ROLE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AND ICT IN PROMOTINGREADING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH.doc

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The Background to the Study

Reading has been, and is still, a powerful means of communication. It forms a part of an individual to the extent that, it becomes a habit which once developed, becomes difficult to break. Reading is a means of obtaining information, entertainment, relaxation, directives or instructions from a written material. It follows logically that a good reading habit is a precursor to a good writing.

Reading therefore, can be defined as a knowledge acquiring process, involving the reader and the text, which is enhanced by the reader’s prior knowledge and experience. According to Ogayl (2005:3), reading is simply the act and process of perceiving and understanding communication, which involves, seeing and recognizing textual demands, such as letters and phrases, combined in sentences and using the previous knowledge of the words and their contexts usage to interpret meaning. On the other hand, Agwu, in Ogayl and Chima (2005) says that, reading involves being able to obtain three types of information.

The information which is clearly stated (factual or literal Information), the information which is not clearly stated, but implied (inferential or interpretive information) and, the information which involves making judgment (critical or evaluative reading). The act of reading could be an interesting practice for the children and the adolescents, if they are properly guided. This is because, a reading habit cultivated early in life, helps the children to grow into independent adults with repertoire of knowledge. However, today, the declining interest of students in reading is quite obvious. Children now grow into adulthood with little/no knowledge of common possible life challenges and solutions.
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ROLE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AND ICT IN PROMOTINGREADING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH.doc

RELEVANCE OF NEWSPAPER IN ENHANCING READING ABILITY AMONG STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      Background to the Study

The first newspaper to be published was a daily newssheet called actadium (daily event) which was in Rome around 15BC. This was followed by Dibao published in China in which caved wooden block were used in printing it during 700AD. Latter on newsletter and news sheet. (Official News sheet) 1500s and notizicscrite appeared which were posted up in public places in Vanice. They could be read on a payment of a coin as a reward called Gazzeta which became the common name for early newspaper. However, the first regularly printed newssheet called Avisa Relation ordezertung came on stage around 1609 in Germany. It was followed by the weekly frank – fauta it is a journal which was regarded as a world fist real newspaper in the year 1615, by Egonolphelmel Germany. 

Then many countries began to havetheir own newspaper such as Dandanskemercius,. Denmark, the weekly news in England the Gazzeta de Mexico. In Mexico the courant in Netherland the Gozzeta in Spain and the ordinaire – postitinde in Sweden, vie domost in Russia the Halifax in Denmark, the Chrotain intelligent sedler in Norway, lagaceta de santaein in Colombia, and world in India, India.

Since then, series of newspaper began to’ reveal themselves. Around 1797, newspaper become so comprehensive and widely circulated around the world some good examples are: The time published in Britain NoverzorCherzeitung in Switzerland, the lapremise in Argentina, the daily telegraph and Manchester Guardian were also among the famous newspaper in England around 1800s. The mid 1800s, newspaper were able to cover news through out the world more quickly after invention of the electric telegraph and introduction of internal cable. Newspaper production was up by the Invention of votary printing. 

Also in Africa preghanian was the first country to own a newspaper of its own in the year 1857. The newspaper was called the West Africa Herald.While in Nigeria the first newspaper in Nigeria was published in the year 1850, called IwehIrohin. But in French speaking Africa ledaireCotedivoire began in 1935 and Congo (Zaire) witnessed its independence Africa Newspaper only in Lasa. When Nigeria gained her national independence in 1960, it had an array of colorful newspaper such as. The Africa Pilot, the Daily Time, Eastern Time and Comment among others.
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RELEVANCE OF NEWSPAPER IN ENHANCING READING ABILITY AMONG STUDENTS

PROBLEMS OF ESSAY WRITING AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

        According to Dadzie, (2004) in Nigeria, English Language started with the arrival of the Portuguese in Benin Kingdom (in the early 15th century). The origin of the use of English dates back to the early 19th century when freed slaves have received a degree of formal education abroad. Although, this language was imported into Nigeria alongside colonialism and commerce, its importance cannot be over-emphasized looking at the ethnic and lingua diversity of Nigeria. Okputu (1989) viewed that there is the potential importance of school shaping and strengthening the course. In line with what Okputu has said English language in modern education in the world has been considered as a vital and veritable instrument for achievement of individual security and personal social well being and development.

According to Kehinde (2006:205), the essay is a “vehicle for expressing a person’s inner thought and deeply felt emotions and all educated people are expected to be able to do this. Human beings have used essays for generations to express their views about a subject or to state their side of a story. As you are expected to be able to do likewise, your essay is expected to be concise without losing facts, detailed without being boring and appealing without being unserious”.
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PROBLEMS OF ESSAY WRITING AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN TELEVISION NEWSCAST IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

          If the question “what is language? Is asked, it has many senses and can be variously defined. It can be language of a particular field like science, humanity just to mention few. It can also be the animal language, sign language and many other types of languages.

          Humanity language especially spoken dominates them all. Human language is natural. According to Adeboye Chis experiences and thoughts”

          In Adeboyo’s words above, human language is one out of many by which a person’s experiences and thought can be organized. This supports the many senses that language has. And also, without language, (spoken) thoughts will never be born and experiences of life will be wasted because no one will be able to learn from them. Communication is the major bridge that links the whole world.

          Communication is a crucial factor in the society at large and there is pieces of evidence that prove this. The global village and the internet prove this among others.

          Language whether written, spoken, sign or through any means is a tools for communication and English language, out of many languages of the world has emerged the most used language all over the world.

          The global village use this language (English) and it stands to be the language of the net.

          English language accords respect and pride to its speakers but some have been left with the effective use of this language especially in the countries where the language  (English) is not the mother tongue or the first language one comes in contact with, for instance in countries like Nigeria,  Ghana and many others.

          The language teachers, the broadcasters and few others have been left with the duty of speaking the correct version of English language in Nigeria.

          And if this proof is true, these categories of people should speak error free English. However, it is unfortunate that some of our broadcasters still goof on air and this distorts communication. In the light of the above, this research is out to work on the use of language in English newscast under the little “mother tongue interference in English newscast in Nigeria”: A case of recorded NTA News.
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PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN TELEVISION NEWSCAST IN NIGERIA

CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON LANGUAGE: A CASE STUDY OF TABOOS AND SEXISM IN OHAOZARA DIALECT OF IGBO

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       Background of the Study

          Generally, language is a distinctive code of communication. Language according to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is a system of communication by written or spoken words which is used by the people of a particular country or area. Agbedo (2003) puts it that language is the pivot on which all human activities, ranging from the most prosaic to the most profound revolve. What he meant is that language touches the entire aspect of an individual’s life

          Language provides the unique medium through which the belief system, world view, moral values and virtually all the basic ingredients of any given society are passed on from generation to generation.

          Every society has a set of values and norms that governs the behaviour of the members and their languages and as well ensure peace and order in the society. These values and norms are cultural to the people. Culture which is the people’s way of life provides order and guidance for social behaviour and stability among changes.

          Ohaozara Community in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, has a unique and rich cultural heritage which direct and guide the life and language of Ohaozara people. Culture influence on the people of Ohaozara can be appreciated in the tradition of the people’s taboos as moral restraints. This is because their ancestors are too religious.

          The people of Ohaozara believe that the custodian of morality and the ancestors as the agents of maintaining the moral laws is the earth goddess “Ala”. The moral codes make known the do’s and don’ts of the community. The don’ts are known as the “taboos or “Nso ala” by the people.

          There are things that are forbidden by the Ohaozara people. Therefore the community hates and frowns at those things in order to live peacefully among the community members.

          One has to seriously observe those don’ts because breaking them attracts punishments from the earth goddess and their cohorts.
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CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON LANGUAGE: A CASE STUDY OF TABOOS AND SEXISM IN OHAOZARA DIALECT OF IGBO

ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS IN SPEAKING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE BY THE STUDENTS

1.1   Introduction

The word language “seems to have been derived from the Latin words, “Lingua,” which implies “tongue “. The French term,” language” also refers to a specific from of speech .Hence, in the whole process of language teaching, spoken language occupies an important place. Ballard says,” talking comes before writing, oral composition before written composition.

(Dash, 2004, p.165-166)

Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words

Josh Billings says

“Silence is one of the hardest arguments to refute”.

Speaking situation

There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:

  • Interactive,
  • Partially interactive, and
  • Non-interactive.

Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood.

Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast.

Micro skill

Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:-

  • Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
  • Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.
  • Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
  • Put words together in correct word order.
  • Use vocabulary appropriately.
  • Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner. Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.
  • Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.
    • Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying.

1.2   Statement of the problem

This research would” analyze the problems in speaking English as a second language faced by the students of grade-7 in D.G.Khan City”.

1.3   Objective of the study

The objectives of my studies are:

  1. To review the concept and importance of speaking skill.
  2. To identify the learning difficulties to speak English at 7th class.
  3. To analyze the factors that are effective in speaking skill.
  4. To explore the new ways of speaking skill.
    1. To recommend how they improve speaking skill in English at 7th grade.

1.4   Significance of the study

With the help of this study we may come to know the speaking problems of students at grade-7. So this study would be significant.

  1.     i.             This research will help to identify the problem of speaking at 7th grade.
  2.   ii.             This research will help to provide method of improving speaking skill.
  3. This study is helpful to solve the speaking problem.
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ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS IN SPEAKING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE BY THE STUDENTS

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ADICHIE’S THE THINGS AROUND YOUR NECK AND PURPLE HIBSUS 1-2..docx

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

A lot of similarities exist in the definitions of language. From another angle, there are highly technical usages of the word “language” reflecting the way the term has been applied figuratively to all forms of human behaviour such as language of writing, media, politics, music, law and advertisement. Halliday (1971:332) also succinctly puts the function of language thus:

Language serves for the expression of content. The speaker or writer embodies language, his experiences of the internal world of his Consciousness, his reaction, cognition, and perception and also his Linguistic acts of speaking and understanding.

The major challenge about defining language is that of trying to summarise its contents in single sentences. According to Sapir (1921:8), language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, thoughts and emotions by means of voluntarily produced symbols. This definition presents language as a primarily human characteristic for the purpose of communication. To Chomsky (1957:13), language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length as set of physical patterns that are arbitrarily combined to make the communication process effective. From Chomsky‟s definition, it‟s obvious that language consists of several elements each with a different way of operation but combined together to produce unlimited constructions. Therefore to Chomsky, language is a functional element used by humans for the purpose of communication. From the perspective of the above definition of language by Sapir (1921:8) language communicates ideas, emotions, thoughts, and desires which, when put down in a literary text, is referred to as literature.

Stylistic analysis which this research focuses on is the end product of two modes of analysis. That is, the literary and linguistic approaches to the analysis of literary texts. While the role of the literary analyst is to bring out the style that is the literary elements used by the writer to interpret themes, the linguist on his part takes the codes as his domain, and the meaning of the work becomes relevant as far as it illustrates the use of language. Widdowson (1975) explains the function of literary stylistics as the interpretation and evaluation of literary text as works of art, and that the primary concern of the analysis is to explicate the individual message of the writer. Widdowson also clarifies the function of the linguistic stylistic analyst as the decoder of messages and exemplifiers of how the codes are constructed.
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A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ADICHIE’S THE THINGS AROUND YOUR NECK AND PURPLE HIBSUS 1-2..docx

ASPECTS OF THE LEXICAL SEMANTICS OF URHOBO. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

ASPECTS OF THE LEXICAL SEMANTICS OF URHOBO. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

ABSTRACT

This study examined aspects of the lexical semantics of Urhobo, with the aim of identifying some of lexical relations in the language, as well as discussing the forms of lexical negation. The methodology adopted for this study is based on descriptive linguistics which attempts to describe a language in terms of its current form (i.e. synchronically without reference to earlier forms or other languages). The data employed for the project was obtained from primary sources via interviews. Some of the data was obtained from secondary sources including the Urhobo dictionary. For lexical relations, the analysis showed that Urhobo has synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, and homonymy. It also showed that they are somewhat similar to what one finds in English language. The study therefore concluded that most of the lexical relations identified in other well studied languages can be found in the Urhobo language.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

This study seeks to examine in detail various aspects areas of lexical semantics in the Urhobo language. We will look in general term at lexical relations i.e. the meaning relationships words have with one another, the semantic features that help to differentiate one from the other and also at how lexical negations are realized i.e. if a morpheme is added to negate it or if an entirely different word is used.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Semantics is a branch of linguistics studies, and has been defined by different scholars. Okolo and Ezikeojiaku (1999:175) defined semantics as “the study of meaning”. Radford (1997:27)defined semantics as “the linguistics aspect of meaning”. Fitch (2010:120)“semantics is the branch of linguistics studies that is constantly in shoulders with philosophy. This is because the study of meaning raises a host of problems that are the traditional stomping ground of philosophy”. Charles (1955:202) “linguistics semantics is the study of how language organizes and expresses meaning.” Semantics is like a coin with two aspects: lexical and post-lexical semantics. Lexical semantics the subject of this study deals with the meaning of words. It’s a linguistics theory that investigates word meaning. Iloene and Iloene (2013:4) “word meaning in language are atoms that are intricately interconnected in a web-like fashion, in which some concepts have been differentiated into two fundamental types: i) the ones that necessarily involve a relationship with other concept ii) the ones that are just seen to be independent units.” Mowarin (2010:57) “lexical semantics deals with the study of lexis, it focuses on lexical universals. It is observed that the denotation of a word is not studied in isolation”. Saeed (2007:53) reinforces this fact where he states that “…the meaning of a word is defined in part by its relation with other words in language.”

 

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ASPECTS OF THE LEXICAL SEMANTICS OF URHOBO. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

 

ASPECT OF THE PHONOLOGY OF YUKUBEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

ASPECT OF THE PHONOLOGY OF YUKUBEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 GENERAL BACKGROUND

This research focuses on the phonology of Yukuben, a language spoken by about 25,000 speakers in Sabongida Yukuben of Takum Local Government Area in the east of Taraba State in Nigeria, and North West Province, Menchum division, west of Furu-Awa, near Nigeria border in Cameroon. In the absence of a population census, a rough estimate would put their population at over 500,000.

Yukuben is however a generally accepted term (oxonomy) for an area, an ethnic group and a language located mainly at the eastern edge of Nigeria (but also in the neighbouring part of Cameroon). The name Yukuben was derived from Jukun (the language of Takum) which serves as lingua franca in Taraba. The speakers call themselves Yukuben, and the language is locally called Uhumkiji.

Today, the Yukuben is widely spread across such states as Kaduna, Yola etc. in Nigeria and also in North West regions in Cameroon. The speakers are also found in every part of the country, and in many African countries such as Niger, Cameroon, to mention a few.

(Source: Lewis M. Paul (ed) 2009, “Yukuben a language of Nigeria”)

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF YUKUBEN

According to oral tradition, the Yukubens originated from Iden in the north neighbouring Cameroon. A large part moved down to their present location on the plains at the foot of some hills namely Kichieni, Sabo, Iya, Kehensin, Oluko, Kalakir and Ito during the British colonization. Since Cameroon was colonized by the French, there was a boundary that separated both countries and the people.

Their oral history also has it that the Kuteb once tried to invade the Jukuns, but the Jukuns fought back and were victorious. Then, the Kuteb tried another plot on Yukuben sometime around 1992. Failingly, the Kuteb went back to fight the Jukun again, who eventually put an end to their will of invasion.

Oral tradition also has it that presently there is no king title in Takum since there is no proven superiority nor is there a conclusive agreement between the Jukun and Kuteb. King in Jukun is called Kuru and Okue in Kuteb. Though, history has it that the Jukuns once proposed the king be called ‘chief’ instead of both contradicting names, but the Kuteb claimed the name ‘chief’ was foreign and unacceptable.

However, oral tradition states that the Yukuben, being able to drive the Kuteb away afforded them the opportunity of owning their kingdom and having their king title as the “Udeng Uquen of Uhumkji land”.

1.2 SOCIO-LINGUISTIC PROFILE

1.2.0 THE YUKUBEN SPEAKERS

The speakers of Yukuben call themselves Uhumkiji and call their language Yukuben (“spiritual being”). The origin of the name can be traced to a time during the slave trade, when a rebellious slave from Uhumkiji refused to work and was being tortured. Suddenly, bees emerged from nowhere, stung and scared everybody away. Following this scenario, slaves and slave traders gave the name Yukuben (“child of a witch”) to the slave and people from Uhumkiji generally.

 

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ASPECT OF THE PHONOLOGY OF YUKUBEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

THE KORO-IJA NOUN PHRASE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

THE KORO-IJA NOUN PHRASE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter focuses on the General Background to the study, the historical background, social-cultural profile, cultural values, Genetic classification, and Data collection, Analysis of the data and Review of the chosen framework.

1.1 General Background to the Study

Nigeria is a multi-lingual country-blessed with about 512 languages (Gojeh, Jatau and Mammah 1998). Spoken within and outside the country, but only few of these languages have been committed to writing. Interestingly, this work is ultimately targeted at ensuring that Koro-Ija language, a language without orthography occupies it dignified position by way of making explicit what is implicit about the language in record time.

This study focuses on the aspects of Noun phrase of Koro-Ija language. The language is spoken in some parts of Plateau, Kaduna and Niger States.

It is spoken by the population of about 150,000 speakers. (Gordon 2005). They are majorly known as Rugo among themselves, the language is predominantly spoken in ija-koro village, Tafa Local Government Area of Niger State.

The Koros people are administered by clan hands and they are assisted by the chivies. The migrated from Zana emirate i.e the Kingdom of Kwararafa which date back to 19th century also by Gordon (2005). The person that led the migration was called Najaja. He is a hunter, Ija-Koro was derived from his name. His fact that the place is comfortable for him, which is known as Koro.

As an introductory, chapter, I shall focus firstly on the historical background of Ija-Koro, Socio-cultural Background, Genetic Classification, Scope and Organization of the study, Theoretical framework and Brief Review of the Chosen Framework, Data Collection and Data Analysis.

Bearing in mind that a community without a written orthography is tantamount to a society without an identity.

My mission is that after, putting forward my contribution, this language (Koro-Ija) will be able to compete favourably with the superior ones that have wider representation. I hope that my target shall meet the need for which it is intended.

1.2 Historical Background

There exist many versions of the origins of the Koro-Ija language. Some primary and secondary sources of oral bases, assured monolithic origin for the Koros. However, all these contradictory versions reflect migrations and interrelations.

According to Na’ibi and Hasan in their book ‘A chronicle of Abuja’

‘Another popular legend of the Koros claimed that they were evidently influenced by the attempt to link their origin to the universal perspective and centres of old civilization. This legend claimed that one Koro and his younger brother Jukun were born east of Mecca and settled in “Apa”, which became the capital Kwararafa Kingdom. He was blessed with four children named Igala, Nupe and two daughters, Igbala in turn begot Alago and Idoma, one of the daughters of Jukun begot. Ankwe (Gojeh and Jatau 1998:9).

 

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THE CHALLENGES OF RADIO NEWS GATHERING AND REPORTING A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FEDERAL RADIO CORPORATION OF NIGERIA (FRCN). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

THE CHALLENGES OF RADIO NEWS GATHERING AND REPORTING A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FEDERAL RADIO CORPORATION OF NIGERIA (FRCN). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

ABSTRACT

This research work seeks to find out the challenges faced by two radio news medium, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Kaduna and Ray Power 100.5 Fm Jos in news gathering and reporting, and to also compare and contrast these challenges faced by the two medium.   In the review of related literature, scholars in the area under review gave different views to news and news gathering. It was observed that news refers to accurate and timely happenings, discoveries, opinions, and matters of any sort which affect or interest the readers, listeners or viewers. To strengthen this research work, the study was anchored on technological determinism theory and the new media theory. Survey research method was used in conducting this research work and in-depth interview was employed, interview guide was used as the instrument for collecting data, sixty four (64) news producers and reporters from the two medium is the population of the study. For this research work six (6) reporters from FRCN and six (6) from Ray Power Fm Jos was interviewed using in-depth interview guide to elicit response. The sample size is therefore, be twelve (12) accordingly. In data presentation and analysis, the findings revealed that the issue of news gathering and reporting in the 21st century has been improved due to the introduction and the use of information and communication technologies gadgets in news gathering and reporting. Overcoming the challenges faced in news gathering and reporting, journalist engages the new technologies for effective news gathering and reporting. The study also revealed that both stations, that is the FRCN and Raypower100.5fm Jos face similar challenges but tackled differently which some could be traced to funding and inadequate modern equipment for good transmissions. To this end the researcher recommended that journalists should uphold professionalism by adhering to ethical standard and not to allow ownership control take center play in their practices. Owners of radio stations should also ensure that they are well trained especially on the availability of modern equipment so as to meet up the standard of the day.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Radio as a medium is becoming more popular in our society daily. The medium is beneficial to both the educated and the uneducated in our society more than any other medium; it has the capacity to reach millions of Nigerians residing in the rural and urban areas.

Nsi (1997), radio means simply reaching out to people from point to point through space with sound waves or electromagnetic waves. Radio has been dominated by the strong and almost universal half belief about its immense potency as a means of social, cultural and ultimately political influence and power. This belief about power of radio rest on a single and manifest truth. It makes it possible for man to address an audience of hundreds of millions.

 

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THE CHALLENGES OF RADIO NEWS GATHERING AND REPORTING A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FEDERAL RADIO CORPORATION OF NIGERIA (FRCN). A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

IMAGERY IN ETSAKO PROVERBS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

IMAGERY IN ETSAKO PROVERBS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this research is to closely and critical examine the use of imagery in Etsako proverbs. The use of imagery in Etsako proverbs is highly functional and therefore highly optionized in the imagery. Etsako proverbs are made solid and concrete through the use of imagery which tends to intensify the application and meaning of the proverbs.

1.2SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is divided into five chapters the first chapter is the introduction, background of the Etsako people and some literature review. The second chapter takes a look at concrete imagery in Etsako proverbs. The third chapter explores abstract imagery in Etsako proverbs. The forth chapter analyzes sensory imagery in Etsako proverbs and other literary devices. The fifth chapter is the summary of the essay and the evaluation of the significance of proverbs in Etsako community.

1.3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this research, imagery in Etsako proverbs will be recorded in its actual use and most of the information will be will be based on oral evidence because it will involved field work research and library research.

1.4SOCIAL CULTURAL/HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Social Cultural Organization of Etsako Community

According to Chief Felix odior, in an interview, he says that “the strength, unity and continuity of the socio-cultural set up of the people are built on the age grade system” (interview). The individual not only had his role fixed by the system, he is also a single but integral part of a complex whole. Ruing is a collective responsibility (interview).1

In an interview with Aluagbaya Imoso, he says that the social organization ranges from “Ape” – family, “Ede” – quarter, to the village council. According to Imoso, “Ape” – the family unit is the smallest unit in the social set up in Etsako. The man at the helm of affairs is known as “Erama” meaning father or head of the home. The “Erama” settles quarrels and dispute among the family, appeases the gods towards misfortune and prays for blessing and protection for his family.

Furthermore, Imoso says that the “Ede” consist of many families which constitute at extended family. The oldest man in the quarter is the “Erama – no Khua”. The Erama – no khua controls and makes final decisions in any quarters meeting. He is responsible for the welfare of the people in the quarter. He further says that the Erama – no khua organizes and pays the dowry on a wife to be married by any son in the quarter. He gives names to children born into the family.

Imoso says that Etsako community comprises of three clans (Etsako West, Etsako Central and Etsako East). All these quarters have their representatives in the village council with the Chief of the helm of affairs. Other members of this council include the “Ede n’ Edie” and the four oldest men in the village. He also says that the council performs both administrative and religious responsibilities of the village. It’s verdicts on any matter in the village is final. All matters that cannot be amicably solved at the quarter level are referred to the council for proper deliberation and judgment. Defaulter of law and orders are severely punished (interview).2

Historical and Geographical Location

Historical account claimed that the Etsako people (Afemai) migrated from Benin, during the tyrannical rule of Oba Ewuare, who as the greatest warrior legend and most outstanding King in the history of Benin Empire. The title “Ewuare (Oworuare) meaning it is cool or the trouble has ceased” and as a result of the war is over. The title symbolizes an epoch of reconciliation, reconstruction and the return of peace among the warring factions in Benin between 1435 – 1440 AD (Wikipedia).

According to Chief Edward O. Erhagbe, in an interview, he says that Etsako people are located in the Northern part of Edo State when the “Kukuruku Division” was established in 1919 as an administrative unit in the former Benin province, Etsako district was one of the three districts included in it. The clans that make-up Etsako are presently distributed among three local government areas:

 

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IMAGERY IN ETSAKO PROVERBS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON ENGLISH/LINGUISTIC

A DEPICTION OF THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR IN CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’SHALF OF A YELLOW SUN

A DEPICTION OF THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR IN CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’SHALF OF A YELLOW SUN

ABSTRACT
This research has set out to capture the portrayal of the Nigerian Civil War in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sunby bringing out the episodes and scenes that defined the war. This is evident in the experiences of the characters in the face of war which is captured through their fears, pains and reactions as well as how it shaped their responses and eventual personalities. The research beams its search light on the central characters as they are representative microcosm of the larger Nigerian masses that fell prey to the greed and brutality of the tussle for supremacy. Incidences that point to this fact are adequately outlined. The Nigerian civil war though not a product of imagination, is crafted in the genre of fiction so as to accommodate certain issues that are relevant today, still retaining its authenticity as a historical war fiction novel that expounds on the history of the nation Nigeria. The theme of war is the trunk that grows to accommodate a lot of issues that are central to the post colonial consciousness and the challenges that are being battled with even today. From the study, it is obvious that poor conflict management can quickly degenerate to regrettable consequences.
   CHAPTER ONE
                                             GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0    Background to the Study
Nigeria as a nation came into existence after the amalgamation of the southern and northern protectoratesin 1914 by the British administration headed in Nigeria by Lord Lugard. This was primarily because of their economic interest, and Nigeria, having a vast territory afforded them the opportunity to loot as much as they wanted.The British had earlier settled in the south and established schools, churches etc. The Yoruba’swere educated home and abroad, and had gotten used to the ways of the colonialists. The north however, posed a greater challenge to the British because they saw the British as bringing a new culture and religion; since they had embraced Islam centuries earlier. As a result, the influence of the new culture could not penetrate easily to the north as it did in the south.
Subsequently,Nigeria gained independence from Britain and inherited a country that was torn along ethnic, cultural and religious lines which was deliberately orchestrated. The northerners felt the British had given them the torch to lead the new nation into the promise land. The south on the other hand believed they were more equipped mentally and educationally to steer the affairs of the newly birthed nation. The tussle for whom to rule gave birth to coups and counter coups which finally hatched a full blown civil war.Odenigbo asserts to the fact that “the only authentic identity for the African is the tribe”(33).Indeed, this created and became a viable weapon in the hands of the colonialists to orchestrate a division that became rife with hatred. Thus, the amalgamationfavoured the British but worked against the country generally because of the divergent tribes and ideologies which could not coexist as a single entity.

A DEPICTION OF THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR IN CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’SHALF OF A YELLOW SUN

REALIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S HALF OF A YELLOW SUN AND ELECHI AMADI’S SUNSET IN BIAFRA

REALIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S HALF OF A YELLOW SUN AND ELECHI AMADI’S SUNSET IN BIAFRA

ABSTRACT
Literary creativity usually conforms to the tradition of the era in which it is created. That is why creative styles have changed from the classical, to the Medieval, through to the Elizabethan Age, the Restoration Age, the Augustan Age, and the Victorian Age when Realist literature thrived and so on. The question however is that with the passage of every successive age does it mean such literary tradition is gone forever? This is what motivated the researcher into research using Half of a Yellow Sun and Sunset in Biafra for the investigation of Realism. Realism as we know is a 19th century theory. The question therefore was, could this theory still be applicable to these modern literary works of art?  Despite the fact that Half of a Yellow and Sunset in Biafra are 21st and 20th century novels respectively, both novels show glaringly features of realism through themes, settings, characterisations, use of language and other literary devices, despite the time difference. This shows that, despite the fact that realism is no longer trending, writers need not ceased to present literary works in realist mode, as these two authors have done. This injunction is applicable not only to novels but to all literary genres.

REALIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S HALF OF A YELLOW SUN AND ELECHI AMADI’S SUNSET IN BIAFRA

THE ROLE OF CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION

THE ROLE OF CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This research examined the concept of code switching and code mixing in Doctor-Patient communication in Federal Medical Centre, Katsina. The data used for the analysis were obtained from tape recording, questionnaire and personal observation. The analysis employed the descriptive statistical method with Bach and Harnish (1979) Mutual Contextual Believe (MCB) as the theoretical framework of the study. The findings shows that code-mixing and code-switching are used very often in Doctor-Patient communication especially when performing therapeutic functions.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Communication is a process in which a message is sent from sender to receiver. It is a practice that the sender encodes message and the receiver decodes it. Communication may occur in small groups or in organizations where there is work to do, or several small groups that need to interact among each other within a single organization. Gumperz (1982),states that communication is a ‘social activity that requires the coordinated efforts of two or more individuals’ that construct talk to produce sentences. However, no matter how well rounded or stylish the outcome may be, it does not by itself constitute communication. Communication takes place only when a common understanding is obtained among communicants. Therefore, it is necessary to have the knowledge and ability to create and sustain conversation. The knowledge also needs to be not only grammatical competence but also linguistic, socio-cultural knowledge, and understanding the nature of the conversation Gumperz (1982: 2).

Interpersonal communication is one type of communication, which is defined in many ways. Miller(1978) defines it based on the situation and number of participants involved and states that interpersonal communication occurs between two individuals when they are close in ‘proximity, able to provide immediate feedback and utilize multiple senses’. Others such as Peters(1974) described interpersonal communication based on the degree of personal closeness’ or perceived quality, of a given interaction; it includes communication that is private and occurring between people who are more than acquaintances. Canary(2003)view of interpersonal communication is from the perspective of conversant goals. According to Dainton(2004:50) states that communication is used to attain or achieve personal goals through interaction with others.

As one category of interpersonal communication, medical communication is central to clinical functions in constructing a good doctor –patient relationship, which is one of the major tasks in medical profession. In this regard, Van Naerssen (1985) identifies two kinds of medical communication that includes doctor to patient and doctor to other medical personnel communications. Naerssen claims that, both kinds belong to different registers, each with a range of variations within it.’ The first is the interaction between two medical professionals (doctor with nurse, doctor with doctor, as well as nurse with nurse). The second is, the interaction between medical professionals with their patients, which includes interviews – called ‘chief complaint’, treatments, breaking bad news, consultation and follow-ups. Each part has its own structure and characteristic features that can be observed and analyzed either separately or as part of a larger discourse.

 

THE ROLE OF CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION

PLACING CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH AND FRANZ KAFKA’S THE TRIAL IN THE MODERNIST LENS

PLACING CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH AND FRANZ KAFKA’S THE TRIAL IN THE MODERNIST LENS

ABSTRACT
This research investigated and analysed works of two outstanding modernist writers in Africa and Europe. The work was carried out with specific objectives which are; to highlight the basic features of modernism,to discuss the reasons for writers in this vogue deviating from earlier trends and placing emphases on newness. It outlined and analysed these basic features in the texts, Anthills of the Savannah and The Trial. In the course of these analyses, the researcher highlighted seven features of modernism. This formed the Data and Textual analyses in this work. From these analyses, the study succeeded in situating these novels within the fold of modernism. It looks at the major thematic preoccupations of the novels and how they reflected the existence of humans in modern society, which is the concern of the modernist writers. Once more, the research has proven that modernism and any other literary trend is not an exclusive preserve of the West. It is possible to adopt the style in any other part of the World as Achebe and Kafka have done.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0  Background to the Study
Literature is often seen as a representation of man’s experiences in the society. These experiences are not represented abstractly but rather in line with the factual and visible happenings in our society. Over the years, every literature produced is meant to portray or address a particular issue in our society. The nature of life and man himself is dynamic and is reflected as such in literature.
Both the traditional and modern man has found literature entertaining and has consequently preserved it. It is because man in his early society recognizes the entertainment values of literature that he developed it. The modern man has also continued the tradition of entertaining himself through literature in form of songs, drama, and storytelling that accompanied traditional rituals. The National Teacher Institutes NCE/DLS course book on English language cycle 1 gives three ways by which literature keeps the society entertained. These are psychological escape; entertainment through indulgence of our sense of humour and entertainment through our sense of beauty (225-226). Literature thus is an inspiration of societal happenings. These happenings are segmented into epochs, and modernism happens to be a literary movement that is currently in vogue. What used to be the trend at a particular time will not necessarily be in another. For instance, during classical era from the fifth A.D. onwards it was old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature. Literature at that time consisted of spoken verse and songs or poems such as epic poems composed orally. The purpose of these forms of literature was to pass along tribal history and values to a population who could not read or write.
The Renaissance was a period when there was a rebirth of Greek and Roman literature as well as other forms of classical knowledge. The discovery of the works of classical scholars like Aristotle and Plato exerted unprecedented influence on the Renaissance man’s thought; that is secularisation of classical learning.
The Romanticism era was a time of war, notably the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. These wars along with the political and social turmoil that came with them served as the background for the literature of this period. Their concerns were the free expression of feeling of the artist and their thematic preoccupations were the lives of the ordinary people (as opposed to classical period) and the poet‘s feelings about nature etc.

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PLACING CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH AND FRANZ KAFKA’S THE TRIAL IN THE MODERNIST LENS

A MODERNIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS AND CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH

A MODERNIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS AND CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH

ABSTRACT
The modernist era as one of the epochs in literature has been attributed to the West by many people. Also, it is perceived that features of long gone eras cannot be found in works of the 21st century. It is in this light that this research has attempted to situate African writers within the modernist foldto show that modernismis not restricted to the West using two texts: ChimamandaNgoziAdichie’sPurple Hibiscus (2003) and Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah (1987). The texts have also been selected to determine whether the literary tenets of an older generation can still find expression in works of contemporary literature. The work has investigated the features of modernist writings in the two novels and proved that though modernism is a literary tradition of the 20th century, writers of the 21st century still employ modernist techniques, both as regards to themes and to narrative techniques in their works. Furthermore, the research has shown that modernism and any other literary trend for that matter, is not an exclusive preserve of the West. This is why it is possible to deploy such techniques in African novels as Achebe and Adichie have done.
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
Literature is a fictional composition in language (words) which tells stories that mirror real life situations to advocate ideas and express emotions or feelings. Literature mirrors life and is a product of the society. It reflects the social, cultural, economic and other aspects of human endeavour. As a result of what it is, literature has been used over the years to express people’s experiences, beliefs and opinions.
Literature has evolved through many stages from the Golden Age of civilisation during the classical era to the present time. The first stage of literature which was the classical stage was a secular era made up of the period of Greekand RomanCivilisations. Literature flourished during this time as it was considered a way of life of the people with stringent rules guiding literary creativity. During the medieval stage, the establishment of a religious state led to a decline of western civilisation and creativity was greatly suppressed. Little was produced and even this little came in form of anonymous pieces that bore no authorship as authorship was frowned at as a way of seeking earthly glory. The end of the medieval period was the rebirth of learning known as the renaissance. This brought about the exploration of the classical knowledge since the medieval period had nothing to offer. The writings of this time were named Elizabethan writings.
The Restoration Age succeeded the Elizabethan Age which was characterised by neoclassicism where the works of the period were modelled after classical writers. The Restoration Age emanated in 1770 and lasted till 1848. The period was noted for literary style known as romanticism. The write-ups of this period were directed towards glorification of nature and effects of man’s action on nature. The writers of this period emphasised originality.

 

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A MODERNIST APPRAISAL OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS AND CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILLS OF THE SAVANNAH

MISUSE OF POWER IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILL OF THE SAVANNAH AND CHIMAMMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS

MISUSE OF POWER IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILL OF THE SAVANNAH AND CHIMAMMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS

ABSTRACT
Over the ages, some persons or group of persons are known to misuse power to bully their subjects or subordinates. This unwholesome act gives rise to many literary works condemning the act. This work considers the misuse of power as portrayed by the novels Anthills of the Savannah and purple Hibiscus by Chinua Achebe and Chimmamanda Adichie respectively.  Achebe in his novel shows the danger of pursuing power for power’s sake and also the impact of a dictator on a populace – the people of Kangan only suffer from Sam’s leadership. He represents the archetypal corrupted Nigerian leaders. Eugene Achike in purple Hibiscus is another character who abuses his patriarchal power over his family. Eugene is both a religious zealot and a violent figure in the Achike household, subjecting his wife Beatrice, Kambili and her brother Jaja to beatings and psychological cruelty. This work therefore condemns in strong terms the brutality and disregard for human existence that exist in our contemporary society. People placed in authority must exercise their powers in accordance with the societal norms. There must be mutual respect and understanding in the families for a stable society.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0     BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, Literature is “the written work or production of the human mind collectively”.Oguche A.G defines literature as “a written work which deals with the themes of permanent and universal interests characterized by creativeness and grace of expression as poetry, fiction, essay, drama etc” (1). Literature is also viewed as a writing that pre-eminently reflects on and qualifies some aspects of human experiences, illuminating it from the perspective of scientific and intelligent observers.
There are two forms of Literature- written literature and oral literature. This work will dwell essentially on the written form of literature as it considers two literary works: Anthills of the Savannah by Chinua Achebe; Purple Hibiscus by Chimamanda Adichie. The work seeks to trace how the two authors under review portray the misuse of power by people in the society.
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Power is the ability to control people or things. Power also means the right or authority of a person or group to do something. Over the ages, some persons or group of persons are known to misuse power to bully their subjects or subordinates. This unwholesome act gives rise to many literary works condemning the act.
Anthills of the Savannah is a 1987 novel by a Nigerian writer, Chinua Achebe. It was his fifth novel, first published in the UK 21 years after Achebe’s previous one (A Man of the People in 1966), and was credited with having revived his reputation in Britain. A finalist for the 1987 Booker Prize for Fiction, Anthills of the Savannah has been described as the most important novel to come out of Africa in the 1980’s.

MISUSE OF POWER IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S ANTHILL OF THE SAVANNAH AND CHIMAMMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS

THE LEXICO-SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NIGERIAN ENGLISH IN NEWSPAPERS

THE LEXICO-SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NIGERIAN ENGLISH IN NEWSPAPERS

ABSTRACT

The study focuses on the Lexico-Semantic features of Nigerian English in Daily Times, Punch and Vanguard Newspapers. This is an attempt to investigate the extent to which Nigerian columnists and editorials use the Lexico-semantic features of Nigerian English for their reportings. Anchored on the theoretical premise of the contextual theory of meaning, the data for the study was arrived at through a random sampling technique which enabled the researcher to select at random Newspapers from the months of January to December in the year 2012 to 2016. The identified Lexico-Semantic features of Nigerian English which were found in these dailies were analyzed using the Lexico-Semantic variation of Nigerian English as identified by Adegbija (2004). It is evident from the findings that the socio-cultural background of the Nigerian people is captured by Nigerian English. Nigerian speakers find it preferable to use NigerianEnglish, with all its local flavours because most of them are incompetent in the use of English language and also because of the socio-cultural context of the Nigerian society.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0      Background of the Study
            English language in Nigeria is not the same corpora in native settings. The exact date that English language usage started in Nigeria is not certain. However it is believed that the first contact between British and some ethnic groups in Nigeria was in southern Nigeria. This must have been some period before the Atlantic slave trade. English language in Nigeria is a second language. It is a second language because Nigerians already had their first language or Mother tongue (L1) before the incursion of this foreign language called ‘English’ into the country. In this instance a foreign language (English) left its native environment and met with other languages (Nigerian indigenous languages). It is true that the culture and values of the people are embedded in the language we speak. As such, it is said that ‘language is culture’ and none can be separated from another.
            This situation is informed by multiple socio-cultural variables that determine what the Nigerian variety parades at different areas of linguistic analysis: phonology, morpho-syntax lexico-semantics, and pragmatics, among others. Every country in the world has people who make use of languages which help to perform several functions. Nigeria is not an exception.
Nigeria is a country, which has people with diverse languages and cultures. English language is one of the languages spoken in Nigeria and it serves several functions for instance, business transaction, education, administration, the language of the press, the language of entertainment and also the official language.Jowitt sees Nigerian English as the variety that is spoken and written in Nigeria, other than a replica of a native speaker’s variety. This is to assert that the variety which is spoken and written in Nigeria has certain identifiable and distinct indexical markers that distinguish it from the English language varieties elsewhere. In addition, Adetugbo buttresses these views when he asserts that “Nigerian English, as a dialect of the English language has developed its own distinct and probably unique characteristics resulting from the mood of the acquisition of the language by Nigerians and the Nigerian socio-cultural setting in which it is now ”(159).

THE LEXICO-SEMANTIC FEATURES OF NIGERIAN ENGLISH IN NEWSPAPERS

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CHRISTOPHER OKIGBO’S SOCIO-POLITICAL POETRY

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CHRISTOPHER OKIGBO’S SOCIO-POLITICAL POETRY

ABSTRACT
Style is the manifestation of one’s personality. Every writer has a natural, linguistic and idiosyncratic way of expressing ideas that leads to the identification of style with man and his thought. The manipulation of words by a writer creates a distinct style through which he/she reaches out to the audience. This research work focused on a stylistic analysis of selected socio-political poems of Christopher Okigbo. This aims at identifying Okigbo’s unique use of language. Stylometrics was used as a theoretical framework for the study. The findings in this are that Okigbo’s poems begin with some words in capitalisation which are foregrounded to the theme of the poems. He makes use of elements like repetition, alliteration, rhyme, parallelism and so on which add musical colour and rhythm to his poems. It is also evident his poems are sometimes prophetic, ritualistic and often address socio-political issues from a universal perspective. The work found out that each of the linguistic choices has an identifiable function that is performed in the poem. The study concludes that Christopher Okigbo’s poems are musical in nature and highly figurative in language use.
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0       INTRODUCTION
This chapter serves as general introduction and includes background to the study, the statement of the problem, as well as the scope and delimitation of the study. Also, included in chapter one are the aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitations of the study as well as the research design and a definition of terms.
1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Language use by individuals differs from one person to the other. This is because of the differences in language ability. Stylistics is a borderline discipline between language and literature.  It  focuses  on  language  use  in  both  literary  and  non-literary  texts. Stylistics is also concerned with the study of the language of literature or the study of the language habits of particular authors and their writing patterns. Therefore, it can be said to be the study of style. Style on its own has been defined differently be scholars. According to Leech and Short (15), style is the cover of our feelings and it is the tool of the writer to transfer the message to readers. Leech further says “style proclaims the man” (11), that is, there is an intimate relationship between the choice of language and the author’s personality. Haynes defines it as “the study of style is the study of differences” (3).  This further drives home the point that our choice of diction differentiates us from others.
Language gives the reader a new perspective on familiar themes and allows us to look at them without the personal or social conditioning that we unconsciously associate with them (Widdowson 9). So, although the reader may still use the same exhausted words and vague terms like ‘love’, ‘heart’ and ‘soul’ to refer to human experience, to place these words in a new and refreshing context allows the poet the ability to represent humanity and communicate honestly. This, in part, is stylistics, and this, according to Widdowson, is the point of poetry (76).
Every writer’s works can have a great influence on fore coming literary works even though their purpose is the same. This is because writers do not have the same approach when it comes to language. That is why one person’s style can be different from another. Thus, this work will focuses on “A Stylistic analysis of selected Christopher Okigbo’s socio-political poetry”.This aims at revealing what has made Okigbo so popular in the literary world despite his short life.
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Stylistics is the study of style. It is the description and analysis of the variable forms of linguistic items in actual language use. This research project intends to carry out a stylistic investigation of selected Christopher Okigbo’s Socio-political Poems. When two or more authors write on a particular topic, the style of writing differs from one author to the other authors thereby distinguishing one from the others. This can be achieved through choice, deviation, conformity and so on. Okigbo has a style that is peculiar to him and differentiates his work from those of other authors. His style reveals his feelings about the socio-political situation in Nigeria. This research paper seeks to find out what is peculiar to his language.

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CHRISTOPHER OKIGBO’S SOCIO-POLITICAL POETRY