements in the global health care program because of its advanced technology. A patient monitoring system measures the heartbeat and body temperature by using embedded technology. This advancement in technology is highly needed because many sick patients at the hospitals die because of high fever and heart attacks. The trend of cardiovascular disease has shown that heart beat rate plays a key role in determining the possibility of a heart attack while an increase in the body temperature can induce fever on a patient. Heart diseases such as heart attack, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and congenital heart disease are the leading causes of death for men and women in many countries. Most of the time, the aged people of the society are more prone to heart disease problems than the younger ones. For people who live alone with no one to monitor their health condition, this device offers an opportunity to them for a constant monitoring of their health status, it is developed to monitor and alert the doctors about the heartbeat and temperature condition of a patient. It is developed to give patients a timely and proper heath care.
These days it is not easy for doctors and the nurses to remain close to a patients bed side to monitor their heath condition. In the past, a huge and fixed monitoring device was used (only in the hospitals) to know the health status of a patient when on a bed. These monitoring devices are only available in the hospitals and are constantly on the patient’s body. Many of them are not user friendly so it is important that the doctors and family members will have a handy device that can always monitor their patients when they are not around. One of the vital things to monitor on a patient is the body temperature. This has to do with the measurement of the body’s ability to generate and get rid of heat. Temperature monitoring is one of chief indicators of the normal functioning of health. The nature of the human body is to keep its temperature within a narrow, safe range in spite of large variations in temperatures outside the body. Normal human body temperature depends upon the place in the body, from which the measurement is made, and the time and level of activity of the person. The typical body temperature is 37.0 °C ± 0.4°C (98.6 ° F ± 0.7°F). When the body temperature is high, the blood vessels within the skin expand (dilate) to carry the excess heat to the patients skin surface. One may begin to sweat, and as the sweat evaporates, it helps to cool his/her body. When one is too cold, the blood vessels narrows (contracts) so that blood flow to the skin is reduced to conserve body heat. This may cause an involuntary shivering in some people due to cold which is a rapid contraction of the muscles. This extra muscle activity helps to generate more heat. Under normal condition, thus keeping one’s body temperature within a narrow, safe range. Body temperature is regulated by neural feedback mechanism which operate primarily through the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus contains not only the control mechanisms, but also the key temperature sensors. Under control of these mechanisms, sweating begins almost precisely at a skin temperature of 37°C and increases rapidly as the skin temperature rises above this value. The heat production of the body under these conditions remains almost constant as the skin temperature rises. If the skin temperature drops below 37°C a variety of responses are initiated to conserve the heat in the body and to increase heat production. These includes: Vasoconstriction to decrease the flow of heat to the skin, Cessation of sweating, shivering to increase heat production in the muscles, Secretion of nor epinephrine, epinephrine, and thyroxin to increase heat production.
Another vital thing to monitor in a patient is the heartbeat rate. It is very important that the heartbeat is to be normal. That is 72 BPM. If there is any abnormality, then the patient is in distress. Heartbeat rate means the number of heartbeats per unit of time. The normal heartbeat rate of a resting person is about 70 bpm for adult males and 75 bpm for adult females. The average heartbeat per minute for 25-year old ranges between 140-170 beats per minute while for a 60-year old it is typically between 115-140 beats per minute and body temperature is 37 degree Celsius or 98.6 Fahrenheit. . Normally it is difficult to keep track of the abnormalities in the heartbeat count of by manual means. Patients are not well versed with the manual treatments, which the doctors normally use for tracking the count of the heartbeat. Thus, there must be some kind of device which would help patients and their family member to keep track of their health by themselves. This sole reason is why this project presents a heartbeat and temperature
monitoring device using radio frequency (RF.). The concept of developing an RF. based patient monitoring device is to have a simple home and hospital based pulse and body temperature monitoring device for sick person’s that are in critical condition and needs to be constantly or periodically monitored by clinician or family.

1.2 WHAT IS A PATIENT HEARTBEAT AND TEMPERATURE MONITOR USING RF.?
A patient heartbeat and temperature monitor using RF. is a radio frequency based pulse wave and body temperature monitoring system, which allows the control of a sick person’s condition in real time. The system monitors the heart beat and temperature of a patient simultaneously and if the patients heartbeat rate or body temperature is abnormal, the system alerts sends an alert to the doctor or patient’s family members to quickly examine or diagnose the patient’s condition and take early precaution to save the patient’s life. The alerts sound can be triggered at any time as long as there is a deviation in the health condition of the patient from the normal, such that the status of the patient can be known on time. The system consists of a sensor, which monitors the patient and sends a signal to a microcontroller, which processes it to determine the temperature and heartbeat rate of the patient before sending an alert to a receiver using radio frequency. The receiver has to be in the possession of the patient’s doctor or family members. This project can also be used by athletes who engage in physical exercise and by medical professionals. Individuals, such as athletes, cyclists or those who are interested in monitoring their heartbeat rate and body temperature to gain maximum efficiency from their training can also use this project. It can be used during physical exercise and healthcare.

1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION
The human health is one of the most important concerns in the world today. Anything/everything becomes meaningless when one becomes sick and dies due to improper Medicare. For health reasons, people, governments and several voluntary bodies spend a lot of money to ensure a better health condition for themselves and the entire populace. Scientists and Engineers are always at work to device a means of supporting/sustaining a sound health condition for all through the invention of numerous technologies both Electrical/Mechanical gadgets that are in use for health care delivery today. The heart is a very delicate organ in the human body (once it stops beating, nothing else matters). Thus, If early actions are taken (and on time) the heart condition can be managed effectively and many patients can be cured and saved. The problem of patients slumping and dying is associated with cardiovascular arrests and can be checkmated this sensitive and highly effective device (the patient heartbeat and temperature monitor). This device has an outstanding advantage that it is easy to handle and access. Heartbeat rate and body temperature monitors are part of the most vital tools needed in first aid kit for saving lives. Unlike the x-ray, the heartbeat and temperature monitor does not impose any hazard to the human health. There devices in the market which can provide raw measurement data of the patients to the doctors, but the patients may not be able to interpret the medical measurement into a meaningful diagnosis due to their limited medical background. On the other hand, if raw medical data is delivered to the doctor, time is wasted and may pose a problem, but in emergencies waste of time can never be tolerated. It is tough to share data over large area within a short period. Most of the products available in the market have this drawback of limitation in flexibility and portability. If the heat that is produced from metabolism cannot be checkmated on time, it will cause a turbulent body temperature, which could be worse than 40°C and lead to headache, vertigo, low blood pressure, high energy consumption, unconsciousness and crocking up of body temperature regulation function. On the other hand, when the produced heat is less than the dissipating heat, the body temperature cannot hold on and it will result to a decrease in metabolism.

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The major aim and objective of this design [of a patient heartbeat and temperature monitor using RF.] is to help the doctors and family members to keep track of the heartbeat condition of their loved ones [as well as their body temperature] in the case of an abnormality in the health condition (for those with heartbeat defects and those that run excessive high temperature beyond normal). If any varied change takes place, it is notified. This notification through RF. Channel would to take an appropriate action at an instance of time, thereby alerting the appropriate persons..

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
There are various instruments available in the hospitals to keep track of the internal body changes, but many of them have limitations regarding to maintenance, cost, size of instruments, and mobility. This project is so significant because it is mobile, small in size, cost effective, very easy to use, highly efficient performance, portable and light in weight etc. It uses RF. to help both the patient and the concerned doctor to take an appropriate action.
It is beneficial in terms of cost. It saves time and is very helpful to patients who lives alone. It offers a freedom of movement to patients. It has a low power consumption though the stability of its wireless data communication is still to be enhanced. To some degree, the wireless data communication via RF has anti-jamming ability.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project operates at a 30 feet’s distance on open space. It is designed to operate with an alkaline battery of a minimum of 9 volts to a maximum of 12v consumes 50mA. It uses a buffer, temperature sensor, AT89c51 Microcontroller and a led display with buzzer for the alert. The hardware and soft ware of the system is oriented towards the AT89c51 single chip microcontroller. Hence, reducing the size of the device. A regulated 3.7v RF. operates in the frequency range of 415 MHZ per second used for data transmission, which can easily penetrate over three floors of a building and go over 30 feet’s in open space.

1.7 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage. It covers all the activities encountered during the research work as shown in the block diagram below.
Fig 1.1: PROJECT ORGANIZATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
The first chapter is the introductory chapter, which covers the background, project objectives, scope of the project, constraints and block diagram overview of the states. Chapter 2 presents the literature review. Chapter 3 covers the system analysis and design including the design methodology in block diagram form. Chapter 4 presents the system implementation, which shows the component layout, the wiring schedule, the wiring diagram and the complete schematic diagram. Chapter 5 covers the testing and integration of the project design. The system testing was first carried out in a laboratory. Chapter 6 is the summary and
Abstract
Introduction
Literature
Review
System implementation & testing
System design
Methodology and system analysis
Summary and conclusion  which includes the summary of achievements, problems encountered during project design, recommendation and suggestion for further improvement.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN THE TRANSMITTER AND THE RECEIVER
Fig.1.2. Basic idea of a transmitter and receiver transmission using RF.
With the aid of a simple, low cost microcontroller based heartbeat rate and temperature measuring device with LCD output. The heartbeat rate of a patient is measured from the index finger or the wrist or neck using IRD (infrared device) sensors and the rate is then averaged and displayed on a text board LCD.
The device sounds an alarm when the heartbeat and body temperature exceed the safe threshold value. The programmer stipulates this threshold value at the time of programming of the microcontroller. The threshold value given for the device is between 20 to 120 pulses per minute for heart beat indication and 18 degrees Celsius to 38 degrees Celsius for tem

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HOME CONTROL SWITCH AUTOMATION USING GSM COMMUNICATION

HOME CONTROL SWITCH AUTOMATION USING GSM COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT
The advantage of cellular communication like GSM technology is a potential solution for such remote controlling activities. GSM-SMS technology can be used to control household appliances from remote places. Remotely, the system allows the home owner to monitor and control his house appliances via his mobile phone set by sending commands in the form of SMS message and receiving the appliances status as well. This system provides ideal solution to the problems caused in situations when a wired connection between a remote appliance device and the control unit might not be feasible. The system is wireless and uses the user’s mobile handset for control and therefore the system is more adaptable and cost effective. The system uses GSM technology thus providing ubiquitous access to the system for appliance control. With this hypothesis, three different approaches have been proposed and implemented in this project; FIRSTLY, home control switch/household appliances are controlled by server mobile which acts as remote control. SECONDLY, GSM-SMS messaging technology is used to control them from remote places and FINALLY, to provide a multiple agents environment.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, people’s expectations in their life quality are increasing as the technology is improving rapidly. People need an affordable system (smart) that can make their lives easier, more comfortable, and offer more safety.GSM based home automation system is an electrical and electronic system designed to control home appliance with a mobile phone. The two main technologies applied in the system are GSM and PLC. GSM stands for global system for mobile communication and PLC stands for power line communication. In this study, Nokia 6100 is chosen as the GSM phone that receives command and transfers it to controller. Due to rapidly advancing of mobile communication technology and widely availability make it possible to incorporate mobile technology into home automation systems. ’’AT’’ command is used as communication between GSM phone and microcontroller by passing through a serial interface RS232 with the help of its driver.
The project is based on the principle of GSM network, which enables the user to remotely control the operations of the appliances by using a mobile phone. In other word it would transform a normal home into an intelligent home. The controlling circuit is the most important component in communication and interface between home appliances. It was implemented by using peripheral interface controller (PIC) interfaced to mobile phone. The user can perform ON/OFF operations of the appliances just by pressing keypad of mobile phone.
The user sends GSM data in the form of SMS (short message service) message to switch ON or OFF any appliances at home such as lamp, air condition, fan and etc. the appliances may also provide the user with its current ON/OFF status. The system can be improved to provide the user with information about the status of each appliance.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this project are as follows;
1. To design and develop home appliances control system over GSM network by using a mobile phone.
2. To determine and understand on how the GSM works.
3. To understand the architecture and programming of the PIC.
4. To learn the troubleshooting and techniques.

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scopes of works in this project are;
1. Mobile phone with SIM card enables the user to remotely control the operations of the appliances by communication to the GSM modem.
2. GSM modem allows the capability to send and receive SMS to and from the mobile phone.
3. RS-232 is the basic serial communication cable that will be used to interface between GSM modem and PIC microcontroller.
4. PIC microcontroller will be interfaced to the control circuit that is connected to the appliances. It contains the software components through which the appliances are controlled and monitored.
5. Relay and control circuit used to detect and control the condition of the home appliances.

OPERATION OF THE SYSTEM
The system works as a remote sensing for the electrical appliances at home or industry to check whether it is ON or OFF, at the same time the user can control the electrical appliances at home by sending SMS message into the system, for example, turning on the AC before returning home. in case of fire/security the chip will receive signals from the different sensors in the monitoring place and acts according to the received signal by sending an SMS message to user’s mobile phone, it also works as automatic and immediate reporting to the user in case of emergency for home security, as well as immediate and automatic reporting to the fire brigade and police station according to activated sensor to decrease the time required for tracking action.
A sketch of overall design of the home appliances control using GSM is shown in the figure below.
RS232 interface
Relay interface
FIG; Simplified block diagram of home appliances
Control using GSM.
ARCHTECTURE OF THE SYSTEM
It can be implemented to any levels of the security system. The architecture of the system mainly consists of three components the GSM MODEM and the
Mobile device (user)
GSM modem
PIC
Home appliances interface circuit that include the different sensors used. The function of the GSM MODEM is the remote communication between the user and the controller through the RS232 serial communication standard. The function of the controller is to continuously check the inputs coming from the different sensor and send message through the GSM network in case of emergency such that it acts as a 24hours monitoring and continuously checking for any received message from the user through the GSM MODEM to switch on the AC for example.

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INVERTER TYPE ARC WELDING MACHINE

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INVERTER TYPE ARC WELDING MACHINE

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 THE BACKGROUND
Welding is a way of heating pieces of metal using electricity or a flame so that they melt and stick together. It can simply be defined as the process of joining two or more pieces of metal to make the act as a single piece. This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint. Because of its strength, welding is used to join beams when constructing buildings, bridges and other structures. Welding can also be used to join pipes in pipelines, power plants at the construction sites and in home appliance. Furthermore, welding is used in shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing and repair, aerospace applications. There are many kinds of welding which include arc welding, resistance welding, gas welding among others. Emphasis will be laid on arc welding because it is the most common type of welding as well as the main aim of this project.
Arc welding is the process of welding that utilizes an electrical discharge (arc) to join similar materials together. Equipment that performs the welding operation under the observation and control of a welding operator is known as welding machine. To solve the problem of weight and size of conventional arc welding machine, it is necessary to design an inverter. The inverter provides much higher frequency than 50Hz or 60Hz supply for transformer used in welding. So transformer of much smaller mass is used to permit the handling of much greater output power. The welding noise produce by conventional arc welding machine is reduced by selecting the operating frequency over the hearing of human ability. The choice of 20Khz for the inverter type arc welding machine was determined to meet the above expectation. The output welding current is controlled by controlling the power supply for transformer at high frequency. This power supply is provided by a frequency inverter. Power switch IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) or MOSFETs is used for the inverter design due to its high switching. The control circuit use to control the output welding current is design to drive the power switch at high frequency. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor power switch is more efficient and less prone to failure than MOSFETs power switch.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The main aim and objective of this project is to design and build and arc welding machine that operates on 36vdc at variable frequency which of benefit to urban area. This reduces the weight and size of the transformer use for welding. To have an arc welding machine that is more efficient which produce neat welding.

1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The significant of this project is that it seeks to develop an arc welding machine that is cost effective, strong and portable. Not only that the arc welding machine is strong and portable, it is also mobile.

1.4 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
The project has certain limitations which are mentioned below.
 This project cannot weld bigger gauge of metals.
 The welding time and power depends on the battery input power.
 You are to have bands of battery for reliability when using battery.
 The machine must be used by a qualified welder. Welding can endanger the operator or people near the working area. Therefore, the performance of welding and cutting must only be done under the comprehensive observation of all relevant safety regulation.
 Switch function modes during welding could potentially damage the equipment. A safety switch is necessary to prevent the equipment from electric leakage. Use only high quality welding tools and equipment with this inverter type arc welding machine.

1.5 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage. It covers all the activities encountered during the research work. The first chapter is the introductory chapter which covers the background, project objectives, project justification, and scope of the project. Chapter two presents the literature reviews. Chapter three covers the system analysis and design methodology in details. Chapter four presents the system implementation which entails the circuits diagram of different stages and also the complete schematic diagram with necessary calculation involve in the design. Chapter five is emphasis on conclusion, problem encountered during project design, recommendations and suggestion for further improvement. Fig1.1 depicts an overview of project report organization.

Introduction
Literature review
Methodology and system analysis
System Design and Implementation
System testing
Summary, recommendation and conclusion
Fig1.1 An overview of project report organization

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 20WATTS WIRELESS PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 20WATTS WIRELESS PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
It has become inevitable that there would be communication and due to the inherent limitation of the human voice, the public address system came to being. A public address or “P.A SYSTEM” is an electronic amplification system with a mixer ,amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a given sound , e.g a person making a speech, pre-recorded music ,or message and distributing the sound throughout a venue . The voice signal is passed through a microphone , which converts the sound energy to electrical energy, the energy electrical signal being transmitted is been received and amplified by the amplifier circuit. The amplifier’s output is fed into the loudspeaker which converts the electrical energy back to the original form but amplified sound energy. This project is made up of the power supply unit, the pre-amplifier and power amplifier units, and the tone control unit. This system is capable of delivering 20W of electrical power into a 8 ohm load(loudspeaker).

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Fig 1: A picture of a modern wireless public address system
A public address system allows you to broadcast information to a large group of people, whether you are giving a speech or playing live or recorded music.
Public address systems typically consist of input sources, preamplifiers, control and monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. Input sources refer to the microphones that provides a sound input for the system. These input sources are fed into the preamplifiers. The pre amplified signals are then passed into the audio power amplifiers.
These amplifiers will amplify the audio signals to an adequate speaker line level. In view of the above, one can now say that the public address system is an electronic amplification system used for communication in public areas.

Microphone is a device that converts sound waves into electrical waves. Some times colloquially called a micro mike is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, live and recorded audio engineering, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking. The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its element. Since a wireless microphone is used in this project; a wireless microphone is one in which communication is not limited by a cable.
A transmitter is extremely important equipment and is housed in the broadcasting station. Its purpose is to produce radio waves for transmission into space. The important components of a transmitter are microphone, audio amplifiers, oscillator and modulator.
It usually sends its signal using a small FM radio transmitter to a nearby receiver connected to the sound system, but it can also use infrared light if the transmitter and receiver are within sign of each other. The transmitter are responsible for taking in the signal from the microphone, modulating it, and transmitting it to the receiver using radio waves.

Fig2:A transmitter circuit
The first transistor (Q1) is the pre-amplifier for the microphone, and you can omit this circuit if you don’t want to transmit the sound picked up by the mic, for example you can connect your mp3 player directly to C1. The core of this FM transmitter circuit is Q2, a modified Culprits oscillator that the frequency is determined by L1, C4, C6, and the transistor’s internal base-emitter capacitance. The antenna use 1/16 wave length to compromise between the efficiency and the size. If you want the microphone to be less sensitive, we can replace the R1 by a higher resistor, such as 10k or 22k, and this might overcome the feedback problem if you use this wireless microphone FM transmitter for a public address system
The receiver captures the radio waves sent out by the transmitter, demodulates the signal, amplifies it to an appropriate level, and sends it out to the audio mixer. A receiver is an electronic circuit that receives its input from an antenna, uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio signal from all other signals picked up by this antenna, amplifies it to a level suitable for further processing, and finally converts through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form usable for the consumer, such as sound, and digital data, etc.
Amplifier or simply amp is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal. The “signal” is usually voltage or current. Amplifier is a device for increasing the power of a signal. It does this by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with larger amplitude. Routing the low-frequency parts of the signal to an amplifier can substantially improve the clarity of the overall sound reproduction.
In this project, the audio amplifier used is capable of delivering 20watts continuously. The term “power amplifier” is a relative term with respect to the amount of power delivered to the load and/or sourced by the supply circuit.
In general a power amplifier is designated as the last amplifier in a transmission chain (the output stage) and is the amplifier stage that typically requires most attention to power efficiency. Power amplifiers have also become lighter, smaller, more powerful and more efficient due to increasing use of Class A amplifiers, which offer significant weight and space savings as well as increased efficiency.
Power amplifier circuits (output stages) are classified as A, B, AB and C for analog designs, and class D and E for switching designs, based upon the conduction angle or angle of flow, Θ, of the input signal through the output amplifying device, that is, the portion of the input signal cycle during which the amplifying device conducts. The image of the conduction angle is derived from amplifying a sinusoidal signal. (If the device is always on, Θ = 360o.) In this project a class A amplifier is used because it offers low signal distortion.
Loudspeaker is an electro-acoustical transducer that converts an electrical signal to sound. A transducer that turns an electrical signal into sound waves is the functional opposite of a microphone.
Since a conventional speaker is constructed much like a dynamic microphone, (with a diaphragm, coil and magnet), speakers can actually work “in reverse” as microphones. The speaker pushes a medium in accord with the pulsations of an electrical signal, thus causing sound waves to propagate to where they can then be received by the ear. The loudspeaker used in this project is a load of 8 Ohms.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the audience. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as “who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?”(W.Kleitz;2005 pg134).
The major objective of this project is to design and construct a public address system with relatively unique operational characteristics that is capable of delivering 20 watts of electrical power into an 8 Ohms load (loudspeaker). This will be achieved with adequate tone controls and mixer stages so as to enable communication or reproduction of speech and recorded music in buildings and institutions.

1.3 JUSTIFICATION
Over the ages, science and technology has been developing with new inventions in various fields; including the increase in modifications on existing technology all gearing towards improving effectiveness and reliability of equipment and achieving to a great degree miniaturization and optimal cost.
This project is backed by my interest in the area of electronics and communication, and having been groomed to a great extent with introductions into the various fields of electrical and electronics engineering, with the knowledge in principles of telecommunications, telecommunication engineering,
basic electronics and lab practice. I chose to combine basic electronics and lab practice. I chose to combine all these ideas in embarking on this project to develop a special system that utilizes all the above stated knowledge in one system; “the public address system”.
This system makes use of radio communication system, it utilizes radio frequency to achieve all its set objectives, like data communication in the operation of wireless communication between the transmitter and the receiver.
This system is intended to provide a fast and reliable means of communication in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This system is for public address; it has an estimated power rating of 20watts. For power supplies, it uses a 220/12Vac transformer for the receiver, amplifier and loudspeaker units. It has a power On/Off button with volume control.

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CONSTRUCTION OF RADIO FREQUENCY GSM SIGNAL JAMMER

CONSTRUCTION OF RADIO FREQUENCY GSM SIGNAL JAMMER

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
A wireless signal jammer is a device which blocks transmission by creating interference. This wireless signal jammer can be categorized into the Radio Frequency (RF) jammer and GSM jammer.
A Radio Frequency jammer is a device used to disrupt or prevent communication via a broadcasted RF signal. It is an RF and GSM frequency disrupter commonly known as wideband radio frequency (RF) and GSM cell phone jammer. Simultaneously, they can blocks all commercial FM broadcast band (87.5 MHz to 108 MHz) and GSM signal transmissions within the jammer’s transmission range. The device can possibly block these frequencies by transmitting a dirty signal (like noise) on the same frequency at which the GSM and radio system operates.
A Radio Frequency jammer is a device that transmits a radio frequency signal on the same frequency at which the radio system operates and the jamming succeeds when the radio sets in the area where the jammer is located are disabled.
A GSM jammer is a device that transmits a signal on the same frequency at which the GSM operates. The jamming succeeds when the mobile phones in the area where the jammer is located are disabled.
In recent times, where bombs are being planted and detonated by GSM or Radio Frequency signals, this device can be at an advantage by jamming the signals required for the detonation of the bomb.
Presently, the mobile jammer devices are becoming civilian products rather than electronic warfare devices, since with the increasing number of the mobile phone users the need to disable mobile phones in specific
places where the ringing of cell phone would be disruptive has increased. These places include worship places, university lecture rooms, libraries, concert halls, meeting rooms, and other places where silence is appreciated.
The solution to these annoying and disrupting noises is to install a device which can block the signal transmission from mobile phones and radio sets and thus, disrupt the triggering of bombs by these wireless signals.

1.2 Project Background
The technology being used by this device is very simple. The mobile phone transmission is being blocked and interfered by RF which creates high noise. The frequency being generated by the jamming device jams the signal being generated by the cell tower (as illustrated in figure 1.1 below). When the signal has been blocked, the mobile phone will show “NO NETWORK” on the network bar, and radio devices will not be able to tune into any signal. Thus, all phones and radio devices in the 200m radius of the jammer will be having the same situation.
Radio Frequency (RF) and Mobile signal jammer is an illegal device in many countries. It is because the device is blocking the signal which has been approved by government agency as a legal communication transmission system. According to the National Communications Commission (NCC) in Nigeria, “The manufacture, importation, sale, or offer for sale, of devices designed to block or jam wireless transmission is prohibited”. [10]
The reason I am developing this device is for educational purpose only. This device was developed and tested in this report just for Final Year Project presentation. There is no intention of manufacturing or selling such device in Nigeria or elsewhere.

In the construction of this wireless signal jammer, the device will be able to jam GSM and Radio Frequency (RF) signals and this can be done alternatively through a switch.
As shown in Fig. 1.1 below, the wireless signal jammer is divided into two major branches: the GSM signal jammer, and the radio receiver jammer. The radio receiver jammer is also sub-divided into the Amplitude Modulated (AM) signal jammer and the Frequency Modulated (FM) Signal jammer. The Cell phones and Radio receivers cannot be blocked simultaneously as they operate at separate frequencies. The frequency can then be varied using a frequency tuner mounted on the jammer
Fig. 1.1 Block Diagram of Signal Jammer
The block diagram in Fig. 1.2 below gives a pictorial representation of the working principle of a wireless signal jammer.
RADIO FREQUENCY SIGNAL JAMMER
RADIO FREQUENCY RECEIVER SIGNAL JAMMER (87.5-108 MHz)
AMPLITUDE MODULATED SIGNAL
FREQUENCY MODULATED SIGNAL
GSM SIGNAL JAMMER (935-960MHz)

Fig. 1.2: Pictorial Representation of a Radio Frequency Jammer
CELL TOWER 1
CELL TOWER 2
CELL TOWER 3
CELL TOWER 4
JAMMER
……………………….
…………..
………………………………………………
MOBILE PHONE
RADIO
………………….
……………………………………..
MOBILE PHONE
RADIO

From the Fig. 1.2, the jamming device jams cell phones and radio sets within the range of cell towers 1 and 2.
The cell tower 1, 2, 3 and 4 transmits signals which can be received by GSM or radio sets. The jamming device is placed in-between cell towers 1 and 2 and thus produces a signal which is at the same frequency being operated /transmitted by the cell tower. It can be said that the resultant of the signals is zero.
From Fig. 1.2, the sending object is the jamming device and the target object is the cell towers.
However, mobile phones placed within the range of cell towers 3 and 4 will not be jammed due to the fact that they are not within the range of the jamming device.

1.3 Problem Statement
Due to the increasing sophistication and high technology, most people are using mobile phones, and also due to the need for man to stay updated with his environment, the use of radio is also in wide use.
Mobile phones have become a very important communication tool today. With the use of the mobile phones everywhere, it becomes annoying device while working, studying, praying and many more.
Modern technology has contributed to the sophistication of bombs which are being triggered by GSM and Radio signals.
Wireless mobile jammer can be placed in schools, mosque, and conference hall, meeting rooms, library and many more places which need quiet and peaceful environment. This device will block the transmission of Radio and GSM signals.

1.4 Objectives
The Development of Wireless Signal Jammer for Security Application objective is:
 To design Radio Frequency (RF), Intermediate Frequency (IF), and Power Supply circuit. To construct the Development of Wireless Signal Jammer for Security Application’s circuit.
 To construct the development of wireless signal jammer for security application’s circuit.
 To simulate Intermediate Frequency (IF) section circuit.
 To block mobile phones transmission by creating interference.
 To block amplitude modulated and frequency modulated signal transmission by creating interference within its range.

1.5 Scope of Project /Limitation
This project only focuses on blocking the signal transmission of GSM900 which is the range between 935 to 960 MHz. This is because the components are hard to find in Nigeria for the GSM1800 frequency range between 1805 to 1880 MHz The components for GSM1800 are also very expensive compared to GSM900.
The second limitations of the project are, the device only can block the three main operators which are ETISALAT, MTN and GLOBACOM. This is because, the lines are only for Nigerian users and the frequency band range is between 935 to 960 MHz. These requirements fulfil the GSM900 specifications.
The third limitation is that for reliability of the jammer, a Radio Frequency amplifier should be incorporated but the components required for this are difficult to find in Nigeria.

1.6 Summary
This project is mainly intended to prevent the usage of mobile phones in places inside it coverage without interfering with communication channels outside it range, thus providing a cheap and reliable method for blocking mobile communication in the required restricted area only. Although we must be aware of the fact that nowadays lot of mobile phones can easily negotiate the jammer effect are available and therefore advance measures should be taken to jam such type of devices. The main disadvantage of the mobile phone jammer is that the transmission of the jamming signal is prohibited by law in many countries. These disadvantages will restrict the use of Radio Frequency jammer. [10

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CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER FOR BOTH OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND TANKS

CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER FOR BOTH OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND TANKS

ABSTRACT
Automatic water level controller for both overhead and underground tank is designed to monitor the level of water in a tank. It displays the level of water and when it is at the lowest level; a pump is activated automatically to refill the tank. When the tank is filled to its maximum capacity, the pump is automatically de-energized. Several circuits are put together to ensure proper working of this design, and the block diagram includes the supply unit, the micro-processor unit, the sensor unit, the display unit and the pump drives unit. The power unit is responsible for turning on the entire circuit. Some components are used to set up power unit and they include; a 15v step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a smoothening capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The microprocessor (AT89S50) controls virtually all the actions carried out in this design. (AT89S50) is used in the design. The sensor unit is responsible for sensing the level of water and transfer the current position of water to the microprocessor. The display unit in the circuit is use to physically show the current position of water in the tank, the properties of seven segment display are been used.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND
The project “automatic water level control with an automatic pump control system” is design to monitor the level of liquid in the tank. The system has an automatic pumping system attached to it so as to refill the tank once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while offing the pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of available water resource in many reason of the word is now a dominant issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management. Water is commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption. Therefore, efficient use and water monitoring are potential constraint for home or office water management system. Moreover, the common method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed pump at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is reached in the water tank. This water level control, controls monitor and maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control systems are widely used for monitoring of liquid levels in reservoirs, silos. Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is actually being reached with disbursement linked to sensing and automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based automated water level sensing and controlling or using 555 timer IC.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with automatic control system. In this project sensors are place at different level of the tank and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are
1. to design an automatic water monitoring system
2. to incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine
3. to prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad
4. to avoid wastage of water
5. since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy

1.2 JUSTIFICATION
Automatic water level monitor came into existence because of human error and inconsistence that is associated with manually operated water pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know that the water level has drop so low until the tank is completely empty. This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an automatic water level control and automatic pump short down.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The project was design to automatically control the pump which ensures constant reserve of water in the reservoir. The scope of the design was keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a well built automatic water pump was use d to achieve this aim, the automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the tank

1.4 CONSTRAINS
The biggest setback experience during the course of this project is difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like pump and buffer for programming

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
It is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric pump and cannot be use to control industrial water pump above 5 amps
BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW
This project report writing is written is design in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below
FIG 1.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROL WITH PUMP
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
CONTROL UNIT
DISPLAY UNIT
INPUT UNIT
CONTROL UNITE

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CONSTRUCTION OF FM WIRELESS MICROPHONE

CONSTRUCTION OF FM WIRELESS MICROPHONE

Chapter One:

General Introduction

Introduction

A wireless microphone is one without a physical cable connecting it directly to the sound recording or amplifying equipment with which it is associated. Also known as radio microphone, it has a small battery powered radio transmitter in the microphone body which transmits the audio signal from the microphone by radio waves to a nearly receiver unit. Wireless microphone is one widely used in the entertainment industry, television broadcasting and public speaking to allow public speakers interviewers, performers and entertainers to move about freely while using the microphone to amplify their voices.

Briefly writing on the history of wireless microphone, various individuals and organizations claim to be the inventors of the wireless microphone from about 1945. There were schematics and hobbyist kits offered in popular science and would transmit the voice to a nearly radio. Considering the efforts of many individuals from the likes of:

Figure skater 1947

Herbert Mac McClelland 1951

Shure Brother 1953

And lots more claim to be inventors but their inventions failed to comply with the demand of range. Wide dynamic range came with the introduction of the first compander wireless microphone offered by Nody systems in 1976. Nody joined CBs, Sennherisa and Vegan in 1996 to receive a joint many award for pioneering the development of the broadcasting wireless microphone.

 

1.1  Significance of Study

This study will be useful to student lecturers and the entire public, enabling them to know the concept and working principle, construction and the electronic components involved in the wireless microphone.

 

1.2  Scope of the Study

The scope of the guide is limited to wireless microphone system used in audio applications. The reader is pressured to be some what familiar with basic audio. However, since wireless microphone system depend upon certain general principal radio, some information on basic radio is induced.

 

1.3  Limitation of the Study

The study meets with series of challenges which could have hindered a successful completion. Among these challenges are:

–      Poor access to network

–      Inability to comply a release of factual materials to facilitate the work.

–      Delay in granting material and components which could have a ded finding.

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